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# Student Name: _______________________

Teacher:

_______________________

2016
HSC ASSESSMENT

Mathematics Extension 2
Examiners
Mr J. Dillon, Mr G. Huxley and Mr G. Rawson

General Instructions

Total marks - 100     

Section I
10 marks 
Attempt Questions 1 – 10. 
Allow about 15 minutes for this section.     

Working time – 3 hours.
Write using black or blue pen.
Diagrams may be drawn in pencil.
Board-approved calculators and
mathematical templates may be
used.
Answer Section 1 on the separate
Show all necessary working in
Questions 11 – 16.
Start each of Questions 11 – 16 in a
Put your name on each booklet.
This question booklet is not to be
removed from the examination
room

Section II
90 marks 
Attempt Questions 11 – 16. Each of these six
questions are worth 15 marks. 
Allow about 2 hours 45 minutes for this
section.

Section I
10 marks
Attempt Questions 1 – 10
Allow about 15 minutes for this section
Use the multiple-choice answer sheet for Questions 1 – 10

1.

2.

3.

Let z = 4 − i . What is the value of iz ?
(A)

−1 − 4i

(B)

−1 + 4i

(C)

1 − 4i

(D)

1 + 4i

If z = 1 + 2i and w = 3 − i , which expression gives z − w ?
(A)

3i − 2

(B)

4 + 3i

(C)

i−2

(D)

4+i

Which expression is equal to ∫ 3 x ln x dx ?
(A)

2⎞

2 x x ⎜ ln x − ⎟ + c
3⎠

(B)

2⎞

2 x x ⎜ ln x + ⎟ + c
3⎠

(C)

1 ⎛3

⎜ ln x − 1⎟ + c
x⎝2

(D)

1 ⎛3

⎜ ln x + 1⎟ + c
x⎝2

page 2

4.

5.

6.

7.

If

4

4

1

1

∫ f (x) dx = 6 , what is the value of ∫ f (5 − x) dx ?

(A)

6

(B)

3

(C)

−1

(D)

−6

x2 y 2
What is the eccentricity of the hyperbola with the equation
− = 1?
3 4
2
(A)
1+
3
(B)

7
3

(C)

7
3

(D)

5
3

If a, b, c, d and e are real numbers and a ≠ 0, which of the following statements is correct?
(A)

the polynomial equation ax 7 + bx5 + cx3 + dx + e = 0 has only one real root

(B)

the polynomial equation ax 7 + bx5 + cx3 + dx + e = 0 has at least one real root

(C)

the polynomial equation ax 7 + bx5 + cx3 + dx + e = 0 has an odd number of non-real
roots

(D)

the polynomial equation ax 7 + bx5 + cx3 + dx + e = 0 has no real roots

2 x3
What is the number of asymptotes on the graph of y = 2
?
x −1
(A)
1
(B)

2

(C)

3

(D)

4
page 3

y) on the curve is perpendicular to the axis of rotation. The region bounded by the x-axis.8. The slice at P(x. the curve y = x 2 − 1 and the line x = 2 is rotated about the y-axis. What is the volume δ V of the annular slice formed? (A) π (3 − y 2 ) δ y (B) π 4 − ( y 2 + 1) δ y (C) π 4 − ( x 2 − 1) δ x (D) π 2 − x2 −1 δ x ( 2 ( ) ( ) ) page 4 . At how many points do the graphs of y = x and y = x 2 − 4 intersect? (A) 0 (B) 1 (C) 2 (D) 4 9.

10. y = 20 − x 2 and the y-axis is rotated about the y-axis? ) ( (A) V = ∫ 2π (B) V = ∫ 2π x (C) V = ∫ 2π x 2 − 20 − x 2 dx (D) V = ∫ 2π x x 2 − 20 − x 2 dx 2 0 2 0 2 0 2 0 20 − x 2 − x 2 dx ( ) 20 − x 2 − x 2 dx ) ( ( ) page 5 . What is the correct expression for volume of the solid formed when the region bounded by the curves y = x 2 .

