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# Engineering Construction Must Be

Carried By A Foundation
- Karl Terzaghi, 1943
The problems of soil mechanics can be divided
into two principal groups - stability problems
and elasticity problems
In other sense: STRESS & STRAIN
Stress
Ultimate stress

settlement

Strain

## Bearing Capacity of Soil

Terzaghi was among the earliest to
He proposed a soil mechanism at failure

## Supporting soil is expected to carry the

foundation safely.
*influence of footing stresses
extend to 4B
D
*soil should be of
suitable BEARING CAPACITY.
CAPACITY.
Otherwise,
seek deep foundation
to reach strong layer

p
qo =p/BL
BL

5B 0.02qo

## Shallow foundation D/B 1-3.

Deep foundation; D/B 4.

## Terzaghi investigated the failure mechanism

to estimate
the limiting shearing resistance,
Or
the ultimate bearing capacity of the soil to foundation

qult

## The foundation was

a strip one
to assume plane stress and strain.

=45o+/2

passive

active
Transition

H=B/2tan

dz = {(D

Pp=

H 2
2

## Terzaghi Bearing Equation for

Strip Footing
qu = c N c + 1 D N q + B 2 N

## Failure Zone (depth 2B)

2B)
Generalized soil strength : c, Soil unit weight : 2 (total or
effective as applicable)
(drainage as applicable)

3=Df+z

+ z )k p + 2c k p dz

Pp

R
B/2.qult

k p + D f k p + 2cH k p

2k p

k p k p B k p2

+ k p + D f
+
kp q
c
4 cos
cos
cos

= ult

qult= cN c + D f N q +BN

B/2.H/2

Pv
R=Ppcos.cos
Pv =Rsin

c.B/2cos

Pv =Rsin

C,

1 D

z
1

## 1- Active zone, just below the foundation.

2- Transition zone, between the active and
passive zones.
3- Passive zone, near the ground surface, just
beside the foundation.

Overburden

=45o-/2

## Terzaghi Bearing Equation

qult =
qult = c Nc Cohesion Term
qult = c Nc + 1 D Nq

Above F.L.

qult = c Nc + 1 D Nq + B 2 N
Below F.L.

## Bearing Capacity Factors

qult = c Nc + 1 D Nq + B 2 N

0 5

Nc

5 6.5 8.5 11 15

Nq

10

15 20

1 1.5 2.5 4

N -

.5

22.5 25

17.5 20.5 25

30 37

46 58

6.5 8

10.5 14

18 25

33 46

4.5

10 15

23 34

Nc

40
in
in Degrees
Degrees

Nq

30
20
10
0
70

60

50

40

Nc and Nq

(kN/m2)

## = soil internal angle of friction,

Nc, Nq, N = bearing capacity factors,

c, q, =shape factor,
= 1, for strip footing,
c, q, = 1+0.3B/L,
= 1-0.3B/L,

## B = breadth of foundation, and

L = length of foundation.

30

20

10

10

20

5.0 1.0

40

60

80

## Net and Allowable Bearing Capacity

qult = cNcc +1`DfNqq + 2`BN

(kN/m2)

## qult is estimated at F.L.

This qult includes the possible existed overburden pressure.
Excluding this existing overburden pressure, the net qult has to
be obtained. i.e.,:
qult,gross = qult, net +1` Df,
or
qult, net = qult,gross, - 1`Df
qall, net = qult,net/F.S

## Other Factors Affecting qult

Effect of the G.W.T

F.S
2) 1) + wind and dynamic loads 2
3) 2) + earthquake and any catastrophic
problem
1.8

## Effect of the G.W.T

c,
c, soil
1

PF.L

Df

2
Bearing capacity is function on the effective stresses.
The effective unit weight is considered .
If the G.W.T is located behind the slipping circle
[approximately, after depth B from the F.L],
it does not affect .

## Groundwater Table Effect;

Case I
1. Modify D
2. Calculate as follows:

= w

Case II

## Groundwater Table Effect;

Case III

1. No change in zD

1. No change in zD

2. Calculate as follows:

2. No change in

Dw D

B

= w 1

i= (1.0 - / )2

## Effect of Depth of Foundation Level

The shearing strength of soil
usually increases with depth
[where every thing is the same].

## dc= 1+ 0.4 tan-1(Df /B),

dq = 1.0 - 2tan (1-sin)2 tan-1(Df/B),
d= 1.0
Correction Factors, ic, iq, and i are
empirically determined from experiments

(Df/B) only

## General Equation for

Ultimate Bearing Capacity s
qult = cNccicdc + 1DfNqqiqdq + 2BNid (kN/m2)

## For clay soil, = 0.0, and Nc =5.0,

Nq =1, and N =0.0,
For square footing, c = 1.3, then
qult = 6.5c +1`DfNqq
qult, net = 6.6c +1`Df (Nq q 1)
Since Nq =1,
qult, net 6.5c,
Unconfined compression strength for normally
consolidated clay, qu = 2c.
for F.S =2.5, qall,net

Example
A footing 1.8 m x 2.5 m is located at a
depth of 1.5 m below the ground
surface, in an over-consolidated clay
layer. The groundwater level is 2 m
below the ground surface. The
unconfined compressive strength of
that clay is 120 kPa, bulk = 18 kN/m3,
and sat = 20 kN/m3. Determine the net
allowable bearing capacity.

(kN/m2)

= 1.3 qu qu

Solution
qult = c Nc c + 1 D Nq q + B 2 N
For Clay: Nc = 5.0, Nq = 1.0, N = 0.0

qu = 120 kPa,
For Clay: qult, net

= c Nc

L B
is reduced to
L`
L`B`,
where:
L`=LL`=L-2eL,
B`=BB`=B-2eB

L
eL

eB

B`

L`

## Foundation on Layered Soil

P

P = q1 A 1 = q 1 B 1 L 1

B1
q1
q2
B2

P = q2 A 2 = q 2 B 2 L 2
2B

## q1 is less than the

allowable
bearing capacity
for layer 1
q2 is less than the allowable
bearing capacity
for layer 2, and
so on

soft clay

## The footing load is assumed

to be distributed within
layer (1).
the slop of distributing :
1horizontal : 2vertical until
layer 2.
bearing capacity of layer 2 is
to be checked for imaginary
footing with dimension
(B+h1)(L+h1).

Df

BL

Layer 1

h1

(B+h1)(L+h1)
Layer 2

## Allowable Soil Settlement under

Shallow Foundation
Foundation
Type

Clay

Sand

Mat (more rigid)

100mm
150mm

70mm
100mm

## Allowable differential settlement

1:150 for skeleton and bearing-wall buildings
For more details:

## Pattern of Soil Settlement With Time

Immediate Settlement
*can be estimated by elastic theory
*concept similar to a compression of a bar under
*Immediate settlement is important for sandy soil

Time
Immediate

= Bqo

Consolidation (primary)
Secondary compression (creep)
Settlement

Consolidation Settlement

s =

C H
P + P
log
1+ e
P
c

Cc = compression index,
= 0.009(L.L 10) for NC clay
Hc = thickness of the consolidated layer,
eo = initial void ratio of the consolidated layer,
po = average effective overburden pressure on the midline
of the consolidated layer,

p =

qo
(1 + z/B)(1+ z/L)

1-
I
Es

= immediate settlement,
qo = footing pressure at the F.L,
I = an index depends on the rigidity, and shape of the footing [see E.C.
Sec. 3/4/5/2],
Es = Modulus of elasticity, Table 2.2.
, Poisson ratio is 0.5 for soft clay, and is taken =0.3 for sand or silt.

