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9 Evolution of sleep
Akarachai Nairiyasaj Toy
Banlang kuhapdakorn Bung
Poltham Popermhem Leo
Grade 10/7

Evolution of sleep

Sleep is a period of reduced activity such

as lying down and close the eyes in human.

- Its also a kind of rest to save their energy.

There are 4 types of sleep

1.Sleep patterns

There are two sleep states when animals sleep. REM

and NREM.
Mammals commonly change between NREM and REM
sleep states.
Difference of animals are different amount of NREM
and REM.
The REM sleep in reptiles are very hard to study.
REM sleep in Warm-blooded animals are develop
later than others.

2.Sleep habits

Mammals--- some of them sleep mainly at night such as human.

But some of them sleep throughout a day such as rats.
Mostly,small animals sleep more than the large ones but not always.
Unihemispheric sleep is the state that the brain sleep but the others is
awake. This kind of sleep can find in birds or aquatic animals (they swim
and sleep at the same time.

3.Sleep postures
There are various postures of animals
1.Sleeping curled up ------- dogs,cats,tigers,lions etc.
2.Standing ------- horses,birds etc.
3.Swimming -------- ducks and aquatic animals
4.Hanging upside down ------- bats
5.Straddling a tree branch ------- leopard
6.Lying down ------- human

4.Sleep places

There are many different places or habitats for the animals that depend
on their lifestyles.

These are the examples of mammal habitats

burrows ------ rabbits
wide areas ------ lions
underwater ------ hippopotami
nests ------ gorillas
on the bed ----- human

open space





But not only the mammals can sleep.Sleep can be occur in lower life forms
and invertebrates too,but its really hard to know about it.They have other
specific behavioral characteristics of sleep,for example:
- a quiet state
- a typical species-specific sleep posture
- an elevated arousal threshold
- rapid walking due to moderately intense stimulation
- a regulated response to sleep deprivation



Sleep disorder
Supicha Cheng ( YinYin) 10-7
Panit Panart (Ta)


Trouble sleeping - due to the stress,
environmental or alcohol. It cause less restful.

Is when you has a difficulty falling asleep even
you are sleepy. The symptom of insomnia is
stress, depression

Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA)

is when your breathing temporarily stops
during sleep leading to many awakening.
Symptom is from snoring.

RLS(Restless Leg Syndrome)

RLS is a disorder that your leg will moving by
itself when you are sleeping.

Narcolepsy are mostly happen to the young
adulthood. It is the disorder that you will
overwhelming sleep in daytime.

Unwanted event during sleep, include abnormal
movement, behavior such as nightmare,
sleepwalking etc.

Sleep is dynamic process

Pratchaya Phetcharawan (Babe) 10-07
Tanapon Banjabundit (Knight) 10-07

measure use
EMG while we
were sleeping.

sleep is dynamic process

There was a
change of
electrical while
we are

3.5 Biological Clock

Nattha Theevarajirasab (Nut) 1007
Suthida Termthong ( Puifai) 1007

Biological Clock
An internal biological clock control the
time for sleep in our body. Interact to
regulate when we sleep and when we
are awake.

Our Biological Clock

5.00-6.00 am is good to wake up because the body begin to
secretion the cortisol
6.00-8.00 am is good to exercise
8.00am - 1.00pm good to work because this time body have
the most energy to work
1.00-5.00 pm body will metabolism you should drink more
water in this time
5.00-9.00 pm the body start to repair itself
9.00- 12.00 pm the body should warm in this time so you
cant shower with cold water it will make you sick

Circadian Clock
Clock cycles with an approximately 24 hour
is called circadian clock. Circadian clock is the
most has a natural day lenge of over 24 hour,
the clock must be reset to match the day of
environmental photoperiod.

Biological rhythms have 2 types

1. Exogenous rhythms - are directly produce by external
2. Endogenous rhythms - is the term used in describing
biological process which alter periodically although
external condition remain constant.

Sleep And The Brain

Mareeya Deepentham


Mareeya Deepentham
Nalinphat Charusrisith

Sleep is necessary to survival. The brain remains active during
sleep. There is a progressive decrease in the activation or "firing"
rate of most neurons throughout the brain as sleep progresses
from wakefulness to non-REM sleep. Also, the patterns of
neuron firing change from a seemingly random and variable
activity pattern during wakefulness, to a much more coordinated
and synchronous pattern during non-REM sleep.

The forebrain

hypothalamus, is an important function is to control NREM sleep. Moreover, it control body

temperature and heart. Blood pressure, hunger, satiety, also has served as a temper. And
feelings such as sadness, feelings of sexual ecstasy.

The brainstem

pons is critical for initiating REM sleep.during REM sleep, the pons sends signals to the visual
nuclei of the thalamus and to the cerebral . The pons also sends signals to the spinal cord,
causing the temporary paralysis that is characteristic of REM sleep.

Physiological change during sleep

Pao and Tum

sexual arousal
occurs infrequently

brain activity

heart rate

decreases from

slows from wakefulness

body temperature
is regulated at lower set
point than wakefulness;
shivering initiated at lower
temperature than during

blood pressure

During NREM

decreases from

blood flow to brain

airway resistance
increases from

decreases from

does not change from

wakefulness in most

sexual arousal

brain activity

heart rate

increases from NREM (in

both males and females)

increases in motor and

sensory areas, while other
areas are similar to NREM

increases and varies

compared with NREM

body temperature
is not regulated; no
shivering or sweating;
temperature drifts toward
that of the local

airway resistance
increases and varies
from wakefulness

blood pressure

During REM

increases (up to 30
percent) and varies from


blood flow to brain

increases and varies from

NREM, but may show brief
stoppages (apnea); coughing

increases by 50 to 200
percent from NREM,
depending on brain

Pattern of sleep
By Sean and Steve 3.4

Pattern of sleep
1.a healthy sleep begin with a NREM sleep
2.N1 sleep
3.N2 sleep
4.N3 sleep
5.N2 sleep
6.REM sleep

Pattern of sleep 2
7.REM and NREM sleep alternation
The average REM and NREM sleep cycle
is between 70 to 100 minute

Factor that can affect sleep pattern

personal internal clock
amount recent sleep and wakefulness

sleep loss & wakefulness.

