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Safety Tips for Using Electrical Appliances

1. Apart from fixed electrical appliances (e.g. ceiling luminaires and electric water heaters) which
do not receive power supply from socket outlets, an electrical appliance must be fitted with a 3-pin
plug which complies with the safety requirements

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2.To prevent electric shock, electrical appliances must be effectively earthed, i.e. the metallic
casing of an electrical appliance is connected to the "earth" pin of its plug. 3. Any electrical
appliance of rated voltage less than 200V a.c. (e.g. audio-video (AV) appliances rated at 110V a.c.)
must not be connected directly to the 220V a.c. household power supply system. It must be
connected with the Eu voltage reduce supplied by manufacture. 4.Electrical appliances must be
fitted properly and with robust structures for stable operation. Under normal operation, there
should not be any sign of overheating (e.g. discoloration, charring and deformation) or difficult
starting, excessive noise or vibration, crack or loosen part. If the safety of an electrical appliance is
in doubt, stop using it and hand it to an experienced technician for inspection.

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5. Ensure that there is inflammable space around an electrical appliance for heat
dissipation. To prevent overheating and fire, do not cover electrical appliances or place objects
around them. TV sets and other AV products, chargers, luminaires, electric fans, electric heaters,
refrigerators and washers/dryers, etc. are of particular concerns. 6.Do not use any inflammable
chemical substance (e.g. insecticide and thinner) near an operating electrical appliance

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7. For some electrical appliances, the starting current may be several times greater than that at
normal operation. Therefore, when a blackout occurs, major electrical appliances should be
switched off to avoid, when power supply is resumed, the occurrence of momentary circuit
overload and hence a blackout again. Besides, it may cause injury if an electrical appliance with
heating or rotating part operates without the user's prior awareness.

Additional Safety Tips for Individual Electric


Items
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1.Plugs
o Only buy and use 3-pin plugs which comply with the safety requirements. o 3-pin plugs must be
marked with all the information as shown on the diagram.

2. TV Sets and other Audio-Video (AV) Products


o Avoid placing any AV product in a humid, dusty or hot environment or under direct sunlight. o
Disconnect power supply if an AV product is not to be used for a prolonged period of time. Avoid
switching it off merely with a remote controller.

3.Electric Water Heaters


o A shower type electric water heater is usually fitted with two protective devices, i.e. a thermostat
and a thermal cutout. Its water storage tank must not be pressurized. The pressure inside the tank
is relieved via the water outlet, flexible hose and showerhead to prevent excessive high pressure
from building up. It must only be fitted with an unblocked open-outlet type water mixer and shower
accessories (including flexible hose and showerhead). o The water outlet of a shower type electric
water heater must remain unblocked. Under normal operation, small amount of steam / water may
come out from the showerhead. To prevent excessive high pressure from building up inside the
tank and hence an explosion, do not install an on/off control valve at the water outlet or connect
the outlet to a basin or tub. o The water storage tank of an unvented thermal storage type electric
water heater may withstand a certain degree of high pressure. An electric water heater of this type
must be fitted with a temperature and pressure relief valve in addition to a thermostat and a
thermal cutout.

4.Chargers, AC Adaptors and Power


Transformers
o Ensure that the output voltage of a charger, AC adaptor or power transformer matches with the
input voltage of the appliance to be connected. Also, the rated output power (or current) must not
be less than the input power (or current) of the appliance. o Battery charging time should not be
too long. Adhere to the instructions given in the user manuals. Avoid leaving any operating battery
charger unattended. o Do not let the electrodes of the output connector be in contact with any
metallic object (e.g. the metallic casing of an electrical appliance). Otherwise, it may cause shortcircuiting and fire.