Question 11 Answer this question in a new answer booklet (a) (b) (c) (d) Let z = cosθ + i sin θ where θ is real. (i) Show that 1 + w + w 2 = 0 (ii) Hence or otherwise. (ii) A sequence of complex numbers zn is given by the rule 2 z1 = w and zn = v zn−1 where w is a given complex number and v is a complex number with modulus 1. Show that z3 = w . evaluate: 1 1 1 + 1+ w 1+ w 2 1 Sketch the locus of points on an Argand diagram that satisfy: ⎛ z−2 ⎞ π arg ⎜ ⎟= ⎝ z + 2i ⎠ 2 (e) 1 2 (i) Show that zz = z for any complex number z. (i) Use De Moivre’s theorem to show that (ii) Hence. where a and b are real numbers. 1+ i 1 + 2i What is the value of a and b. z 1 zn 1 a b and z2 = . find z n − 1 = cos θ − i sin θ . All necessary working should be shown in every question. if z1 + z2 = 1? Let z1 = 2 Let w be a non-real cube root of unity. 1 2 Question 11 continues on the next page ….Section II 90 marks Attempt Questions 11 – 16 Allow about 2 hours 45 minutes for this section Answer each question in a new answer booklet. or otherwise. page 6 .

(f) Solve simultaneously by graphing both equations on an Argand Diagram and expressing the point of intersection in the form x + i y: z +2 =2 and arg z = 3π 4 4 page 7 .

(a) Find (b) dx Find ⌠ .… n use integration by parts 1 to show that I n = (ii) e2 n − I n −1 for n = 1. ⌡ x + 4 ( x + 1) ( e (e) 5 2 2 3 ) If I n = ∫ x ( ln x ) dx for n = 0.1.3.2.2. 2 2 page 8 .… 2 2 Hence find the value of I 2 . 3 1 (d) (i) Find the values of A.Question 12 Answer this question in a new answer booklet ∫ cos x sin 4 x dx .3. B and C so that (x (ii) (i) + 4)( x + 1) ≡ Ax + B C . ⎮ 2 ⌡ x − 4x + 8 (c) Use the substitution u = x − 2 to find the exact value of 1 2 3 ∫ x ( x − 2) 5 dx . + 2 x +1 x +4 ⌠ 5 Hence find ⎮ 2 dx .

Question 13 Answer this question in a new answer booklet (a) (b) (c) If α . The tangents at B and B’ meet the tangent at P at the points Q and Q’. β −1 and γ −1 2 The three roots of the equation 8 x3 − 36 x 2 + 38 x − 3 = 0 are in arithmetic sequence. β and γ are the roots of the equation x3 − 3x 2 + 2 x − 1 = 0 . An ellipse has equation (i) x2 y 2 + =1 16 9 Prove that the tangent to the ellipse at P ( 4cos θ . 3 3 page 9 . Find BQ × B ' Q ' .3sin θ ) has equation x cos θ y sin θ + =1 4 3 (ii) 3 The ellipse meets the y-axis at B and B’. Find the roots of the equation. find: (i) α + β + γ and αβ + βγ + α γ 1 (ii) α3 + β 3 +γ 3 3 (iii) the equation whose roots are α −1 .

showing the critical points and stationary points. (b) (c) 2 Consider the function f (x)= (3 − x)(x +1). On separate axes. sketch.Question 14 Answer this question in a new answer booklet (a) The zeros of the equation x 4 + 4 x3 − mx − b = 0 are α . which includes y = x 4 + 4x 3 . You do not have to find m. α . showing the important features. β and β . Illustrate how this can be shown on a graph. the graphs of: (i) y = f (x) 1 (ii) y = f (x ) 1 (iii) y = f (x ) 1 (iv) y = f (x ) 1 (v) y 2 = f (x ) 2 (vi) y = log 2 [ f ( x) ] 2 If x 2 + y 2 + xy = 3 . α or β. dy dx (i) Find (ii) Sketch. b. the graph of: x 2 + y 2 + xy = 3 2 3 page 10 .

