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alcolm X "'.s born a. Malcolm Little in 1925 in lhe

M Unired St ..... 01 Americ~. Wlwn he "'a •• youlh. h;,;

I.ther _ ..... der in lhe Blac~ National.., Marcu.
Why I am Not
Gaf\'CY movement - "'as murdered by Americ.n "'hi'~
.up...-maci.... and hIS "",thot< was impri>or\ed in • men,.1
an American
Aller spending many Y"o" in • life a petty crim~.
Malcolm .....Jed up in pl"i$<>n. where he me' "'P.-ntati,·"
of the Nation of ' '.m. a Blac~ .. organizAbon th.,
drew some 01 ito i".piralion from the ",Iigion of Islam.
Me",""" of the Nation of I".m dropped the-ir • .... '·e
nam ..• and replaced them wi,h an · X. ·Tl>e Nation of I.... m
...·O/ked '0 empo .... er Black Am"""",,,,, and was op~ to
the """" 'iolen' 'Pf'rodch 01 Olhot< American d"il right; orga'
nizations •• d,·""" .ing m.'ead that African Americ.ns protect
11,,,,,,,,,1,·.. from white suprem.a.t; and. r.odst US go,·em·
menl "by any me'''' "'"<'-......'Y.•
A,. dynamic public .pe.keT. Malcolm X .urO<"Wd ,hou·
.. nd. of Afrit.n Am"""".n.'o .he Nation of 1.1.m.. and a. ,he
<><gani ... i"" grew II drew inc",.5C<I media ond poIial.lten·
liOll , Wlwn M.1co1m hO"eW ou,side I.... UniW 5tat.. in , ....
early 1%05, he began 10 relhink the ,,,verse-raci<m of , ....
Nation of 1.lom, and .",,,,,tu .. Uy left ,he group 10 fonn 1M
M",lim Mosque and the Organi.. lion of African American
Unity (OAAU) in New YO/keity.
He ..,.,... ,""unl<!<! • pl.n 10 bring the Uniled St.""
.,.,fore the United Notions on c .... rges 0/ r.>Ci.m .nd abu"".,f
hum.n rigl1ts, equaling the USA with ,p0r1heid Soulh
In 1965, while """king" on OAAU r~lIy in New York, REP S
M.lcoIm X was ....... inal<!<! in w .... t many .,.,IIeI'" was. plo! Radical ESSf!ntial$ Pamphlet Series
by I.... American police forces.nd disgrun'W members of y" ..r Progk,. Sene. Edi""
.ho N•• i"" of I.lam.

From his tf~\· el.s in Africaand Asia in the earl)' 1960s 1<1 his
CI1IHNS INTE RNATIONAl aS$3ssi".tion in 1%5, Malcolm X's .truggle .sainst
116(lll'ttw>g A""-'fican apartheid took on an in<"'uingly ;ntem;.lio~1
M.oI.I)"'" dimension. With th~ issue of American racism trml<!<!
only in the ronh.'Xt 0/ dvil righls. Makolm could be seen
as. miliUnl c"uniert>;.lan.:e to Martin l uther King". paci-
fist .pproacn. and in both uses their appeals were at th ..
mell"y of the American government. wruch had no! mode
good on ii. promi .... of "'1"01 rights for African
Americans. Ouring his numerous trips abroad. and after
his split from 1M Nation 01 Islam. Maloolm embarked on
a specific program of gaining support for his C'~ in the
Unit,><;I Nations. wruch at the lime was hearing similar
cases against apartheid South Africa.
Many f""'ple set' Malcolm X's pilgri1Th1se to Moo::. as
a tuming point in this part m his life. The annual Tit.:: of
the world', Muslims put civil rights and racism into. l\eW
rMt.,.;I by i."print perspective f", him. He soon wro«> that the r. .............
l. 5oI<>k So.on&>i PiJw\g J racism of the Nation of Islam w;IS wrong·t...~ded.. and thai
~P""ng limiting tt... slruggle 10 civil right< w()Uld root .,hi",-e the
111«1 PeNng
M.ll.lym desil"Cd ","ults. In his tr ..· bclo ... and .ft.... the hajj,
Malcolm met many Third World leaders of It... day,
including Kwame Nkrumeh and Garnal Abdcl N;IS6er,
_onlo<lS 1h.>1 he eaned upoll in his qUf'S1 to intemational·
~e IhO' plight of African Amerieans by way of the United
In lhe sp'-""h p"-~led ho.'"" ....'h;.;h ,,'as gh-en allhe and .lratc'Sic repetitions we", t-nli",ly engrossing_ Bo.'Sidcs
Unj,-"l'"Sily 01 Ghana in 1%4, M.lcolm is lhe 'child of his ability to arhculate the horro<s of living in a radSI soci-
Afric." who has ",Iuml.'<!, and his ",Wm brings a multi pit, ety, I wa. also attracted to Malcolm's quest f",. til<" truth,
mC560g" of solidarity in lhe cause of li~rahon. a w.ming and I was imp"""'-'<l with his willingness to admit hiS
for African Nlions to a,-oid slipping und,.. tho." spell 0/ erro .. and I".m from his miS"''''". llut i•• ra", quality
American "dollarism: and • ""Iuest for suppon in his in a 1...:Id"r. and il was probably why he declared on ,;ev-
"flO<! to bring the United 51ales belo", the UN on charges e-ral occasions that he waS not a politici.n,
n/ human rights abuses_ This edition n/ his speoch """- In preparing this p.amphle-t. I ",ad .11 I could find of
cludes with a letter he wrot" home from Cairo. also in Mal«>lm X'. spe«hes currently in prinl and on til<"
1%4, where he formally ..... it"'ates hi. ""Iu,.. t 10 AI""an lnt~met. and I ...~tlcd on his spe«h at the Uni'-eJ$ity n/

