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Journal of Coastal Research

SI

73

533-541

Coconut Creek, Florida

Winter 2015

Study on Load-bearing Characteristics of Different Types of Pile


Group Foundations for an Offshore Wind Turbine
Ruiqing Lang, Run Liu*, Jijian Lian, and Hongyan Ding
State Key Laboratory of Hydraulic Engineering Simulation and Safety
Tianjin University
Tianjin 300072, China

www.cerf-jcr.org

ABSTRACT
Lang, R.; Liu, R.; Lian, J., and Ding, H., 2015. Study on load-bearing characteristics of different types of pile group
foundations for an offshore wind turbine. In: Mi, W.; Lee, L.H.; Hirasawa, K., and Li, W. (eds.), Recent
Development on Port and Ocean Engineering. Journal of Coastal Research, Special Issue, No. 73, pp. 533-541.
Coconut Creek (Florida), ISSN 0749-0208.
www.JCRonline.org

Elevated pile-cap foundation is one of the most popular foundation types for offshore wind turbines. Form selection
and design are the keys in the construction of offshore wind farms. Because offshore wind turbines are high-rise
structures, a reasonable and applicable foundation can ensure the normal operation of wind turbines. Meanwhile, it can
decrease the size of foundation and reduce the cost of construction effectively. Four types of pile group foundations
named BPG-type, SPG-type, VPG-type, and CPG-type are developed. Combined with laboratory model experiments, a
numerical simulation method is established and verified in this paper. The vertical bearing capacity, horizontal bearing
capacity and bending bearing capacity are studied comparatively with the numerical simulation method. Combined
with practical engineering, the applicability of the foundations is evaluated. The results indicate that BPG-type and
SPG-type have the stronger vertical bearing capacity, horizontal bearing capacity and bending bearing capacity than
VPG-type and CPG-type in the same amount of steel. In addition, batter piles can effectively increase the bearing
capacity of pile foundations. The VPG-type needs to increase the size of foundation to meet the requirements of wind
turbine operation. In practical engineering, the combination of vertical piles and batter piles can increase the bearing
capacity of pile group foundations and decrease the cost of construction.
ADDITIONAL INDEX WORDS: Elevated cap, pile group foundation, vertical bearing capacity, horizontal bearing
capacity, bending bearing capacity.

________________________________________________________________________________
INTRODUCTION
Wind power has been favored by several countries in recent
years (Zhang et al., 2013). Influenced by a complex
combination of loads including the wind loading and wave
loading, the large horizontal loads and moments are transferred
to the foundations of wind turbines, which have huge shape and
high tower. Therefore, the foundations which support the
superstructure have been required at a higher standard.
Currently, the types of foundations used for offshore wind
turbines include large-diameter single pile, pile group, tripod,
jacket, gravity base, bucket, floating, etc (Byrne and Houlsby,
2006). The pile group foundations have been widely used in
offshore wind farms in China. The Donghai Bridge Offshore
Wind Farm is the Asia's first large-scale offshore wind farm to
use a high-rise cap pile group foundation successfully (Lin et al.,
2007). It is useful and meaningful for developments of theoretic
study, simulation method and engineering constructions to study
the complex load carrying mechanism of pile group foundations
in offshore (Byrne and Houlsby, 2003; Matutano et al., 2014;
Soldo, Ivandic, and Babic, 2005).
Currently, several domestic and foreign researchers have
____________________
DOI: 10.2112/SI73-093.1 received 6 August 2014; accepted in revision 6
November 2014.
*Corresponding author: liurun@tju.edu.cn
Coastal Education & Research Foundation, Inc. 2015

studied the axial and horizontal operating performance of


different types of foundations. Accurate approximate
approaches to the analyses of pile groups including batter piles
were proposed (Hsiao, 2012). In the study on horizontal bearing
capacity, a full-scale lateral load test was conducted on a
batter-pile group foundation to study the horizontal bearing
characteristics of inclined piles. A seventh-order polynomial
curve fitting method was proposed to deduce the bending
moment and the shear force (Abu-Farsakh et al., 2011; Pathak
et al., 2011). It was determined that the inclined pile had an
advantage in resisting horizontal forces through the analysis of
inclined piles (Kavazanjian, 2006; Kim and Brungraber, 1976).
In the study on vertical bearing capacity of batter piles, it was
indicated that an inclined pile had a greater horizontal resistance
compared to that of a vertical pile (Lv, Yin, and Jin, 2011;
Zhang, McVay, and Lai, 1999). Vertical bearing and settlement
features were simulated for large-diameter and super-long steel
pipe piles in FLAC3D. The pile lateral friction resistance
changed intricately with depth, which was closely related to the
soil characteristics (Zhang et al., 2011). The loading transfer
mechanism of piles was summarized that load sharing behavior
of piles and soil were comparatively studied through the
comparison of the model test results of single pile foundation,
single pile foundation with cap and vertical pile group
foundation with different space length (Zhang et al., 2005). The
vertical bearing capacity of a special pile group of platform in