2 (i) (ii) Use the method of cylindrical shells to find the volume of this solid in terms of N. page 11 . the x-axis. is rotated about the y-axis to form a solid of revolution. where N > 0. By taking slices perpendicular to the axis of rotation. 3 What is the limiting value of this volume as N → ∞ ? 1 Question 15 continues on the next page ….Question 15 Answer this question in a new answer booklet (a) The area between the coordinate axes and the line 2x + 3y = 6 is rotated about the line y = 3. show that the volume of the solid formed is given by 3 ⌠ ⎛ 4x 4x 2 ⎞ dx − V = π⎮ ⎜8− 3 9 ⎟⎠ ⌡0 ⎝ (b) 2 The shaded region between the curve y = e− x . and the lines x = 0 and x = N.

find lim Vn and verify that a right circular cone of radius r and height h has a n →∞ 1 volume π r 2 h 3 2 page 12 .(c) S Let OAB be an isosceles triangle. Consider a slice. Let OABD be a triangular pyramid with height OD = h units and OD perpendicular to the plane OAB as in the diagram above. n 2 Note that when n is large. S. b ( r − a ) ⎛ ah ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ δ a when δ a is small. with OA = OB = r units. r ⎝ r ⎠ (i) Show that the volume of S is (ii) Hence. show that the pyramid DOAB has a volume of (iii) Suppose now that ∠AOB = 1 hbr . with common vertical axis OD to form a solid C. with FG║AB and BG = a units. 1 3 Show that the volume Vn of C is given by Vn = r 2 hn sin (iv) π . Note also. and AB = b units. The slice S is perpendicular to the plane OAB at FG. Hence. that GH║OD. 6 3 2 2π and that n identical pyramids DOAB are arranged n about O as the centre. C approximates a right circular cone. of the pyramid of width δ a as shown at EFGH in the diagram.

b and c. The lines PQ and RS are the common tangents with PS  QR . NOTE: You do not need to copy the diagram above. The tangent to this circle at A meets the parallel lines at F and G. two circles of differing radii intersect at A and B. page 13 . P and Q. prove that FG is also a tangent to the circle which passes through the points A. A third circle passes through the points S. It has been reproduced for you on a tear – off sheet at the end of this paper. ∠AGR = β and ∠GRA = γ . Let ∠RAG = α . A and R. 3 Δ ABC has sides of length a. (b) (i) Show that ∠SPA = α 2 (ii) Hence. Insert this sheet into your answer booklet for Question 16. 3 Question 16 continues on the next page …. If a 2 + b2 + c 2 = ab + bc + ca show that Δ ABC is an equilateral triangle.Question 16 Answer this question in a new answer booklet (a) In the diagram above.

.(n − k + 1) 1 = × 1+ ∑ ⎜⎝ n ⎟⎠ k! nk k=0 n (ii) ⎛ 1⎞ 1 1 1 Hence.n (c) (i) Use the binomial theorem (1 + x) = ∑ nCk x k to show that n 1 k =0 n n ⎛ 1⎞ n(n − 1)(n − 2). n! 2 2 3 n 1 page 14 . n→∞ ⎝ n⎠ 1 1 < n −1 when n ≥ 3 and n is an integer. show that lim ⎜ 1+ ⎟ < 3 . n→∞ ⎝ n⎠ 2! 3! 4! (iii) Prove by induction that (iv) ⎛ 1⎞ Hence. show that lim ⎜ 1+ ⎟ = 2 + + + + ....

STUDENT NAME: _______________________________ DETACH THIS AND INCLUDE IT IN YOUR ANSWER BOOKLET FOR QUESTION 16 Question 16 (a) page 15 .

Mathematics Extension 2 Solutions and Marking Guidelines Trial Exam 2016 Question 11: Outcomes Addressed in this Question: E3 uses the relationship between algebraic and geometric representations of complex numbers and of conic sections Outcome E3 Solutions (a) (i) z 1 cos T  i sin T .

1 cos(T .

 i sin  T .