Consolidation Settlement
s = mv.p.Hc
mv = coefficient of volume change,

Example 2.2

Solution

s =

## A column load of 0.5MN

soil formation is 4m sand deposit, followed by
5m soft clay.
F.L. is at 1.5m.
G.W.T is at 5.0m from G.S.
Sand: b = 18.6 kN/m3.
Clay: sub = 8.8 kN/m3, L.L = 60%, WC = 30%,
Gs = 2.65.
Proportion a footing such that the consolidation
settlement is not over 40mm.
40mm

Solution

s =

C H
P + P
log
1+ e
P
c

## settlement depends on Po.

Po depends on the footing size
Relationship is nonlinear,
Then, several trials are required.
B is assumed values such as 1.5, 3.0, and
4.0m.
s is determined for each B.
The results of s versus B is plotted to
find the required footing size.

P + P
C H
log
1+ e
P
c

## settlement depends on Po.

Po depends on the footing size
Relationship is nonlinear,
Then, several trials are required.
B is assumed values such as 1.5, 3.0, and
4.0m.
s is determined for each B.
The results of s versus B is plotted to
find the required footing size.

Solution

PCc
C Hconsolidated
P +clay,
For normally

=
s
l
og
= 0.009(L.L 10) = 0.45
1+ e
P
For saturated soil,
c

eo = WC Gs = 0.3 2.65
= 0.795
50

## zs,= 4 + 2.5 1.5 = 5m

mm
Foe
40square footing,
qo = Column load / B2,
30

p =
(1 + z/B)(1
B, m + z/L)
1.0

Df = 1.5m

B2
sand

2.5m
5m soft clay

= 96.4 kN/m2

## Effect of Settlement on neighbor

footing
neighbor old footing

new footing

settlement curve

## Types of Shallow Foundation

Isolated footing

Combined Foundation

Wall-Bearing Footing

Strip footing

Raft Foundation

Foundation Stability
Foundation should be safe against :
i) overturning {eccentric column},
ii) bouncing {GWT much above FL},
iv) shearing failure of soil {qo > qall},
v) excessive or differential settlement

## Choice of Suitable Type of Foundation

Isolated footing is simple.
Load pressure is less than soil bearing
capacity.
Usually it is a square one.
If there is bending moment,
a rectangular footing is more
appropriate.

## Structural Design of Spread Footing

Sec. 3.2
Reinforced Concrete Design for
Foundation
Based on Ultimate Strength
Design, USD

I)

## II) Footing dimensions

or BL = PF.L/qall, gross

B2

## PF.L is the applied load at F.L

1.15 Pcl.
OR
BL = Pc.L/qall, net

Pcl
BL

RC PF.L tc

qall at F.L

## B & L should be rounded

to the closest 5 or 10cm

Pcl

## III) To decrease the cost of

R.C,
plain concrete base can be
used.
tc is taken 30 cm for
Pcl400kN,
and 40cm otherwise.

t R.C
tc PC

## Structural Design of Spread Footing

pressure qco, from the R.C
footing is distributed with 45o
in the P.C footing
B*L*, for R.C footing
is reduced by projection
a=(0.8-1)tc
a
B* = B -2a, and
L*= L-2a

Pcl
B*L*

t qco R.C BL
tc PF.L PC

qo, =PF.L/B L

## Design of P.C. Base

The critical section is
at the face of the R.C foundation
{tensile stresses due to bending}
MP.C = (qo)u1a2/2
[for one meter width]
fct = MP.C/z
z= 1tc2/6
Concrete
(mm)

Pcl
B*L*

t qco R.C BL
tc PF.L PC

## type, level, dimension, and

reinforcement of the foundation
should be assigned.

(qo)u

0.6 f cu

400 2/ tc2 600
a/tc =
1.3
1.6

f ct
3 qo

## Reinforcement is for safety against

flexure and shear.

1.7

## Design of R.C. Base

Pcl

Pu = 1.4D.L +1.6L.L
Pu = 1.5P {if P is only known}
contact pressure at the reinforced concrete base

qco = Pcl,u/B*L*

t qco R.C BL
tc PF.L PC

## Assume a proper depth

of the footing, t,
t 30cm. Steel cover 5cm.

B*L*

## Wide beam shear governs the design,

critical section is at distance d/2;
qcu = 0.16

f cu

qwide beam

## Check the wide beam shear.

The shearing force is
qcoB*s and
the sheared area is B* d.

N/mm2

## Structural Design of Spread Footing

Pcl, u is the ultimate column load
qco = Pcl,u/B*L*

PPl cl

qco

## Compute rfcmt for bending

qco
Mu is at the critical section
B*L*
Mu = qcol2/2
s

d/2 s B*

b`l`

min

Critical
moment

Ru - R

Example
fy =240, design =0.1%
1.1/ fy = 0.46%
1.3 design = 0.13%
min is the least between 0.13% and 0.46%
min = 0.13%
However, min 0.25%
Then take =0.25%

Ru = Mu /bd2
coefficient R = Mu / bd2 {fcu/c} = Ru /{fcu/c}
fcu is the characteristic strength of concrete,
c Strength reduction factor for concrete = 1.5.

## Rmax and max for different values of fy

To avoid brittle failure, R, and , should
not exceed Rmax , and max, respectively.

280

360

400

450

Rmax

0.206

0.194

0.187

0.180

7.00

5.00

4.31

3.65

0.214

max/10-4fcu 8.56

f

ld =
1.2

## maximum distance between rnfmt bars is 200mm

That is the least No. of bars is 5/m

360

25
43
50
48
54

30
39
46
44
49

35
36
42
41
45

40
34
40
38
43

45
32
37
36
40

57

54

48

44

41

38

36

34

The
is
from 45
the Code
Eq.
400 equation
63
60 simplified
54
49
43 ECCS
40
40 4.46.
should be taken from the critical section of moments.

Fcu (N/mm2)
18
20
51
48
59
56
57
54
63
60

cu

cu

## The coefficient multiplier of

fy
N/mm2
240
280
360
400

2
Coefficient
Stresses
areofin
MPa,
or with
N/mm
Multiplier
for
Tension Bars
Straight .ends
f
F (N/mm )
N/mm
is 18the diameter
rfrmt
20
25
30 of the
35
40
45 bar.
50
240
51
48
43
39
36
34
32
31
280
ld 300mm
(360/520)
59
56for steel
46
42
40 and
37 (400/600)
36
y

50
31
36
34
40

## . Reinforcement in the long direction is distributed

uniformly.
Reinforcement in the short direction is Distributed
L*

B*

[L*-B*] B*
Distribute the rest of Ast

[L*-B*]
distribute Asm = Ast[2B*/[L*+B*]]

## The column load is punching the

footing with the area, b`l`, [b`l`].