534

Liu et al.

an offshore gas field without the consideration of pile group


effect was studied with several methods, including the method
of linear elastic theory recommended by the Code of Pile
Foundation in Port Engineering (JTJ254-98), and the method
based on the existing results of pile group model test (Zhuo et
al., 2012). Numerical analysis methods involving finite element
method (FEM) were widely used to understand the bearing
capacity behavior of piles and then numerical methods were
established (Ribeiro and Paiva, 2014; Zhan, Wang, and Liu,
2012). The model of a super-large pile group was developed to
study the mechanical action, the distribution feature of internal
force and the deformation behavior of pile group under
horizontal load (Xie et al., 2005). Besides, other methods were
also proposed to study the pile vertical bearing capacity (Cao,
Zhao, and Liu, 2011; Liu, Wang, and Yan, 2013).
The above-described findings provide good references
regarding the application of pile group foundation in the field of
offshore wind power. However, there is less study in the
bending bearing capacity, which is especially important for the
foundations of wind turbines. Load demands have been changed
so the design of larger wind farm has become more important
(Kenan and ztrk, 2012; Liu, Yan, and Li, 2009) and
geological conditions are complicated. Therefore, new types of
foundations are needed to ensure the wind turbines operate
safely, and the applicability of different types of pile group
foundations in this area is needed a further exploring.
To study and develop new types of the high-rise cap pile
group foundation, which are conducted by an offshore wind
power research team in Tianjin University, a numerical
simulation method with the finite element analysis software
program ABAQUS is established and verified based on model
test (Hibbitt and Sorensen, 2002). The vertical, horizontal and
bending bearing capacity are studied comparatively. Combined
with practical engineering, the applicability of the foundations
is evaluated. The results provide a basis for the optimization
design of a pile foundation in the offshore wind farm.
PROJECT OUTLINE OF DIFFERENT TYPES
FOUNDATIONS
The foundations of wind turbines bear relatively small
vertical load, large horizontal load and moments, which are the
load characteristics of wind turbine foundations (Tang, Shao,
and Liu, 2012). The horizontal displacement of the top of the
foundation is large and difficult to control under a large moment.
Wind turbines are such high-rise structures that they are
particularly sensitive to horizontal displacements (Guo, Lu, and
Qiu, 2012), therefore how to effectively reduce the
displacement of the top of the foundations and ensure the good
operation of wind turbines become an important concern in
designing a offshore wind farm. Based on the strong vertical
bearing capacity of the large-diameter pile, the strong horizontal
bearing capacity and flexural capacity of the inclined piles, an
offshore wind power research team in Tianjin University has
studied and developed four types pile group foundations, named
BPG-type, SPG-type, VPG-type and CPG-type, as indicated in
Figure 1.
As shown in Figure 1, SPG-type consists of a large-diameter
pile and several small diameter and buried length inclined piles.
The inclined piles are evenly distributed along the control circle,