Marking Guidelines (a) (i) 1 mark: Correct “show” of Demoivre cos T  i sin T (ii) zn  (b) 1 zn cos nT  i sin T  cos nT  i sin nT .

(i) (b) (i) 2 marks: Correct solution. a  2ai  b  bi 1  i . 2i sin nT (ii) 1 mark: correct answer.

1  2i .

so w 3 1 0 w  1. 2a  b 3 ? a  b 1 ? a 4 b 5 1 mark: Significant progress. 1 (c) (i) w is a cube root of unity.

w 2  w 1.

. 0 (c) (i) 1 mark: correct solution including reason. There are several correct methods. w not real. so w  1 z 0 ? w 2  w 1 0 (ii) 1 1  1  w 1 w 2 1 1  w w  w  w2 w3 1 (ii) 1 mark: Correct solution. .

(d) § z2 · S arg¨ ¸ © z  2i ¹ 2 2 marks: Correct semi-circle. Needs to pass through origin. with diameter end-points excluded. -2). (e) (i) z z x 2  iy . 1 mark: Significant progress. (2.0) and (0.

3 marks:: One element of solution omitted. (e) (i) 1 mark: Show that difference of two squares becomes a sum. ?z 3 w (f) (ii) 2 marks: Correct solution including explanation in regards to part (i). 1 mark: Partial progress. (f) 4 marks: Correct solution. line. 2 x2y2 z 2 (ii) z1 w But v v v 2 z2 vw z 3 vvw 1 from (i) and because v has modulus 1. 2 marks: Significant progress. Pt of intersection: z  2  2i . value of z. 1 mark: Some relevant progress. excluded point. including circle.

u 5 du −1 1 = ∫ (u −1 6 Award 1 for limited progress towards solution + 2u 5 ) du 1 ⎡ u 7 2u 6 ⎤ =⎢ + 6 ⎥⎦ −1 ⎣7 ⎛ 1 1⎞ ⎛ 1 1⎞ = ⎜ + ⎟ −⎜− + ⎟ ⎝ 7 3⎠ ⎝ 7 3⎠ 2 = 7 (d) (i) (ii) 5 ≡ ( Ax + B ) ( x + 1) + C ( x 2 + 4 ) Let x = −1. u = 1 Award 2 for significant progress towards solution 1 ∴I = ∫ (u + 2 ). 5 = 5C → C = 1 5 = B + 4C → B = 1 Let x = 1. B and C Award 1 for substantial progress towards solution Award 3 for correct answer.Year 12 Question 12 Mathematics Extension 2 Task 4 (Trial HSC) 2016 Solutions and Marking Guidelines Outcome Addressed in this Question E8 applies further techniques of integration. Award 2 for significant progress towards solution Award 1 for limited progress towards solution . Let x = 0. to problems Outcomes Solutions Marking Guidelines 5 ⌠ cos x sin 4 x dx = sin x + c ⎮ 5 ⌡ (a) Award 1 for correct answer ⌠ dx dx ⌠ 2 ⎮ x 2 − 4x + 8 = ⎮ 2 ⌡ ( x − 2) + 2 ⌡ 1 ⎛ x − 2⎞ = tan −1 ⎜ +c ⎝ 2 ⎟⎠ 2 (b) Award 2 for correct solution Award 1 for substantial progress towards solution 3 I = ∫ x ( x − 2 ) dx 5 (c) u = x − 2→ du = dx Award 3 for correct answer. including partial fractions. 5 = 2 ( A + B ) + 5C → A = −1 ⌠ 5 I =⎮ 2 dx ⌡ ( x + 4 ) ( x + 1) −x + 1 1 =⌠ + dx ⎮ 2 ⌡ x + 4 x +1 1 1 −x + 2 + dx =⌠ ⎮ 2 ⌡ x + 4 x + 4 x +1 x 1 1 = − ln x 2 + 4 + tan −1 + ln x + 1 2 2 2 Award 2 for correct values of A. integration by parts and recurrence formulae. 1 x = 1.u = −1 x = 3.

