35 views

Uploaded by JL1206

maximum

- Weld
- Additional Mathematic Project Work
- 57580276 Additional Mathematics 2011 Project Work 2
- Functions_Graphs and Properties.pdf
- Robust Flight Control a Design Challenge Lecture Notes in Control and Information Sciences
- Critical Points
- Year 9 Measurement - Maths Lesson Plans
- CBR Calculus
- Numerical Python Book Practice
- class XII sample paper CBSE
- Tank Volumes & Surf Areas
- 1 - manual GenOpt.pdf
- Maximum and Minimum.pptx
- A Hybrid Descent Method
- Behavior of Functions and Their Graphs
- Ees Tutor
- 760 Project Part 2
- Linear Programming
- Supplementary
- CI-7 Min-Max

You are on page 1of 60

The following problems are maximum/minimum optimization problems. They illustrate one of the most important applications of the

first derivative. Many students find these problems intimidating because they are "word" problems, and because there does not appear

to be a pattern to these problems. However, if you are patient you can minimize your anxiety and maximize your success with these

problems by following these guidelines :

GUIDELINES FOR SOLVING MAX./MIN. PROBLEMS

1. Read each problem slowly and carefully. Read the problem at least three times before trying to solve it. Sometimes words

can be ambiguous. It is imperative to know exactly what the problem is asking. If you misread the problem or hurry through it,

you have NO chance of solving it correctly.

2. If appropriate, draw a sketch or diagram of the problem to be solved. Pictures are a great help in organizing and sorting out

your thoughts.

3. Define variables to be used and carefully label your picture or diagram with these variables. This step is very important

because it leads directly or indirectly to the creation of mathematical equations.

4. Write down all equations which are related to your problem or diagram. Clearly denote that equation which you are asked to

maximize or minimize. Experience will show you that MOST optimization problems will begin with two equations. One

equation is a "constraint" equation and the other is the "optimization" equation. The "constraint" equation is used to solve for

one of the variables. This is then substituted into the "optimization" equation before differentiation occurs. Some problems may

have NO constraint equation. Some problems may have two or more constraint equations.

5. Before differentiating, make sure that the optimization equation is a function of only one variable. Then differentiate using

the well-known rules of differentiation.

6. Verify that your result is a maximum or minimum value using the first or second derivative test for extrema.

The following problems range in difficulty from average to challenging.

o PROBLEM 1 : Find two nonnegative numbers whose sum is 9 and so that the product of one number and the square of

the other number is a maximum.

Click HERE to see a detailed solution to problem 1.

o PROBLEM 2 : Build a rectangular pen with three parallel partitions using 500 feet of fencing. What dimensions will

maximize the total area of the pen ?

Click HERE to see a detailed solution to problem 2.

o PROBLEM 3 : An open rectangular box with square base is to be made from 48 ft.2 of material. What dimensions will

result in a box with the largest possible volume ?

Click HERE to see a detailed solution to problem 3.

o PROBLEM 4 : A container in the shape of a right circular cylinder with no top has surface area 3

Click HERE to see a detailed solution to problem 4.

o PROBLEM 5 : A sheet of cardboard 3 ft. by 4 ft. will be made into a box by cutting equal-sized squares from each

corner and folding up the four edges. What will be the dimensions of the box with largest volume ?

Click HERE to see a detailed solution to problem 5.

o PROBLEM 6 : Consider all triangles formed by lines passing through the point (8/9, 3) and both the x- and y-axes. Find

the dimensions of the triangle with the shortest hypotenuse.

Click HERE to see a detailed solution to problem 6.

o PROBLEM 8 : A cylindrical can is to hold 20 m.3 The material for the top and bottom costs $10/m.2 and material for

the side costs $8/m.2 Find the radius r and height h of the most economical can.

Click HERE to see a detailed solution to problem 8.

o PROBLEM 9 : You are standing at the edge of a slow-moving river which is one mile wide and wish to return to your

campground on the opposite side of the river. You can swim at 2 mph and walk at 3 mph. You must first swim across the

river to any point on the opposite bank. From there walk to the campground, which is one mile from the point directly

across the river from where you start your swim. What route will take the least amount of time ?

Click HERE to see a detailed solution to problem 9.

o PROBLEM 10 : Construct a window in the shape of a semi-circle over a rectangle. If the distance around the outside of

the window is 12 feet, what dimensions will result in the rectangle having largest possible area ?

