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9/1/2016

Principles of
Aquaculture
01251211

Asst. Prof. Oraporn Meunpol

FB: Oraporn Meunpol


omeunpol@hotmail.com
Dept. of Aquaculture, Fac. Fisheries
Kasetsart University
19 Aug 2016

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Advantages of Fish vs meat

Animal protein consumption

Globally, more food fish is consumed on a per


capita basis than any other type of meat or
animal protein

Fish (16.0 kg per capita supply in 1998)


Pork (14.9 kg in 1998)
Poultry (10.1 kg in 1998)
Beef and veal (9.8 kg in 1998)

Sources Delgado et al., 2003


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High quality protein; low calorie, low fat


Easy to digest
Health consciousness
High percentage of meat
Efficiency of growth
Better protein efficiency ratio (high FCE)
Better production to cost ratio
Lower price
Economically suitable for husbandry
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Differences between fisheries


and aquaculture

Feed Conversion (grain:flesh)

Beef cattle on feedlot


Swine
Poultry
Rainbow trout
Tilapia

Why ARE fish so efficient?

8:1
3.3:1
2.25:1
1.5:1
1.25:1

Aquaculture

Fisheries

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Aquaculture
Aquaculture is the semi controlled
production (reproduction and grow out)
of animals and plants that normally live in
water. Ready (1979).
Why semi?

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Objectives of Aquaculture

Aquaculture is a Diverse Field

Capture from the ocean is maximized.


Aquaculture is a growing as a source of the
worlds seafood supply.
Replacing fishing from the wild
Human consumption
Drugs
Maximizing uses of land and water resources
Recreation and sport
Ornamental

Biology
Ecology
Nutrition
Handling and hauling
Water quality
Disease
Marketing
Culture techniques

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Particular kinds of aquaculture


include

fish farming,
shrimp farming
oyster farming
mariculture
algaculture (such as seaweed farming)
cultivation of ornamental fish
particular methods include aquaponics
integrate multi-trophic aquaculture, both of which
integrate fish farming and plant farming

Employment Opportunities

Fisheries biology
Public aquariums
Research positions
Education
Laboratories
Genetic studies
Nutritional studies
Disease studies
Water quality

Aquaculture prospective

Species cultured
Production systems
Pond ecology
Soil
Water
Animals
Nutrition
Natural productivity
Supplement feed

Health of animals
Diseases and
treatment
Health
management
Laws and regulation

Aquaculture activities

State hatcheries
Technicians
Biologists
Private operations
Biologist
Assistant manager
Manager
Open your own
operation

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Aquaculture Journals

Journal of the World Aquaculture Society


North American Journal of Aquaculture (PFC)
Aquaculture
Journal of Applied Aquaculture
Aquaculture Nutrition
Aquaculture Research
Journal of Aquatic Animal Health
Transaction of the American Fisheries Society

Introduction to Aquaculture David Cline


https://youtu.be/6C8tCXIf6BY
4 Major Aquaculture Production Systems David Cline
https://youtu.be/O4rMe6Erl6c
Aquaculture Design Introduction Part 1 of 4
https://youtu.be/8Q9R4jp6kzY
Shrimp Farming (1990s) - Training Video
https://youtu.be/dQ_oZvnBXsE

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History of aquaculture

Aquaculture has a place in world history. This Japanese fish market that likely was
part of an aquaculture system. (Boyer/Roger Viollet/Getty Images)

History: World

100 BC
Roman
Europe
Fish
Oyster

6000 BC
Austalia
Eel

100 BC
Indian
Pearl

2500 BC
China
Carp
2000 BC
Japanese
Seaweed
oyster

1400
Asean
Chanos

1800
North
Channel
Catfish
Rainbow trout

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4,000

4,600
( .. 2460)

.. 2465
.. 2494
.. 2509 .9

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Roman Carp Farm

China
First developed in Asia. 2000BC Chinese raised carps
in ponds.