e (d) (i) I n = ∫ x ( ln x ) dx u = ( ln x ) n n 1 dv =x dx du n x2 n−1 = ( ln x ) v = dx x 2 e e Award 2 for correct solution Award 1 for substantial progress towards solution ⎡ x2 x2 n n⎤ n−1 ∴ I n = ⎢ . ( ln x ) dx ⎣2 ⎦1 ⌡1 2 x e e2 12 n n n n−1 = .( ln x ) ⎥ − ⌠ ⎮ .I n−1 2 2 e2 2 − I1 2 2 e2 ⎛ e2 1 ⎞ = − ⎜ − I0 ⎟ 2 ⎝ 2 2 ⎠ I2 = e = 1 x dx 2 ∫1 e 1 ⎡ x2 ⎤ = ⎢ ⎥ 2 ⎣ 2 ⎦1 1 ⎛ e2 1 ⎞ e2 − 1 = ⎜ − ⎟= 2 ⎝ 2 2⎠ 4 Award 2 for correct solution Award 1 for substantial progress towards solution .( ln1) − ∫ x ( ln x ) dx 2 2 21 = (ii) e2 n − .( ln e) − .

Year 12 Question No.uses efficient techniques for the algebraic manipulation required in dealing with questions such as those involving conic sections and polynomials Part / Solutions Marking Guidelines Outcome (a) i. 13 Mathematics Extension 2 TRIAL .2016 HSC Solutions and Marking Guidelines Outcomes Addressed in this Question E4 .

x3  3x 2  2 x  1 0 D  E J  DE  EJ  DJ c a ii .

D 3  3D 2  2D  1 b a 3 1 mark : correct solution 2 0 E  3E  2E  1 0 3 2 3 marks : correct solution J 3  3J 2  2J  1 0 3 D 2  E 2  J 2 .

 2 D  E  J .

D 3  E 3  J 3 3 D 2  E 2  J 2 .  3 so.

 2 3 .

 3 2 3 ª D  E  J .

 2 DE  EJ  DJ .

º  3 ¬ ¼ 2 marks : substantially correct solution 1 mark : progress towards correct solution 3 ª¬32  2 2 .

º¼  3 12 iii .

a. a  d D  E J 3a a b  a 36 8 3 2 DEJ  a a2  d 2 . 3 ie (b) 2 §1· §1· §1· ¨ ¸  3¨ ¸  2 ¨ ¸ 1 0 © x¹ © x¹ © x¹ 1 3 2   1 0 x3 x 2 x 1  3x  2 x 2  x3 0 2 marks : correct solution 1 mark : substantially correct solution x3  2 x 2  3x  1 0 8 x3  36 x 2  38 x  3 0 roots in AP o a  d .

 2 2 2 2 d a r 2 3 marks : correct solution 2 marks : substantially correct solution 1 mark : progress towards correct solution . 3 8 2 · 3 §§ 3 · 2 ¨¨ ¨ ¸  d ¸¸ 2 ©© 2 ¹ ¹ 3 8 9 d2 4 d2 1 4 2 d ? the roots are 3 3 3  2. .

Question 13 coninued… (c) i .

3sin T . b 3  1 o 16 9 2 x 2 y dy 0  . x2 y 2 a 4. 16 9 dx dy 9x  dx 16 y 3cos T so. m  at P 4 cos T .

4sin T 4 y sin T  12sin 2 T 3cos T x  4 cos T .

4sin T 3 x cos T  12 cos 2 T 3x cos T  4 y sin T 12 sin 2 T  cos 2 T .

3x cos T  4 y sin T 12 x cos T y sin T  4 3 12 eq'n of tangent is y  3sin T  3 marks : correct solution 2 marks : substantially correct solution 1 mark : progress towards correct solution (ii) 3 marks : correct solution so. At Q : y 3 o x At Q ' : y 3 o x BQ u BQ ' 4 1  sin T .

cos T 4 1  sin T .

cos T 4 1  sin T .

