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CHAPTER 7 - ADJECTIVES

I Definition and Description


An adjective is a word that goes with a noun to tell us something more | about that
noun.

II Types
There are five types of adjectives:

(a) Adjectives of Quality


(b) Adjectives of Quantity
(c) Possessive Adjectives
(d) Interrogative Adjectives
(e) Demonstrative Adjectives
III Usage and Function

A.

Adjectives of Quality
An adjective that describes more about the person or thing such as the colour,
size, shape or condition is called an adjective of quality. I It generally answers
the question What kind of...?.

B.

A yellow flower (What kind of colour?)

A big book (size)

A square box (shape)

A clean room (condition)

Adjectives of Quantity
An adjective of quantity is used to indicate an exact or an unspecified quantity or
amount. It generally answers the question How many? for countable nouns or
How much? for uncountable nouns.

There are six girls in the group.


(How many? Six - exact)

He hasfewfiends.
(How many? Few - unspecified)

There is some soup left.


(How much? Some - unspecified)

Handy Tips

Use Jew, fewer, many, several for countable nouns.

Use a little, little, much, less for uncountable nouns.

The words a lot of, some and any are used with both countable and uncountable
nouns.

He has a lot of books, (books - countable)

There is a lot of sand on theJoor. (sand - uncountable)

The word some is used in positive statements or when we expect the hearer to
say Yes.

C.

The word any is used in questions as well as in negative statements.

Do you have any books?

()

Yes, I have some books.

()

No, I dont have some books.

(X )

No, I don't have any books.

( )

Possessive Adjectives
A possessive adjective shows that something belongs to a person or a thing.
Possessive adjectives are always used before nouns. They answer the question
Whose?.

This is my cat. (Whose cat?)

I like your dress.

Have you seen his puppy?

That is her father.

We are cleaning our room.

They are painting their house.

The parrot ruffled its feathers.

Handy Tips

Its is the possessive adjective for animals, things and babies.

The baby is asleep in its cot.

You cannot sit on this chair. One of its legs is broken.

Note that a possessive adjective goes with a noun but a possessive pronoun
stands alone.

D.

This is his bag. (possessive adjective - goes with the noun, bag)

This is his. (possessive pronoun - stands alone)

Interrogative Adjectives
An interrogative adjective is used to ask a question. It is before a noun.

What car does your father diive?

Which cat ate thefish?

Whose dress is this?

Handy Tips

E.

An interrogative adjective is not the same as an interrogative pronoun.

What book did you buy? (interrogative adjective)

What did you buy? (interrogative pronoun)

Which bag is hers? (interrogative adjective)

Which is her bag? (interrogative pronoun)

Whose money was stolen? (interrogative adjective)

Whose was it? (interrogative pronoun)

Demonstrative Adjectives

A demonstrative adjective is a word that is used to point out a person or a thing. It


answers the question Which?. It is used before a noun.

This dog is small.

That dog is big.

These plates are dirty.

Those boxes are heavy.

Handy Tips

Always remember that an adjective goes with a noun while a pronoun stands
alone. Compare the demonstrative adjective and the demonstrative pronoun
below.

This orange is juicy, (demonstrative adjective)

This is a juicy orange, (demonstrative pronoun)

IV Forms

A.

Comparison of Adjectives

1.

Adjectives have three degrees of comparison.

a)
b)
c)
2.

Positive Degree
Comparative Degree
Superlative Degree

The positive degree is the simple form. It is used simply to describe the
noun.

3.

The comparative degree is used to compare two nouns.

4.

Mr Hugo is a strong man.

Mr Sumo is stronger than Mr Hugo.

The superlative degree is used to compare more than two nouns.

Mr Bingo is the strongest of the three men.

Handy Tips

Many adjectives form the comparative and superlative using er and est.
Positive

Comparative

Superlative

thick

thicker

thickest

long

longer

longest

If the adjective ends with a consonant with a vowel before it, the consonant of the
positive degree is doubled before adding er or est.