Gam & Mild

Sleep loss and wakefulness.

30 to 40 % of adults show a sign of sleep loss
10 to 15 % indicate that their sleep loss is serious and prolonged.
Youths in U.S.A illustrates that they mostly have experiences of sleeping problem such as insomnia.
The group of teenagers and shift workers are at risk of sleepiness problem due to lack of sufficient rest, the
desynchronized timing of sleep and wakefulness

Sleep loss and wakefulness.

activities during the morning and evening may have a biological basis.
teenagers get into the habit of a delay in the circadian timing system that results in a tendency for them to stay
up late and go to bed late
affects to all biological functions.
causes ineffectiveness to memory and attention.
change thermoregulation
risk for various physical and mental disorders.

Sleep loss and wakefulness.

affects personal safety on the road.

In U.S.A has 100,000 vehicle crashes each year.
Driving in the early morning or at late-night rises the risk of crashes because biological clocks cause us feel sleepy.
Drowsy driving ruins a drivers response, alertness, and ability to hear the surrounding voices.
In conclusion, many adolescents who have a habit of sleep-deprived will get a higher opportunity of drowsy-driving
crashes and over 50 percent of the crashes occurred with a driver 25 years old or younger.

Misconceptions about Sleep

Natsompol (Mild)
Navamin (Kia)

What is Misconception about sleep?

Most of students may have misconception about what cause us to sleep.
What it will happen during your sleep?
how our body responds to a lack of sleep?
what function sleep fulfills?
The materials in this curriculum supplement, Sleep, Sleep Disorders, and
Biological Rhythms, should help correct the following misconceptions.

Misconception 1: Sleep is time for the body in general and the

brain specifically to shut down the rest
There are some modest decreased in metabolic rate, there is no evidence that any major
organ or regulatory system in the body shuts down during sleep.
Some brain activity, including delta waves, increases dramatically.
The endocrine system increases secretion of certain hormones during sleep.

Misconception 2: Getting just one hour less sleep per night

than needed will not have any effect on daytime functionizng
Most of people daily sleep time is less than the day that used.
Even relatively modest daily reductions in sleep time (for example, one hour) can
accumulate across days to cause a sleep debt.
If your sleep debt become greater, it can lead to problem sleepiness.
Although many of you not care about sleepiness. The sleep debt can have powerful
effects on daytime performance, thinking, and mood.

Misconception 3
The body adjusts quickly to different sleep schedules
The biological clock that times and controls a persons sleep/wake cycle will attempt to
function according to a normal day/night schedule even when that person tries to change it.

The biological clock can be reset, but only by appropriately timed cues and even then, by
one to two hours per day at best.

Problems resulting from a mismatch of this type may be reduced by behaviors such as
sleeping in a dark, quiet room, getting exposure to bright light at the right time, and altering
eating and exercise patterns.

Misconception 4 : People need less

sleep as they grow older.

Older people often get less sleep.

Old people dont need less sleep, but they often get less sleep.
Old people ability to sleep for long periods of time and to get into the deep.
Older people have more fragile sleep and are
more easily disturbed by light

Misconception 5: A good nights sleep can cure

problems with excessive daytime sleepiness.

daytime sleepiness can be associated with a sleep disorder or

other medical condition.
Sleep disorders, including sleep apnea.
Extra sleep may not eliminate daytime sleepiness that may be due to
such disorders.

Homeostasis & Sleep 3.4

by Thanrak (poon)
Pongtanit (toon)

Homeostasis and Sleep

The longer the human remains awake, the stronger the desire and
need to sleep become.
This pressure to sleep defines the homeostatic component of sleep.
The action of nerve-signaling molecules called neurotransmitters and
of nerve cells (neurons)determines whether we are asleep or awake
Additionally,the molecule adenosine is an important sleepiness
factor: it appears to keep track of lost sleep and may induce sleep.
Then while we sleep, our closed eyes block the light signals to the
biological clock.

Interestingly, caffeine binds to and blocks the same
cell receptors that recognize adenosine.
Caffeine disrupts sleep by binding to adenosine
receptors and preventing adenosine from delivering
its fatigue signal.

Homeostatic regulation of sleep

The pressure to sleep grows stronger across the day as one stays
awake and then dissipates when one sleeps at night (shaded area).
Sleep pressure increases (dashed line) as one stays awake longer
into the normal sleeping hours.

Function of Sleep
By: Chinapat (Max)
Andrew (Andrew)

There is a conclusion that scientist
still do not fully understand the
function of sleeping but there is a lot
of hypothesis.

Restoration and recovery of

body systems
Restoration and recovery of body systems
is to replenish its energy stores and
generally repair itself after a period of
energy consumption and breakdown

Energy conservation
conserve energy and is based
on the fact that the metabolic rate is
lower during sleep.

Memory consolidation
sleeping reinforces learning and
memory and in the same time
helping us to forget or to clear
stores of unneeded memories.

Protection from predation

Sleep decreases sensitivity to
external stimuli and meanwhile ,
minimize exposure to predators.

The brain development

This hypothesis is related to REM sleep .
It occurs for prolonged periods during fetal
and infant development.

Discharge of emotions
This Hypothesis dreaming during REM sleep
provides a safe discharge of emotions. To be
safe while being sleep the muscle paralysis so
we wont able to act out the emotion.