S"'I'''men, GhaN and the letter from Cairo as "'present.Ii,·" n/ the

One of the most Stanli ng asp«ts of this sp<!"<'h is p<"riod of his struggle to inlernalionalize the quest fot
Malrolm's statement. " I'm from A",,'lica but I'm not an African Amer;';.n liberation, These twn ..,k<:lions, in my
Ame"".n_" As a de<cendent of sl ..'es .nd a son of p.a ..."'ts "Ie ...... abo demon.lrate his uncanny ability to frame the
pc""""I,"" by white sup",,,,,,<ists, Malcnlm 's politics had issues in ways that still ring lrue t<:>d.y, and so it is easy to
a rough p""""".1 edge Iq lhem, H~ minced 00 word., ....... from this work, in lighl of Ame"",,'s ongoing agg""'-
unlike his romp"triots in the ci"it rights """-,,menl. His sion in the Third World. that fony y·c .... lat<:r Malrolm
anger was palatable and it was ell,,,,th'''_ Of COUlSe, then" " 'OI.Ild .till not wanl 10 ~ an American,
was a lot'" be angry about. America was built on land
.",Ien from Indians and A"",,,,,a wos built on labor slolcn Y~c;4 Proglrr

from Af""ans. llul dual theft of land and labor ,"cry Ramadan 2003
quickly made the richest rountry in Ihe ....·otld, Dub.i
But the riches Wen" 001 shared. and one hundred yea ...
after the aboli tion of sla"ery in America. Afric.n
A"",,,,,ans we", still treak"" as roloni~ed peoples. offici.l-
Iy cuphemi7.ed as "..,.,ond..:lass citizens."
WI-...-n I lil'"St disnJ\""red Malcolm X, it waS through
1i$lening'" recordings of his sp",,,,he$. He had an amazing
ability to captivate an audience, and his turns of phr ....
, ,
Why l am N ol
an American

J in«:nd 10 be ~ery informal. beca""" our POS'tion in

America is an informal posjlion, and I fUld that it is ,-try
difficult to use /ormol tmn. to describe. "<'1')' informal
position. No condition of any p<'Ople on earth is more
deplouble than the condition or plight. of the twenty-
two milUon Black people in Am..nca. And our rondition is
50 deplorable be.;a""" we are in. country that prof.......
to be a democrocy and prof< "rs to be sm"ing to> give jus-
tice and freedom and equ.olily to everyone who is born
under ils constitution. If "'.., .......... bom in South Africa.".
in Angola or some pari of this earth when:: they don't pro-
fess 10 be for freedom. th.Jt would be another !1Ung. But
when we 01'1' born in. country thai stands up and repre-
sents itself as the leader of U>e F"", World. and you still
have 1<1 beg and crawl iUln to get. chana to drink. cup
of colf""_ IMn the condition is ,-ery deplorable indm.
So that you wi!! understand me and why I sp&lk as I
do, it sI>ould probably boo point...:! out at the oulset Ih.>t [
am not. politician . [don', know anything about potitics.
I'm from Amnir. but I'm not an American. J didn't go
Ihere 0/ my own I"", cho;c.,. III ,.... ."... an Amcrk an lho..""", went in chains. We weren' l immigrants to America, we
would be no problem. the",,' d be no net>d lor l<'gislation or wert.' cargo lor purposes 01 a system .hat was bent upon
<:i"il righls or anylhlngclse. So I just try.o face the lact as ma king a prolit. So this is the cotl"gOry or level of which I
it actually;' and sp". k to )'ou as on<' 0/ th~ "ictims 01 spea k. I may nol spea k il in the language many of you
America. one of the victims 0/ Americanism, one 01 the would u .... , but I think you will underStand the mea.ning of
,·ictims 0/ democracy, on<' 0/ the ' ·"'tim,; of. "ery hypo- my terms.
critic. 1 system that;' going an o,'er thl' eanh today "'p"'"
scnting il ... 11 as being 'l""lilied to U.n other people how 10 The Child Ha, Rd umod
rUn their counlry when
they can ' t get Ihe dirt}· When J was in lbadan.. Nigeria, a' the univerSity of lbadan
.. .for the twenty-two things lhal .re going on in """",lIy, the sludenl there gave me a new name. wltich I go
million of us in their own country straight· 1m - m.... ning I like it. "Omowale: which they say mea'"
America who are of en«! oul.
So if somt..o..... else from
in Yontba· il I am pronouncing il c""..."II)'. and il l am not
pronouncing it ron""ly it's becouse 1 hal'cn', had the
African descent, it is America sp"a~ s to you, ch.""", to pronounce it for lour hundred years· which
not an American the)" '" probably sp"aking m.... ns in that di<llect, "The child has returned .- It waS an
d ream. It's an as Americans, and they honor 100" ffiO' 10 be ",ferred. to as a child who h<>d """""
speak as pooplc "'ho """ enough to retum to the land 01 hi$ forda!hers • '0 his
American nigh t- America through the eyes f.ther!and .nd to his motherland. Not sent b.>rk h<n> by
mare. 01 an Allll""rican . And usual· the American State Department, but rome b.>rk ...... "" of my
Iy those t)'pes of f"""O'" own I".., will_
"'fer to Allll""rica. or that which exists in America. as the I am happy and I imagine, since it ;. the policy that
American Dream. But for the twenty·t",o million 01 U5 in whene"er a Black ITL>n le",'~.. America and IrOl·el. in any
America " 'ho are 01 African descent, it is not an American par! of Africa, or Asia, or lalin America and says things
dream. It·, an American nightrn.",. conl rary to what theAmerican propaganda machine lumS
1 don't leel that I am a , ';'itor in Ghana or in any pan oul. usually he linds upon his retum horne that his pass--
01 Africa. I feel that r am at home. ]""e b..'e fl away for lour port is U/ted. Welt il they had not wanted me to say the
hundred. y.... rS. but not 01 my own volition, not of my o,,'n things I am saying. they should ne,'er ha"e given me a
will. Our poople didn 't go to Allll""rica on the Quo:en Mary, p . ..pon in lhe lirSl place. The policy usually i, the lifting
we didn 't go by Pan American.. and we didn 't go 10 of the passport. Now I am no! going to condemn America,
America on the Mayflower. We wenl in slave ships, we I am not going!O mak" America look bad, but I am going

