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MethodsforTestingTransformerDifferentialRelaysAppliedtoDelta

GroundedWyeTransformersUsingSinglePhaseTestCurrents

Presentedat:MinnesotaPowerSystemsConference
St.Paul,MN,USA
November11,2015

TomErnst
GEDigitalEnergy
4523JeremiahRd.
Cookeville,TN38506
thomas.ernst@ge.com

CraigTalbot
MinnesotaPower
30WestSuperiorSt.
Duluth,MN55802
ctalbot@mnpower.com

Abstract

Thispaperprovidesanalternatemethodfortestingtransformerdifferentialrelaysappliedtodelta
groundedwyetransformersusingsinglephasetestcurrents.Thealternatemethodisbasedonthe
transformerthreelinediagramandtransformernameplate.Thisalternatemethodsimulatesactual
currentflowsinthetransformerduringsinglelinegroundfaultsonthewyesideandprovides
confirmationthattherelaysslopecharacteristicsandphaseshiftsettingsareoperatingcorrectly.The
alternatemethodisbasedonthetransformerthreelinediagramandprovidesverificationthatthe
relayssettingsarecorrectforthetransformerapplication.

Threephasetestingisnotpossiblewithsometestsetsdueinpartbythelimitednumberofcurrent
channelsavailableand,insomeapplications,testsetscanalsobelimitedbythehighcurrentvalues
requiredfordifferentialslope2regiontests.Traditionalmethodsofsinglephasetestingtypically
requiretheadditionof3multipliersandotheradjustmentstoaccountforzerosequencecurrent
removal,furtherincreasingthemagnitudeofthetestcurrents.Also,traditionaltests(both3phaseand
1phase)usecurrentsandphaseshiftsbasedontherelaysettings.Thealternatemethodimprovesboth
issuesasonly2channelsarerequiredofthetestsetand,sincethetestsimulatesrealworld,no
multipliersarerequired.Thealternatemethodusestwotestcurrentsthatarealways180degreesoutof
phaseofeachotherforthedifferentiallybalancedconditionregardlessofthetransformerphaseshift
leadorlag.Asaresult,thealternatemethodisespeciallyusefulforcommissiontestingasitprovesthe
transformerphaseshiftrelaysettingsarecorrectforthetransformerconnectionratherthantestingthe
relaysettings.

Introduction

Testingoftransformerdifferentialcharacteristicscanbechallenging.Threephasetesting,whilestraight
forwardfromamagnitudeandphaserelationshippointofview,requires6highamperagetestcurrents.
Fordeltagrdwyewindingtransformers,traditionalsinglephasetestingrequiresnonobvious
multipliersanddoesnotsimulaterealworldfaultconditions.Thispaperdiscussesanalternatemethod
ofsinglephasetestingthatsimulatesrealworldsinglephaseloadingconditionswithouttheneedfor
phaseshiftsorcurrentmultipliers.Thisalternatemethodverifiesthedifferentialrelaysettingsare
appropriatefortheinstalledtransformerbyusingtheinstallationdrawingsandtransformernameplate
diagramtodeterminethetestconnections.ApplicationexamplesofinstallationsatMinnesotaPower
substationsareusedtodemonstratethemethod.

Traditional3PhaseTesting

Differentialpickuptestscanbeperformedusing3phasetestcurrents.Themagnitudeofthecurrents
requiredforpickupistypicallylow(10%20%offullload)andonly3currentchannelsarerequired
fromthetestset.Formicroprocessorrelays,itisimportanttoconfirmthatallthreephasespickup
whenperforminga3phasetest.

Slopecharacteristictestsrequiresimultaneousinjectionoftestcurrentsintoaminimumof2relay
windings.Themagnituderelationshipofthecurrentsbetweenthewindingsisbasedonthetransformer
threephasevoltageratio.Thephaseshiftbetweenthetestcurrentsisafunctionofthetransformer
internalandexternalconnections.Determiningthecorrectanglerequiresanexaminationofthe
substation3lineinstallationdrawingandthetransformernameplatediagram.Athorough
understandingof3phasepowerisalsorequiredsincetheexternalconnectionscanreversetheleadlag
relationshipofthewindingsifphasesA,BandCarenotconnectedtobushings1,2and3.