the center of which is located at the center of the cap. BPG-type


consists of several inclined piles, which are evenly distributed
along the control circle. CPG-type includes several vertical piles
which are connected by the cap. VPG-type includes several
inclined piles and vertical piles, which are cross-evenly
distributed along the control circle.
MODEL TESTS AND NUMERICAL SIMULATION
METHOD
Model Tests
As indicated in Figure 2, the model test apparatus consists of
three parts: a model tank, a loading system and a data capture
system. The net dimensions of the model tank are 1.2 m1.2
m1.5 m. The loading system includes a vertical hydraulic
loading system and a horizontal motor loading system. The
vertical hydraulic loading device is divided into a three-phase
induction motor and a single-acting hydraulic cylinder. A
frequency-variable three-phase asynchronous motor, a pulley
and wire ropes jointly constitute the horizontal motor loading
system. The data capture system consists of sensors and a
collector. The sensors include pull-press sensors, a dial gage for
displacement and a depth sensor. The real-time data is passed
on to the computer through the dial gauge.
The testing sand was sea sand. The thickness of the soil was
1.5 m. The sea sand was filled into the model tank in a stratified
manner. The specific gravity of the soil grain was 2.67, and its
density was 1.60 g/cm3. According to the developed pile group
foundation named BPG-type, which consists of several inclined
piles, the elevated pile-cap foundation (length of the piles, L,
was 40 m, total numbers piles, n, was 9, inclination degree, ,
was 8, and diameter of pile, D, was 2 m) was selected as the
prototype of the model. Furthermore, the model featured a
scaled-down ratio of 1:100. The scaled-down parameters
included the diameter of the piles, the length of the piles and the
size of the cap. Due to the limits associated with the processing
materials, only the wall thickness, which has little effect on the
bearing capacity, was not scaled down completely to 1:100. As
indicated in Figure 3, the foundation model consisted of
seamless steel pipes. A weld was used to connect the piles and
cap.
Analysis of Test Data
Vertical Bearing Capacity
Vertical loading force was applied at the top of the cap, and
test data was organized. The load-displacement curve of the
foundation model is presented in Figure 4. The deformation of
the soil surface observed after the completeness of loading is
shown in Figure 5.
As indicated in Figure 4, the relationship between the load
and the displacement of the foundation is linear when the load is
small. With an increase in the load, the slope of the
load-displacement curve increases rapidly, and an inflection
point appears. The vertical bearing capacity of BPG-type is 5.4
kN.
As indicated in Figure 5, when the loading force is complete,
a local subsidence appears on the surface of the soil surrounding
piles, covering an area measuring three times smaller than the
diameter of a single pile. No large bulge appears on the surface.

Journal of Coastal Research, Special Issue No. 73, 2015

Study on Load-Bearing Characteristics for an Offshore Wind Turbine

535

Figure 1. Map of different foundations.

Reaction Beam
Hydraulic cylinder

Dial gage

Pull-press sensor

Model
Motor
Model tank

Figure 2. Map of model test apparatus.

Figure 4. Load-settlement curves of BPG.

Uplift appears on the soil under the control circle of BPG-type.


The pricking destruction happens.
BPG-type

Figure 3. Photo of test models.

Horizontal Bearing Capacity


Horizontal loading force was applied at the top of the cap, and
test data was organized. The load-displacement curve of the
foundation model is presented in Figure 6. The deformation of
the soil surface observed after loading was complete is shown in
Figure 7.

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Liu et al.

_________________________________________________________________________________________________
16.0 kN/m3, Poisson's ratio is 0.3, the elasticity modulus is 24
MPa, the internal friction angle is 32 and the cohesion is 2 kPa.
The Mohr-Coulomb Failure Criterion is applied to the soil. The
foundation is assumed to be a perfectly elastic constitutive
model made of steel. The density of steel, , is 7,850 kg/m3, the
Youngs modulus, E, is 2.11011 Pa and Poissons ratio, , is
0.3.
Figure 9 reveals a comparison between the deformation of
soil under a single vertical load and a single horizontal load in
the numerical simulation with the test deformation.

BPG-type

Figure 5. Deformation on the surface of soil.

V
M
H
H=1.5m

RP

R=1.2m
Figure 8. Loads on finite element model used in analyses.

Figure 6. Load-settlement curves of BPG.

(a)
BPG-type

Figure 7. Deformation on the surface of soil.

As indicated in Figure 6, the relationship between the load


and the displacement of the foundation is linear when the load is
small. With an increase in the load, the slope of the
load-displacement curve increases rapidly, and an inflection
point appears. The horizontal bearing capacity of the foundation
model is 496 N.
As indicated in Figure 7, a local depression appears in the
direction of load behind the model. Under the small influence of
the depression, deformation appears on the surface of the soil
surrounding piles. However, a complete deformation does not
appear.
Numerical Simulation Method
Based on the actual size of the laboratory model test, the
BPG-type experiment was simulated. The numerical analysis
model is provided in Figure 8.
To eliminate the side effect, the size of simulated soil takes
the actual size of the laboratory model test. The unit weight is

(b)
Figure 9. Comparison between FEM results and test deformation of pile
groups: (a) Vertical loads; (b) Lateral loads.