• ,
10 I~IJ you the tru th .bout U", $it"alion ih.ol llI;><:k peop'" 1w""lielh..,.,."",ty could cootinue 10 m. k~ tN,
in Ameria f;nd IhtmM'l""" ronfronltd with. And il lrulh Africa .... mNSun:' wtallh in
condftnno A"",rica. 111m """ stands condemned. terms 01 g<>Id .nd oiIVH.
Thi5 is tht most bea .. tiful ronlino'nl wl l',·t~..,.,. 5tI':<\,. Ihl'y rev« would ha"f an long as the
and ii' s ,tit riche, I'Ontinmt I'~ tv« - . . . And strangt ... opponunily 10 rNlly mo· Americans or other
,I INy ........ I lind many ... hi", Anw>ricam ....... ,...;Iing in SUn:' tN, ~alue 01 tN, ..'uhh
th.ol is in tM soil • • nd
imperialists or
It.. fOCfS of OUr Aftio:an b"" ...... like thty ha"f bftn Joy.
ing 1hm1 all of ,t.. ri ......, n.. fact is. the>e ........ whi"", who ..·ould conlinut 10 dunJ<. twentieth-century
in AIntric• in our laces, It.. Silo"'" whiles " 'ho in lhat it is they ,,·ho MftI tIw colonjalis" could
A"". ica clu b WI brutally, tN, "In<' "'hi"'" who in America WeslH'n p<>Wet"$ ins~.od 01 continue to make the
IIlI ""- tlwit dogs upon us. jusl b«a ..... we w~nl 10 bot Ihinlting thaI il i. lilt
Africans measure
hff h"miLn boSng •• tho ""me whilt'S who !t,m lheir W''''r Wes«>m p""·rn who """"
wealth in terms of
, ........ upon oor wo"",n .nd ou, babies ~"'. u ... w~ wanl
10 inl~r"tt with Ihem,.", ""cr he", in Africa smiling in
tN, peoplo and 1M conll ·
nem lhal i. known .s
Afnc.. Th.e Ihing is, I hope
gold and silver, they
your f.", trying 10 lnl<'gra le wilh you. never would have an
I .... d to wriw • letter b.>ck home yesterday and It II 1 don' l m.... up ""rbody. opportunity to really
_ 01 my frimds I.... t if American N..groes .... nl inle- poIili,a or anybody " plot>
gration, they should come 10 A/ri<., 1>0<:....., """" whllt Or plans Or ",hell,,,,, b" t measure the value of
people O~H """' - while Americans. lhal is _ look like tl1m I think lhal it Can be the wealth that is in
lhey .'" lor inlegratiOll ,han there an:' in ,he m'i ... well pr'O\'~ and bocktd the soil.,.
Arntrican counlry. 6uI KItIaUy ,,· .... t il is. they wanl to
intq;""" with tht _alth that lhey know is ....., _ the
unta~ ... lural ...-orte which e:o<cft'd tht wfalth of
any continml on this urth today.
Whom I was Ira"cling from La",", 'oA",... I was riding Ghan.a is ont 01 lilt rnotI progrnai~f ... tiO<\$ on tN,
on.n .i'PI."" with. whi", man who ..""""",1<'<1 _ of A/ricon continmt primarily becou",", il .... s ont of the rnotI
tt.. inl ......'" you know. that a", inlemttd in Africa, And p"'g .... iv~ Ioad~., and tnOft prog....s5i'·f p"";d""ts. Th.e
..... admitted _ .1 it.ISI ;t waS hi. impression - thai our pf\"Sid~'n' of 'hio ... Iion hn done IOmelhing that flo
pe<>plfo in Alr",a didn'! knuw ho .... 10 measu'" .... ...,lth. thol American, no white Americ.n, ",anl$ ,,, """ doni' _ "'ell.
they wonhip "'~.h h in termS o. gold and silver. not in I should say "no Amtrican " b«ause .U the Americans
It"'" oIlhe na' ...-..ou""," thot 0'" In tho ~."h. and ""er the!\! an whi ... Amcriunt.
..... t as long art tht A""'oi<a .... or otM' Imp<'l'ialislS '"

" "
PrHId.,.,t Nkromel\ If doing s",.le'thing tho!,.. th.t II.., of
)"OU ..... notlling in him tNt ....fI«rs .ny kind 01 f""ling
go",,",,n.,.,t In AlMric~n does not lih to _ dono'• .on.! ",rerio,;t)" or anyth,ng 01 tNt sort And,. long .s you
that IS he', restor"" the AfrlC~n lm.o~. He IS n,.~,ng t.... ho,~. ~t ..·too ~Ns you tNt you can do .ny-
African proud of lite African lmag~, and w ............. the
African ~ proud of lite Akhn ~ and tru, I""""
it;,~ image is p""""ted -..-I. thrn lite man In
thing; tNt .n)"body~ .. undoe<.he ~n un do, you got.

Not onI)" ........ " ... who Ihe In A ......IC. ""'~ INntN 10
Amforica _ " 'ho up 10 now No had nothing but • no-gatn~ ..... as.. .... Black men, the tt>,e< t ..... u .. I(>.roeasu .... tum is
inwge 01 Africa - automatic. II)' lite inwg<' tNt the BI.ock ih<' attitude of Americ. I"ward him When ..~ find. Black
man In A..... 'ic. has 01 his African brothei"$ chaRgft from man who', al ..·.)'" """;";ng I~ pr.... of the America ......
neg'Hv~ 10 p""iti"~, and lite im.oge that tho 8 L.ock nwn In ,,·t b«ome suspicious of him. WhHt "'e find a IlI..d m.ln
A.....Iie. No, of hi~lf will .lso ch.ang~ from ""lIati"~ to who ~, ..., honon.nd all kinds of pl.q~ and beauti_
positi,·e. ful phrases and word s from Americ., we imrnroiately
And th~ Americ.n begin I" SlOsp<'<l that 1"''''''''' 6«,u~ illl •• been our e"f>e""
r.dst. kno ... th.t the)' can rien<:e that lhe Americans doo' t p .. i5t any Glad man "'00
And the American rule tho! African imaS" in is ...... lIy " '",king for the t>..ndil of lhe 81ack man. b«au..
racists know that A",er;"a, th.. African· they ..... Ii'e tNI when you t>.gin to "'OI' k in ~ames' to do
they can rule the A..... rican in America, only Ihing. t!wt .... good for lhe f""OP'" on t..... Afriun conn-
African image in os long as we ha,'" a rwga' """I. all tM good you do for poq>~ 00 the African conti-
t,,·.. imag<' of ouTSel,·('$. Su nenl has got 10 t>.. ~g.inst ,.,...,.. one ~,.,., b« ...... ..,.,...
America, the 1I>e)' keo>p ... with a ""&'I' """ el.. up to now has benefited from lhe Lobo.. and !he
African-American ti,-.. ,nwg<' of Africa. And ..·... 11h oflhr ~on lhis conti ....... So ..... yardstick in
in America, only as !bey'1<o .......... t .... t U,.. da)' ....."'uring ttw.. ,·.riouf ~aders is 10 find out " 'hal t.....
long as we have a tN. lite i..... g.. of Afric. " A","" i<ans Ihlnk .bout !Mm. And thew IudH-5 "'.... Iwf"f'
ch.angt'd from neg;ot;'· ~ I(> ..·ho the pra,~ and palSon t..... back from t.....
negative image of positi,· ... automatic.lly tl\O" A ..... ric."'. you can;"'t "ush the !Oiler .nd Ier !hem go
ourselves, a"itude of ",·.,.,ty_two mil· right down the
lion Af.ic.ns in Americ. n.. p,...,.id .... t heR' is disliked . Don't tllink that iI's just
will also change from ""g~t;""lo posith-... the American p'"-'. iI's II.. go'·.. mmmi. In America w",,"
And """ of .ho! ontl6t import~nt dforts to ( hongc ,ho.' you find • ron<".'rkod .'fforl of II\(> r"-'" 10 alwoys ' P"ok in
image <Jl the Afric~n ,. t-eing mode right he .... In Ch~n • . " bad way aboul an Afric.n I... de •. usually that p""'" is
And t..... Chonai,n P"roonality Can t>.. pkk<-od right ou' of aclu.lly "fle.cling the g<!vemment opinion. But America
.ny group of Africans .n)·.......... 00 this pLonct. b«.u§O!