Figure1showsaninstallationwithatypicaldeltagrdwyetransformerwithstandardIEEEphaseshift
(secondarylagsprimaryby30).Inthisinstallationtheinstalledphaserelationshipmatchesthe
transformernameplatephaserelationshipsincephaseAisonbushings1,Bisonbushings2andCison
bushings3.The3phasetestcurrenttosimulatefullloadforthisinstallationarealsoshowninfigure1.

Figure1:Typicaldeltagrdwyetransformerandassociated3phasetestcurrents


Figure2showsthesametransformerasfigure1buttheexternalconnectionsarerolledsuchthatphase
Aisonbushings3,Bisonbushings2andCisonbushings1.Theresultinginstalledphaseshifthasthe
lowvoltagesideleadingthehighvoltagesideby30eventhoughthetransformernameplatedrawing
showsalaggingsecondaryvoltage.Notethatthetestcurrentsreflectthisleadingphaseangleshift.

Figure2:Typicaldeltagrdwyetransformerwithrolledphasingandassociated3phasetestcurrents

Figure3showsthetestsetconnectionsfor3phasetestingofthetransformerinstallationshownin
Figure1.Threephasedifferentialslopetestingrequires6testcurrentseachhavingdifferentphase
angles.Sometestsetscannotperform3phasedifferentialslopetestsbecauseofthelimitednumberof
currentchannelsavailable.Additionally,sometestsetswith6currentchannelshavelimitedVA
capabilitywhenusingthe6channels;thisinturnlimitsthemagnitudeofthetestcurrents,especially
whentestingtheregion2slopecharacteristic.

DifferentialRelay

Figure3:3Phasetestingconnectionsforthefigure1transformer

Traditional1PhaseTesting

Traditionalsinglephasetestingoftransformerdifferentialrelays,asshowninfigure4,inherentlychecks
thefunctionalityofeachphaseandrequiresonly2injectedcurrents.Byonlyusing2injectedcurrents
mostrelaytestsetscanperformthistypeoftesting.However,injectingsinglephasecurrentsfor
differentialslopetestingoftenrequiresmultipliersandphaseshiftsthatarenotobviousfromthe
substationandtransformer3linediagrams,especiallyfordeltagrdwyewindingtransformers.


Figure4:Traditional1phasetestconnections

Alternate1PhaseMethod

Analternatemethodofusingsinglephasetestcurrentsisshowninfigures5and6.Thisconnectionis
relatedtothetransformerinternalandexternal3linediagramsandsimulatesrealworldloadandshort
circuitconditionswithouttheneedfornonobviousmultipliers.Differentiallybalancedsinglephase
throughcurrentforadeltagrdwyetransformerwith30degreelagsecondaryandtheassociatedtest
connectionsareshowninfigures5(a)and5(b)respectively.Thedifferentiallybalanced1phasethrough
currentandassociatedtestconnectionsforadeltagrdwyetransformerwith30degreeleadsecondary
areshowninfigures6(a)and6(b)respectively.


Figure5(a):Differentiallybalanced1phasethroughcurrentfora30degreelagtransformer


Figure5(b):Differentiallybalanced1phasetestconnectionsfora30degreelagtransformer

2.5@180
2.5@0

Installed
A(H3)

200/5A

C(H1)
A(X3)
X0

100@0
H3

H2

H1

B(H2)
B(X2)

C(X1)

Nameplate
H1

Test
Currents
toRelay

H3

115,000
13,800/7970GY N1/N2=115/8
20MVA

X3

X2

X3

H2
X1
X0
X2

X0
X1

2000/5A

3.61@180
1443@0

Figure6(a):Differentiallybalanced1phasethroughcurrentfora30degreeleadtransformer

DifferentialRelay

Figure6(b):Differentiallybalanced1phasetestconnectionsfora30degreeleadtransformer

