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Thermal Winds

EESA09
Lecture 7

Outline
 Part 1 Thermal Winds
 Land/sea breeze
 Monsoon
 Valley Breeze
 Foehn/Chinook
 Katabatic wind

 Part 2 Urban Heat Island
 Part 3 Research: Trends in temperature for the GTA
 Chinooks and Day to Day temperature variability

Thermal breezes
 Land/sea breeze

 Monsoons
 Valley breeze
 Katabatic wind
 Chinook

Land/sea breeze  Thermally induced circulation  Causes pressure differences  Often associated with day and night contrasts  Diurnal variation .

Sea breeze (Land 27C. Water 18C) .

Sea breeze front  As the sea breeze develops the advancing on-shore breeze forms a front  Sea breeze front  Land air is forced up and can generate sea breeze frontal clouds  Shallower than fronts produced by midlatitude cyclones .

Land Breeze .

Thermal breezes from the Great Lakes Region .

Thermal breeze .Florida .

Sea breeze frequency  Sea breeze analysis along 60 # of Sea Breezes New Jersey coast of USA  Clear bias for summer time sea breezes when land/sea contrasts are greatest Sea Breeze Climatology (1996-2002) at Tuckerton 54 50 40 40 30 43 24 21 20 12 10 6 1 0 8 1 0 Month 1 .

Thermal breezes  Land/sea breeze  Monsoons  Valley breeze  Katabatic wind  Chinook .

com/watch?v=vMNCJiCsrwo&feature=related . mausim.Monsoon  Arabic word. meaning ‘season’  Referred to seasonal trade winds in Arabian Sea  Seasonal scale thermal wind  Asian Monsoon  Large scale impacts on India and surrounding countries (south Asia) and Africa  Summer monsoon begins late May http://www.youtube.

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Indian Monsoon .

Monsoon  Rain lasts for weeks at a time  Can be critical for crops. North America (Mexico and South-western US)  Not as pronounced as the South Asian monsoon http://www. South America. Australia.youtube.youtube.com/watch?v=2XIEKA3rbVI&feature=related http://www. drinking water  Other monsoons occur in Africa.com/watch?v=JdKTMqtP7dM http://www.com/watch?v=R67iIYene_w&feature=fvwrel .youtube.

Thermal breezes  Land/sea breeze  Monsoons  Valley breeze  Katabatic wind  Chinook .

Valley Breeze  Smaller scale wind  Also driven by diurnal variations in heating  During the day land warms faster than the air and upslope winds are induced  At night the opposite occurs and downslope winds are induced  Important feature for hikers .

Thermal breezes  Land/sea breeze  Monsoons  Valley breeze  Katabatic wind  Chinook .

Katabatic Wind  Another mountain wind  Air passing over a glacier or ice sheet becomes very cold and dense  Cold air funnels into valleys producing cold strong winds .

Thermal breezes  Land/sea breeze  Monsoons  Valley breeze  Katabatic wind  Chinook .

Chinook  Wind on the lee side of mountains – foehn wind  Chinook – North American term .

Chinook Which way is the chinook blowing and why? .

Other Foehn winds  Zonda (Argentina)  Aspre (France)  Foehn (Switzerland)  Sky sweeper (Spain) Phenomena – released as “Creepers” in North America in 1985 features a Foehn wind .linked to mood swings/madness .

(2000)  Linked chinook episodes in Calgary.Chinooks and Human Health  Cooke et al. Alberta to migraine headache occurrence  Epidemiological study – statistical linkage between two factors – not necessarily causal  Explanations  Psychological trigger – many believe that migraines are triggered by weather and weather change  Changes in temperature and pressure associated with wind changes may be the trigger [more on this in Part III] .

Outline  Part 1 Thermal Winds  Part 2 Urban Heat Island  What is it?  What causes it?  Toronto’s heat island  Part 3 Research: Trends in temperature for the GTA  Chinooks and Day to Day temperature variability .

Urban versus Rural Pollution level Sunshine hours Temperature Relative humidity Visibility Wind speed Precipitation Cloudiness Thunderstorms Higher Lower Higher Lower Lower Lower Higher Higher Higher Reduced visibility in Xian. China .

Urban Heat Island  What is it?  Warming of urban areas compared to surrounding areas  Most noticeable at night and in the winter months  More intense when winds are weak or non-existent  Up to 10C warmer in city core  Mitigated by green space. water .

city dependent .Urban Heat Island  What causes it?  Several sources  Reduced evaporation  Reduced albedo (reflectivity)  Heat storage  Heat generation  No dominant mechanism.

Evaporative Cooling  Radiant energy from the sun is used at the surface to either heat the surface or evaporate water  Heating the surface increases the surface temperature  Evaporation transforms the energy into latent heat and does not increase the surface temperature .

Wet Surface Incoming Surface heating Evaporation Ground storage Dry Surface Surface heating Ground storage Evaporation .

pavement prevent evaporation  Lack of vegetation which would bring water up from the soil  More energy goes into heating the surface and less into evaporation – thus enhancing the heating (UHI) .Suppression of Evaporation  Buildings.

none absorbed by the surface  .Albedo Changes  Albedo is a surface’s ability to reflect energy  Albedo ranges from 0 to 1 0 represents no reflected energy. all absorbed by the surface  1 represents all the energy is reflected.