" "
is a very shn-wd g""cmtn<.'n1. If it know. thai it,; own gov- and ne,-er get anywl>e .... Everything net:ds 10 be eon-
~rnrrK'ntal position will ""use a negative ",action from the tr<>lted unlil the colonial mentality has been completely
people that it wants t" """tinue '" e' ploit, il will P""I<-'f\d destr<>yed, and when that oolon1ol mentality has been
to ha"" a f"", and at the sa"", tim .. tum that free d .... lr<>yed at least to U", point where they know what they
p ...... on a ",.1 African Ie. d..,-.nd stand on tt..: sideline .'" V(~ing for, then you give them a chance 10 v,,", on this
and say thai this is not government policy. But ........ rything and vOl<' on that . But we ha,'" this trouble in Amerka, a.
that happens in A"",rica is govemm""t poii<)'. weI! as other a ...... whe ... roIoniaIism has e, i.ted, the only
Not only is the presid""t of this rountry disli k" .;!, the way t!w-y can pract;c.,. Or apply d ..... ocr. tie p.aclkes is
presid""t of Algeria.. Bm Bella.. i. ~isliked because he is tJu-ough .dvice and counsel.
n,volulionary, he's fOT fre<.dom of everybody_ Egyptian So my own honest, humble opinion is, anytime you
presid""t NaS<ier i. disli ked because he'. for freedom of want to come out lrom und..,. a colonial mentality, let the
ev .. rybody. All of them are ""erred 10 as dicta ton. A. """" government set up the educational sys""" and educ.Me
. s they get tt..: maSS 0/ the-ir people bcltind them, they're a you in tM di"-""ion or way tl>ey wanl you to go in; and
dict.tor. As """" a. tMy "'we unity of their peopl ~ in their then alter your und .. rstanding is up to the le,' ..1 whe"" il
country, they'", a dictator, If the.., i. no division,. fighting. should !>e, you can stand around and argue or philooo-
and squabbling going on, tl>e leader <:>f that country i. a phi7.c or ..,mething 01 that sort,
dictatOT if he is . n African; but as k>ng as i. is in Am~"';ca,
t..:·s just an A"",rkan p .... id .. nt who has the support "I ,t..: Twenti eth Ce ntu ry Coloniali , m
"."" .
There is probiobly no mo ... enlighlE'ned lead..,. on the
Coming Out lrom Under Ihe Colo ni,1 Mentolity African continent than President Nkrumeh,. becaus<:: he
li,'ed in America_He knows what il is li ke there, Hecould
1 am ""ming 10 A""-'!'ica in a minute, but J just "'an, t" not he in th.t land as long . s t..: did .nd be disillusioned
comment on OUr relations 1',." noti"" since being l>ere, 1 or confused, or be deceivN. An)'time you thin k that
heard that there is. conflicl among"""'" of "u. brothers America is 'M I.nd of the fre.e, you come the ... and take (Jff
and sisters <we, II<'re """"ming w .....1hcr or not it's ad,'i.- your national dress and be mistaken /0, an A"",rk~n
able 10.- the gO"em"""'t 10 play such a promin<....1 role in Negro, and you will find out you're not in the land of the
guiding til<' <.'ducati"" - the curriculum .nd what noI • of lree, America is a e"lonial po ...." ._ She is jusl as much.
til<' people of the country and in t..... ".rious uni'·.. rsiti ... , colooial po .... ~r in 1%-1 a. Fran«>, Britain, l'ortug<>l, and.1I
y...., anyt;me you hav... peopl .. woo have I>e<.'n roloni2ed these <>ther European rountri .... "'''''' in til<' 1864. She's a
for a. long as our propl" It..." I>e<.'n coloni~, and you leU twentieth..,....tury ""Ionial pow..,-; sM', a mod..,." colonial
them """' they can vote, t"'ry will spend.U night arguing