Positive

Comparative

Superlative

Hot

hotter

hottest

big

bigger

biggest

If the adjective ends with the letter e} form the comparative by adding r and the
superlative by adding st.
Positive

Comparative

Superlative

Nice

nicer

nicest

Brave

braver

bravest

If the adjective ends with the letter y, change the y to ier and test for the
comparative and superlative.
Positive
pretty
funny

Comparative
prettier
funnier

Superlative
prettiest
funniest

Some adjectives form the comparative and superlative by adding words more and
most.
(a) Words ending in ful, less, ing or ed
Positive
Comparative
helpful
more helpful
useless
more useless
willing
more willing
annoyed
more annoyed

Superlative
most helpful
most useless
most willing
most annoyed

(b) Words with three syllables or more


Positive
Comparative
wonderful
more wonderful
significant
more significant

Superlative
most wonderful
most significant

(c) Others
Positive
normal

Superlative
most normal

Comparative
more normal

afraid

most afraid

Some adjectives have irregular forms.


Positive
good
bad
many/much
little

more afraid

Comparative
better
worse
more
less

Superlative
best
worst
most
least

Use as ... as for positive degree, than for comparative degree and the for
superlative degree.

This box is as big as that box. (positive degree)

This box is bigger than that box. (comparative degree)

This box is the biggest of all. (superlative degree)

B. Formation of Adjectives

1.

Some adjectives are formed from nouns.


Noun
child
success
Germany

2.

Adjective
childish
successful
German

Some adjectives are formed from verbs.

Verb
love
accept

3.

Adjective
lovely
acceptable

Adjectives are also formed from other adjectives.


Adjective
red
sick

Adjective
reddish
sickly

Handy Tips

When a sentence has more than one adjective, the position of the adjectives
generally follow this order:
(a) Opinion
(b) Size or Shape
(c) Age
(d) Colour
(e) Origin or Race
(f) Material or Type

o
o

pretty
small
old
blue
Chinese
cotton

clever
round
young
pink
Australian
musical

My mother bought a red, silk, beautiful dress. ( X )


My mother bought a beautiful, red, silk dress. ( )

CHAPTER 8 - ADVERBS

I.

Definition and Description

1)

An adverb is a word that tells us something more about a verb, an jj adjective or


another adverb.

a) She arrived

yesterday

Verb

Adverb
Adjective

b) The Princess is

very

beautiful

Adverb
Adverb
c) It happened

quit

suddenly

Adverb

2)
II.

An adverb tells us where, how, when, how often or to what degree II an action is
done.

Types
There are five main types of adverbs:

a)
b)
c)

Adverbs of Place
Adverbs of Manner
Adverbs of Time or Frequency

d)
e)
III.

Adverbs of Degree or Quantity


Relative Adverbs

Usage and Function


(A) Adverbs of Place
An adverb of place shows where an action is done or happens.

She is waiting outside. (Where is she waiting?)

The boy found the purse there. (Where did the boy find the purse?)

(B) Adverbs of Manner


An adverb of manner shows how or the manner an action is done.

The old man walked slowly. (How did the old man walk?)

Sandra writes neatly. (How does Sandra write?)

(C) Adverbs of Time or Frequency


An adverb of time or frequency tells us when or how often an action happens
or is done.
Jessica left yesterday. (When did Jessica leave?)
Encik Mydin seldom cuts the grass. (How often does Encik Mydin cut the
grass?)

(D) Adverbs of Degree or Quantity


An adverb of degree or quantity answers the question. To what degree? or
How much?.
He is very sorry. (To what degree?)
The little boy eats too much. (How much?)
(E) Relative Adverbs
Words like when, where, how and why are relative adverbs when they are not
used in questions.
The morning when she arrived was sunny.
This is the place where he fell.
I wonder how she did it.
She wants to know why he lied.

IV.

Forms
(A) Comparison of Adverbs
Like adjectives, adverbs have three degrees of comparison.
a) Adverbs that end in ly usually form the comparative and superlative by adding the

words more and most.


Positive
Comparative
strongly
more strongly
easily
more easily

Superlative
most strongly
most easily

b) Some adverbs (mostly of one syllable) add er and est to form the comparative and

c)

superlative.
Positive
Comparative
Superlative
long
longer
longest
soon
sooner
soonest
Some adverbs have the same form of comparison as adjectives.
Positive
Comparative
Superlative
bad
worse
worst
well
better
best
little
less
least
much
more
most

(B) Formation of Adverbs


Adverbs are usually formed from adjectives by adding ly.
o Vijay talks in a loud voice, (adjective - loud)
o Vijay talks loudly, (adverb - loudly)
o Josie has a happy smile, (adjective - happy)
o Josie smiles happily, (adverb - happily)

Handy Tips
Some adverbs and adjectives use the same word. To determine whether the word is an

adverb or an adjective, remember this:


An adjective goes with a noun.
An adverb goes with a verb, an adjective or another adverb.
Wool' Choong is a fast runner.
(The word fast goes with the noun runner so fast is an adjective here.)
Wooi Choong runs fast.
(The word fast goes with the verb runs so fast is an adverb here.)

