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02

TIME RESPONSE OF DYNAMIC SYSTEMS

1. Objective(s):

This activity aims to

1. demonstrate the use of computer aided tools to determine the poles and zeros, and the response

of the system to various inputs of dynamic systems;

2. equip the students with the knowledge and skills in obtaining the pole-zero plot, time response plot

and information, and determining the relationship of the time response parameters of the system in

relation to its pole location; and

3. provide the students with the knowledge of designing component values to meet time response

objectives and simulating the design to verify its correctness.

2. Intended Learning Outcomes (ILOs):

At the end of this activity, the students shall be able to:

1. determine and, on the complex s-plane, plot the poles and zeros of a dynamic system;

2. plot the time response of, and interpret the time response characteristics of dynamic systems

represented as transfer functions; and

3. design components of dynamic systems to achieve time response parameter objectives.

3. Discussion

After obtaining a model of the system, the system is analyzed for its transient and steady-state responses.

It was learned in the discussion that the response of the system is highly dependent on the location of the

system poles. Thus, the location of the poles gives a vivid picture of the form of the response, as well as

how fast the response is.

For first-order system, or system with only one pole and no zero, the response has only one form and is

given as

c(t) = A + Beat

where A and B are the residues of the partial fraction expansion of the rational Laplace transform of the

response of the system. In the discussion, the parameters time constant, rise time and settling time are

defined, which are all dependent on the pole location a.

For second-order system, the response depends on the location of the poles also. In the discussion, a

second-order system with no zeros can have an overdamped, underdamped, undamped, or critically

damped response depending on the location of the poles. Two related specifications: the damping ratio and

the natural frequency are defined in order to relate these to the type of the response of the system.

Higher-ordered systems containing dominant complex poles as well as with zeros can be approximated as

second-order system when certain conditions are met. These approximations can be validated using

computer aided tools. This activity shows the use of MATLAB and LabVIEW in obtaining the time response

parameters of dynamic systems.

4. Resources:

To perform this activity, a computer workstation with MATLAB R2012a or higher and LabVIEW 8.6 or

higher installed is required. For MATLAB, the control systems toolbox is required and for LabVIEW, the

control design and simulation module.

5. Procedure:

Activity 2.1 Poles and Zeros

1. MATLAB. Use the command pzmap()to determine the poles and zeros, as well as plot the polezero map of a system whose transfer function is defined in the object sys. Use the following format:

>> [p z] = pzmap(sys)

and MATLAB will return the location of the poles in vector p and the zeros in vector z, as well as a

figure will show the pole-zero map.

2. LabVIEW. Create a VI called act02-01.vi. Build the FP and BD as shown below.

3.

For the Pole-Zero Map, set the upper and lower limits of the imaginary axs to +10 and -10

respectively, and the real axis from +10 to -20. Then disable the autoscaling of the plot.

Manually compute for the poles and zeros of the transfer function given in the table below, then plot

them on the complex s-plane. Complete the table below.

Transfer Function

Pole-Zero Plot

s 2 + 2s + 2

G(s) = 4

s + 6s 3 + 4s2 + 7s + 2

4.

Use MATLAB and LabVIEW to determine the poles and zeros and to plot them on the complex splane. Record the results below.

Transfer Function

Poles and Zeros

Pole-Zero Plot

In MATLAB:

G(s) =

s 2 + 2s + 2

s 4 + 6s 3 + 4s2 + 7s + 2

In LabVIEW:

G(s) =

s 2 + 2s + 2

s 4 + 6s 3 + 4s2 + 7s + 2

Q1.4(a)Complete the table below, using MATLAB and LabVIEW. Verify the results using hand

calculations on separate sheets of paper.

Q1.4(b) Using the poles and zeros obtained in the previous questions, write the general form of the

step responses of the system whose transfer functions are given below.

Q1.4(c) How does the location of the poles and zeros relate to the general form of the step response

of the system?

Activity 2.2 Time Response of Dynamic Systems

1. MATLAB. To obtain the step response parameters of systems represented by transfer function sys

use the command step() and stepinfo()which plots the step response of the system, and

provides the step response parameters of the system such as the settling time, rise time, peak time

and percent overshoot. Enter the commands in the following formats

>> step(sys)

>> stepinfo(sys)

The command damp()gives information on the poles of the transfer function, as well as the

associated damping ratio and natural frequencies. Enter the command in the following format

>> damp(sys)

The command ltiview() can also be used to plot the time response of linear systems. On the

command window, type in

>> help ltiview

for more information on this command. In this case, use the following format

>> ltiview({step,pzmap},sys)

2.

to display the step response, as well as the pole-zero map of the transfer function sys.

LabVIEW. Replicate act02-01.vi and name the other copy as act02-02a.vi. Add components as

shown below.

Q2.1(a) Use the MATLAB commands and the LabVIEW VI to complete the table below. On a

separate sheet, roughly sketch the time response of each of the system.

Q2.1(b) Comment on the results for the system (a) and (b). Check the values obtained using the VI

with the results of the formula. Are the values for the damping ratio and the natural frequencies

valid? Comment also on the validity of the values for the peak time and percent overshoot.