J'O"...... ~nd she ..... 001"",,«1 Iwenl)··I,,·O m,IIiOll AIrk~ n · d<:tgS 10 <orne in H,,,I,'m. Thar. lil"l"'i"t, the)' doo't .11",,·
Americans. \\'hUe lhere ..... 001)" ele ...,,, miliioo Alrk~n police dog. 1<, C","" In 11,,,I,'m
("IOIl,~ed ,n Soull\ AInc •. four or li"~ ml ihoo "olonlnoJ m The)' .." t"",bh.,(! ,,·tth the ">1st""",, "f little gang. who
Angola. Ih"'" . '" Iwenly.lwO mil iioo Afrkans colonized hal'" 1>0."", going arouoo kIlling 1"'01'1", killing white po<>-
in America righl now on May 13, 1964. Wru.1 is S«Of\d. pie. Well now, ,1>0.')' pn>jo...:1 il abroad as an anti ·whi'" gang.
dass ciH>omsh.ip if noIl\ing bUI IW""li<"lh<entury ",loni.l· Not, it's not an anti·"'h",,
ism? They dOll't want you In lnaw Ihat sla" ery still exi.'s. gang. it's an anti",,!,pTeS-
50 rather than call il 51"'ery 'hey call II S«Of\d ·.d a .. cili· sioo S,lng It's an anti· What is second-class
7.cnship. frustr. tion gang. The)' citizenship if nothing
Ei,her )·ou.", a citizen or )'ou are roola cili~en at all . If don't lna,,' wh.l! etS<' 10 but twentieth-
you .", a citizen. you are f"",; if you are nol a citi7.<."'. you do. They"'e been ,,'aitiog century colonialism?
.re a sl..·". And the American gcm,mment is afraid '0 for the gowrnmenl 10
They d on't want you
admil t ha i ohe ""'..... ga.'" fl"l'"<.'dom 10 ,he BI.>ek man in ..,kc their problems,
America and .....00'1 e""" ad mit Ihal the Black man in lhey',·" bt'Cn "'aitong for to know that s lavery
America is not f""', os not a coti"",_ and dOl'Sn '! ha .. e his Ihe p"",dcnt 10 ""f", still exists, so ra ther
rights. She skillfully <amou(]ag~'S It unMr 1iK.'S<> pMty the .. probtem., Ihey',·" than call it slavery
terms 0/ second-class citizenship. It's ,,,Ioni.liom, ......,. been ",.iting for the
colonialism. imperialism. s..",.le and the Cun~"""
they call it second-
and the Sup",me Court t" class citizenship.
Uberty ,,, Duth sol"e their problems,
they',·" been waiting 1m t>:egm lead~>J$ In •.,I .. e lheir
One 0/ OUr brottoers just I."ded he ... too.1)" from N~'W problem,;, and all the)' hear.", a lot of p"-1ty ,,'ord:;. So
York. He told me Ih.t w .... " .... left New York, t.... poliC<' they b«<m1o' fru.trakd and don 't know whal to do. So
we", walking in Harlem si • • b",ast_ Why' ilecause tilt')' do lilt· o"ly Ihing t~y k"o,,· how: tlwy tlo I~ same
Harlem is aboul In e"plooe. You lnaw "'h'" I flWan by thing Iht- Americans did "I><n they got fn,:;"a"'(! " ' ith
"Harlem"? Harlem is ,ho.: mosl famous city on earth; then> the British in 1776· liberty or dN'h_
is no city on tl\e African cortti"""t with as mony Africans -Ihi< is what lho> Americans did. They didn't tum ,ho.'
in Harlem_ In Harlem, Iht')' call it liltl~ AIrica, and ""hen other d,.:d to I~ Brilbh_ No, Ihey had dn old m"n named
~'ou wa lk Ihrough Horlem. )'ou ' n' in INd,m, e"crv"",,, I'alrick Hen,,' ,,'ho., ",,,d , "l,beflv or d,'.1Ih " I tk" ,'r ho.'dnl
tho.:", looks jusl like you. And tOOo)' the police ""en: out in tht'm rd.'r 10 him .os an "d ....",ate of "iol,-nee; th.. ), "') he',
lOIn', wi th their dubs_ Tho.')' dun't ha"e police dogs, 'ca""" one "f the Founding F",ho.-rs, bt'CauS<' ~ had ,ho.' sense t"

t~ kind 0/ prople "'ho li"e in Harlem don'l ollow police Sd)' "Libert)' or de,Hh "
And 'he,,' " ~ gm" Ing I~nden<y dmung BI.lCl An APP".l lo thc Afriun Iluds 01 S,"'~
Amel'lC"lb 'od~). who .'" ~b'" 10 ..,.. Ih.ol lho..,. d",, '1 h.o, e
,,,,-'<I,,,,, , ,....."
~'" .....,110"1; ,Iw pOilU now " 'he", ,ho.... ~". Tlw,... hon 01 Afro-A Unlly ~, "'" to
"-....:Iy 10 ,ellllw no ...... 11 .... wh.ol tIw odd. ~'" iO&"UW ~~ a hIStoric Afnc:an .... mMit ~as.n ct. '''''.
IIwm. no .... , ...... ""N' ,"" cost IS. 11' 5 "" <k... th. II ttus .... to "'I''''"'-'''t ,IIr in........... 01 ,,,..... ')·.""·0 mill"", Afncan-
1$ tIw Lond 01 tho.' f ...... then " .... us """'" f,,-'<'<Iom II !hlS is A ........""" ".t>oso. hu ....... righ .. a ... b.:"" \'Iol~~ <UII,'
tIw I.ond 01 jw;.tt«'. ,hen ,,,... us ........ jUStiu And II t ...... ltv 'M racism of 'M A_rlC~n Imp.·'.... lists. nw-
tIw Lond 01 ftlu~"ty. g"'" ... ......., ftI ... III). ThIS is ,Iw 6rg..n' ... '''''' 01 At' Unity (OAAU) has '-n
g!"OW"', toIm~ 01 tIw 81ack AllM.'t'ialn. 01 ,"" Alrialn· f<>rnW'd by a '" 5 • • 01 An'l('r'lCa'$ Afric"""A ..........~n
, . , , " ' "

Arl'I<-;;ca,,- oI .... hic:h Ih<ff~ .... h,..,."y·,,,"o mIllion. communi'Y. and is p.ottt. ",d
.ft... ,he lett .... nd spirit 01
Am I j ... 'i f~ In tall:ing IiI:<- ,his? Let me "'-~. I .... a. in tllr Organi ... t"", of AI""an UnIty (OAU).
C..... ..,... nd. OhIO. lUst two Just os tho.- Org~nl~'iun of Af,ic:.n Uni'y h.os , .U,'"
mon,hs ago when ,hi. upon all African Icodcrs ~l ;;ubmcrg~ lhei, dill","""",, and
I never heard them ""hi'e dergymon " 'd S ~iII,.,j uni,,' on comm<)n 00,,-.:'' '''
for lhe common g<:>otl ui.1I
refer to h im as an by • bulldo"'r I " '." in AI"""",, 5.n America tho.' Orgdni;W'i"'" "f Afro-A meric."
CJ~I·ddnd. I w~s 'he ..... Unity h.o. call.,.J upon Afro-A_ric:.n "'''''crs 10 sub.
advocate of vio-
lence; they say he's Now you know If .. "'hlt~ me.g~ ,hei, d,l..,,,....:,,,, ~nJ find a",as of .S",..,...."
mJn in tho.- garb. in ,"" ou' · w""""'n .... c can w...-l in unIty 1...- tho.- ,00<1 01 tIw enli",
o ne of the Fo unding fi,. ,I><- COS(u ...... or ".!w" ..... , ..·.... ,y·' wo mIll"'" AI....:.... A.....ncans.
Fathers, because .... you ...... n' to call i,_of " SO';"" ,Iw ...."""Y·two mIllion 01 US ... ...., origin.llly
Patrick HCTlry had prwst if ,....." run "'·.". .... m Africa ..... ,,·ho~ ... now III Amo>rica no! by el'loia but only
the sense to say, " 'Ith .. bulldozer. "'h.o! ,,·,,1 by .. cruf'I Kridml in our hlSlory. ,,~~rongl)' btoI,.·...WI
tho» do to a 8I.ock .... n ' African probk-ms ~"' ou. prob ......... nd our problems ~...,
" Liberty o r death." T1wy fUn ""cr ........ .,.,.. African probk.'III>. \\'~ .1"" t>o:L ......·f W I .os ho.-;>ds 01 tIw
,,·ho Io%;s 1;1;0, 'ho.'III .... ho is Ktd~ent Alric.., ,tare, you ..... ,t.., ,;h:phenl 01 .IL
<k1noru.trdllng for f,,-"<"<Iom. ,,""t eN""" d",,, .. BI,","~ .... n
"" ...,1 This w"S<\', In M ~lppi. this was in C ......·~ldnd in
Afnean peoples ....·nywhe"'. ,,'herhe, t...,. ~,
...,..,., on the mother ronUn<",' <>< 'Iwy N\'~ been scau",,-'"
tho.> North Thi. is ,ho.- tvpe 01 e~I"''''''''''' the UI..-k "",n in dbrwd
AM<'ric. is l.l«'<I wi,h c",·", ddy. Son,.. Alried" "'.d,·rs.t thIS ron"'ri'1"IC<' hal'" Implied
,hd' th<'Y h.\-~ enough rn>bl~"'. he", "n the mother """.
Ii""", wi,hou, adding ,"" Aim-American problem. W;,h