Thetestcurrentmagnitudesandanglesshowninfigures5(b)and6(b)arecalculatedbasedonthe
differentiallybalancedthroughcurrentconditionsshowninfigures5(a)and6(a).Thecurrents
calculatedbyaproperlymodeledshortcircuitprogrammayalsobeappliedtosimulatetherelays
performanceduringrealworldexternalfaultconditions.Eventhoughdeltagrdwyetransformers
create3phaseangleshiftsof+/30degrees,thealternate1phasemethodtestcurrentsarealways180
degreesapartfordifferentiallybalancedthroughcurrentconditions.Thesuccessofthealternatesingle
phasetestclearlyindicatesifthetransformerphaseshiftsettingisenteredproperlyfortheinstallation.
Figure7showsthetransformerdifferentialrelaycalculatedquantitiesforthetestshowninfigure5(b)
wherethephaseshift(W2AngleWRT)settingisenteredcorrectly(30degrees).Notethatthe
differentialcurrentmagnitudeis0forallthreephasesandtherestraintcurrentmagnitudeis0.5per
unitinphasesAandC,correctlyindicatingadifferentiallybalancedthroughcurrentcondition.

TRANSFORMER SETTINGS AND CTs


Nomber of Windings:
W1
Rated(MVA)
Nom. (kV)
Connection
Grounding
Angle WRT
CT primary
CT sec. tap
Inom. Prim.
Inom.Sec.

20
115
DELTA
NO
0
200
5
100.4
2.510

Rotations

ABC

DIFF / RSTR CHARACTERISTIC

2
W2
20
13.8
WYE
YES
-30
2000
5
836.7
2.092

W3

W4

0
230
WYE
NO
0
2000
5
0.0
0.000

0
13.8
WYE
NO
0
8000
5
0.0
0.000

W5
Magnitude
Angle
W6
Magnitude
Angle

W6

0
0.48
WYE
YES
0
3000
5
0.0
0.000

Select Magnitude Ref. Winding:

TEST CURRENTS
W1
Magnitude
Angle
W2
Magnitude
Angle
W3
Magnitude
Angle
W4
Magnitude
Angle

W5

IA

IB

IC

2.50
0.0

0.00
0.0

2.50
180.0

DIFFERENTIAL- RESTRAINT GRAPH


Diff. min. PKP
0.10 Slope1
25.0
Kneepoint 1
2.00
Kneepoint 2
3.00 Slope2
50.0

0
69
WYE
YES
0
1000
5
0.0
0.000

Pre-calculated graph points


Id/Ir, (%) Ph A Ph B Ph C
25.0
25.0
25.0

>>Pre-calculated ratio of the point from the


characteristic, corresponding to the same
restraint as per the actual Id/Ir ratio. The trip
occurs, when the actual Id/Ir ratio,(%) is bigger
than the pre-calculated Id/Ir ratio, (%)

ACTUAL VALUES

I diff, pu
12

Operating Characteristic

11
10
9

3.61
180.0

0.00
0.0

0.00
0.0

0.00
0.0

0.00
0.0

0.00
0.0

0.00
0.0

0.00
0.0

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.0

0.0

0.0

DIFFERENTIAL CURRENTS
Iad
Ibd
Magnitude 0.00
0.00
Angle
-180.0
-180.0

Icd
0.00
0.0

RESTRAINT CURRENTS
Iar
Ibr
Magnitude 0.50
0.00

Icr
0.50

8
7
6

0.00
0.0

Magnitude Ref. Winding #:

5
4

Actual Differential/Restraint Ratio


Actual
ph A % ph B % ph C %
Id/Ir ratio
0.0
100.0
0.0

3
2
1

DIFF. OPERATION

0
0

Slope characteristics

0.00
0.0

0.00
0.0

0.00
0.0

6
Iad

7
Ibd

9
Icd

10

11
12
I restr, pu

NO TRIP
Ia
No trip

Ib
No trip

Ic
No trip

Figure7:Differentiallybalancedthroughcurrentconditionwithcorrectphaseshiftsetting

Ifthephaseshiftsettingisenteredincorrectly(30degrees)andthetestcurrentsshowninfigure5(b)
areentered,thetransformerdifferentialrelaycalculatedquantitiesclearlyshowaproblem(figure8):
thedifferentialcurrentmagnitudesarenot0forphasesBandCandtherelaytrips.