Click HERE to see a detailed solution to problem 10.

o PROBLEM 11 : There are 50 apple trees in an orchard. Each tree produces 800 apples. For each additional tree planted

in the orchard, the output per tree drops by 10 apples. How many trees should be added to the existing orchard in order

to maximize the total output of trees ?

Click HERE to see a detailed solution to problem 11.

o PROBLEM 12 : Find the dimensions of the rectangle of largest area which can be inscribed in the closed region

bounded by the x-axis, y-axis, and graph of y=8-x3 . (See diagram.)

Click HERE to see a detailed solution to problem 12.

o PROBLEM 13 : Consider a rectangle of perimeter 12 inches. Form a cylinder by revolving this rectangle about one of

its edges. What dimensions of the rectangle will result in a cylinder of maximum volume ?

Click HERE to see a detailed solution to problem 13.

o PROBLEM 14 : A movie screen on a wall is 20 feet high and 10 feet above the floor. At what distance x from the front

of the room should you position yourself so that the viewing angle of the movie screen is as large as possible ? (See

diagram.)

o PROBLEM 15 : Find the dimensions (radius r and height h) of the cone of maximum volume which can be inscribed in

a sphere of radius 2.

Click HERE to see a detailed solution to problem 15.

o PROBLEM 16 : What angle between two edges of length 3 will result in an isosceles triangle with the largest area ?

(See diagram.)

maximum slope.

o PROBLEM 18 : Find the length of the shortest ladder that will reach over an 8-ft. high fence to a large wall which is 3

ft. behind the fence. (See diagram.)

o PROBLEM 19 : Find the point P = (x, 0) on the x-axis which minimizes the sum of the squares of the distances from P

to (0, 0) and from P to (3, 2).

o PROBLEM 20 : Car B is 30 miles directly east of Car A and begins moving west at 90 mph. At the same moment car A

begins moving north at 60 mph. What will be the minimum distance between the cars and at what time t does the

minimum distance occur ?

Click HERE to see a detailed solution to problem 20.

o PROBLEM 21 : A rectangular piece of paper is 12 inches high and six inches wide. The lower right-hand corner is

folded over so as to reach the leftmost edge of the paper (See diagram.).

Click HERE to see a detailed solution to problem 21.

SOLUTION 1 : Let variables x and y represent two nonnegative numbers. The sum of the two numbers is given to be

9=x+y,

so that

y=9-x.

We wish to MAXIMIZE the PRODUCT

P = x y2 .

However, before we differentiate the right-hand side, we will write it as a function of x only. Substitute for y getting

P = x y2

= x ( 9-x)2 .

Now differentiate this equation using the product rule and chain rule, getting

P' = x (2) ( 9-x)(-1) + (1) ( 9-x)2

= ( 9-x) [ -2x + ( 9-x) ]

= ( 9-x) [ 9-3x ]

= ( 9-x) (3)[ 3-x ]

=0

for

x=9 or x=3 .

Note that since both x and y are nonnegative numbers and their sum is 9, it follows that

If

x=3 and y=6 ,

then

P= 108

is the largest possible product.

Click HERE to return to the list of problems.

SOLUTION 2 : Let variable x be the width of the pen and variable y the length of the pen.

500 = 5 (width) + 2 (length) = 5x + 2y ,

so that

2y = 500 - 5x

or

y = 250 - (5/2)x .

We wish to MAXIMIZE the total AREA of the pen

A = (width) (length) = x y .

However, before we differentiate the right-hand side, we will write it as a function of x only. Substitute for y getting

A=xy

= x ( 250 - (5/2)x)

= 250x - (5/2)x2 .

Now differentiate this equation, getting

A' = 250 - (5/2) 2x

= 250 - 5x

= 5 (50 - x )

=0

for

x=50 .

Note that since there are 5 lengths of x in this construction and 500 feet of fencing, it follows that

chart for A' .

If

x=50 ft. and y=125 ft. ,

then

A = 6250 ft.2

is the largest possible area of the pen.

Click HERE to return to the list of problems.

SOLUTION 3 : Let variable x be the length of one edge of the square base and variable y the height of the box.

48 = (area of base) + 4 (area of one side) = x2 + 4 (xy) ,

so that

4xy = 48 - x2

or

.

We wish to MAXIMIZE the total VOLUME of the box

V = (length) (width) (height) = (x) (x) (y) = x2 y .

However, before we differentiate the right-hand side, we will write it as a function of x only. Substitute for y getting

V = x2 y

= 12x - (1/4)x3 .