Grass carp, Ctenopharyngo idella

Silver carp,
Hypophthalmichthys molitrix

Big head carp,


Hypophthalmichthys nobilis

Mud carp, Cirrhinus molitorella

United States

Early aquaculture dealt primarily with freshwater


fish.
Channel catfish farming started at this time.
Largest aquaculture industry in the U.S.
Freshwater aquaculture in U.S.: trout, crawfish,
striped bass
Coastal species culture (mariculture): salmon,
oyster, clams, mussels, scallops, shrimp, crabs

Channel catfish
(Ictalurus punctatus)

Crayfish
(Procambarus clarkii)

Rainbow trout
(Oncorhynchus mykiss)

Striped bass (Morone saxatilis)

References

Rabanal, H. R. 1988. History of


Aquaculture.http://www.fao.org/docrep/fiel
d/009/ag158e/AG158E01.htm

World fisheries production

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Global harvest of aquatic organisms in million tonnes,


19502010, as reported by the FAO [1]
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http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aquaculture

Percent of Total Food Fish Supplied by Aquaculture

http://www.aquaculture.ca/files/opportunity-expansion.php

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FAO. 2014

Fisheries production the world

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FAO. 2014

The global commercial production for human use of fish and other
aquatic organisms occurs in two ways: they are either captured
wild by commercial fishing or they are cultivated and harvested
using aquacultural and farming

According to the Food and Agriculture organization (FAO),


the world production in 2005 consisted of 93.2 million tonnes
captured by commercial fishing in wild fisheries, plus 48.1 million
tonnes produced by fish farms.

In addition,1.3 million tons of aquatic plants (seaweed etc.) were


captured in wild fisheries and 14.8 million tonnes were produced
by aquaculture. The number of individual fish caught in the wild
has been estimated at 0.97-2.7 trillion per year (not counting fish 36
FAO. 2014
farms or marine invertebrates).

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Aquaculture Around the world

World aquaculture production continues to grow, albeit at


a slowing rate.
According to the latest available statistics collected
globally by FAO, world aquaculture production attained
another all-time high of 90.4 million tonnes (live weight
equivalent) in 2012 (US$144.4 billion), including 66.6
million tonnes of food fish (US$137.7 billion) and 23.8
million tonnes of aquatic algae (mostly seaweeds,
US$6.4 billion).
In addition, some countries also reported collectively the
production of 22 400 tonnes of non-food products
(US$222.4 million), such as pearls and seashells for 37
ornamental and decorative uses.
FAO. 2014

Aquaculture Production, Ocean Fisheries, and Fishmeal Production

In 2000, the total world production of fisheries was 45.51


million tonnes by weight of aquaculture products.

In 2004, the total world production of fisheries was 140


million tonnes of which aquaculture contributed 45 million
tonnes, about one third.

In 2012, aquaculture production globally reached a record


high of more than 90 million tons. A United Nations report
titled The State of the World Fisheries and
Aquaculture released in May 2014 maintained fisheries
and aquaculture support the livelihoods of some 60 million
people in Asia and Africa.
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Regional growth of aquaculture

Country

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Average annual growth rate of all aquaculture production in terms of


quantity over a 5 year period. Calculated using the difference between
mean values from the periods 2000-2002 and 2005-2007. Red, greater
than 10%; orange, -3 to -10%; rose, 0 to -3%; violet, 0-3%; light blue 310%; dark blue, greater than 10%. Source: FAO (2009).

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Global status and trend

Global aquaculture production by region. Source: FAO (2010)


Aquaculture by quantity 2008 excluding aquatic plants).

Main aquaculture countries in 2010


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http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aquaculture

Main aquaculture countries in 1950- 2010


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FAO, 2014
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http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aquaculture

FAO, 2014
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FAO, 2014

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FAO, 2014

FAO, 2014

China

US

China is the largest aquaculture producing country in the


world.

Between 1980 and 1997, aquaculture harvests grew at


an annual rate of 16.7 percent, jumping from 1.9 million
tonnes to nearly 23 million tonnes.

In 2005, China accounted for 70% of world production.

Its per capita apparent fish consumption also increased


an average annual rate of 6.0 percent in the period
19902010 to about 35.1 kg in 2010. Annual per capita
fish supply in the rest of the world was about 15.4 kg in
2010 (11.4 kg in the 1960s and 13.5 kg in the 1990s).

Aquaculture is the fastest growing sector of U.S.


agriculture with an approximate annual growth rate of
10%

Currently aquaculture accounts for 25% of all seafood


consumed in the U.S.

Approximately 90% of all U.S. shrimp consumption is


farmed and imported. In recent years salmon
aquaculture has become a major export in southern
Chile, specially in Puerto Montt Chile's fastest-growing
city.