Oncethedifferentiallybalancedthroughcurrentconditionisestablishedcorrectly,asinfigure7,the
angleofoneofthewindingcurrentscanberolleduntiltherelaytrips.Atthispoint,theslopecanbe
calculatedbydividingthedifferentialcurrentmagnitudebytherestraintcurrentmagnitude.Figure9
showstheresultsofthisslopetestshowingatripwithwinding2currentrolledfrom180to165.6
degreesandacalculatedslope(S1)of:S1=0.13/0.50=0.26or26%.Thiscorrelateswellwiththeslope1
settingof25%.Asimilartestcanberunwithlargertestcurrentstoverifytheslope2performance.

TRANSFORMER SETTINGS AND CTs


Nomber of Windings:
W1
Rated(MVA)
Nom. (kV)
Connection
Grounding
Angle WRT
CT primary
CT sec. tap
Inom. Prim.
Inom.Sec.

20
115
DELTA
NO
0
200
5
100.4
2.510

Rotations

ABC

DIFF / RSTR CHARACTERISTIC

2
W2
20
13.8
WYE
YES
30
2000
5
836.7
2.092

W3

W4

0
230
WYE
NO
0
2000
5
0.0
0.000

0
13.8
WYE
NO
0
8000
5
0.0
0.000

W5
Magnitude
Angle
W6
Magnitude
Angle

W6

0
0.48
WYE
YES
0
3000
5
0.0
0.000

Select Magnitude Ref. Winding:

TEST CURRENTS
W1
Magnitude
Angle
W2
Magnitude
Angle
W3
Magnitude
Angle
W4
Magnitude
Angle

W5

IA

IB

IC

2.50
0.0

0.00
0.0

2.50
180.0

DIFFERENTIAL- RESTRAINT GRAPH


Diff. min. PKP
0.10 Slope1
25.0
Kneepoint 1
2.00
Kneepoint 2
3.00 Slope2
50.0

0
69
WYE
YES
0
1000
5
0.0
0.000

Pre-calculated graph points


Id/Ir, (%) Ph A Ph B Ph C
25.0
25.0
25.0

>>Pre-calculated ratio of the point from the


characteristic, corresponding to the same
restraint as per the actual Id/Ir ratio. The trip
occurs, when the actual Id/Ir ratio,(%) is bigger
than the pre-calculated Id/Ir ratio, (%)

ACTUAL VALUES

I diff, pu
12

Operating Characteristic

11
10
9

3.61
180.0

0.00
0.0

7
6

0.00
0.0

0.00
0.0

0.00
0.0

0.00
0.0

0.00
0.0

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.0

0.0

0.0

DIFFERENTIAL CURRENTS
Iad
Ibd
Magnitude 0.00
0.50
Angle
-180.0
0.0

Icd
0.50
-180.0

RESTRAINT CURRENTS
Iar
Ibr
Magnitude 0.50
0.50

Icr
0.50

0.00
0.0

0.00
0.0

Magnitude Ref. Winding #:

5
4

Actual Differential/Restraint Ratio


Actual
ph A % ph B % ph C %
Id/Ir ratio
0.0
100.0
100.0

3
2
1

DIFF. OPERATION

0
0

Slope characteristics

0.00
0.0

0.00
0.0

6
Iad

Ibd

10

Icd

11
12
I restr, pu

0.00
0.0

TRIP
Ia
No trip

Ib
Trip

Ic
Trip

Figure8:Differentiallybalancedthroughcurrentconditionwithincorrectphaseshiftsetting

TRANSFORMER SETTINGS AND CTs


Nomber of Windings:
W1
Rated(MVA)
Nom. (kV)
Connection
Grounding
Angle WRT
CT primary
CT sec. tap
Inom. Prim.
Inom.Sec.