Now differentiate this equation, getting

V' = 12 - (1/4)3x2

= 12 - (3/4)x2

= (3/4)(16 - x2 )

= (3/4)(4 - x)(4 + x)

=0

for

x=4 or x=-4 .

But

follows that

since variable x measures a distance and x > 0 . Since the base of the box is square and there are 48 ft.2 of material, it

. See the adjoining sign chart for V' .

If

x=4 ft. and y=2 ft. ,

then

V = 32 ft.3

is the largest possible volume of the box.

Click HERE to return to the list of problems.

SOLUTION 4 : Let variable r be the radius of the circular base and variable h the height of the cylinder.

(area of base) + (area of the curved side)

,

so that

or

.

We wish to MAXIMIZE the total VOLUME of the cylinder

V = (area of base) (height)

However, before we differentiate the right-hand side, we will write it as a function of r only. Substitute for h getting

.

Now differentiate this equation, getting

=0

for

r=1 or r=-1 .

But

follows that

since variable r measures a distance and r > 0 . Since the base of the box is a circle and there are

. See the adjoining sign chart for V' .

If

r=1 ft. and h=1 ft. ,

then

ft.3

ft.2 of material, it

Click HERE to return to the list of problems.

SOLUTION 5 : Let variable x be the length of one edge of the square cut from each corner of the sheet of cardboard.

After removing the corners and folding up the flaps, we have an ordinary rectangular box.

V = (length) (width) (height) = (4-2x) (3-2x) (x) .

Now differentiate this equation using the triple product rule, getting

V' = (-2) (3-2x) (x) + (4-2x) (-2) (x) + (4-2x) (3-2x) (1)

= -6x + 4x2 - 8x + 4x2 + 4x2 - 14x + 12

= 12x2 - 28x + 12

= 4 ( 3x2 - 7x + 3 )

=0

for (Use the quadratic formula.)

,

i.e., for

or

But

since variable x measures a distance. In addition, the short edge of the cardboard is 3 ft., so it follows that

See the adjoining sign chart for V' .

If

ft. ,

then

ft.3

is largest possible volume of the box.

SOLUTION 6 : Let variable x be the x-intercept and variable y the y-intercept of the line passing throught the point (8/9, 3) .

One relationship is

,

so that

.

However, before we differentiate the right-hand side, we will write it as a function of x only. Substitute for y getting

.

Now differentiate this equation using the chain rule and quotient rule, getting

=0,

so that (If

, then A=0 .)

.

By factoring out x , it follows that

,

so that (If AB= 0 , then A=0 or B=0 .)

x=0

(Impossible, since x> 8/9. Why ?) or

.

Then

,

so that

(x-8/9)3 = 8 ,

x-8/9 = 2 ,

and

x = 26/9 .

See the adjoining sign chart for H' .

If

x = 26/9 and y=13/3 ,

then

Click HERE to return to the list of problems.

.

However, before we differentiate the right-hand side, we will write it as a function of x only. Substitute for y getting

.

Now differentiate this equation using the chain rule, getting

=0,

so that (If

, then A=0 .)

2x-7 = 0 ,

or

x =7/2 .

See the adjoining sign chart for L' .

If

x = 7/2 and

then

SOLUTION 8 : Let variable r be the radius of the circular base and variable h the height of the cylinder.

(area of base) (height)

so that

.

We wish to MINIMIZE the total COST of construction of the cylinder

C = (total cost of bottom) + (total cost of top) + (total cost of side)

= (unit cost of bottom)(area of bottom) + (unit cost of top)(area of top) + (unit cost of side) (area of side)

.

However, before we differentiate the right-hand side, we will write it as a function of r only. Substitute for h getting

=0,

so that (If

, then A=0 .)

,

r3 = 8 ,

or

r=2.

Since variable r measures a distance, it must satisfy r > 0 . See the adjoining sign chart for C' .

If

r=2 m. and h=5 m. ,

then

SWIM : 2 mph

WALK : 3 mph .

Recall that if travel is at a CONSTANT rate of speed, then

or

D=RT,

so that time elapsed is

.

We wish to MINIMIZE the total TIME elapsed

T = (swim time) + (walk time)

= (swim distance)/(swim rate) + (walk distance)/(walk rate)

.

Now differentiate this equation, getting

=0,

so that

and

.

Square both sides of this equation, getting

9x2 = 4 (1 + x2) = 4 + 4x2 ,

so that

5x2 = 4 ,

x2 = 4/5 ,

or

But

If

mi.

then

hr.

is the shortest possible time of travel.

Click HERE to return to the list of problems.