CHAPTER 9 - SENTENCES, PHRASES AND CLAUSES


Sentences
I Definition and Description

1.

A sentence is a group of words that makes complete sense.

2.

A sentence may be divided into two parts: the subject and the predicate. The
subject is the thing or person that we speak about and the predicate tells us
something about the subject.

Subject

Predicate

The kitten

is hungry.

The king of that country

Is a good and wise ruler

3.

A sentence may also contain an object. The object of a sentence is usually the thing or
person to which or whom the action of the verb is done.

The cat ate the fish.


(The word fish is the object of the verb ate.)

The teacher helps the child.


(The word child is the object of the verb helps.)

II Types
There are four types of sentences:

(a) Declarative Sentences


(b) Imperative Sentences
(c) Interrogative Sentences
(d) Exclamatory Sentences
III Usage and Function

(a) Declarative Sentences


A declarative sentence is a statement of fact or opinion. A statement begins with a
capital letter and ends with a full stop (.).

David is in the Navy.

She visits her grandparents twice a month.

(b) Imperative Sentences


An imperative sentence gives a command or makes a request. This kind of sentence begins with a
capital letter and ends, with a full stop (.) or an exclamation mark (!).

(c)

Open the door at once! (command)

Please help me carry this box. (request)

Interrogative Sentences
An interrogative sentence asks a direct question. A direct question begins with a capital letter and
ends with a question mark (?).

What are you doing?

Why is Rajan late?

(d) Exclamatory Sentences


An exclamatory sentence shows strong or sudden feeling. It begins with a capital letter and ends with
an exclamation mark (!).

What a surprise!

How exciting!

Handy Tips

Sometimes, a sentence consists of only one word (as in a command) and does not contain a subject as
the subject is understood.

Sit!

Statements can be turned into questions. In the same way, questions can also be turned into statements.
The tense does not change.

It is Peters book.

Was she going to sing?

Is it Peters book?

She was going to sing.

Phrases and Clauses

I Definition and Description


Phrases

1. A phrase is a group of words that makes sense but is not complete.


2. A phrase does not have a subject or predicate of its own. It does not have a finite verb.

into the house

at nine o clock

for RM2.00

3. A phrase forms part of a sentence and becomes complete when other words (including a verb) are
added to it.

The little boy went into the house.

she sleeps at nine o'clock.

I bought that book for RM2.00

Clauses

1. A clause is a group of words that forms part of a sentence. It is actually a small sentence inside a
bigger sentence.

2. A clause has a subject and a predicate of its own. It also has a finite verb.
3. A sentence may be divided into a main clause and a subordinate clause. A sentence may also contain
several clauses.

She does not know what / want.

The girl whom you saw is rushing to work because she is late.

Main Clause

She does not know

The girl is rushing to work

Subordinate Clause

What I want

a) whom you saw

b) because she is late

4. From the above sentences, we can see that a main clause can stand alone as its meaning is clear
5. The subordinate clause cannot stand alone as its meaning is incomplete. It needs the main clause for

its full meaning.

II Usage and Function

1.

Nouns, adjectives and adverbs are often used in phrases and clauses.

Did you see the happiness on her face? (noun phrase)

He knows that she is very happy. (noun clause)

The boy with the brown dog lives down the street. (adjective phrase)

The boy who has a brown dog lives down the street. (adjective clause)

She worked in a careful manner. (adverb phrase)

2.

I slept while she was working. (adverb clause)

A phrase can be changed into a clause and a clause can also be ! changed into a phrase.

The window in my room is shut. (phrase)

The window which is in my room is shut. (clause)

The boy who is riding the red bicycle is my brother. (clause)

The boy on the red bicycle is my brother. (phrase)

Handy Tips

We can tell a clause from a phrase because a clause has a verb but a phrase does not. If a phrase
contains a word which looks like a verb (verb + ing), that word is not a real verb because we cannot
give it a tense.

The girl sitting on the sofa is my cousin.

(phrase - sitting is not a verb)

The girl who is sitting on the sofa is my cousin.

(clause - is sitting is a verb)