20
115
DELTA
NO
0
200
5
100.4
2.510

Rotations

ABC

DIFF / RSTR CHARACTERISTIC

2
W2
20
13.8
WYE
YES
-30
2000
5
836.7
2.092

W3

W4

0
230
WYE
NO
0
2000
5
0.0
0.000

0
13.8
WYE
NO
0
8000
5
0.0
0.000

W5
Magnitude
Angle
W6
Magnitude
Angle

W6

0
0.48
WYE
YES
0
3000
5
0.0
0.000

Select Magnitude Ref. Winding:

TEST CURRENTS
W1
Magnitude
Angle
W2
Magnitude
Angle
W3
Magnitude
Angle
W4
Magnitude
Angle

W5

IA

IB

IC

2.50
0.0

0.00
0.0

2.50
180.0

DIFFERENTIAL- RESTRAINT GRAPH


Diff. min. PKP
0.10 Slope1
25.0
Kneepoint 1
2.00
Kneepoint 2
3.00 Slope2
50.0

0
69
WYE
YES
0
1000
5
0.0
0.000

Pre-calculated graph points


Id/Ir, (%) Ph A Ph B Ph C
25.0
25.0
25.0

>>Pre-calculated ratio of the point from the


characteristic, corresponding to the same
restraint as per the actual Id/Ir ratio. The trip
occurs, when the actual Id/Ir ratio,(%) is bigger
than the pre-calculated Id/Ir ratio, (%)

ACTUAL VALUES

I diff, pu
12

Operating Characteristic

11
10
9

3.61
165.6

0.00
0.0

0.00
0.0

0.00
0.0

0.00
0.0

0.00
0.0

0.00
0.0

0.00
0.0

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.0

0.0

0.0

DIFFERENTIAL CURRENTS
Iad
Ibd
Magnitude 0.13
0.00
Angle
-277.1
-194.4

Icd
0.13
-97.1

RESTRAINT CURRENTS
Iar
Ibr
Magnitude 0.50
0.00

Icr
0.50

8
7
6

0.00
0.0

Magnitude Ref. Winding #:

5
4

Actual Differential/Restraint Ratio


Actual
ph A % ph B % ph C %
Id/Ir ratio
25.1
100.0
25.1

3
2
1

DIFF. OPERATION

0
0

Slope characteristics

0.00
0.0

0.00
0.0

0.00
0.0

6
Iad

7
Ibd

9
Icd

10

11
12
I restr, pu

TRIP
Ia
Trip

Ib
No trip

Figure9:Slopeverificationtestwithwinding2testcurrentanglerolledtopointoftrip

Ic
Trip

Sincethealternatemethodisasinglephasetest,itisnecessarytorepeatthetestforeachphasefora
totalof3connectionsforeachwindingpair.Tables1and2showtestconnectionsrequiredfora2
windingdeltagrdwyetransformerwith30degreelag(figures5(a)&(b))andlead(figures6(a)&(b))
connectionsrespectively.

Table1:Testconnectionsfora2winding30degreelagdeltawyeconnectiontransformer
TestID Winding1(delta)connections Winding2(wye)connections
A
InonA&outonC
A
B
InonB&outonA
B
C
InonC&outonB
C

Table2:Testconnectionsfora2winding30degreeleaddeltawyeconnectiontransformer
TestID Winding1(delta)connections Winding2(wye)connections
A
InonA&outonB
A
B
InonB&outonC
B
C
InonC&outonA
C

Thetraditionalsinglephasetestmethodrequiresinjectingtestcurrentswithmagnitudesandanglesnot
obviousfromthesubstationandtransformerdrawingswhilethealternatemethodcurrentmagnitudes
andanglesarevisuallyrelatedtotheinstalled3linediagramandtheinternalturnsratio(N1/N2)ofthe
transformer.However,acloseinspectionshowsthata3multiplierisimpliedduetotherelationship
betweenthetransformer3phasevoltageratioandtheinternalturnsratio.Asaresult,thetestcurrents
forthealternatemethodarestilllargerthanthoserequiredfor3phasetesting.Forthisreason,itmay
stillbedifficultforsometestsetstodeliverhightestcurrentstoverifytheregion2slope.