SOLUTION 10 : Let variable x be the width and variable y the length of the rectangular portion of the window.

(radius)

The perimeter (distance around outside only) of the window is given to be

so that

or

.

We wish to MAXIMIZE the total AREA of the RECTANGLE

A = (width) (length) = x y .

However, before we differentiate the right-hand side, we will write it as a function of x only. Substitute for y getting

A=xy

.

Now differentiate this equation, getting

=0

for

,

i.e.,

.

Since variable x measures distance,

. In addition, x is largest when y = 0 and the window is in the shape of a semi-circle. Thus,

If

ft. and y=3 ft. ,

then

ft.2

is the largest possible area of the rectangle.

Click HERE to return to the list of problems.

SOLUTION 11 : Let variable x be the ADDITIONAL trees planted in the existing orchard. We wish to MAXIMIZE the total

PRODUCTION of apples

P = (number of trees) (apple output per tree)

= ( 50 + x ) ( 800 - 10x )

= 40,000 + 300 x - 10 x2 .

Now differentiate this equation, getting

P' = 300 - 20 x

= 20 ( 15 - x )

=0

for

x=15 .

If

x = 15 additional trees ,

then

P = 42,250 apples

is the largest possible production of apples.

Click HERE to return to the list of problems.

SOLUTION 12 : Let variable x be the length of the base and variable y the height of the inscribed rectangle.

A = (length of base) (height) = xy .

However, before we differentiate the right-hand side, we will write it as a function of x only. Substitute for y getting

A=xy

= x ( 8 - x3 )

= 8x - x4 .

Now differentiate this equation, getting

A' = 8 - 4 x3

= 4 ( 2 - x3 )

=0,

so that

x3 = 2

and

.

Note that

If

and y = 6 ,

then

Click HERE to return to the list of problems.

SOLUTION 13 : Let variable r be the length of the base and variable h the height of the rectangle.

12 = 2r + 2h

so that

2h = 12 - 2r

and

h=6-r.

V = (area of base) (height)

However, before we differentiate the right-hand side, we will write it as a function of r only. Substitute for h getting

.

Now differentiate this equation, getting

=0

for

r=0 or r=4 .

Since variable r measures distance and the perimeter of the rectangle is 12,

If

r = 4 ft. and h = 2 ft. ,

then

ft.

ft.3

Click HERE to return to the list of problems.

SOLUTION 14 : Let variable be the viewing angle and variable x the distance as denoted in the diagram. We seek to write angle

a function of distance x . Introduce angle as in the diagram below.

as

so that

(Equation 1)

.

In a similar fashion

so that

,

or

(Equation 2)

.

Use

.

We wish to MAXIMIZE angle THETA given in this equation. Differentiate this equation, getting

=0,

so that

,

30 x2 + 3000 = 10 x2 + 9000 ,

20 x2 = 6000 ,

x2 = 300 ,

for

But

. If

, then

radians

or

degrees .

See the adjoining sign chart for

If

ft.

ft.

then

degrees

radians

Click HERE to return to the list of problems.

SOLUTION 15 : Let variable r be the radius of the circular base and variable h the height of the inscribed cone as shown in the twodimensional side view.

It is given that the circle's radius is 2. Find a relationship between r and h . Let variable z be the height of the small right triangle.

r2 + z2 = 22

so that

z2 = 4 - r2

or

.

Thus the height of the inscribed cone is

.

We wish to MINIMIZE the total VOLUME of the CONE

- WeldUploaded byAnonymous UoHUag
- Additional Mathematic Project WorkUploaded byHaziq Danial
- 57580276 Additional Mathematics 2011 Project Work 2Uploaded bymuhdikhwan
- Functions_Graphs and Properties.pdfUploaded bylip
- Robust Flight Control a Design Challenge Lecture Notes in Control and Information SciencesUploaded byarviandy
- Critical PointsUploaded bytarun gehlot
- Year 9 Measurement - Maths Lesson PlansUploaded byJames Harris
- CBR CalculusUploaded bykhalishah
- Numerical Python Book PracticeUploaded by葉磊
- class XII sample paper CBSEUploaded byWrik Laha
- Tank Volumes & Surf AreasUploaded byhuangjl
- 1 - manual GenOpt.pdfUploaded byBazinga
- Maximum and Minimum.pptxUploaded byBehranne Obd
- A Hybrid Descent MethodUploaded bySofian Harissa Darma
- Behavior of Functions and Their GraphsUploaded byCon
- Ees TutorUploaded byAmexTesfayeKora
- 760 Project Part 2Uploaded byKickingEdgarAllenPoe
- Linear ProgrammingUploaded bySubhan yousaf
- SupplementaryUploaded byJayapal Rajan
- CI-7 Min-MaxUploaded byNguyên Bùi
- Midterm SolutionsUploaded byJohnathan See
- Arihant Class12 Mathematics Revisionnotes-1Uploaded byRadz
- algebra.pdfUploaded byNithin Joji Sankoorikkal
- art%3A10.1007%2FBF00939380Uploaded byFrancisco Magaña
- edsc 304 graphic organizer rubricUploaded byapi-401718898
- data spssUploaded byAndriana
- 8-Maths-NCERT-Solutions-Chapter-11-4.pdfUploaded byPiyush Gupta
- Px c 3874525Uploaded byPallav Dutta
- Two-dimensional Finite Element Computer Codes for Stress Analysis and Field ProblemUploaded byMarco Miranda Rodríguez
- 3 Sem ME Civil BITUploaded byRitesh Taram