Albedo  Snow has a high albedo approaching 1  In urban areas there is less snow  Snow that does fall is removed  Urban areas thus have lower albedo and thus more energy is absorbed .

preventing convective cooling .Heat Storage  Tall buildings create a complex geometry – “canyon effect”  Radiant energy trapped by buildings  Wind is blocked.

domestic heating and air conditioning release large quantities of heat  Some types of urban pollution can prevent release of excess heat . motor vehicles.Urban Generation of Heat  Industry.

Heat Island and Temperature Increase
 Oke (1973)
 linked heat island (ΔT) to
log(Population)
 biggest difference is in daily
minimum temperature (night time)
 Toronto examples
 Field study
 Downtown / Pearson comparison
 Toronto / Vineland comparison

Urban Heat Island
 Link between UHI and

electrical power load
 Electrical power load is
linked to population size

Outline
 Part 1 Thermal Winds
 Part 2 Urban Heat Island
 What is it?
 What causes it?
 Toronto’s heat island

 Part 3 Research: Trends in temperature for the GTA
 Chinooks and Day to Day temperature variability

Don and Rouge Valleys Toronto. Ontario .Toronto’s Heat Island  Ted Munn – U of T professor     (1967) First thorough examination of Toronto’s micro-climate Discovered a well defined heat island focused on the downtown Modified by wind and topography UHI shaped by cool air intrusion from Lake Ontario flooding up the Humber.

Urban Heat Island was assessed for Toronto.Gough and Rozanov (2001)  Using climate normals. Ontario  Climate “normals”: thirty year mean values of maximum and minimum daily temperature  Downtown Toronto was compared to “rural” site at Pearson Airport  Comparison over the long term with Vineland .

Pearson Toronto Lake Ontario Vineland .

Tmin Tmax Lake Breeze Downtown cooler than airport! .

.Rozanov and Gough (2004)  Is the urban heat island of Toronto changing with time?  Vineland results suggest that it has.

(Vineland –Toronto) minimum temperature difference Past 1926-1936 More Recent 1977-1987 .

2000  Links to topography. urbanization Different Tmax and Tmin in Toronto 16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 -2 1820 1860 1900 1940 1980 2020 TMAX TMIN DIFF .Diurnal Temperature  Why has the heat island increased?  Time series from downtown Toronto station 1840 .

Rural Comparison Diurnal Temperature Range 13 12 11 10 9 8 7 TORONTO VINELAND 6 1940 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 DELHI PEARSON .

Urban sprawling .

Limits to UHI  Urban sprawl limits cooling effect of country breeze  Thus Tmin keeps increasing  Lake breeze during the day still operative and Tmax does not increase as much as Tmin Different Tmax and Tmin in Toronto 16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 -2 1820 1860 1900 1940 1980 2020 TMAX TMIN DIFF .

Summary  Intensifying UHI in Toronto  Changes in diurnal temperature  Influence of expanding urbanization  Suppression of the country breeze .

Thermal Wind Concept Map .

Outline  Part 1 Thermal Winds  Part 2 Urban Heat Island  Part 3 Research:  Trends in temperature in the GTA  Mohsin and Gough (2009)  Chinooks and Day to Day temperature variability  Gough (2007) .

Great Lakes modify the local climate  less extremes seasonally and diurnally  Heat capacity of the lakes cause winters to be warmer and summers cooler  Toronto has greater precipitation than Calgary – more energy goes into evaporating surface water and soil moisture .Local Geography .Great Lakes  For Toronto.

Trends in temperature in the GTA (Mohsin and Gough.2009) .

Analysis  Trends in temperature for seven stations in the GTA  To isolate the urban heat island effect. 1989-2000 and 1970-2000 . changes in annual temperature for an urban station is compared with a rural station  Spatial distribution of the changes in annual mean temperature for two different period.

00 19 70 Normal dis.00 Torndow n Pearson ToronIsland Richmondhill Woodbridge Albionhill Oshaw a .00 -2.00 20 00 19 98 19 96 19 94 19 92 19 90 19 88 19 86 19 84 19 82 19 80 19 78 19 76 19 74 -1.00 19 72 0.00 1.00 2. values 3.00 Years -3.Mean temperature 4.

Maximum Temparature 6 Normal dis. values 10 8 6 4 2 0 -2 18 7 8 18 8 8 -4 Normal dis. values 6 4 2 0 -2 -4 18 7 8 18 8 8 18 9 8 19 0 8 19 1 8 19 2 8 19 3 8 19 4 8 19 5 8 19 6 8 19 7 8 Years Toronto 19 0 8 19 1 8 19 2 8 Years Mean Temperature 8 18 9 8 Beatrice 19 3 8 19 4 8 19 5 8 19 6 8 19 7 8 . values 5 4 3 2 1 0 -1 18 7 8 18 8 8 18 9 8 19 0 8 19 1 8 19 2 8 19 3 8 19 4 8 19 5 8 19 6 8 19 7 8 -2 Years -3 Minimum Temperature Normal dis.