## The ultimate strength of concrete

section against punching shear, qcup is:

## Check for punching shear

punching force = Pcl,u qco b`l`
Pcl, u is the ultimate column load
qco = Pcl,u/B*L*
punching stress qp = {Pcl,u qco b`l`}/bod
bo is perimeter of the punching area

## qcup = 0.316{0.5+ b/l} f cu N/mm2

c

f cu
qcup do not exceed 0.316 c
punching stress qp< qcup
qp = {Pcl,u qco b`l`} /bod
b`l`

b`l`
b`l`

1:1 d/2
b`l`

bo= 2[b`+l`]

## The maximum design bearing stress

of the column on the footing is:
A
b,all = 0.67 f Aclf
Af is the footing area symmetrical with
the column Acl.
Af

cu

Af is the
footing area

Af=Acl

## Compute Column Bearing

b = Pcl,u/Acl
if b > b,all, Use dowels, As,dowel

## use a minimum of 0,005 Acl, of dowel and

at least four bars regardless of the
bearing stress.
The size of the dowels should be at least
as the {size of bars -4mm}.

## Structural Design of Spread Footing

Dimension
P.C. design
Pu
Contact pressure
check for : wide beam shear
Punching
Bearing
Rnfmt
ld
detail

## Solution, Ex. 3.1

Step 1: Choose Footing Area

## Pcl = 800+480 = 1280 kN

qall, net = 275 ave d
Assume soil = 17kN/m3, and footing thickness, t, is 0.5m.
Then, average unit weight of soil and concrete, ave is
[17
[171.5+2.5
1.5+2.50.5]/2 = 19 kN/m3
Pcl
qall, net = 275 19 2 = 237 kN/m3
RC PF.L tc
2
BL
B L = 1280/237 = 5.4 mOR
2 1280=1472 kN
at F.L =1.15
=1.15
P
=1.15
=1.15
cl Choose
2.35Pcl
2.35m
2
Area
of
footing
=1408/q
A = 5.52m O.K.
all,gross
= 1472/275 = 5.35m2
Choose 2.35 2.35m2
A = 5.52m2 O.K.

Example 3.1

## A short column 400

400400mm transmits an axial
soil stratum of sandy gravel.
The permissible safe pressure on the foundation
soil has been determined as 275 kN/m2.
the foundation level is 2.00m below the G.S.
Design a suitable reinforced concrete footing {fcu
=25N/mm2, fy =360N/mm2}.

## Step 2: Check on Footing Depth Using

Equations of Wide Beam, Ex. 3.1
Pu= 1.4D.L +1.6L.L = 1.4 480 +1.6 800 =
1952kN
Contact pressure with soil, qo =1952/5.52 =
0.35N/mm2
Q = q B s
assuming t = 500mm,
Cover = 75mm, then
d = 425mm,

## Step 2: Check on Footing Depth Using

Equations of Wide Beam, Ex. 3.1
Pcl

column 400
400400mm

## q wide beam =Q/Bd

= [0.353 2350 762.5] / [2350 425]
= 0.634N/mm2

d=425mm

qo= 0.353N/mm2

1175mm
2350mm

d/2

Step 3

= 762.5mm,

Q = qo Bs

## Maximum concrete shear strength

qcu = 0.16[fcu/c]=0.652N/mm2
qcu > q wide beam
O.K

= 0.3532350762.5

Pcl
column 400
400400mm

d=425mm

## The critical sec. for

punching is square with
dimension
400 + 425 = 825mm
Qpun =1952 - 353 0.8252
= 1685kN

qo= 0.353N/mm2
bunching
shear

Step 3

## qpun =Q/perimeter of the sec.

sec.d
=1685 1000 / {4 825 425}

=1.17 N/mm2
Permissible punching shear in
concrete, qcup
f
= 0.315 [0.5+b/l] c
0.5 + b/l = 1.5 take 1
825mm2
qcup = 1.29N/mm2
> qpun O.K

400400mm2

cu

d/2

1:1 d/2
d=425mm

Step 4:

## b,all = 0.67 [fcu/c]{Af/Acl}

{Af/Acl} = 2.352 2
0.4
= 5.875 .
.
Take =2
b,all = 0.67 25 2 / 1.5 = 22.333 N/mm2
Bearing stress of the column,
b = 1952 1000 / 4002

= 12.3N/mm
12.3N/mm2 < b,all O.K

## Development length of the dowel, Ex.3.1

ld=
1.2

cu

360

= 16 1.15
25
1.2
1.5

= 1020mm
Table 3.3 can give the multiplier directly for
fcu = 25 MPa, fy = 360MPa, as:
ld = 48
48 = 48 16 = 768mm
Notice The footing depth and breadth allow for the
required development length of the dowels

Step 4:

## use a minimum of 0,005 Acl, of dowel and

at least four bars.
Ast,dowel= 0.005 1600 = 8cm2
Choose 416mm,
area = 8.04 cm2
16mm,
{The size of the dowels should be at
least as the size of bars -4mm.}

Ex.3.1
Pcl

l=1175-200=975mm
Critical
moment

## Step 5: Choose the Steel Reinforcement, Ex.3.1

Moment of the contact pressure about the
critical sec.=
Mu = qol2/2
Mu = 353
3530.9752/2= 167.9 kN.m/m`
Adopting the approach of Chart 22-1
2
2
Ru = Mu/bd =167.9/[1
167.9/[10.425 ] = 929kN/m2 =
2
0.93N/mm
For fcu =25N/mm
25N/mm2 and fy =360 N/mm2 and
for the given Ru, =0.3%
0.3%

Ex.3.1

## Step 5: Choose the Steel Reinforcement

Ex. 3.1
Check for R or maxfrom Table 3.1
Rmax for fy =360 N/mm2 is 0.194
R = Mu /{fcu/c}bd2 = Ru/{fcu/c}
= 0.93 / {25 / 1.5} = 0.056 < 0.194 O.K
[ i.e., no need for compression steel]

## the least of [1.1f

[1.1fy] or [1.3 design].
min 0.15% for high tensile steel.
That is min is least of 0.305% or 1.3 0.3% = 0.39%
minimum rfmt ratio is 0.305%
min

## Ast = 0.305% 100 42.5 = 12.96cm2

Choose 6 18mm/m` .
Area = 15.27cm
15.27cm2 in the two direction
The development length
ld = 48
48 = 48 18 = 864mm

dowels
416mm

Column
stirrups

50cm
F.L (-2.00)
2.352.35m2
618mm/m`

Example 3.2
Solve Example 3.1
if a P.C footing is
required under the R.C.
one.
(fcu)P.C = 18 N/mm2

Pcl
B*L*

R.C qco t
PC PF.L tc

BL

## Solution, Ex. 3.2

Step 1: Choose Footing Area
From Example 3.1,
P.C. footing can have the dimension of 2.35 2.35 m2
Recall:
qo =PF.L/[BL]
Check the tensile stress
in P.C. footing
P
=
P
+
weights
of
soil
and
F.L
cl
[Design for the projection a of
thefootings
R.C footing]

= 1280 + 5.52 2 av
= 1280 + 5.52 2 19 = 1490 kN
qo =1408/5.52

## Solution, Ex. 3.2

The ultimate
at F.L
= 1.4 D.L
1: Choose
Footing
Area+ 1.6 L.L
D.L = 400 + 5.52 2 190.6= 690
f cu kN
fct = MP.C /z
(Pu)F.L = 1.4 690 + 1.6
800= 2246kN
z =1 t2 / 2
(qo)u = 2246 / 5.52 = 406. 9 kN/mm2 = 0.4
2 a2 / 2
MP.C =N/mm
(qo)u1