. "
oil d "" WSf'l'<1 1<> yOllr OSIC"'''''''' positions. I must ",mind "'ill /or 1'10 """iO" "Ih•.,. IlI.>n "' •.•'" bl..,\: And of Alriedn
.11 of you 'Milt... gu<>d wpherd "'ill k>a "e n ir'WIy.niM d<'$CE'l'll.
"'-P...·ho."' ..f., II ~. I<> go to tIw:.1d '" I~ OM T".., bI.<\: bod....s ...e .... "",nd ill It... ~Io><iissippi !to,..,.
" 'ho is 1061 and /\as f.llen into tho clutdws of tho im.,.......l. lhis Wftk; I.os! ......... a" .. ""mwd African A_ric.n ....""••
;sf wolf. to< ..... murdo>n>d 11'1 cold blood in c...wg;..; • lew days
Woo. in Am....... a~ your 1ong·lost brothers and ........... bdor.: thol ,tv.:e ddl·nghlS workers d05olppHnod rom·
.and I am het"t only to remind you thai ou. pootl ...... a.., pIeteIy. pm..a~ murd""'"
your pt'Oblt'mt. As 1M African' Ame"cans -.w.kt"n - also. onl)' 00c.,,~ I~y
KId. y. we ftnd ouoo .."" ;" a strange land mal has 0titChe..:! wm1 leaching our 1>«>pIe And all these inhu-
us. and, lik tt... prodisa l son ....... .... turning !(I OIl' t id"," in M ~ppi how 10 ,. ~ man ahocines have
brotlwn for ""Ip. We pray our pi"". will "'" flU Up"" 001 and how I<> _ ...., Ihrir been inflicted upon
N" f"'lilical rights.
us by the American
Inhuman Aln>(ili..,. Our Probltm i. You r governmental
r ",bl~ m authorities, the
w., we", 10k"" fun:ibly in chains from this """...". ronli· police themselves,
"""I and ho" e now >pml ''''.... 300 Y".rs in A_rica. suf· Ou. probl"ms a", your for no reason other
f""int tfw _ inh .. rn.on ''''"'''' of physical and P5)'('ho- probl .. ms. Wr ho,'~ lil"f'd
than we seek the
logical lorlulft i .... pwt> ... During tho> past ten Y""rs the 10< 0'·.... Ih ...... huf\oJmj
enll .......... Id ha, Wlb' ::std our men. "",otn and child ..... YO'" in .h~1 A_ricIn recognition and
bftng atuck<f .nd btl_ by " icious poilu dogs. b",IaUy den of racist ..'01,..., In respect granted other
'-1m by poIia dubl;. and washed down tho> S..... n by (QRStOnt /ooa. of losing li~ human beings in
high-p~~ w. ..... ho!cs thol would rip tho> _loINs from .and limb. R«lontly. thf'ft'
OIl. bodies .and It... n...h from OIIr Umbs. And all Iheit students from k ffiY. " .......
iNt ....... n !w,·t tocm innicllO<l up"" us by tIw miSlaken for A_ric .. n
American ~o,·tm"""'''1 .u lhorities. tIw polict tlwm · Negi'Oo'S and ,,'l"" brut~lIy '-I\.... by N",,' York police.
SO'I ....s. lor no .... son <>IMr th. n Wt _ k tIw le<ojIliition Shortly .. fter t!w l. ''''0 dlpl"m.. ~ from Uganda ""en> .Iso
.. nd " 'Sp<"<1 gr.n.,-.j other human beings in ",,,.. rico , The beat"" by lhe N'.... York Cil y poIict, who mistook them /or
American go)\wnm"". is ~i ther unable '" unwilling .0 p..,. Am .. rican N''/i;,.,.... II Afri('ans .. ~ bru t.lly b<-At<m whil ..
tt"C1 the I,,·., .nd prope.ty 01 your tW~'f1ty"wo million only "is iting in A"",.ic., imagin<' the physical and psy.
Alrican·Ametic~n brolhers and ,isters. We stand d .. feoue- ,hological suffering,'."j b)' )'OII r and .;'Iel'>
less. ... tt... mo."'y 01 A_rican raciSI, who murder ... s at who hi"''' he<! ''''' .... lor o'·~... JOO Y"'''''
Our JL<ObIem oJ your p,otlom. No ...."'" how much Soulh Mm p ... iIIO; ..... ""8"1>61..... nd p'''''' __ !i<'groog.>"
ind~"",,", A/rk'ans gfl "'"'"" on lhe motho-r CO<>Iit>en1 lion. She, II k~, procticoo ,,·hol ~ plneheo. A ...~ liea
unleN; you " .... , your ,..tion.ol .I,"" at .11 Ii",.,.. whm you prud>e$ inh.'1Ir.'ion ....1 praclicft ~g"1>OIion. St...
,·isil America. you m.y be mi.token lor one 01 U$ and , uf· pINC"'" one thing while do«iliully pra.clking .nothe •.
ler ,he $.0"", poydoological humiliation Ind physica l muti_ South Alrica i. like a vicious woll, Of".",ly Mlile
lat"'" thol is an c,"tTyd'y QCCulltln in our livn. Your _..-ds black humanity. Bul Anwrir.n is ~wming li k., .
problems will 1W\.<'f be tully .... ved ""til and IlI"1IfA ou .. 10.. frimdlv .nd $miling.
.... 1OI,·ed. You wm _ .... M tully , .. pa.ed u"ti1 and but ",·en """'" ,·icious and
u,*,," w..... I~ tfl .... ltd. You wiU _ '<'f be lNO(Vliud deadly lhon lhe wolf. ""'"
__ .bring the Uni ted
I f f_ human MIngs unlil and unlH5 we . ... . Iso recog- woll and the 10• • re both Sta tes government
nll:ed and tn>.ted as human Mings. cnemies of humanity. both before the United
Our problem Iti your probl"",. It is not ~ Negro ptob- are caniM. both humiliah'
Im-I. nor an Amm.:an problm-l. This If a world probIorm; a .nd mutildh' I~' victims.
Na tions and cha rge
probLem lor humanity. It is no! a p,oblt:m of ( rights ....1
• problem of hu ..... n rights.
60th ho,... It.. !lame j!C' her with viola ting
the human rights of
Ih·ft. but dilfer only in
