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Engaging and

Supporting Students
in Learning
Literary Review
Johnny Segovia

Hearing impairments is a form of a sensory impairment that is considered a

hidden disability because individuals with this type of disorder frequently do not display
any physical features that suggest an impairment is present (Smith, 2012, p. 318).
However when there is any communication skill that are needed, students with hearing
impairment are at a disadvantage. Students with hearing impairments present a
challenge for general classroom teachers.
Indicators and/or characteristics of hearing impairments are speech delays,
communication difficulties, selective hearing, and behavioral characteristics. Students
with hearing impairments are identified by the severity of their hearing loss. Teachers
should be on alert for the display of certain characteristics that could indicate deficits in
hearing (Smith, 2012, p.320).
Atypical developments of students with hearing impairments consist of through
lip reading, with hearing aids or cochlear implants, with American Sign Language (ASL),
and a combinations of the all these methods. Teachers should be cautious of how well
they are communicating with their students. The teachers speech, location, and
movement in the classroom can affect the facility with which a student with hearing
impairment can follow a discussion or lecture (Smith, 2012, p.327).
Resilience and/or prospective factors are that some advocate total
communication, which involves using lip reading, gestures, and sign language, or both
oral and manual methods.
Effects on learning and instruction are that any accommodations made in the
class for students who are hearing impaired may be disruptive. Teacher has to be very
attentive and create alternative options for student causing other students less time with

teacher. Students who are receiving accommodations often are distracted away from
the teachers instruction because of these services (Smith, 2012, p. 329). This must be
addressed and overcome to ensure intended instructional outcome.
Effects on classroom functioning are determined by the accommodations that are
made in the class for the severity of the hearing impairment. Hearing impairments have
academic deficiencies, development lags, difficult processing language, some
experience social-emotional difficulties, and communication difficulties. Teachers must
deliver and facilitate instruction in a way that will benefit all students in the class; those
with special needs and those without.
Some recommended interventions are to repeat key points, set up a signal
student can let you know when struggling, identify a buddy to help, and encourage him
to become his own hearing tech specialist.
Some examples of modification that are made for English learners are noise
reduction in the classroom, use of visual supplements such as captioning systems,
computer-assisted note taking, and telecommunication technology. Other modifications
made for English learners are checking for understanding of information, providing stepby-step directions, using alternative tests, and allowing extra time when appropriate.
The General Education teacher role is filled with addition to their existing
responsibilities. As a General Education teacher you are not expected to lower
standards to accommodate students with a disability. General Education teachers are
required to give them a reasonable time to demonstrate what they have learned.

Smith, Tom E., Polloway, Edward A., Patton, J. (2012). Teaching Students with Special
Needs in Inclusive Settings. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education.