Itshouldbepossibletodevelopanautomatedtestplanforthealternatesinglephasemethodwhich
wouldselectthetestoutputsfromtable1ortable2dependingonthephaseshiftsetting.Assuch,the
methodcouldbeusedformaintenancetesting.However,themethodisuniquelysuitedforcommission
testingwherethecoreactivityofthemethodistodeterminethetestconnectionsbasedonan
examinationoftheinstallationdrawingswiththeultimategoalofverifyingthatthephaseshiftsettingis
correctfortheinstallation.

ApplicationExamples

TwoapplicationexamplesatMinnesotaPowersubstationsareincludedbelow.Thefirstexampleisa
distributionsubstationwherethedistributionvoltagelagsthetransmissionvoltage.Thesecond
exampleisanotherdistributionsubstationinadifferentdivisionwherethedistributionvoltageleadsthe
transmissionvoltage.Inbothcases,IEEEstandardphaseshifttransformerswereinstalled(Xsidelags
theHsideby30).

Ananalysisofatransformerdifferentialrelayoperationcausedbyanincorrectphaseshiftsettingisalso
includedintheApplicationExamplessection.

Laggingexample

Inthisexample,thedistributionvoltage(34.5kV)lagsthetransmissionvoltage(115kV)by30.Figure
10showsthetransformernameplatediagramandfigure11showsthesubstation3linediagramofthe
transformerinstallationwitharrowsshowingdifferentiallybalancedsinglephaseloading.SinceABC
phasesareconnectedtobushings123respectively,theinstallationphasordiagrammatchesthe
transformernameplatephasordiagram.

Figure10:Transformernameplateforexample1

MinnesotaPowerusesacalculationsheettodocumentthebasisoftheirrelaysettingsandtodefinethe
commissionteststobeperformed.Thecommissiontestingdefinitionsfortheexample1transformer
differentialslopecharacteristicareshowninfigure12.Youwillnotethatthetestconnectionsmatch
withthoseshowninfigure5(b)andTable1fora30laginstallation.

197A

1200/5MR
300/5Tap

3.28@0

N1/N2=115/19.9

A(H1)
C(H3)
C(X3)

1200/5MR
1200/5Tap

B(H2)
A(X1)
X0
B(X2)

4.73@180

1137A

Figure11:3lineinstallationdiagramforexample1withdifferentiallybalanced1phaseload

Test 3.a: Restraint slope verification:

Test Values
A-phase
B-phase
C-phase

I mag.
3.28
4.73
0.00

I ang.
0
180
0

Connection:
In on A-Ph Wdg 1 (+) and out on C-Ph Wdg 1 (+) with A-Ph Wdg 1 (-) jumpered to C-Ph Wdg 1 (-)
A-Ph Wdg 2 (+), role angle until 87R asserts
no connection

Monitor 87R bits. Use MET DIF to view operate current (IOP) and Restraint currents (IRT). Initially IOP = 0 and IRT = 1.0.
Note point where 87R asserts. IOP/IRT should equal Slope at trip point.
Repeat for B-Phase:
Test Values
A-phase
B-phase
C-phase

I mag.
3.28
4.73
0.00

I ang.
0
180
0

Connection:
In on B-Ph Wdg 1 (+) and out on A-Ph Wdg 1 (+) with B-Ph Wdg 1 (-) jumpered to A-Ph Wdg 1 (-)
B-Ph Wdg 2 (+), role angle until 87R asserts
no connection