4 1  sin T .

u cos T cos T 2 16 1  sin T .

cos 2 T 16 cos 2 T cos 2 T 16 2 marks : substantially correct solution 1 mark : progress towards correct solution .

(b) (i) (b) (i) 1 mark: Correct parabola (ii) (ii) 1 mark: correct sketch. Marking Guidelines (a) 2 marks: Correct representation of both components of the sketch. including showing that the arms are concave up. . 1 mark: Partially correct.Mathematics Extension 2 Solutions and Marking Guidelines Trial Exam 2016 Question 14: Outcomes Addressed in this Question: E6 combines the ideas of algebra and calculus to determine the important features of the graphs of a wide variety of functions Outcome E6 (a) Solutions If x 4  4 x 3  mx  b 0 Then x 4  4 x 3 mx  b We are told this equation has 2 double roots.

(v) 2 marks: Correct diagram (circle.. (vi) (vi) 2 marks: Correct diagram. . asymptotes at x=-1 and x = 3 1 mark: Partially correct. centre (1.0) radius 2) with maximum and minimum turning points indicated. . including maximum turning point. (iv) (v) (iv)1 mark: Correct reflection of upper part of (i) only. 1 mark: Partially correct.(iii) (iii) 1 mark: Correct reflection of the RHS of (i).

2 marks: Significant progress. 1 mark: Some relevant progress. including stationary and critical points.(c) 2 marks: Correct solution (c) 1 mark: partially correct. . (i) 2x  2 y (ii) dy dy x y 0 dx dx 2x  y dy  dx x  2y (iii) 3 marks: Correct solution and diagram.

Year 12 Question No.2016 HSC E7 .uses the techniques of slicing and cylindrical shells to determine volumes Part / Outcome Solutions (a) Marking Guidelines y x A S R  r 2 2 2 marks : correct solution . 15 Mathematics Extension 2 Solutions and Marking Guidelines Outcomes Addressed in this Question TRIAL .

A y .

S 3  3  y .

2 S 6 y  y2 .

A x.

2 .

3y 2 ª § 2x · § 2x · º S «6 ¨ 2  ¸  ¨ 2  ¸ » 3 ¹ © 3 ¹ »¼ «¬ © ª § ¬ © S «12  4 x  ¨ 4  § S ¨8  © GV V 2x  3y § S ¨8  © 8x 4 x2 ·º  ¸» 3 9 ¹¼ 4x 4x2 ·  ¸ 3 9 ¹ 4x 4x2 ·  ¸G x 3 9 ¹ 3 § 4 x 4 x2 ·  lim ¦ S ¨ 8  ¸G x G x o0 3 9 ¹ x 0 © 3 ´ § 4 x 4 x2 · S µ ¨8   ¸ dx 3 9 ¹ ¶0 © y 1 mark : substantially correct solution 6 6  2x 2 2x 3 .

h e  x2 A 2S rh A x.Question 15 continued… (b) (i) 2πr 3 marks : correct solution r x.

2S xe 2 marks : substantially correct solution 2S xy  x2 1 mark : progress towards correct solution 2 GV 2S xe  x G x N lim ¦ 2S xe  x G x V G x o0 ³ N 0 2 x 0 2 2S xe  x dx N  ªS e  x º ¬ ¼0 2 2 S  S e  N units3 ii .

lim V N of lim S  S e N N of 2 .

S units3 note that e N2 o 0 as N o f .

1 mark : correct solution .

OG OB b r a .Question 15 continued… (c) (i) In base ΔOAB: GB a OB r NB b 2 OG r a MG OG MG FG NB OB NB. 2 r 2MG 3 marks : correct solution 2 marks : substantially correct solution b r  a.

OB r. GB a GH OD GB OB OD.GB GH OB ah r VS ii . r 1 mark : progress towards correct solution Also: OD h.

G a b r  a . FG.GH .

§ ah · ¨ ¸G a r © r ¹ ´ b r  a .