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India

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The biggest share of fish production in India is likely to remain in the


categories of carp production, which have relatively low feed intensities
compared with other aquaculture species like pangasius (catfish) or
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tilapia.
http://www.ifpri.org/sites/default/files/GFPR14-15_ch08_fig01_large.png

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Species

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Proportion of Total Aquaculture Production for


Different Taxonomic Groups

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FAO, 2014

FAO, 2014

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The term food fish includes finfishes, crustaceans,


molluscs, amphibians, freshwater turtles and other
aquatic animals (such as sea cucumbers, sea urchins,
sea squirts and edible jellyfish) produced for the
intended use as food for human consumption.

At the time of writing, some countries (including major


producers such as China and the Philippines) had
released the provisional or final official aquaculture
statistics for 2013.

According to the latest information, FAO estimates that


world food fish aquaculture production rose by 5.8
percent to 70.5 million tonnes in 2013, with production
of farmed aquatic plants (including mostly seaweeds)
being estimated at 26.1 million tonnes. In 2013, China
alone produced 43.5 million tonnes of food fish and 13.5
million tonnes of aquatic algae.
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FAO. 2014

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http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/World_fisheries_production

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http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/World_fisheries_production

Aquaculture production by output and value for major species groups


in 2008. Source: FAO (2010), excluding aquatic plants. (a)
Aquaculture by output 2008 (excluding aquatic plants).
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Ctenopharyngodon idellus (grass carp)

Ruditapes philippinarum (
)
Hypophthalmichthys nobilis
(Bighead carp)

Hypophthalmichthys molitrix
(Silver carp)

Cyprinus carpio (common carp)

Carassius carassius (crucian carp)

Oreochromis niloticus (Nile tilapia)

Penaeus vannamei

Catla catla
(Indian carp, )

Salmo salar (Atlantic salmon)

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Thailand

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https://www.was.org/meetings/ShowAbstract.aspx?Id=34834

Top ten exported agricultural


goods of Thailand

Status of aquaculture in
Thailand

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Thailand is currently one of the ten largest


fishing nations of the world.
In 1986, fish production reached 3.7 ml with 90%
of the production coming from the marine
fisheries sector and 10% from inland fisheries.
In 1980s, the fisheries sector in Thailand was of
major importance to the economy as an earner
of foreign exchange, marine products
accounting for about 10% of total exports in
1986.
Fish also accounted for about 3/5 of the protein
in the national diet.
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Market and trade

Thailand is currently one of the ten largest fishing


nations of the world.

the world's number one exporter of fisheries products


since 1993.
Brackish water aquaculture, in particular shrimps,
gives higher yields than freshwater aquaculture both
in terms of volume and value, are mainly for export
The major markets of brackish water products, are the
United States, the European Union and Japan

Freshwater products are mainly for domestic


consumption and marketed as fresh products
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800,000

700,000

()

600,000
500,000
400,000
300,000
200,000
100,000

Thailand fisheries production from 2000-2010 (Thailand DOF Information


System Center 2011).

2550

2551

2552
.

2553

2554
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http://www.intechopen.com/books/sustainable-aquaculture-techniques/76
impacts-of-aquaculture-on-habitats-and-best-management-practices-bmps-

Brackish water aquaculture production by


group from 2000-2010 (Thailand DOF, 2011)

Freshwater and coastal aquaculture production from 2000-2010


(Thailand DOF 2011).
http://www.intechopen.com/books/sustainable-aquaculture-techniques/77
impacts-of-aquaculture-on-habitats-and-best-management-practices-bmps-

http://www.intechopen.com/books/sustainable-aquaculture-techniques/78
impacts-of-aquaculture-on-habitats-and-best-management-practices-bmps-

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Categories of aquatic fauna in


Thailand

Freshwater species
Saltwater species
Brackishwater species
True marine species

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80
80
,
2552

Aquaculture in Thailand by species

Mariculture in Thailand

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81

.. 2543- 2553
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(: , )

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,
2552

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2552

99,775
128,545
1


1,288 85

(Lates calcarifer)

.. - (: , )

87

(Brackishwater fish) 2540-2546


( 2545, .. 2546)86

(Epinephelus tauvina)

.. - (: , )

88

(Blood cockle)

Freshwater aquaculture in
Thailand

(green mussel)

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90

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.. ..
(: , )

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92
92
,
2552

References

FAO. 2014. The State of World Fisheries and Aquaculture:


Opportunities and challenges.

.. 2543-2553 (: , )
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