Monitor 87R bits. Use MET DIF to view operate current (IOP) and Restraint currents (IRT). Initially IOP = 0 and IRT = 1.0.
Note point where 87R asserts. IOP/IRT should equal Slope at trip point.
Repeat for C-Phase:
Test Values
A-phase
B-phase
C-phase

I mag.
3.28
4.73
0.00

I ang.
0
180
0

Connection:
In on C-Ph Wdg 1 (+) and out on B-Ph Wdg 1 (+) with C-Ph Wdg 1 (-) jumpered to B-Ph Wdg 1 (-)
C-Ph Wdg 2 (+), role angle until 87R asserts
no connection

Monitor 87R bits. Use MET DIF to view operate current (IOP) and Restraint currents (IRT). Initially IOP = 0 and IRT = 1.0.
Note point where 87R asserts. IOP/IRT should equal Slope at trip point.

Figure12:Testingdefinitionsforexample1transformerdifferentialslopecharacteristic

LeadingExample

Inthisexample,thedistributionvoltage(13.8kV)leadsthetransmissionvoltage(115kV)by30.Figure
13showsthetransformernameplatediagramandfigure14showsthesubstation3linediagramofthe
transformerinstallationwitharrowsshowingdifferentiallybalanced1phaseloading.SinceABCphases
areconnectedtobushings321respectively,theinstallationphasordiagramisshifted60fromthe
transformernameplatephasordiagramtoshowa30leadrelationship.


Figure13:Transformernameplateforexample2

Thecommissiontestingdefinitionsfortheexample2transformerdifferentialslopecharacteristicare
showninfigure15.Youwillnotethatthetestconnectionsmatchwiththoseshowninfigure6(b)and
Table2fora30leadinstallation.

A
B
C

160A

A(H3)
C(H1)
A(X3)
X0
C(X1)

B(H2)

600/5MR
400/5Tap

2.00@0

B(X2)

N1/N2=115/8.2
5.60@180
2000/5SR

2240A

Figure14:3lineinstallationdiagramforexample2withdifferentiallybalanced1phaseload

Test 3.a: Restraint slope verification:

Test Values
I mag.
I ang. Connection:
A-phase
2.00
0
In on A-Ph Wdg 1 (+) and out on B-Ph Wdg 1 (+) with A-Ph Wdg 1 (-) jumpered to B-Ph Wdg 1 (-)
B-phase
5.60
180
A-Ph Wdg 2 (+), role angle until 87R asserts
C-phase
0.00
0
no connection
Monitor 87R bits and view the operate current (IOP) and restraint current (IRT).
Use Differential and Restraint in Actual Values to view Differential current and Restraint current for A phase and B phase. C phase differential
and restraint currents should be 0 if the winding compensation factor (Angle WRT) is correct.
Repeat for B-Phase:
Test Values
I mag.
I ang. Connection:
A-phase
2.00
0
In on B-Ph Wdg 1 (+) and out on C-Ph Wdg 1 (+) with B-Ph Wdg 1 (-) jumpered to C-Ph Wdg 1 (-)
B-phase
5.60
180
B-Ph Wdg 2 (+), role angle until 87R asserts
C-phase
0.00
0
no connection
Monitor 87R bits and view the operate current (IOP) and restraint current (IRT).
Use Differential and Restraint in Actual Values to view Differential current and Restraint current for B phase and C phase. A phase differential
and restraint currents should be 0 if the winding compensation factor (Angle WRT) is correct.
Repeat for C-Phase:
Test Values
I mag.
I ang. Connection:
A-phase
2.00
0
In on C-Ph Wdg 1 (+) and out on A-Ph Wdg 1 (+) with C-Ph Wdg 1 (-) jumpered to A-Ph Wdg 1 (-)
B-phase
5.60
180
C-Ph Wdg 2 (+), role angle until 87R asserts
C-phase
0.00
0
no connection
Monitor 87R bits and view the operate current (IOP) and restraint current (IRT).
Use Differential and Restraint in Actual Values to view Differential current and Restraint current for C phase and A phase. B phase differential
and restraint currents should be 0 if the winding compensation factor (Angle WRT) is correct.