As indicated in Figure 9(a), the deformation in the numerical


simulation and test deformation are relatively similar. The
sinking of the soil affects the soil nearby and forms a local
subsidence. However, there is no integral settlement throughout
the soil. A significant stress concentration appears in the area of
contact and spreads to the surrounding soil. Obvious uplift
appears on the soil under the control circle of BPG-type in both
test and simulation.
As indicated in Figure 9(b), the deformation in the numerical
simulation and the test deformation are relatively similar. When
loading procedure is complete, significant traces of movements

Journal of Coastal Research, Special Issue No. 73, 2015

Study on Load-Bearing Characteristics for an Offshore Wind Turbine


of the piles appear, which causes the soil near the piles to
deform. However, the effective range of deformation is limited,
and a complete deformation does not appear.
Figure 10 compares the test and simulated load-displacement
curves of BPG-type.
As indicated in Figure 10, the simulation curves and the
measured curves are relatively similar. Inflection points appear
in both of these curves. The vertical bearing capacity of the test
system is 5.4 kN, whereas that of the simulated system is 5.5 kN.
The horizontal bearing capacity of the simulated system is 500
N, whereas that of the test system is 496 N.

537

1. When the model is complete, V, H or M are applied at point


RP, which is located at the top of the caps. In this simulation, V
indicates a vertical load, H indicates a horizontal load, and M
indicates a bending moment load.
Comparison of Vertical Bearing Capacity
Under a vertical load, the load-displacement curves of
different foundations and the plastic region of soil (PEEQ) are
presented in Figure 11. In this figure, u indicates a vertical
displacement.

(a)
(a)

(b)
Figure 11. Results of pile group foundations: (a) Load-settlement curves
of foundations; (b) Distributions of PEEQ.

(b)
Figure 10. Load-settlement curves of new types of pile group: (a)
Vertical loads; (b) Lateral loads.
Table 1. Parameters of soils in FEM simulation.
Poisson's
Unit Weight
ratio
/(kN/m3)

7.0
0.3

Internal
Elastic Modulus
Cohesion
Friction angle
E/(MPa)
c/(kPa)
/()
30.0
0
10.0

In conclusion, the numerical simulation method established


in this report is applicable to the simulation of high-rise cap pile
group foundations.
ANALYSIS OF BEARING CAPACITY OF DIFFERENT
TYPES OF FOUNDATION
The numerical simulation method established in this report is
used to complete the analysis. The bearing capacity of different
foundations in a single soil layer is analyzed comparatively
under a single force. The parameters of soil are shown in Table

As indicated in Figure 11(a), the relationship between the


load and the displacement of the foundations is linear when the
load is small, and changes between the pile groups are similar.
With an increase in load, the displacement of the pile group
increases rapidly, and an inflection point appears. The inflection
point of VPG-type appears earlier and the corresponding
ultimate vertical bearing capacity, Vu, is relatively small. The
inflection point of SPG-type appears at the last and Vu is
relatively great. With VPG-type as a benchmark, Vu of
BPG-type, SPG-type and CPG-type increases by 33.7%, 54.7%,
11.9%, respectively. In conclusion, SPG-type has a stronger
vertical bearing capacity and VPG-type has a weaker capacity.
The combination of a large-diameter pile and several inclined
piles strengthen the vertical bearing capacity of foundations.
As indicated in Figure 11(b), under the vertical loading,
PEEQ develops along the pile body and a complete plastic
region appears near the end of the pile body. The development
of the tangent of pile body is more severe, whereas that of
normal direction is slower. When the vertical piles and inclined

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_________________________________________________________________________________________________
piles co-exist, the region of PEEQ near the inclined piles is
larger, whereas that of vertical piles is smaller.
Comparison of Horizontal Bearing Capacity
Under a horizontal load, the load-displacement curves of
different foundations and the plastic region of soil (PEEQ) are
presented in Figure 12. In this figure, h indicates a horizontal
displacement.

As indicated in Figure 13(a), the relationship between the


load and the displacement of the foundations is linear when the
load is small, and changes between the pile groups are similar.
With an increase in load, the displacement of the pile group
increases rapidly, and an inflection point appears. The inflection
point of VPG-type appears earlier and the corresponding
ultimate flexural bearing capacity, Mu, is relatively small. The
inflection point of BPG-type appears at the last and Mu is
relatively great. With VPG-type as a benchmark, Mu of BPGtype, SPG-type and CPG-type increases by 38.3%, 33.8%,
23.4%, respectively. In conclusion, BPG-type has a stronger
flexural bearing capacity. In conclusion, the inclined piles
strengthen the flexural bearing capacity of pile group
foundation.