§ ah · ¨ ¸ da µ r © r ¹ ¶0 bh r a r  a .

da r 2 ³0 bh r ar  a 2 .

r2 6 1 bhr 6 2 marks : correct solution 1 mark : substantially correct solution . da 2 ³0 r r V r bh ª a 2 r a 3 º  » r 2 «¬ 2 3 ¼0 bh ª§ r 3 r 3 · º «¨  ¸  0 » r 2 ¬© 2 3 ¹ ¼ bh r 3 .

Question 15 continued… iii .

2 r b 2r sin T 9 T 2r sin Vn lim Vn n of n of S n 1 S lim r 2 hn sin n of 3 n S 1 2 r h lim n sin n of n 3 sin S 1 2 r h lim S S n 9 n of 3 n let x so. lim Vn 1 mark : substantially correct solution 2 1 bhr from ii . given AOB ie T now. sin 2S n 2S n T S 2 2 n b 1 .

.

6 S 1 hr.2r sin 9 n 6 S 1 2 hr sin n 3 S 1 2 hr n sin n 3 V iv .

1 2 sin x r h S lim x o0 3 x 1 2 Sr h 3 9 2 marks : correct solution 1 mark : substantially correct solution S n o0 . as n o f . 2 marks : correct solution S n .

b and c are side lengths of the triangle and are all positive real numbers. ⎞ ∠AFP = ∠AGR = β ⎜ ⎟⎠ ⎝ PS || QR In ΔAFP and ΔRAG Award 3 for correct solution ∠FPA( = ∠SPA ) = ∠RAG ( from (i)) Award 2 for substantial progress towards solution ∴ ΔAFP ||| ΔRAG ( equiangular ) Award 1 for limited progress towards solution ∠AFP = ∠AGR ( proved above ) ⎛ matching angles in similar ⎞ ∴∠FAP = ∠GRA ⎜ ⎟⎠ ⎝ triangles are equal =γ ⎛ The angle between a tangent and a chord ⎞ ⎟ ∠PQA = ∠QRA ⎜ equals the angle at the circumference ⎟ ⎜ ⎝ in the alternate segment of circle RABQ ⎠ = ∠GRA =γ ∴∠FAP = ∠PQA Hence.Year 12 Question 16 Mathematics Extension 2 Task 4 (Trial HSC) 2016 Solutions and Marking Guidelines Outcomes Addressed in this Question E2 chooses appropriate strategies to construct arguments and proofs in both concrete and abstract settings E9 communicates abstract ideas and relationships using appropriate notation and logical argument Part Solutions Marking Guidelines (a) (i) ⎛ The angle between a tangent and a chord ⎞ ⎟ ∠RSA = ∠RAG ⎜ equals the angle at the circumference ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ in the alternate segment of circle SAR ⎠ =α ⎛ The angle between a tangent and a chord ⎞ ⎟ ∠SPA = ∠RSA ⎜ equals the angle at the circumference ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ in the alternate segment of circle PBAS ⎠ Award 2 for correct solution Award 1 for substantial progress towards solution =α (ii) ⎛ alternate angles are equal. (b) (a − b)2 = a 2 + b2 − 2ab (b − c)2 = b2 + c 2 − 2bc (c − a)2 = c 2 + a 2 − 2ca 2 ⎡⎣a2 + b2 + c2 − (ab + bc + ca)⎤⎦ = (a − b)2 + (b − c)2 + (c − a)2 Now a. Award 3 for correct solution Award 2 for substantial progress towards solution Award 1 for limited progress towards solution . ∴ (a − b)2 ≥ 0 and (a − b)2 = 0 only if a = b Hence if a 2 + b 2 + c 2 = ab + bc + ca (given) then (a − b)2 + (b − c)2 + (c − a)2 = 0 ∴ (a − b) 2 = (b − c) 2 = (c − a ) 2 = 0 ∴a = b = c Therefore ΔABC is an equilateral triangle. FG is tangent to the circle through APQ by the converse of the angles in the alternate segment theorem.