## fct = (qo)u 3 a2/ tc2

Assume ..tc =40cm

## then = 1.6 and fct

0.6 18
1.6

0 .6 f

cu

= 1.59 N/mm2

ct
1.59
a/tc
3 qo =
30.4 = 1.151
2 ..
The
R.C.
be taken
1.45m
.
a =footing
46 cm.canTake
a =21.45
45cm

area = 2.1025m

O.K

MP.C = qo 1 a2 / 2
fct = MP.C / z

0.4N/mm2

Z=1 t2 /2
fct = qsoil 3 a2 / tc2 0.4N/mm2 ,
qsoil=266.2kN/m2 = 0.27N/mm2
a/tc 0.133/qsoil = 0.7 take a=25cm.
The R.C. footing can be taken 1.8 1.8m2 ..
area=3.24m2

## Step 2: Check on Footing Depth Using

Equations of Wide Beam, Ex.3.2
From Ex. 3.1, Pu = 1952kN
Contact pressure between P.C. and R.C, qco
= 1952 / 2.10 = 928kN/m2 = 0.93N/mm2
Q=qBs
assuming t = 500mm,
Cover =75mm, then
d=425mm,
s = [145 40 - 42.5] = 30cm,

Step 3

## The critical sec. for punching is square with

dimension 400 + 450 = 850mm
Qpun =1952 930 0.8502 = 1280kN
1280kN
qpun =Q/perimeter of the sec.
sec.d
=1280 1000 / {4 850 450} = 0.835N/mm
0.835N/mm2
As in Example 3.1, Permissible punching
shear in concrete, qcup = 1.285N/mm
1.285N/mm2 > qpun
O.K

## Step 2: Check on Footing Depth Using

Equations of Wide Beam, Ex.3.2
Assume footing thickness, t, is 0.5m.
With P.C. base, cover can be taken 50 mm,
then d = 45mm.
q wide bem =Q / B d
= [0.93 1450 300] / [1450 450] = 0.62N/mm2
Maximum concrete shear strength qcu = 0.16
= 0.652 N/mm2
qwide beam < qcu O.K

f cu

## Step 5: Choose the Steel Reinforcement

Ex. 3.2
Moment of the contact pressure about the
critical sec.=
Mu = qco l2/2
L = 1.45 / 2 - 0.4/2 = 0.525m
Mu = 930 0.5252 / 2 = 128.2kN.m/m`
128.2kN.m/m`
Adopting the approach of Chart 22-1
2
2
Ru = Mu/bd =128.2 / [1 0.45 ] = 633kN/m2
= 0.63N/mm2
For fcu = 25N/mm
25N/mm2 and fy = 360 N/mm2 and
for the given Ru, = 0.15%

## Step 5: Choose the Steel Reinforcement, Ex.3.2

Check for R or max
R = Mu /{fcu/c}bd2
= 0.63 / {25 / 1.5} = 0.04< 0.194 O.K
[ i.e., no need for compression steel]

design = 0.15%
Then, 1.3 design = 0.195%
min is the least of {1.1/360} = 0.305% or 0.195%
Ast = 0.195% 100 45 = 8.77 cm2
Choose 5 16mm/m` .
Area= 10.05 cm2 in the two direction
ld = 768 mm

## Step 6: Detailed x.Sec, Ex.3.2

dowels
416mm

Column
stirrups

50cm
F.L (-2.00)

40cm
516mm/m
`

1.451.45
2.352.35m2

Offsetting the column from the centroid to
decrease the Very large variation in pressure due
to bending

50cm
50cm

2.35 2.35m2

Cost
=2.35 2.35 0.4 170+
1.45 1.45 0.5 800
= 1215. 0LE

2.35 2.35m2

Cost
=2.35 2.35 0.5 800
= 2209.0LE
45% saving

Note:
Only applicable if the moment is fixed in direction.

The column is off-center by distance e.
qsoil =
qall

P
6 e
1

B L
L

## {See Sec. 2.2.1.2 }

e

Soil does not sustain tensile stresses.
the footing would separate from the soil.
the separated part would not be effective in
bearing on the soil.
P

qmax B L`/2 = P,
L`=3(L/2-e)

2P
qmax=
3B( L / 2 e )

PP

L B
is reduced to
L`
L`B`,
where:
L`=LL`=L-2eL,
B`=BB`=B-2eB

L
eL

B`

L`

## Horizontal Force at the Foundation

Remember:
Inclination factor in the bearing capacity
equation.
the footing is designed for the stability
against sliding.
The horizontal force is resisted by the soil
cohesion [if any], and friction.
H P tan + c Af

L`
L`/3=L/2-e
R=P
R=P

eB

qmax

P
LB

Example 3.3
D.L. = 400kN, L.L. =500kN, MD.L = 230kN.m, ML.L
=250kN.m, HD.L = 40kN, and HL.L=50kN.
The column rnfmt is 825mm.
Design a footing such that the soil pressure will be

approximately uniform.
qall, gross = 150kPa. at F.L. of (-2.00 m).
fcu= 25 MPa, fy=400MPa.

## Solution Example 3.3

Step 1: Choose Footing Area
Total service load = 400 + 500 = 900kN
qall, net = 150 ave d
Assume ave = 17kN/m3, t= 0.5m.
ave = [17 1.5 + 2.5 0.5] / 2 = 19 kN/m3
qall, net = 150 19 2 = 112 kN/m3
B L = 900 / 112 = 8.04 m2
Choose 2.85 2.85m2
A = 8.125m2 O.K.

## Square footing is chosen since uniform

pressure is requested.

## Step 1: Choose Footing Area, Ex. 3.3

moment = [230 + 250] = 480kN.m.
also H increases the moment at the F.L by H t.
1.425
M = 480kN.m
480 + 90 0.5 = 525kN.m
then:1.425
e = M / P900kN
0.975 0.45
F.L
2.85
90kN
PF.L = column
load and weights of soil and
0.5
footings
0.5
e=0.45m
= 900 + 8.125
[0.525 +1.517] = 900 +
308.75 = 1208.75 kN
e = 525/1209 = 0.434 m 0.45 m

## Step 2: Check on Footing Depth Using

Equations of Wide Beam
1.425

480kN.m
900kN

1.425

0.975 0.45

90kN

e=0.45m

2.85m

.425/2

0.5
0.5

s= 2.6-[0.7+0.5/2 +0.425/2]=1.4375m

Critical
sec. for
wide beam

## Step 3, Ex. 3.3 Check for Punching

Step 4: Check for Bearing
The critical sec. for punching
is square with dimension
500 + 425 =925mm

## Step 5, Ex. 3.3 Choose the Steel Reinforcement

1-1
0.975

0.45
.212

.7250.5

2.85

Critical sec.
for punching

Moment should be
calculated at sec
secs 22-2 & 33-3.

