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Level 2 laboratory activities refer to the condition where only the problem is guided and
given. Students are required to find the ways and means and provide the answers to the given
assignment using the group creativity and innovativeness. The activity will enable the students to
appreciate independent learning and prepare them for much harder task of open ended laboratory
In this laboratory activity students will be introduced to the concept, principles and the
mechanism of a sprinkler system and fire hose reel.
The objective of this laboratory session is:
1. To identify the basic operation, concepts and principles of fire sprinkler system and fire hose reel
in a building.
2. To study the installation and selection of fire sprinkler system and fire hose reel as safely aids in
the building.

At the end of the laboratory activities, student would be able to:
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1. Describe the basic operation, concepts and principle of a fire sprinkler system by
operating the Sprinkler Trainer Unit Model AFSS-1055-2.
2. Discuss the operation, concept and principles of Fire Hose Reel by conducting
visual inspection and observation in a building.
3. Describe at least the minimum requirement for installing the Fire Fighting System
(Sprinkler System and Fire Hose Reel) according to uniform Building by Laws
(UBBL) 1984.

Basically, fire-fighting system is a prevention system to prevent fire from spreading in a
building. For most fire-fighting systems, water represents the ideal extinguishing agent to be
used. Fire sprinklers and hose reel utilized water by direct application onto the flames and heat,
which causes cooling of the combustion process and prevents ignition of adjacent combustibles,
thus extinguish the fire and prevent the fire from spreading.
The fire sprinkler systems are most effective during the fires initial flame growth stage,
while the fire is relatively easy to control. A properly selected sprinkler head will detect the fires
heat, initiate alarm, and begin suppression within moments after flames appear. In most instances
sprinklers will control fire advancement within a few minutes of their activation, which will in
turn result in significantly less damage than otherwise would happen without sprinklers.

Each group is required to prepare a comprehensive layout which indicates the
location of the sprinkler head and fire hose reel installation in facultys building. The
relevant regulation or standard need to be referred in order to determine the compliancy
of the system. Any issues or problems identify during observation need to be record and
Each group is also required to choose and operate the suitable equipment which
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placed in the laboratory in order to demonstrate on how the sprinkler system is

operated. Discover the procedure on how to handle the equipment and record the
appropriate parameters to indicate the efficiency of the system. Any safety precautions
of conducting the laboratory activities need to be highlighted in the procedure.

1. Sprinkler
2. Apparatus
3. Allen key
4. Sprinkle head
5. Candle
6. Lighter
7. Spanner
8. White tape

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1. Plaster the white tape at the sprinkle head to tighten it.
2. Climb the ladder to put the sprinkle head at the trainer unit.
3. Removed the top cover.
4. Loose the candle holder using the alley key.
5. Tighten the sprinkle head using the spanner.
6. Insert the sprinkle head at the trainer unit and adjust the candle holder.
7. The candle was placed at the candle holder.
8. Close the top cover.
9. Switched on the main pump.
10. Checked if leaking at the sprinkler
11. Checked the pressure reading at the pressure gauge.
12. Light up the candle and at the same time start the stopwatch. Ensure that the light touch
the sprinkle head.
13. Closed up the sprinkler system lock.
14. Wait until the sprinkle head rupture and the water come out.

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15. When the water flow out, stop the stopwatch and record the reading.
16. Checked the water pressure and record the data.
17. Switch off the main power and clean the workstation.
18. Tabulate the data.

Table 1: data based on experiment
Time for the sprinkler head rupture

1minutes 25seconds

Pressure 1 ( before start the experiment)

4.4 bar

Pressure 2 ( after the experiment)

0 bar

1. Convert the unit of pressure from bar to kpa
1bar = 1 10 kpa
So 4.4bar

4.4 ( 1 10 )

4.4 10


2. Convert the unit of time from minutes to second

60s + 25s

1. Concept and principles of fire sprinkler system is receive heat until once limited
temperature of the sprinkler and quartzoid bulb at sprinkler head will blow out, so water
can flow out from the sprinkler. The limit temperature are different for every different
colour of quartzoid bulb for example:
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Colour of quartzoid bulb


Temperature limit (C)


2. The fire hose reel should have at every level of building, and for the distance between
nearest fire fighting system is not even more than 91.5m away. 225. (2) Every
building shall be served by at least on fire hydrant located not more than 91.5 metres
from the nearest point of fire brigade access.- Uniform Building by Laws (UBBL) 1984,
pages 100.
3. Minimum pressure for sprinkler head not less than 4.8bar but based on data collected the
pressure reading (before start the experiment) shown 4.4bar. Maybe it is because of the
pump had an internal problem even the valve are fully open.
4. Temperature at sprinkler head achieved 68C in 85seconds from fire candle sources.
Based on the experiment, the main objective of this laboratory session are to identify the
basic operation, concepts and principles of fire sprinkler system and fire hose reel in a building
and also to study the installation and selection of fire sprinkler system and fire hose reel as safety
aids in the building. In conclusion, the fire sprinkler system can subdivide to several types of
colour and every of the colour has their own function and specific usage for certain place. For the
example, there was red in colour which is commonly used. Basically, a glass bulb type sprinkler
head will spray water into the room if sufficient heat reaches the bulb and causes it to shatter.
Sprinkler heads operate individually. Hence, to prevent fire from spreading in a building, we
should use the fire sprinkler and water represents the ideal extinguishing agent to be used. Fire
sprinklers and hose reel utilized water by direct application.

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1. Uniform Building by-Laws, published by MDC Publishers Sdn. Bhd.

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