Q2.1(c) Comment on the results for the systems (c) through (f). Determine the form of the response

with respect to the value of the damping ratio.

Q2.1(d) Systems (g) through (i) have additional real poles, aside from two complex poles. Comment

on the results. Which exhibits a near second-order response? What is the relationship between the

dominant complex poles and the real third pole for a third-order system to exhibit an approximate

second-order response?

Q2.1(e) Systems (j) and (k) have zeros. Which of the system exhibit non-minimum phase behavior?

Discuss the non-minimum phase behavior based on the time response plot.

Q2.1(f) Systems (l) through (o) are systems with additional poles and with zeros. Which of these can

be approximated into a second-order response using pole-zero cancellation? What general rule can

be established which will allow such approximation?

Q.2.1(g) Plot the responses of systems (a) through (o) on separate sheets of paper. Screenshots for

such plots may be provided.

3. Complex systems can also be modeled and simulated in MATLAB and LabVIEW. As an example the

s+1

system whose block diagram is shown below has the transfer functions G(s) = s(s+2) and H(s) =

s+3

s+4

4. MATLAB. To obtain the closed-loop equivalent the above transfer function, use the command

feedback(), as in the following format

>> T = feedback(G,H)

where T is the object representing the closed-loop transfer function, G is the forward transfer function

and H the feedback transfer function. Read more on the commands feedback(), as well as on

the commands parallel() and series() by using the help command of MATLAB.

Q4.1(a) Using MATLAB, determine the poles and zeros, plot and analyze the time response

characteristics of the system given above. Complete the table below.

5. LabVIEW. Modify act02-02a.vi and rename this as act02-02b.vi. Add a CD Construct Transfer

Function.vi block to define H(s) and connect G(s) with H(s) using the CD Feedback.vi. Use the

Help to obtain more information about the Model Interconnection palette.

Q5.1(a) Using LabVIEW, determine the poles and zeros, plot and analyze the time response

characteristics of the system given above. Complete the table below.

Course:

Experiment No.:

Group No.:

Section:

Group Members:

Date Performed:

Date Submitted:

Instructor:

6. Data and Results:

Q1.4(a)Complete the table below, using MATLAB and LabVIEW. Verify the results using hand

calculations on separate sheets of paper.

Transfer Function

Poles and Zeros

Pole-Zero Plot

G(s) =

2

s+2

G(s) =

5

(s + 3)(s + 6)

G(s) =

G(s) =

G(s) =

s+5

(s + 10)2

s 3 + 7s 2 + 24s + 24

s 4 + 10s 3 + 35s2 + 50s + 24

s4

38s3

s2 + 2s + 10

+ 515s2 + 2950s + 6000

Q1.4(b) Using the poles and zeros obtained in the previous questions, write the general form of the

step responses of the system whose transfer functions are given below.

Transfer Function

General Form of the Step Response

G(s) =

s 2 + 2s + 2

s 4 + 6s 3 + 4s 2 + 7s + 2

G(s) =

G(s) =

5

(s + 3)(s + 6)

G(s) =

G(s) =

G(s) =

2

s+2

s+5

(s + 10)2

s 3 + 7s2 + 24s + 24

s 4 + 10s 3 + 35s 2 + 50s + 24

s2 + 2s + 10

s4 + 38s3 + 515s2 + 2950s + 6000

Q1.4(c) How does the location of the poles and zeros relate to the general form of the step response

of the system?

_____________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________

Q2.1(a) Use the MATLAB commands and the LabVIEW VI to complete the table below. On a

separate sheet, roughly sketch the time response of each of the system.

Damping Ratio

Time Response Parameters

Transfer Function

/ Natural

Frequency

a)

G(s) =

5

s+5

b)

G(s) =

20

s + 20

c)

G(s) =

s2

20

+ 6s + 144

d)

G(s) =

s2

9

+ 9s + 9

e)

G(s) =

s2

100

+ 100

f)

G(s) =

225

(s + 15)2

g)

G(s) =

24.542

s 2 + 4s + 24.542

h)

G(s) =

245.42

(s + 10)(s2 + 4s + 24.542)

i)

G(s) =

73.626

(s + 3)(s2 + 4s + 24.542)

j)

G(s) =

s2

s+2

+ 3s + 36

s2

s2

+ 3s + 36

k)

G(s) =

l)

G(s) =

s+3

(s + 2)(s2 + 3s + 10)

m)

G(s) =

s + 2.5

(s + 2)(s2 + 4s + 20)

n)

G(s) =

s + 2.1

(s + 2)(s2 + s + 5)

o)

G(s) =

s + 2.01

(s + 2)(s2 + 5s + 20)

p)

G(s) =

s4

38s 3

s 2 + 2s + 10

+ 515s 2 + 2950s + 6000

Q2.1(b) Comment on the results for the system (a) and (b). Check the values obtained using the VI

with the results of the formula. Are the values for the damping ratio and the natural frequencies

valid? Comment also on the validity of the values for the peak time and percent overshoot.