Af

Example 3.4
PD+L=1.8MN, MD+L=1MN.m, and qall,gross = 0.25MPa
Proportion a footing for the column to be centric
Solution
Step 1: Choose Footing Area
Proportion of P.C footing (B, L, tc)

M
1
e=
=
= 0.555m
p 1. 8

3-3

0.5

Af = 1.95 1.95m2

2-2

## Proportion of P.C footing (B, L, tc),

Ex. 3.4
L > 6 e
Assume L = 6 e + 0.8
L = 6 0.555 + 0.8 = 4.13 m
Take L = 4.2m

qall= 0.25 =

P
6e
1

BL
L

Example 3.5

6 0.555
2
(1 +
)
4B
4 .2

## Make a complete design for

the R.C footing in Example 3.4,
if the column is 40 60.
{fcu = 25N/mm2, fy = 360N/mm2}.

0.25 =

B = 3.575m
Take
L = 4m, B = 3.6m, and tc= 40cm
Proportion of R. C footing (B*, and L*)
Assume
a = tc = 40cm

## B*= B 2 a = 3.6 2 0.4 = 2.8m

Solution
Step 1: Choose Footing Area
From Example 3.4, L*= 3.4m, and B*= 2.8m

## Footing Depth from Wide Beam Shear, Ex. 3.5

Pcl = PF.L - weight of the P.C, R.C footings, and soil
Assume t = 500mm,
Pcl = 1.8 1000 4.2 3.6 {0.424 + 0.5 25 + 1.1
17}
Pu=1.5 1.183 = 1.775MN
= 1183 kN
Contact pressure with the P.C footing,
qo=

P
6e
1

BL
L

e = Mu / pu 0.555
q1o= 0.373MPa, and
q2o 0.0MPa

s=1600-300-425/2=1087.5mm

1600mm

## Assume cover = 50mm, then d = 45mm

q1o= 0.59MPa,
q3o= 0.37 - (0.373 - 0.0)

1175
3400

d/2

= 0.243Mpa
Q = qav B s
=[0.243 + 0.373] 2.8 1.175 / 2
q3o
q1o
qwide beam = Q / B d
s
=
1700
300
45/2
=
1175mm
2
= 0.8N/mm

600400mm2

q2o

q1o

Safety?

1700mm

3400mm

## Footing Depth from Wide Beam

Shear, Ex. 3.5
Maximum concrete shear strength qcu =
0.16[fcu/c] = 0.652N/mm2
qwide beam >
qcu
increase d to 550mm
s = 1125.0mm, and
1125
q3o= 0.373 - (0.373 - 0.0)
3400
= 0.25Mpa
q wide beam = 0.637 N/mm2 < qcu O.K

Step 4

Step 3

## The critical sec. for punching is

rectangle with dimension
[400 + 550] [600 + 550]
=950 1150mm

1:1 d/2 d
b`l`

q4o
qav under the critical sec.
= [0.373] = 0.186MPa = 186kPa
Qpun = 1775 - 186 0.950 1.150
= 1593kN

1MN.m

2.83.4m2

1.8MN

0.40.6m
1.4m

1.2m

q3o

MI-I

MII-II

## Step 5: Choose the Steel Reinforcement

I- in the long-direction

1400

3400
=0.218Mpa

0.218 (1.4) 2
Mu =
+
2
2
(0.37 - 0.218)

(1.4)
3

0.40.6m

1.2m

1.4m

Mu =

0.186 (1.2) 2
2

= 0.134MN.m/m`

= 0.315 MN.m
0.37MPa

ql =0.22MPa

## Structural Design of Wall-Bearing Footing

The masonry walls
are not monolithically erected
with the footings.
That is why the critical section for
continuous wall is inside the wall
at distance b/4. ,
Wall bearing footing is only designed
for wide beam shearing and rfmt.
punching and bearing is safe

b
b/4

Example 3.6
It is required to design a load bearing wall .
L.L= 45kN/m`,
D.L= 20kN/m`,
wall thickness = 25cm,
qall,gross = 100kN/m2,
F.L at 1.5m below G.S,
fy = 360N/mm2, and fcu =25 N/mm2.

Example 3.6

Example 3.6

Solution
Step 1: Choose Footing Area
Pcl at F.L = 1.15 Pcl =1.15 [45 + 20]
= 74.75 kN/m`
Area of footing = 74.75/qall = 71.5/100
= 0.75m2/m`
Choose B =1.0m

## Step 3: Choose the Steel

Reinforcement, Ex. 3.6

moment
b/4
43.5cm

## Moment of the contact pressure

1m
Mu = qco l2/ 2
The critical section for continuous wall is inside
the wall at distance b/4.
l= 1.0 / 2 - 0.25 / 4 = 0.435m
Mu = 100 0.4352/ 2 = 9.57 kN.m/m`

## Step 2: Check on Footing Depth Using Equations of

Wide Beam
Pu= 100kN/m`
qo =100/1 =100kN/m2 = 0.1N/mm2
Q=qBs
The wide beam shear is
taken in the transverse direction
for one meter width.
assuming t = 300mm, cover = 75mm, then d = 225mm.
s = [100 25 - 22.5]= 26.25cm,

## Mu = 1000.4352/2= 9.57 kN.m/m`

Ru = Mu/bd2 = 9.57 / [1 0.2252] = 188.7kN/m2
= 0.189N/mm2
For fcu = 25N/mm2 and fy = 360 N/mm2
and for the given Ru,
is less than the minimum (0.05%).

## ,min the least of [1.1/fy] or [1.3 req].

min 0.15% for HTS.
That is min is least of 0.3% or 1.3 0.05%
= 0.065%
Then, use ,min = 0.15%

## Ast = 0.15%10022.5 =3.375 cm2/m`

Choose 5 12mm/m` .
Area= 5.65 cm2/m` in the transverse direction.
Development length of the rfmt ld =12 48
= 576mm > 300mm [for grade 360/520] O.K.
The footing allows for the distance from the column face to
the boundary of the footing and the depth
excluding the cover as development length.
That is [43.5-7.5 + 30 -7.5] =
58.5cm > 57.6cm O.K.
43.5cm
30cm

## In the longitudinal direction minimum rfmt

should be furnished to offset shrinkage and
temperature effects.
Ast,long = 0.15%100 22.5 = 3.375 cm2
Choose 5 12mm

43.5cm

30cm

1m
1m

## Choice of Suitable Type of Foundation

When columns occur in a line at close interval,
continuous strip footing is developed in the line
of columns

## The lengthy side is usually compensated

with the other direction considerably short.
30cm

F.L (-2.00)

512mm/m`

1m

## The longitudinal direction of the footing is

structurally acting as an inverted continues beam.