II the Uniled s..tes Sup ... _ Court jus~. " " hu. melhods. twenty-two million
Goldbocrg.. ~ I~ ",,,,,\:s ago, could find 1"8.1 g"""nd s 10 [/ South Alrir. is guilty
thtNtm to bring RuSoli. bdo.., lhe United N.Ii""" Ind
01 viololing II><> hum."
charge her with "loIaling the human rights 01 less then rights of AlTic.", ""'" on
th ..... mill .... RllMiiln ~ what .... keo our "fric.... broth· tIw moIher continenl. Ihm AJtW;'fb is guilty of ""'"'" vio-
en; to...italf' to bring tIw United St.Lles g()\·~rrunenl btfor~ lalions of tM '''·en'y·t ...·o mIllion AI"".n. on ,he
,he United Nalions and dt.arg~ her "" i,h violating the AfIl<'ri<.n ronlinent. And if South Altiron racism I!I not.
hum.n rights 01 t""-"'y·lwO million African·Americ.ns. domeslic is/;uc, then Ame.ic.n rMlsm .Iso i. not " ,I" .......
ti<: issue.
~bny of you h.we """" Io.od 10 bel.....,.,
lhot It.. much
publiciled, r«t'nlly.--. civil.rights bill is a ... gn Ihdt
IW poy thol our African bfOllo.e .. ho,·" no! Ireed 1",",,- A",,,,, K. is malins ' si""""" ellon to ,""rred It.. Inj~
wi ..... of EU"'l"""n ('O/onialism only to be "''''''00'''' .nd ,.·r h.o,·c .ull.....,J lhen- This p"'P"g.nd. m....... ' ·.... is
held in check by Anwrir.n dollarism. l)Qn't let A ..... nc." P"" 0/ her d<'n'" .nd ITicb·.y In h"'1' the Alri<.n ,,"'~>nS bt "lcgal iud" by American doll.ri...... lrom rondemning her rMiSI p.a<1m befu ... I"" Unil,'(!
America is wOlSOO ,hon South Aim, bKa""" no! only is N.tions. as you .... now doing as ....gard, the !lam<' prac.
Ameriu r.ocist, .... ' ~.oo is domltuJ and hypocriricaJ. .~ ofSoulh Afrir"a.
lhe Unitt-.1 St.ues s...p"-.",,, Coun p._.,; a law 'e'" two m,lIion Afric.n - Am~rican._ And on tlo<- grounds th.ot
)'"ars ago ma king Amerka'S S<'g"-'8"'e"; ",hool system ill... our dctc';or.hng plight is definitely b..'CUming a thn>al 10
g.l. 6u. the leder.1 g",-cm""-",,, has Y'" ' 0 enlorce .i'II'; law ......,oId p<'''''''_
e""" in .he North. If .he led~,"1 governmenl ',,""WI Out of frustration and hopelessn.",. our young peopl~
...nfomo lhe law of lhe high<'S' "oun ,n ,he land ..... to.... i, h.",,, reached the po;nt of no Mum. W~ no longe, ""do"..,
""IDeS '0 ""'thing bu' equal right> to ed...,ation for African- p"tienoce and '"ming_the.<olher_d,,,,,k. We as,s.,nthe right
Americans. how can anyone be SO nai,'c as to think all tlo<- "I self..:ld""", by wh''''''~r means ~ry.• nd reserve
additionall"ws broughl in,o being by the civil-right> bill the right "f maximum "".Iiahun againS! uur ,.cist
will be enfo..:ed> lhcs<: are "f'pressors. no matter what thc odds against uS .re_ F.-nm
nothing but tricte.. 01 Ih~ he", on in. if ,,-e must die
America is worse .ny ....'.y. we will dOe fight-
century's I~ading """""o\(>.
than South Africa, ing back and we will not
Don't escape from
ni.list po..... er. Surel)' our
because not only is intelll'Ctu.lly motu," di<> alone . ......, in'end to set' Eu ropea n colonial-
American racist, Afric.n broth~rs will not Ihat our racist "f'p""""rs ism only to become
but she a lso is rail for th,s t.. ckcry_ The also g<.>l a taSie of death. even more enslaved
Organi~.tion 01 AI..,. lVe aT<' well ."·a,,, th,,.
deceitful and by deceitful, "friend -
American Unity. in (OOpt'r_ our luture effort> to ddcnd
hypocritical. ation with a "Oollition 01 "urseh'l'S b) ",uliating -
ly" American dollar-
o,her Negro leaderS and by ""-'Cling ,'iolene .. with Ism.
organization., has dIXided to "I",-ate our I,,--..:Iom ""'Ule "iol"""". eye 10' an eye and
abo,,-e lhe domestic 1.."eI of ci"il rights. W" intend to looth for a tooth - «mid ,,,,,ate ,he type of racial rorollkt in
"i n'ernationalize- i, by placing it al the le,-.. I "I human Ameri"a that could ,,,,ily """.Iat" into" ,-ioIt-",t. world-
rights. Our ,,,,,-"'om struggl,' ror human dignity is no "-ide. bloody race war
lunger ronlino.'dlO tho.' dom<'Stic jurisdiction of the United In the of world p"''''' and Sl'C .... ity. we b.>so.'<'Ch'S go"emment . t"" head. 01 the independent African statCS to nxomm.'nd
an immediate inn'stigation int" our problem by th~
The Coming R"". W.. Unit,'d Nation> Commission on I·tuman Right •. If thi.
humble pic. th.I I am "oking ,\l Ih;,; ronl""""'" i. "0'
w~ ~h lho.' inde!"-,,,d""t Alrie.. " >t."<'S to help u, p"'p"rly wo"k'\l, the" Id our cider brothers. who know
bring our problem before the Unitt"<l Natoon>, on the I"" kg;oll.nguag~. come 10 our ~id ~nd .....ord our plea in
grounds Ihal the Unit,'d Slales go,''''''_'''t i. morally • lhe p"'per languag~ neco$';;:"Y lor it to be heard.
incap"blc of pmteding lhe 1;'-0$ and P"'l""rty 01 hH'flly_