- tesseract.txtUploaded byJL1206
- Block MassUploaded byHector Triana
- Building a Java AppletUploaded byJL1206
- What is the Architecture of the WebUploaded byJL1206
- FormulaUploaded byJL1206
- Discret a So Luci OnUploaded byJL1206
- Modeling Mechanical SystemsUploaded byJL1206
- Bernoulli de ProblemUploaded byJL1206
- Scientific Data Has Become So Complex.docxUploaded byJL1206
- A Review Paper Security on Voice Over Internet Protocol From Spoofing AttacksUploaded byJL1206
- Binary TreeUploaded byJL1206
- Orbital MechanicsUploaded byJL1206
- pplane6Uploaded byJL1206
- Correc Quices1Uploaded byJL1206
- Calculation of PiUploaded byJohn Sheridan
- How Can I Calculate the Wave Propagation Speed in a Copper WireUploaded byJL1206
- Interesting MATLAB Commands and CodesUploaded byJL1206
- bern_ricUploaded byJL1206
- 04 - Electromagnetic Waves (Griffiths.ch9)Uploaded byJL1206
- ComplexWave LectureUploaded byAryaTewatia
- Binary Tree in JavaUploaded byJL1206
- tsp links.txtUploaded byJL1206
- A Jet Pilot Takes His Aircraft in a Vertical LoopUploaded byJL1206
- Cem Lib ModulesUploaded byJL1206
- Time Dyn SysUploaded byJL1206
- final_report_cut.docxUploaded byJL1206

- A Mathematical Approach to Order Book ModelingUploaded byhaffa
- pythagorean triple posterUploaded byapi-295681993
- Short Introduction to Comsol Multi PhysicsUploaded byEdomrg
- Analysis of StrainUploaded byHarshit
- Exam ScheduleUploaded byVeerappanVeera
- IntegrationUploaded byKiran Adhikari
- 13Line Integrals of Scalar Fields - HandoutUploaded byJohn
- Ch4.Laplace Transform and Circuit AnalysisUploaded byamir
- exe-stat-ibm-2012.pdfUploaded byJacinto Andre Muzonda
- 4024_y04_sw_9Uploaded bymstudy123456
- mal-513Uploaded byrahimkamsefidy
- Gradient NotesUploaded byRanjan
- Thick Plate as Pile CapUploaded byjcvalencia
- Probability RulesUploaded byhahadu
- 2-1ECER09Uploaded bySai Kiran
- MTE119 - Solutions Hw2Uploaded byfabio
- skf2133-chapter3na.pdfUploaded bydaviufc
- Fluent 1Uploaded byijaz fazil
- Chapter 09Uploaded byeuhsaha
- Qm Lecture NotesUploaded byEmanuel Vieira
- Parvati Shastri - Lectures on Modules Over Principal Ideal DomainsUploaded byClaribel Paola Serna Celin
- [PAPER[Automotive CAE Durability Analysis Using Random Vibration ApproachUploaded byThiago Palmieri
- Excel SolverUploaded byVignan Madanu
- 11b FP2 JuneUploaded bySema
- Lesson 5Uploaded byTaimur Usman
- Chapter 15 I Trigonometry II ENRICHUploaded byjuriah binti ibrahim
- hw-1Uploaded byhalarkhan01
- 9789048196807-c2.pdfUploaded byAndrea Scapellato
- points EstimateUploaded byKarl Stessy Premier
- 13. Questions & Answers on Optimal Control SystemsUploaded bykibrom atsbha