## the footing reaction is linearly distributed

under the footing
The wide beam shear can be checked in the
longitudinal and transverse direction.
longitudinal direction is expected more
critical

## for the longitudinal direction of the footing:

M=qnx2/km
x is the panel span, or the distance between the
column axes.
km is the coefficient of bending moment, in
continuous beams
x
-12
24

## A line of four columns 300300mm2 is spaced at 4m.

They are equally loaded with D.L= 200kN, and L.L=
300kN.
It is required to design for a continuous strip
foundation appropriate to a safe soil bearing pressure
of 125kN/m2.
fy = 400N/mm2, and fcu = 30 N/mm2.
A

F
C
4m

10

-16
12

12

## Solution, Ex. 3.7:

Step 1 choosing the footing dimension

Example 3.7

-16

## Total load in service condition = 4 (300 + 200)

= 2000kN
The base width required, considering 1m end
overhanging.
L = 3 4 + 2 1+ 2 0.15 = 14.3 m
B= 2000 / (14.3 125) = 1.12m
take B =1.25m

## Step 2 :Ex. 3.7, Check the required

depth for Wide Beam Shear

## Step 2: Ex. 3.7, Check the required

depth for Wide Beam Shear,

## Pu = 1.6 200 + 1.4 300 = 760kN

Contact pressure with soil,
qo =4 760 / [14.3 1.25] = 170kN/m2
= 0.17N/mm2
Q = 170 1.25 1.6375 = 348kN
qwide beam = 348 / (B d) = 348 / (1.25 0.425)
= 655kN/m2 = 0.651N/mm2

## Step 2: Ex. 3.7, Check the required

depth for Wide Beam Shear,
Critical sec. for wide beam shear
b/2 d/2 s
50cm
1m

2m
4m
the column is considered to affect
between the centerlines of the span.
s = 2.0 - 0.30 / 2 - 0.425 / 2 =1.6375m

s

## Step 4: Ex. 3.7 , Check for Bearing

b,all = 0.67 [fcu/c]{Af/Acl}
The least footing area is for the first column with
dimension [1m overhanging + 2m half the inner
span]
span]B
That is 3 1.25
This area is not similar with the column
Then take Af = 1.25 1.25
2
Af

= 1.25
= 4.16 .
. Take =2
2
Acl

0. 3

## Step 5: Choose the Steel Reinforcement Ex. 3.7

for the longitudinal direction of the footing:
M = qnx2 / km
qn = qo B = 170 1.25 = 212.5kN/m`
x
-12
24

-16
10

12

F
B

## B and E are cantilevers. Then M = wl2 / 2

MB = ME = 212.5 12 / 2 =106.3kN.m
MBC = MDE =212.5 42 / 12 = 283.5 kN.m
MCD = 212.5 42 / 16 = 212.7kN.m
MC = MD = 212.5 42 / 10 = 340kN.m

-16

12

4m

F
B

## For maximum moment at support C, and D:

= 0.46%
design = 0.46%
Then, 1.3 design = 0.59%
min is the least of {1.1 / 400} = 0.28% or 0.59%
= 0.45% is O.K

4m
12

16
10

D
12
10

## Step 5: Ex. 3.4, Choose the Steel Reinforcement

For maximum moment condition at support C, and D:
= 0.46%

## Min. rnfmt = 0.28% 125 42.5 =14.34 cm2

Ast = 0.46% 125 42.5 = 24.43 cm2
This reinforcement can represent
a proportion of the corresponding moment.
other rnfmt for other sections can be easily obtained.
(Ast)C = 24.43 = 0.07181M
{2}
(Ast)B = (Ast)E = 0.07181MB
= 0.07181 106.3 = 7.51cm2 < Min. rnfmt
(Ast)BC = (Ast)DE = 20.037 cm2
(Ast)CD =15.28 cm2

## Step 5: Ex. 3.4, Choose the Steel Reinforcement

Check the minimum rnfmt at B and E
(Ru)B = Mu / bd2
= 106.3 / [1.25 0.4252]
= 470.8 kN/m2 = 0.47 N/mm2
= 0.14%
min is the least of
0.275% or 1.3 0.14 = 0.182%
at B and E, min = 0.182%
Min. rnfmt = 0.182% 125 42.5 = 9.66 cm2

## wn = 740 / {1.25 0.725} = 839 kN/m2

At sec. x-x, Mu,transverse = wn btransverse l2 / 2
= 839 0.725 0.4752/2 = 68.6 kN.m
Ru = Mu/bd2 = 523.7 kN/m2 = 0.523 N/mm2
= 0.16%
min = 0.208%
Ast = 0.208% 72.5 42.5 = 6.4 cm2
Choose 416mm / 72.5cm . Area = 8.04 cm2

## Step 6: Ex. 3.4, Steel Reinforcement for the

transverse direction
occurs at the column location with breadth
btransverse = [b + d] = 0.3 + 0.425 = 0.725m.
Soil pressure is assumed concentrated
with intensity = Pu / {B btransverse}.
This direction is called hidden beam.
wn =760 / {1.25 0.725}
= 839 kN/m2

Minimum stirrups of 5
58mm/m` to hold rnfmt,
and protect concrete from effects of shrinkage and
temperature.

622mm
12

622mm

1250mm

75mm cover

622mm

58mm/m`

500mm
x

622mm
16
10
722mm

618mm

1250mm

## Step 7: Detailed x.Sec., Ex. 3.4

the development
length, ld = 49 = 882mm.
475mm 300 x 475
500mm

btransverse

618mm

416mm/72.5cm

722mm

## Choice of Suitable Type of Foundation

For weaker soils, the size of each footing
Two or more columns form a combined footing.

## Choice of Suitable Type of Foundation

near the property line

## not possible to place columns

at the center of a spread footing

## C.G of loads coincides with

the geometrical C.G of
footing

## Columns located off center

result in nonuniform soil pressure

## Choice of Suitable Type of Foundation

To avoid this nonuniformity, the footing is enlarged to
include one or more of the adjacent columns in the
same line.
BASIC
ASSUMPTION
rectangular combined
footing is rigid member
soil pressure is linear
the geometrical C.G of
footing

## Example 3.8 rectangular combined

Proportion a P.C, and R.C rectangular combined
footing for the following data:
qall, net = 0.15MPa, and F.L is at 2.5m from G.S.
For column 1 [60 60cm] PL = 0.5 MN, PD = 0.3MN,
For column 2 [60 80 cm] PL =0.8 MN, PD = 0.3MN,
and S = 5m.
Solution

## Step 1: Choose P.C Footing Area

Total load, Pt = 0.5 + 0.3 + 0.8 + 0.3 =1.9MN
Act at the C.L

Example 3.8
rectangular combined

0.8MN

Example 3.8
rectangular combined

1.1MN

S= 5m

y=2.91m

## Mp1 = 0; y = 1.1 5 / 1.9 = 2.89m {1}

Least L = 2 [y + bcl1] = 2 [2.89 + 0.6] = 6.39m
neighbor
Take L = 6.40m
boundary
A = Pt / qall, net = 1.9 / 0.15 = 12.66 m2
B = 12.66 / 6.40 = 1.98m
Take B = 2.0m

## Dimension of the footing

based on the allowable
bearing:

locationyof
resultant of
Usually
ythe
u
location
the resultant
the ultimate
This
violates the
uniform distribution
of theofcontact
pressureof
theultimate
Then, find the dimension based on
and
However, the difference is v. small and can be neglected.

P2u

P1

Ru

yu

Ru

## check the location of the

y = 2.89m

P1u

P2u= 1.7MN

L* = L = 6.40m
B* = 2.0 2 0.4 = 1.2m

## Ultimate design for the

depth and rnfcmt:

P1u=1.22MN

P2

## The resultant of the services loads does not coincide with

the resultant of the ultimate loads.
Then, design the footing geometry using qo that is based
on the ultimate loads rather than qall.