(a)

(a)

(b)
Figure 12. Results of pile group foundations: (a) Load-settlement curves
of foundations; (b) Distributions of PEEQ.

As indicated in Figure 12(a), the relationship between the


load and the displacement of the foundations is linear when the
load is small, and changes between the pile groups are similar.
With an increase in load, the displacement of the pile group
increases rapidly, and an inflection point appears. The inflection
point of VPG-type appears earlier and the corresponding
ultimate horizontal bearing capacity, Hu, is relatively small. The
inflection point of SPG-type appears at the last and Hu is
relatively great. With VPG-type as a benchmark, Hu of
BPG-type, SPG-type and CPG-type increases by 27.9%, 44.0%,
30.3%, respectively. In conclusion, SPG-type has the stronger
horizontal bearing capacity. The inclined piles strengthen the
horizontal bearing capacity of pile group foundation.
As indicated in Figure 12(b), under horizontal loading, PEEQ
develops along the pile body and concentrates on the front of
the compressed piles and the area around the end of pile tip. The
development of the tangent of pile body is more severe, whereas
that of normal direction is slower.
Comparison of Bending Bearing Capacity
Under a bending moment, the load-displacement curves of
different foundations and the plastic region of soil (PEEQ) are
presented in Figure 13. In this figure, indicates an angle
displacement.

(b)
Figure 13. Results of pile group foundations: (a) Load-settlement curves
of foundations; (b) Distributions of PEEQ.

As indicated in Figure 13(b), as horizontal distribution, under


a bending moment loading, PEEQ develops along the pile body
and concentrates on the front of the compressed piles and the
area around the end of pile tip. The development of the tangent
of pile body is more severe, whereas that of normal direction is
slower.
EXAMPLE PROJECT
General Engineering Information
An offshore wind power farm is proposed to be constructed.
According to a geological survey of the seabed, the geotechnical
spatial distribution is complex. From top to bottom, the seabed
can be divided into 11 layers within the surveying depth.
Several of these layers are soft soil or hard soil. The specific
soil parameters are provided in Table 2.
The load cases for 3-MW wind turbines are shown in Table 4.

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Study on Load-Bearing Characteristics for an Offshore Wind Turbine

539

Table 2. Soil parameters.

Stratum

Soil
Description

Thickness
h (m)

Wet Weight
(kN/m3)

Sludge
Clay
Silty Sand
Silty Clay
Silty Sand
Silty Clay
Silt
Silt
Silt
Silty Clay
Silty Sand

8.5
2.3
5.2
2.8
6.7
6.2
1.6
10.4
4.3
2
10

17.0
18.5
20
19.5
20
20.3
20.5
19.3
19.3
20.0
20

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11

Compression
Modulus Es0.1-0.2
(MPa)
2.49
3.22
15
5.18
18
6.03
6.76
7.90
7.90
5.25
21

Consolidated-quickly Shear Test


Cohesion c(kPa)

Internal Friction angle ()

11.4
25.0
0
24.3
0
33.8
30.7
17.0
17.0
23.1
0

11.3
10.4
33
14.1
37
10.5
18.8
25.8
25.8
16.3
38

Table 3. Load case.


Load Case
A
B

FV (kN)

FH (kN)

4147.0
5153.1

4688.2
5598.5

M (kNm)
91524.26
126249.76

T (kNm)
3280.3
4428.4

Table 4. Parameters of pile group foundations.


