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Allantois – holds the (nitrogenous) waste products of the developing embryo within the amniotic

egg, outpocketing from the gut, also contributes to the placenta
Ammocoete – lamprey larva; a vertebrate that is similar to both cephalochordates and the
hypothetical vertebrate ancestor
Arthrodire – a predatory placoderm with heavy armour over head and pharynx
Carboniferous – 360-300 mya. Early tetrapods radiate in the Carboniferous.
Caudipteryx – a cursorial form before flight; feathered dinosaur with bladed feathers but wings
and feathers are far too small for flight; have short arms
Cephalochordate – “head chordates”; notochord extension to the anterior tip; an example of a
species within Cephalochordata is Amphioxus
Choanae – the paired openings between the nasal cavity and the nasopharynx. The choanae are
the distinguishing characteristic that placed lungfish more closely related to tetrapods than
coelocanths are to tetrapods
Conodont – group with cone-shaped teeth appeared in the late Cambrian through end Triassic
Crurotarsi – a clade containing crocodiles and phytosaurs, defined by their distinctive ankle joint
Euryapsid – modified diapsid skull; one hole but different bones surrounding it
Furcula – fused pair of clavicle bones seen in birds (wishbone)
Hemal Arch – V-shaped bone located ventral to the bodies of the vertebrae
Hoatzin – an extant bird with the same wrist and hand structure seen in Archaeopteryx fossils
supporting the tree-down hypothesis
Humerus – a long bone in the arm or forelimb that runs from the shoulder to the elbow
Hydroxyapatite – a mineral that is the main inorganic constituent of tooth enamel and bone,
although it is rare in rocks
Ilium – the uppermost and largest bone of the pelvis; appearing in most vertebrates
Ischium – the curved bone forming the lower and back part of the hip bone

The pterygoid flange allows for more force when jaws are closed for crushing. the lower bone of the mandibular (dorsal) Paraphyletic – containing the ancestor. maintaining balance Stapes – a small stirrup-shaped bone in the middle ear. a well calcified crown and fibrous protein. elongate. some amphibians… Operculum – a flap or plate of tissue covering the gills Osteoclast – cells that dissolve tunnels and canals into lamellar bone Osteocyte – osteoblasts tapped in the bone matrix Palatoquadrate – in fish. located at the bottom of the skull for attachment of pterygoideus muscle. the lobe-finned fish (synapomorphies). thought to be homologous with the incus of the middle ear in humans Sarcopterygii – a subgroup of the Osteichthyan fish. which is ultimately a point of weakness Premaxilla – Pair of bones at the front of the upper jaw of a vertebrate Pterygoid flange – a defining feature of the amniotes. seen in tetrapodomopha. endochondral bones projecting from the lateral surfaces of the urostyle . transmitting vibrations from the incus to the inner ear Supracoracoideus – a muscle that is important to the body support of limbed reptiles. arises from the coracoid and passes to the underpart of te humerus Tympanum – the tympanic membrane or eardrum Uroneural – one of the paired. but not all of the ancestors descendants Pedicellate – a very particular type of tooth found in the Lissamphibia. possible outgroup to the tetrapods? Scapulocoracoid – unit of the pectoral girdle that contains the coracoid and the scapula Semicircular canal – bony channel within the inner ear to provide information about orientation to the brain. underlies the front part of the pectoral muscle. Quadrate – a squarish bone with which the jaw articulates.Labyrinthodont – having the enamel deeply folded to form a labyrinthine structure. having a root.

birds. are teleosts better than paleoniscids? (note: your answer might distinguish between extant animals sharing a common ancestor and animals with an ancestordescendent relationship) . does that make tetrapods better than fish? Are modern birds better than Archaeopteryx. Does the evolution of vertebrates represent 550 my of getting better and better? For example. tetrapods are derived from fish. which evolved after the origin of tetrapods. and in what animals did they first appear (a cladogram might be useful here Discuss the idea of "progress" in evolution.The transition to terrestrial life was relatively gradual. with some of the characteristics often seen as "terrestrial adaptations" actually having evolved in aquatic animals and some characters in fully terrestrial animals (amniotes) having evolved after some vertebrates had starled spending most of their time on land. lizards) evolved in aquatic ancestors. Which characteristics of "fully terrestrial" vertebrates (e. mammals.g. in the sense of improvementhrough time.

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