## Geometry of Combined Footing

P1u
P2u
Ru=P1u+P2u
M1u >> M2u
MP1 = 0
y = [M1u + M2u+ P2u S] / Ru
Ru
L = 2{y + C`}
C`: permissible distance bet. neighbor and column 1
Y y
A= B L = Ru / qo
S L
C`
Y = {y + C`}
If Y < L / 3,
-ve soil pressure may develop at the far end}.
This is not accepted in soils.
soils

y

Y
L

P1u>> P2u
M1u
M2u

Ldesign=2Y
Y
Lgeometry

Ru
y
C`

## Structural Design of Combined Footing

Critical sections for shear
shear.
P1

P2

S
Lgeometry
If L / 3 < Y < Lgeometry / 2,

Trapezoidal footing

## Structural Design of Combined Footing

the short {transverse} direction hidden beam,
soil pressures under each column are:
w1 = P1u/B, and w2 =P2u/B. ..[F/L]
Mc1, Mc2 are the bending moments at the critical
sections under columns 1, and 2, respectively
P1
Mc1

B
B

W1=P1u/B

Mmax

## Flexural steel from

the critical moments

Example 3.9
Design a rectangular combined footing for :
For column 1 {interior } [60 60cm]
PL =0.9 MN, PD = 0.8MN,
MD= 0.15MN.m, ML= 0.25MN.m, C`= 0.30m,
For column 2 {exterior} [60 80 cm]
PL =1.1 MN, PD = 0.9MN,
MD= 0.2MN.m, ML= 0.3MN.m, S =5m.
qall = 0.15MPa, fcu = 20MPa, fy =360 MPa
Solution
Step 1: Choose Footing Area
P1u =1.4 D.L + 1.6 L.L = 2.56MN, P2u = 3.02MN,
M1u = 0.61MN.m, M2u =0.76 MN.m
Ru= P1u + P2u = 5.58MN

y
S
L

## qo for Ru is comparative to qall for Rservice.

Rservice = {0.9 + 0.8 +1.1 + 0.9 } 1.1 = 4.07MN
qo = 5.58 0.15 / 4.07 = 0.205 MPa
A = 5.58 / 0.205 = 29.85m2
B = 29.85 / 6.5 = 4.12m .. take 4.2m
qo = 5.58 / [4.2 6.5] = 0.204 MPa

2.56MN

3.02MN
1.2m

5m
0.61MN.m

0.86MN/m`

0.76MN.m

6.5m

d = c1

Mu
fcub

bearing

## Ru= P1u+P2u = 5.58MN

MP1 = 0
y = [M1u + M2u+ P2u S] / Ru =
2.95m
L = 2{y + C`} = 6.5m
A = B L = Ru / qo

Ru
C

2.98m

## footing is treated as beam with:

qn= 0.2064 4.2 = 0.86MN/m`

2.56MN

0.61MN.m
5m

3.02MN

0.86MN/m`

## Ex. 3.9, Check for Punching, and bearing

C = 0.3m S = 5m

B = 4.2m

Critical sec.
6080cm2
for
punching L = 6.5m

1.64 MN

2.43MN.m

0.688MN

S.F.D

2.05MN

0.61MN.m

1.2m

6.5m

Take c1 = 5

d = 0.85 m

0.76MN.m

0.275MN.m
B.M.D

## Ex. 3.9, Step 5: Choose the Steel Reinforcement

Ru = Mu / bd2 = 2.43 / [4.2 0.852] =
0.8MN/m2 = 2.16N/mm2
For fy = 360N/mm2, and fcu = 20 N/mm2 and for
the given Ru,
= 0.3%
Check for R
R = Mu /{fcu / c}bd2 = 0.8 / {20 / 1.5} = 0.06 <
0.194
No Need for Compression Steel

## Ex. 3.9, Step 6: Choose the Steel Reinforcement for the

transverse direction
Under column 1, the breadth of the hidden beam is 0.60 +
0.85 / 2 = 1.025m.
wn1 = 2.56 / 4.2= 0.706MN/m`
M1c = wn1 l2/2 . l=[4.2l=[4.2-.6] / 2 = 1.8m
M1c = 1.15MN.m
= 0.52%
st, transverse,1 = 0.52% 0.825 1.025 = 44 cm2/ 1.025m
choose 9 25 for . Area = 44.18 cm2 O.K
ld = 54 25 = 1350 mm.

## Ex. 3.9, Step 5: Choose the Steel Reinforcement

min =1.1/360 = 0.305% or 1.3 0.3 = 0.39 %
Min. rnfmt = 0.305% 420 85 = 67.3 cm2
2
2
(Ast)max,max,-ve = 0.305% 420 85 =108.9cm = 25.93 cm /m`
=108.9 / 2. 43 = 44.8M . {1}

Choose 722mm/m`
22mm/m`. Area = 26.61 cm2 for all the
sections.
ld = 54 22 = 1188mm.
1188mm.

## Ex. 3.9, Step 5: Choose the Steel Reinforcement

Under column 2, the breadth of the hidden
beam is 0.80 + 0.85 = 1.65m.
Continue the solution to find wn2, M2c, and
(Ast)transverse,2.
(Ast)transverse,2 : 46.28 cm2/1.65m = 28.05 cm2/m.
10 25 mm/1.65m Area = 49.09 cm2

## To protect concrete from effects of shrinkage and

temperature, upper direction should be reinforced with

713/m

513/m`

## minimum of 20% of the tension steel.

5 13 mm/m` {Area of 6.64 cm 2/m`} is appropriate, all
925/1.03m 722/m`

P1u>> P2u
M1u
M2u

Y
Lgeometry

Ru
y
C`

Ldesign=2Y

722/m`
722/m`
513/m`

513/m`

## Shrinkage bars of 13 mm each 30 cm of the

footing depth.
In the longitudinal direction, minimum rnfmt. to
offset shrinkage and temperature effects.

713/m`

925/1.025m`

1025/1.1m`

1025/1.65m

513/m`

4.2m

6.5m

## Geometry of Trapezoidal Combined Footing

P1u
M1u

Ru=P1u+P2u
MP1 = 0
y = [M1u +M2u+P2uS]/Ru
Y= {y+C`}
P1u>>P2u
Y<<S

P2u
M2u

P1u>>P2u

Ru
qo

Y
L

Lgeometry
the geometrical C.G of
If L / 3 < Y < Lgeometry / 2,
footing

Trapezoidal footing

## A = L [B1+ B2] = Ru /qo

Usually L is limited.

2B + B
Y= L 2 1
3 B2 + B1

B1

C.G

B2

## Structural Design of Trapezoidal Combined Footing

Y=

L 2 B2 + B1
3 B2 + B1

If Y = L / 3, B2 = 0.0 triangular
Y
L
shape.
Not a practical solution
B1
C.G
Y should be less than L/3
Increase L if possible.
Usually L is limited.
THEN: Strap footing may be adopted

## Strap footing is two spread footing

combined with a strap beam.
The strap beam should be rigid enough
to resist rotation of the exterior footing.
B2

## Geometry of the strap beam

uniform soil pressure is assumed under the footings.
The two footings should have same soil pressure to
avoid differential settlement.
Soil reactions, R1, and R2 , are centric in their footing.
R2 coincide with P2,
BUT R1 is not coincide with P1
P1u

P2u

P1u

P2u

## Geometry of the strap beam

e may be assumed to find L, R1 and R2.