0.. I.tst ,",'or.:i, my ~""'cd brotIw. ... at this Afric....
lUmmi!: - No ~ knows the ~ bttIer than IUs __
" ...... " Iv" ,,",.., boom ............ On Amt, ic. for <Wf!r JOO Tho Autd>kijv.p/>l' of ~"kolm X io """,lred '""'''l\ lor '11)'"
...... ink' d ...... III<-, and M io .v';l>bIr ... ...... , d,lkl<'M
~n. Iv" hai'e thoo""~ ;--sode knowledge of this rrYn
oW ........ world ...... In .... HOi,. 199Ol, in pool due to .... popot"
who calls hi_,I -Uncle Som." Tlw:' £Mt, you must Ned LorilV cl Spik lft', film . - . .... ~/o cl M.>kolm X, • ~u_
OUr wamU1S' Don', """'P'" from Europr.... roIoniaIism of"';'", ' 0 fino! _ w.... PU' boo<~ in pnnI. and _01 ......
only to berome "'.... ",.,.. ~1,wcd by d~lful, "friend. W(Jf1<s .pp"'tN . Tho 1oI1ow"'fl ;,. good .. k.';"" 0( WOI'I<s

Iy" American doll~rism. fr<>m ,he 100ft pomod clhlo lif<-, .n 0( whictl a", ..·... obIt f"""
I'.'hli~der 1'..,.., "'a,1'd in Syd ... y, Auckland, Mon,..,."
May Allah's bl....ings of gnod """ th and wisdom boe
T""",'o, New YOfk and l.ondori;
upon you all, Solum AI. ykum.
• "A~,._IW<tfM,,{Sooond Edition. 1m)
• r........, 11165: TJotr,lWIIs,.",...
(Edil«l bySi£w Clork)
• MoobI. lC: llot 1Mt s,."",~ (Ed>1«I by """'"' I'ftty)
_ 1wWR>I. X 000 Afro:. A.. ' .... ,,~ (upondood and
m"",..1«1 Ed_,
_M,'' ' . XToIb .. t""lrl'", I _S, "'",
Afru (Edil«l by s....., a"k)
.. ,.,. U.s.. ........

Ibdiral ~h.. ls
l'amphlo1 Sorriu

Yusef l'rog ...., Sor. " &hlor CITIZENS INTERNATIO NAL

Cili......s InlernoticlNl (CmlENS) iu 5klboJ peep)" twt·

Tho, RadICal EMc.-nn .. t. I'amphlot Suits brings rutk... a wud ~ in I"""'ng. Malays"," which woOs.,., issues of
rolle<:hon 01 """ys....... "")' for (·,... i$ioning life boyood pHC1'. anti-militarism., cull" ••• ~ti(In, environmen-
thl' ho.W""""1<" Srip 01 Wesl<'1'Tl modernity, it. kno .... k-dgr tal proICCtion. ''''Mai""b''' dev,.q,mml and tradiho.... J
luditions and itS oocio-«on<:>mk Oysl""';. l'dmphl<'!> fCll' knowl('<jge systems.
tun> .... (},ks by m,,,.~'rick thinkers op<"I"dling with", 11K'
CITIZENS ""iie\1;'S that l'<'<>f'lcs acth 'ism on H>ese iS5UCO
\"">rern Inl~II''<1"al t •• duion and Third World Ih inkM'S
globally ;s """"'tial 10 a,,,,,. the wO)<ld's ... pid slide
d'>"clopin); tht·" own intei""".ual l.adilion<. n,.. fOClJs 01
tho;- ,Ioo,,.;n is .... ~lioo""';''r11<>d erit;';.1 a""I}'>i~ about .
rowards i""",.S<'d miLna.l.-lion 01 ~;
..-asldul produ<bon 01 ........ """'1". i,n,....wle ~I'U<"­
, -ariel)' 01 rotll<'1t1po<ary IOpics. includmg llw e.wiron_
tion 01 out '"",.""""""'. and <'<'OIogy; wu, J'O"erty and
"''''... COO\Sl1M<"Iism. t<cl\noIog); "".lth and «I""• •""" ~Imtt lor the gJotr.J """,,"Iy.

cmZENS is """"g<>d by a Boord aI T~ aI ... peri.

c ... o:d NCO acI,..ISI •. TlIr et.;,i"""n aI 1M Boord is SM
Mon..rned ldris, 1M ~t aI Coou.u~ Asooociahon
oIrenang (CAP) and s" ALom Mal.~ (Friends 01
1M F..,rth, Mal.oysio) (SAM) and C""onlj",,tor 01 Third
World Network (TWN).
Other Radica l Es:\Cnli"b r ,lnlrhlct Scril'" Other Radical Esscnhab r ","phlct Serl."
Available Available

_- ............-

"'*'11\0 ""'-"d '"""1 _ _ oauc.
_ , .. " ",", """" _ I\at ....
I\Uvy , , _.. , _ 0/, " , •.,.....
..... " ,. '" """'Il .,...".. by ....

"" ... _ ..... """' . , 0/'"

nn'. ........ , "

C> _,_. "

r ubl i•• lion5 by Cilinn' Inl. mali""a'


~A~';:P"·. Add.-to the Western World

Tho lmpfti.ll ..... 01 Higher Education
6y WmI C/lwm.iIJ
Enlidllmed Thinkers and I"" Revolutionary Society
fly ,.,li 51.1...,1
T.dmology and lhe Business T. kCO\·.. of Higher
by o",ojd NobI,
Why W" MuS! Ob-6r.obhsh School
loy ,..... /l/d
by MitIaJI.. X
WARON I RAQ: COO1CftVN in Iso-....
6y S/tp/ltn I S~IIJO'4'
USA: Tho Crumbling 01 Emp''''
N Frtdtrir r CIo,..""
IRAQ: n... Turmenl of Emp""
by Frrd"i< F. Ch",IIO~'
IlOLiI/IA: n... Rt>."'Kenreof Ind<rAmerica
by rrrdrril: f. C"';ffIt(J~'

Related Interests