_____________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________

Q2.1(c) Comment on the results for the systems (c) through (f). Determine the form of the response

with respect to the value of the damping ratio.

_____________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________

Q2.1(d) Systems (g) through (i) have additional real poles, aside from two complex poles. Comment

on the results. Which exhibits a near second-order response? What is the relationship between the

dominant complex poles and the real third pole for a third-order system to exhibit an approximate

second-order response?

_____________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________

Q2.1(e) Systems (j) and (k) have zeros. Which of the system exhibit non-minimum phase behavior?

Discuss the non-minimum phase behavior based on the time response plot.

_____________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________

Q2.1(f) Systems (l) through (o) are systems with additional poles and with zeros. Which of these can

be approximated into a second-order response using pole-zero cancellation? What general rule can

be established which will allow such approximation?

_____________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________

Q.2.1(g) Plot the responses of systems (a) through (o) on separate sheets of paper. Screenshots for

such plots may be provided.

Q4.1(a) Using MATLAB, determine the poles and zeros, plot and analyze the time response

characteristics of the system given above. Complete the table below.

Closed-loop Transfer Function

Poles and Zeros

Pole-Zero Plot

Q5.1(a) Using LabVIEW, determine the poles and zeros, plot and analyze the time response

characteristics of the system given above. Complete the table below.

Closed-loop Transfer Function

Poles and Zeros

Pole-Zero Plot

7. Conclusion:

8. Assessment:

1. In typical conventional aircraft, longitudinal flight model linearization results in transfer functions with two

pairs of complex conjugate poles. Consequently, the natural response for these airplanes has two

modes in their natural response. The short period mode is relatively well-damped and has a highfrequency oscillation. The plugoid mode is lightly damped and its oscillation frequency is relatively low.

For example, in a specific aircraft the transfer function from wing elevator deflection to nose angle (angle

of attack) is (McRuer, 1973)

(s)

26.12(s + 0.0098)(s + 1.371)

= 2

(s + 8.99 103 s + 3.97 103)(s2 + 4.21s + 18.23)

e (s)

a. Determine the poles and zeros of this system and plot them on the complex s-plane.

b. Sketch the step response of the wing elevator deflection to a step nose angle input. Determine the

time response parameters.

c. On the plot of the response, label which is the short period mode and which is the phugoid mode.

Which of the poles cause the short period and the phugoid responses, respectively?

25

2. Assume that the motor whose transfer function is G(s) = s(s+1) is used in a position control system.

a. Obtain the systems pole-zero plot, the type of the response of the system to the step input, the plot

of the step response, and obtain the systems damping ratio and natural frequency, and if

applicable, the settling time, percent overshoot, rise time and peak time.

b. It is wanted that the time response of the position control system be improved. In order to do just

that, an amplifier and a tachometer are inserted into the loop, as shown in the figure below.

Investigate the effects of the addition of the amplifier and the tachometer on the response of the

system.

c. Find the values of K1 and K 2 to yield a 16% overshoot and a settling time of 0.2 seconds.

Determine the rest of the time response parameters.

Assessment rubric for the activitys intended learning outcomes

INTENDED

LEARNING

OUTCOMES

Determine and,

on the complex

The student was able to

s-plane, plot

The student was not

The student was able to

determine and plot the

able to determine and

determine and plot the

the poles and

poles and zeros of the

plot the poles and zeros

poles and zeros of the

zeros of a

system but there are

dynamic

of the system.

system.

some errors.

system.

(MP1a, MP2a)

Plot the time

response of,

and interpret

the time

response

characteristics

of dynamic

systems

represented as

transfer

functions.

(MP1b, MP1c,

MP2a)

able to plot and

interpret the time

response

characteristics of the

systems.

The student was able to

plot the time response

plot and interpret the

characteristics of

time response

systems but was not

characteristics of

able to interpret the

systems.

characteristics.

Points

Design

components of

dynamic

systems to

achieve time

response

parameter

objectives.

(MP2b, MP2c)

able to design the

components of systems

to achieve objectives.

design some of the

design component

component values but

values of systems and

does not achieve the

achieves design

design objectives.

objectives.

Total Score

Mean Score = (Total Score /3)

Percentage Score = (Total Score / 9) x 100%

Performance Indicators

Conduct experiments in

accordance with good and

safe laboratory practice.

instruments with ease

experimental values against

theoretical values to

determine possible

experimental errors, and

provide valid conclusions.

Members do not follow

and safe laboratory

good and safe laboratory

practice most of the time

practice in the conduct

in the conduct of

of experiments.

experiments.

Members are unable to

operate the equipment

and instruments.

incomplete data.

operate equipment and

instrument with

supervision.

and safe laboratory

practice at all times in

the conduct of

experiments.

Members are able to

operate the equipment

and instruments with

ease and with minimum

supervision.

data, validates

The group has complete

experimental values

data but has no analysis

against theoretical

and valid conclusion.

values, and provides

valid conclusion.

Total Score

Mean Score = (Total Score /3)

Percentage Score = (Total Score / 9) x 100%

Points

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