## Strap transmits eccentricity moment [P1u e] to the

For each column, Ri = Bi Li qall,net, [same qall,net].
interior
footing
Take
moment
@ P2 footing is chosen square.
Usually
the interior
R1= P1 S / S` = P1 [S`+ e] / S`
R1 = P1 + P1 e / S`
P2u
P1u
S
R2 = P1+P2 R1
L1 /2 = C`+ e
C`

e
R1

e
R1

R2

L1 /2

S`

R2

Pe

B*e L*e
C`

Pi

e*
R*e

Strap beam

L*e/2

B*i L*i
i

Ri

S*`

## The exterior column: B*e = Be 2 a, and L*e = Le a.

e* = L*e / 2 - C`
R*e = Pe S/ S*`
P.C and R.C footings are not symmetrical.
R*i = Pe + Pi R*e
S`* = S - e*
e*, of the R.C footing have to be determined.

## Bearing Capacity for Clay Soil

qult = cNcc +1DfNqq + 2BN

(kN/m2)

## For clay soil, = 0.0, and Nc =5.0,

Nq =1, and N =0.0,
For square footing, c = 1.3, then
qult = 6.5c +1`DfNqq
qult, net = 6.6c +1`Df (Nq q 1)
Since Nq =1,
qult, net 6.5c,
Unconfined compression strength for normally
consolidated clay, qu = 2c.
for F.S =2.5, qall,net

= 1.3 qu qu

## Design the strap beam Footing

The footings are to be designed for safety of
shear and bending in a similar manner as for
Bending moment and shear diagrams for the
strap beam are obtained to design for its
depth and reinforcement.

## Raft [Mat] Foundation

Raft foundation is costly in design and
The stressed area under the raft is also much
larger.
This will increase settlements unless there is
stress compensation from excavated soil.
stress compensation is that the excavated
soil compensate for the superimposed loads.
[design with: qall,net >

D f
area of foundation

## Structural Design of Raft Foundation

A simple conventional and approximate approach
Find resultant of the columns loads, R, and
its eccentricities, ex and ey,
Y

## Stress Dist. under Raft Foundation

Find stress distribution under the raft
q = R/A + Mxy/Ix +Myx/Iy
where Mx = Rey and My = Rex
then, q = R[1/A + ey / zx + ex / zy] qall
Where zx = LB2/ 6, zy= BL2/ 6
Y

q1

q2

ey

ex

ey

ex
L

q3

L1

q4

Design of Strips

## Divide the Raft

Divide the raft
into vertical and
horizontal strips
such that
the columns are
on centerline of
the strip,

L3

L2

L4

B1
B2
B3

B4
L

## Design each strip as a

continuous beam.
draw shear and
bending moment
diagram
Q = kg fn l, and
M=fnl2/km,
fn = P/area .!!!???
Which Ps
Recall previous slide!!

B1
B2
B3
B4

P13

P14

P15

P16

l
fn
0.6 0.5
Kg
Km

12

16
-10

12

P13

B4

## The sum of fn over the strip

should equal to the sum of
due to developed shear
along the strip.

P14

P15

P
P13 14

fn

## Wide beam from shear diagram at distance d/2 from the

column face.
punching shear is evaluated similar to spread footing.
From the moment diagrams of all strips in the direction of
interest (that is x, or y),
obtain the maximum positive and negative moments per unit
width
(i.e., M` =M/B4)
design for the steel reinforcement

B.M.D

qav

q3

## P13+P14 +P15 +P16]

fn = qav,modified = average load /LB4, B

S.F.D

q3

fn

qav =
[q3+q4]

P16

## f = average load/[P13+P14 +P15

q4

q4

P15

P16

fP15

fP13 fP14

+P16]

fP16

fn

Example 3.12
a plan of a mat foundation.
All columns are 50 60cm2.
qall,net is 50kPa.
Check the soil pressure
under the mat.
{i.e., Pu =1.5Pservice}.

0.25m

0.3m

8m

y`

8m

400kN
500kN

7m

400kN
1500 kN

1500 kN
1200 kN

7m

1200 kN

1500 kN
1200 kN

7m

500 kN
300 kN

400 kN
0.3m

0.25m

16.5m

21.6m

fn = P/area

y`

8m

0.25m

400kN

500kN

1200 kN
1200 kN
1200 kN

ey
ex

26.5kPa

300 kN

16.5m

## Loads and Reactions on the Strip

8m

4.25m
E

0.3m

y`

8m

8m

0.25m

4.25m
B

strip AEGD
qav = [qA+ qD] = {33.28 + 30. 34}
= 31.81kPa

400kN
500kN
1500 kN

400kN
1500 kN

1200 kN

1500 kN
7m

1200 kN

21.6m

7m

0.3m

1200 kN

500 kN

33.3kPa
0.25m

## Soil pressure under the foundation,

qo, for the ultimate design,
= load factor qall,net = 1.5 50 =
75kPa

500 kN

7m

Solution
Step 1: S.F.D and B.M.D
for the Strips
Divide the mat into three
strips; AEGD, EFHG, and
FBCH

29.4kPa

30.4kPa

Example 3.13
In example 3.12,
design the reinforcement in
the y-direction.
fcu=20MPa, fy =360MPa.

ex= -0.3m
33.3kPa
My =10600 [-0.3]=0.3]=-3200kN.m
A
ey = 0.1m
R
Mx =10600 [0.1]= 1100kN.m
stress distribution under the raft

1500 kN

21.6m

Example
3.12
q = R/A + Mxy/I
x +Myx/Iy
where Mx = Rey and My =
0.25m
8m
Rex
A= 16.5 12.5 = 354.75m2 0.3m
400kN
Ix= BL3/12 =16.5 21.63 /
7m
12 = 13,665 m4
1500 kN
3
Iy= LB /12 = 21.6 16.53 /
7m
12 = 8050 m4
1500 kN
R=
3+3+3+3 7m
00 +2
400 kN
= 10600kN
0.3m

300 kN

400 kN

H
16.5m

= [31.814.2521.6+ 2400+21500]
30.4kPa
=3353.32kN
fn = qav,modified = average load /strip area =
3353.3/ [4.2521.6] =36.7kPa

400kNE
1500 kN
1500 kN
400 kN G
D

4.25m

21.6m

Example 3.13

## Loads and Reactions on the Strip

A

353kN

strip AEGD

400kNE

1323kN

353kN

1323kN

739kN

cl ld modification factor is

1323kN

## f = average load/ Pin strip

=3353.32/3800=0.8824

353kN
fn =36.7kPa

1500 kN

21.6m

275kN

400 kN G

506.6kN

B.M.D

4.25m

## Check on Footing Depth for Wide Beam

Shear and Punching Example 3.13

0.3m

y`

8m

0.25m

400kN
500kN

7m
1500 kN

400kN
1500 kN

1200 kN

7m

1200 kN

1200 kN

500 kN
300 kN

400 kN
0.3m

16.5m

21.6m

7m
1500 kN

739kN

311kN.m

1360kN.m

8m

506.6kN

S.F.D

f = 0.8824

0.25m

353kN

156kN/m`

1500 kN

fn = qav,modified =36.7kPa

## For the given layout of

columns739kN
on the mat and
the obtained S.F.D,
the edge column of
1500kN gives critical
punching stresses than
those given by wide beam
shearing.

1323kN

675kN.m

275kN