. n n n k! k =0 n n! n! 1 n! 1 n! 1 n! 1 = + . n n ! ( n − 1)!1! n ( n − 2 )!2! n 2 ( n − 3)!3! n3 n! n n = 1+1+ Award 2 for correct solution Award 1 for substantial progress towards solution ( n − 1) .. n →∞ n n n k! k =0 n n ⎛ n! 1 1 1 n! n! n! n! 1 ⎞ .. it is true for n = k + 1 .. + . < k −1 k! 2 To prove the result is true for n = k + 1 .... 1 + ( n − 1)( n − 2 ) .... 3! 2 6 4 1 1 Assume the result is true for n = k .. n − 2 → 1 .. + .. Award 1 for proving the result true for n = 3 . Therefore the result is true for n = 3 .. n − 3 → 1. 1 + ( )( ) ... + .. + 2! 3! n! n n ⎛ 1⎞ 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 lim ⎜ 1+ ⎟ = ∑ = 1+ 1+ + + + .. + 1 = lim ⎜1 + 1 + ⎟ n →∞ 2! 3! n! ⎠ n n2 ⎝ = 1 + 1 + 1... k! nk k=0 n =∑ (ii) n n(n − 1)(n − 2). 2+ .. 1 1 1 + 1. + . + 1 n 2! n2 3! n! As n → ∞ then n − 1 → 1 . × . × .(n − k + 1) 1 ⎛ 1⎞ .(n − k + 1) 1 ⎛ 1⎞ lim ⎜1 + ⎟ = lim ∑ ... + .. 3 + . = n →∞ n →∞ nk k! ⎝ n⎠ k =0 n (n − k + 1) 1 n (n − 1) (n − 2) = lim ∑ × × × ..(n − k + 1) 1 ...(c) (i) n n ⎛ 1⎞ ⎛ 1⎞ n ⎜⎝ 1+ n ⎟⎠ = ∑ Ck ⎜⎝ n ⎟⎠ k=0 k ⎛ 1⎞ n! ⎜⎝ n ⎟⎠ (n − k)!k! k=0 n =∑ Award 1 for correct solution k n(n − 1)(n − 2). n→∞ ⎝ n⎠ 2! 3! 4! 2! 3! 4! k=0 k! (iii) Test the result for n = 3 1 1 1 1 < 3−1 or < .. 1 + . = 2 + + + + ..e. n n n n n(n − 1)(n − 2).. 1 + ... ⎜1 + ⎟ = ∑ nk k! ⎝ n ⎠ k =0 n n (n − 1) (n − 2) (n − k + 1) 1 =∑ × × × . < ( k+1)−1 < k (k + 1)! 2 2 1 (k + 1)! 1 = (k + 1)k ! 1 Assumption for n = k < (k + 1)2k −1 1 k + 1 > 2 as n ≥ 3 < 2 × 2k −1 1 = k = RHS 2 Thus if the result is true for n = k . . + . It LHS = Award 3 for correct solution Award 2 for proving the result true for n = 3 and attempting to use the result of n = k to prove the result for n = k + 1 . n ⎟⎟ = lim ⎜⎜ + n →∞ n ! n! n ⎠ ( n − 1)!1! n ( n − 2 )!2! n ( n − 3)!3! n ⎝ 1 1 2 − − − n n n ⎛ ⎞ ( ) . 1 1 1 i. + .

5. A \$ 4.. (iv) Award 1 for correct solution From part (ii) n ⎛ 1⎞ 1 1 1 1 ∞ 1 lim ⎜ 1+ ⎟ = 2 + + + + . = 2 + + ∑ n→∞ ⎝ n⎠ 2! 3! 4! 2 k=3 k! < 2+ 1 ∞ 1 +∑ 2 k=3 2 k−1 1 1 1 1 + ( 2 + 3 + 4 + ...) 2 2 2 2 1 1 2 = 2+ +( 2 1) Limiting sum of GP 2 1− 2 = 2+ =2 + 1 1 + =3 2 2 Multiple Choice Answers 1.. C 8.has been shown true for n = 3 . A 10. hence true for n = 4 and so on. C 2. D 9. B 6. B 7. C 3. B .