5.Luminiaries
o Check if a luminaire is suitable for direct mounting on a combustible surface (e.g. wooden or
fibre false-ceiling), and check if a lamp bulb must operate with its lamp cap at the lower position.
See if there is any relevant symbol. o To prevent fire, do not place any luminaire (especially highpower luminaire) close to any curtain, rug and cloth, etc. Check if there is a symbol specifying the
required minimum distance to be maintained between a luminaire and the illuminated objects. o
General domestic Christmas decorative luminaires are not earthed. Therefore, these luminaires
must be of double-insulation or reinforced-insulation design. Besides, these luminaires are not of
waterproof design. Do not use them in an outdoor environment

6.Air Conditioners and Dehumidifiers


o To prevent damaging an air-conditioner or a dehumidifier, do not switch it on within 3 minutes
after switching it off. o Ensure that the air intake and outlet grilles are not obstructed

Hazard of Electrostatic charge


Static electricity is defined as a non-moving, non-flowing electrical charge or in simple terms,
electricity at rest. A stationary electrical charge that is built up on the surface of a material by friction.
Static electricity is the electric charge generated when there is friction between two things made of
different materials or
substance by repeated contact and separation between unlike materials like a flat belt on a rotating
pulley.
Electric charges can build up on an object or liquid when certain liquids move in contact with other
materials. This can
occur when liquids are poured, pumped, filtered, agitated, stirred and flow through pipes. This buildup
of charge is called
static electricity.
Static electricity is generated when liquids flow through pipes, valves and filters as they are

transferred. It can also be


generated by splashing or agitation, as well as entrained water or air or suspension of sediment from
the bottom of a tank.
The amount of charge that develops depends, on how much liquid is involved and how fast is it
flowing or being agitated or stirred.
- The rate of static charge generation is directly proportional to (Flow)
- Depending on circumstances it can be a nuisance or a hazard.
- The following factors are responsible for fire & explosion hazard due to electrostatic charge:
a. Can a static electric charge be generated under the operating conditions
b. Can the charge accumulate
c. If it discharges will it cause a spark
d. Is there an ignitable mixture in the area
Most flammable liquid vapors have minimum ignition energy (MIE) in the range of 0.15-1.15 mj.
Whereas the little shock we get sometime from the doorknob is about 25 mili joules (mj).
- Solvents and fuels are two types.(a) Conductive fluid (b) Non conductive fluid
- Non Conductive fluids are more hazardous.
- Solvents and fuels produced from petroleum (e.g. benzene, petrol, toluene, mineral spirits) can build
up a charge when they are poured or flow through hoses. They tend to hold a charge because they
cant conduct electricity well enough to
discharge when in contact with a conducting material like a metal pipe that is grounded. When enough
of a charge is
buildup, a spark may result. If the vapor concentration of the liquid in air is in the flammable range and
the spark has enough energy, a fire or explosion can result.
- Normal bonding and grounding procedures used when transferring liquids may not be sufficient to
prevent ignition from
static electricity with non conductive flammable liquids.
- Velocity is the no#1 safe guard. Velocity in which the non-conductive material travels through the
pipe/hose/vessel shall
not to exceed 5 m/s.
- To reduce the potential of fire and explosion when handling non-conductive flammable liquids, safety
measures must be
followed are:
- Purge storage tanks with an inert gas (such as Nitrogen or Carbon Dioxide) to remove oxygen.
- Add antistatic agents to non-conductive flammable liquids.
- Pump liquids more slowly to prevent static electricity buildup.
- Ensure that storage tank level floats and any other tank appurtenances that could potentially cause a
spark are effectively bonded.
- Earthing - An object is grounded when it is connected to the earth through a connecting wire.
- Bonding is done by making an electrical connection from one metal container to the other. This
ensures that there will be no difference in electrical potential between the two containers and
therefore no spark will be formed.
- The best way to bond containers is to securely attach a special metal bonding strap or wire to both
containers. This can
also be done by keeping a solid metal-to-metal contact between the containers.
- Solvents that are soluble in water or can dissolve some water themselves do not buildup static
electricity as they become
conductive. Examples are alcohols , ketones and acetone.