Figure15:Testingdefinitionsforexample2transformerdifferentialslopecharacteristic

TransformerDifferentialRelayIncorrectOperationAnalysisExample

Figure16showsatransformerthroughfaulteventthattherelayincorrectlyinterruptedasaninzone
differentialfaultandissuedatrip.TRHA,TRHB,andTRHCarehighsidetransformercurrents.TRLA,
TRLB,andTRLCarelowsidetransformercurrentsand1TA,1TB,and1TCarelowsidemainbreaker
currents.Thisisa2windingdeltagrdwyetransformer.Thelowside(TRL_)currentsareusedforover
currentbackupandthedifferentialelementsusethehighside(TRH_)andlowsidemainbreaker(1T_)
currents.Duetoconstructionconstraints,thetransformerwasnotfullyloadedbeforetheBphaseto
groundfeederfaultoccurred.Theloadcurrentsonthetransformerwerebelowtheminimumpickupof
therelaydifferentialelements.Duringthetripinvestigationitwasdeterminedthattherelaysettingfor
phaseanglecompensationforthelowvoltagesideofthetransformerwascompensatedforalagging
relationship.Inthisinstallation,phasesABCareconnectedtobushing321resultinginthelowside
leadingthehighsideby30.Thistypeofconnectioncanbeseeninfigure4.

Thealternatemethodoftestingwasnotusedforcommissioningofthistransformerdifferentialrelay.
Forthisapplication,ifthetestconnectionsshowninfigures6(a)and6(b)andtable2wereused,the
phaseanglecompensationsettingserrormayhavebeenidentifiedandathroughfaulttripofthe
differentialrelaymayhavebeenavoided.


Figure16:Transformerthroughfaultwithincorrectphaseshiftrelaysettings

Conclusion

Threephasetestingoftransformerdifferentialrelaycharacteristicsrequiresathoroughunderstanding
of3phasepowertodeterminetheappropriatephaseshiftandatestsetwith6highamperagetest
currentoutputs.Traditionalsinglephasetestingrequiresnonobviousmultipliersfordeltagrdwye
windingtransformersanddoesnotsimulaterealworldfaultconditions.Thealternatemethodofsingle
phasetestingdiscussedinthispapersimulatesrealworlddifferentiallybalancedsinglephaseloading
conditionsthatreflecttheinstallation3lineandtransformernameplatediagrams.Whilethismethod
canbeusedformaintenancetesting,itismostideallysuitedforcommissiontestingwherethegoalisto
assurethesettingsarecorrectfortheinstallation.

Biographies

TomErnstisaP&CTechnicalApplicationEngineerfortheNorthAmericanCommercialteam.Hehas
beenwithGEsince2011supportingtheGridAutomationProtectionandControlPortfolio.Priorto
joiningGE,TomhasbeenwithMinnesotaPowerasaSupervisingEngineer,DeltaEngineering
InternationalasaManagerofElectricalEngineering,HDREngineeringasaManagerofElectrical
EngineeringandNorthernStatesPowerasaSupervisingEngineer.HereceivedhisBachelorofScience
inElectricalEngineeringfromtheUniversityofMinnesotain1978andhisMasterofScienceinPower
SystemsfromMichiganTechnologicalUniversityin2008.HeisaregisteredProfessionalEngineerinthe
StateofMinnesota.

CraigTalbotisaSupervisingEngineerfortheRelayandMaintenanceEngineeringDepartmentat
MinnesotaPower.HejoinedMinnesotaPowerin2011asaRelayandMaintenanceEngineer.Priorto
joiningMinnesotaPowerheworkedatL&SElectricInc.asaFieldEngineer.HereceivedhisBachelorof
ScienceinElectricalEngineeringfromMontanaStateUniversityin2002.Craigisaregistered
ProfessionalEngineerintheStateofMinnesota.