Foundation
Foundation A
Foundation B
Foundation C
Foundation D

L/L (m)

D of cap (m)

D of control circle (m)

D of piles (m)

Rake ratio

45.0/62.5
42.5/50.0
45.0/62.5
45.0/62.5

14
14
20.4
14

10.4
10.4
16.24
10.4

8
6
8
8

1.5
1.8
2.0
1.8

1:6
1:6
/
1:6

Load Case A is used to verify the bearing capacity of the


foundation. Load Case B is used to verify the anti-overturning
stability and the anti-sliding stability of the foundation.
Design and Analysis
In the design of the foundation structure, different load effect
combinations were selected to calculate different design content.
Foundation A, B, C, D, which had one-to-one relationship with
BPG-type, SPG-type, VPG-type and CPG-type, were designed.
Foundation B consists of one central pile and six side piles. The
diameter of the central pile is 3 m, and its total length and
buried depth are 67.5 m and 50 m, respectively. The remaining
parameters are shown in Table 4.
To verify the feasibility and safety of this foundation, the
proposed numerical simulation method was selected. The
horizontal displacement of the foundation and the vertical
displacement of the cap are presented in Figure 14.
As is shown in Figure 14, the maximum horizontal
displacements of Foundation A, B, C and D are 5.04, 5.56, 5.93
and 5.90cm, respectively. The calculated differential settlement
ratio are 2.2, 2.2, 2.2 and 2.6. The maximum vertical
displacements of Foundation A, B, C and D are 2.60, 2.49, 2.75
and 2.41 cm, respectively. The horizontal displacement of
foundation which includes inclined piles is smaller. The vertical
displacement of foundation which includes vertical piles and

inclined piles is smaller. Thus the conclusions are in accordance

(a)

(b)
Figure 14. Results of pile group foundations: (a) Horizontal displacement
of different foundations; (b) Vertical displacement of caps.

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Table 5. Results of different pile group foundations.
Foundation A
Maximum compression stress(kN)
Maximum tension stress(kN)
Safety factor of anti-overturning
Safety factor of anti-sliding
Differential settlement ratio()

Calculated value
Designed value
Calculated value
Designed value
Calculated value
Designed value
Calculated value
Designed value
Calculated value
Designed value

9415.0
9980.0
2537.4
5090.8
4.66
1.3
4
1.6
2.2
3

with the proposed theoretical analysis' conclusion and numerical


simulation results.
The comparison between simulation and the results of the
Code for Pile Foundation in Harbor Engineering of the
maximum tension stress, maximum compression stress, safety
factor of anti-overturning, safety factor of anti-sliding and
differential settlement ratio are shown in Table 5.
All of the results obtained meet the specified requirements.
The displacements and piles stress of Foundation A and B with
inclined piles, which have the strong horizontal bearing capacity
and the flexural bearing capacity, are relatively small. However,
the results of Foundation C and D without inclined piles are
larger. Furthermore, the parameters of caps, L and D are
relatively large. Thus the conclusions are in accordance with the
proposed theoretical analysis' conclusion and numerical
simulation results.
To sum up, it can be seen that: BPG-type and SPG-type are
suitable for an offshore wind farm.
CONCLSIONS
Based on the characteristics of offshore wind loads,
SPG-type - which consists of a large-diameter pile and several
small diameter and buried length inclined piles, BPG-type
which consists of several inclined piles, and VPG-type which
contains several vertical piles and CPG including several
inclined piles and vertical piles, have been developed. A
numerical simulation method is established and verified based
on laboratory experiments. The vertical bearing capacity, the
horizontal bearing capacity and the flexural bearing capacity are
studied. The following conclusions can be drawn as follows:
(1)The bearing capacity of BPG is studied through model
tests. A numerical simulation method is established and then
selected to simulate the model tests. The results are verified by
laboratory experiments.
(2) By the rule of the steel amount which is kept the same, the
BPG-type, SPG-type, VPG-type and CPG-type are studied
through the numerical simulation method. The vertical,
horizontal and flexural bearing capacity of BPG-type and
SPG-type are strong, whereas that of VPG-type and CPG-type
are weak. The inclined piles in foundations can strengthen the
bearing capacity.
(3) In view of a practical project, four different types
foundations are designed. The bearing capacity, deformation

Foundation B
9604.9
10757.1
4127.3
5493.3
4.27
1.3
3.96
1.6
2.2
3

Foundation C
11932.1
14003.5
No tension
6.79
1.3
6.5
1.6
2.2
3

Foundation D
11753.8
12352.5
4542.7
6181
3.49
1.3
3.96
1.6
2.6
3

and other important parameters under different load cases


investigated. BPG-type and SPG-type are suitable for
offshore wind farm. The VPG-type needs to increase
parameters of the foundation to meet the requirements of
wind turbines.

are
an
the
the

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
This study was supported by the Innovative Research
Groups of the National Natural Science Foundation of China
(51021004) and the National Key Basic Research Program of
China(973) (2014CB046800).
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