To r n on Is la To nd ro nP ea rs R on ic hm on d H ill W oo db rid ge O sh aw a M illg ro ve A lb K io in n g H S ill m ok e Tr ee on do w To r Temperature °C Annual Mean 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 1970-2000 1989-2000 .

and in winter months  The magnitude of the temperature decreases with increasing distance from Toronto downtown  At least 30% of the warming.Conclusions  Magnitude of the trends in temperature are higher in urban areas compared to rural areas during 1970-2000  UHI impact is more pronounced on the minimum temperature than on the maximum temperature (Lake effect). . which is observed at Toronto downtown is due to urban heat island effect.

A.Part III  Research  Chinooks and day to day temperature variability  Gough (2008)  W. Gough .

Measuring Climate variability  Climate variability  Linked to  human comfort and health  perception of climate change  Infrastructure design .

g.Does our climate have short term memory?  Traditional measures of variability  Standard deviation (a measure of departure from average or mean value)  Threshold extremes (e.46C S. days greater than 30C)  Percentiles (tail ends of a distribution.1C ≥5C swings: 3 -6 Series1 -8 -10 -12 -14 -16 -18 .D.g. 1980 Beatrice 0 1 -2 -4 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 Mean: -5.: 4. e. 95th percentile) 4 2 Feb.

Day to day variability  Some researchers consider SD as a measure of day to day variability  However. SD assumes randomness in the data  Another measure is not the departure from the monthly average but from the previous day T  DTD  i  Ti 1 N 1  Where | | means absolute value (always a positive difference)  N is number of days in the month  i is a counter that marches through the days of the month  This is largely how we experience weather change – “weather swings” .

Characterizing our climate  3 possibilities  Linear (gradual change from lowest to highest value – minimizes the variability or swings – indicates a degree of climate memory – today depends on yesterday)  Random (unordered – no memory of previous day)  Oscillatory (reactionary swings between extremes like a pendulum) .

Characterizing our climate 7 6 5 4 Linear Random Oscillatory 3 2 1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 .

Theoretical cases  Create a fictional month of 30 days  10 days have 2 oC  10 days have 3 oC  10 days have 4 oC  No matter how these days are organized the standard deviation (departure from the mean) is constant .

R > 1  What about real data?  Let’s examine and compare Toronto and Calgary (home of chinooks) .Conclusions  Linear climate (strong memory). R ~ 1  Oscillatory climate (reactionary swings). R < 1  Random climate (little to no memory).

4 0.9 0.2 0.1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Month Tmin Tmax . R is    Ratio DTD/SD Toronto 0.6 Ratio  calculated for all months and averaged for Tmin and Tmax R<1 Not a random climate. more random in summer Tmin appears to be less random especially in spring and summer 0.5 0.8 0.Toronto Variability  1971 – 2000 data.3 0.7 0. some degree of climate memory or progression Seasonality is not strong.

7 0.2 0.3 0.6 Ratio so in winter  Tmin in this case is more random especially in the summer months 0. less 0.1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Month 8 9 10 11 12 .DTD variability in Calgary  R<1  Suggests climate memory  Stronger seasonal dependence Ratio Calgary  More random in summer.9 0.5 Tmin 0.8 0.4 Tmax 0.

Toronto/Calgary comparison  “R” values are not very 5 C Swings Tmin 12 10 Number of Swings intuitive to grasp  Another measure of variability: counting number of times that the temperature swings exceed 5C  Autumn differences due to presence of Lake Ontario – mitigates cold extremes 8 6 4 2 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Month Toronto Calgary 9 10 11 12 .

Toronto/Calgary Comparison  5C swings  Tmax  Calgary has a dryer 14 12 10 Counts climate – available energy heats the surface rather than evaporate water 5 C Swings Tmax 8 Toronto Calgary 6 4 2 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Month 8 9 10 11 12 .

5 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Counts 8 9 10 11 12 .Toronto/Calgary Comparison 10 C Swings Tmin 3.5 Counts  Tmin and Tmax 3 2 Toronto Calgary 1.5 1 summer in either city  Calgary has more extreme swings in fall and winter months  Impact of Chinook winds 0.5  10C Swings  Very few large swings in the 2.5 1 0.5 4 3.5 Toronto 2 Calgary 1.5 Month 3 2.5 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Month 10 C Swings Tmax 4.

Why the difference?  Energy Partitioning for wet and dry climates  Great Lakes  Presence of water mitigates extremes  Chinooks  Can produce rapid changes in temperature on the leeside of the Rockies .

Chinooks  Calgary chinooks provide extreme temperature variations over short periods of time  Record: January 11. 1983  -17oC to 13oC in 4 hours  25 to 40 days per year are Chinook days  Mainly in winter months  Several definitions used .

Great Lakes mitigate change  Effect more pronounced during the day .Conclusions  Climate of Toronto and Calgary cannot be characterized as random but as having some memory  Calgary exhibits greater swings temperature than Toronto  Linked to Chinooks and local geography  Chinooks tend to accentuate changes due to changing weather patterns.

Next week  Measuring WIND .