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CONEXIONES 2010…TO BE REVISED
INSERT PAGES FROM THE BACK OF YOUR CUADERNO TO ANSWER QUESTIONS

páginas I INTRODUCCION A. USANDO EL CUADERNO B. FILOSOFIA DEL PROGRAMA C. PREGUNTAS, CUESTIONES, MISTERIOS, ENIGMAS, ADIVINANZAS II EL CHOQUE CULTURAL A. COMO IDENTIFICARLO B. TECNICAS DE APOYO C. EXPLORACION III LA CULTURA MEXICANA A. EXPLORANDO ESTEREOTIPOS B. CARTOGRAFÍA C. LENGUA Y CULTURA POPULAR D. GASTRONOMIA E. LOS MEDIOS Y LA CULTURA POP F. EL ARTE Y LA CULTURA EXPRESIVA IV LA SOCIEDAD MEXICANA A. INSTITUCIONES SOCIALES B. LA FAMILIA C. LOS HIJOS D. LOS ESTUDIANTES E. GRUPOS SOCIALES F. LA ECONOMIA Y EL MERCADO CONTAMINACION Y EL AMBIENTE G. HISTORIA, POLITICA Y GOBIERNO OPINIONES H. ELECCIONES V CONVERSACIONES VI VIAJES Y TRABAJO DE CAMPO A. EXPLORANDO GRANADA REGIONAL CENTERS B. PÁTZCUARO C. URUAPAN D. GUANAJUATO E. GUADALAJARA F. CIUDAD DE MÉXICO G. PUEBLOS RURALES, FIESTAS POPULARES VI MUSICA / EL CD DE CONEXIONES 3 3-4 5

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8 9 10-17 18- 20 20- 21 22

25 27 28 28 29 31 35 36 41 44 48 53 54 55 58 61 64 69 72 75

2 Assignments to be completed: (it may be helpful to use this space to keep a checklist for yourself regarding which assignments have been completed)

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I. INTRODUCCIÓN:
A. USANDO EL CUADERNO Approach: Students as guided by the culture study faculty will use the Conexiones Cuaderno model as the basis of their inquiries. Since there is, as yet, no Conexiones Cuaderno specific to Nicaragua, the students will generate a cuaderno as the product of their endeavors. Copies of model cuadernos from previous Conexiones programs will be available to students and will provide the template or structure. Students will explore, discovering the Nicaraguan content which they will adapt to generate a Conexiones Cuaderno that will incorporate the collective knowledge that the students gain on Nicaraguan culture. Culture study faculty will divide students into teams. Each team, with faculty guidance, will address given aspects of Nicaraguan culture. The model cuadernos from past programs will provide the list of aspects students will be assigned to cover. Activities: Some of the activities students will undertake include: 1) Engagement with the physical setting of Nicaraguan culture 2) Inquiry into the pre-history, prehispanic history, colonial history, history of the Nicaraguan Republic, and revolutionary history of Nicaragua. Nicaragua as a central American country and the international dimension of the Nicaraguan state. 3) Exploration of the City of Granada – mapping, transportation, government, spacial characteristics, etc. 4) Exploration of the economic fundamentals of the country, and of the city of Granada. 5) Inquiries into the social structure of Nicaraguan culture 6) Inquiries into the national and regional cuisine of Nicaragua. 7) Exploration of the ways Nicaraguans conceive of and us time. 8) Inquiries into the religious and spiritual aspects of Nicaraguan culture. 9) Explorations of the expressive dimensions of Nicaragua life , literature, music, and the plastic arts. 10) Inquiries into Nicaraguan politics and the political dimension of life at the various levels of Nicaraguan society. 11) Explorations of particular locales, so as to appreciate the comparisons and contrasts afforded by a diverse society. 12) Exploration of the mores of social engagement in Nicaragua. 13) Exploration of the life cycles of Nicaraguan individuals. The trajectory of development from birth to childhood to adolescence to adulthood to the phenomenon of again and, finally, to death. 14) Exploration of Nicaraguan popular culture (including tourism). 15) Exploration of language as Nicaraguans use it. Most important: Use the Cuaderno to your advantage, have fun with it, and make it your own.

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B. FILOSOFIA DEL PROGRAMA It is our purpose as educators to encourage speculation and theory building. For most questions of genuine interest to human beings there is no one correct answer. Existence exceeds our ability to comprehend. Individually, we labor under the limitations of our intelligence, perspectives, and access to information. Collectively, although we have vast data banks and libraries that hold and order the knowledge we’ve accumulated, that knowledge barely scratches the mysteries of the universe we live in. We still do not understand, for example how a cell works or how the brain functions in language acquisition. Despite the unknown and mysterious nature of our existence, education proceeds as though there are right answers, set facts that students can simply learn on the basis of authority. Speculative and theorizing skills are ignored and people proceed through their university studies with an impoverished reflective, speculative capacity. As you engage this workbook on the field trip, your “natural” approach will lead you to seek the “right” answers to questions. This is not our focus as educators. We want to encourage you to think, to challenge conventional wisdom. The most fundamental question one can face in engaging another culture is this: What am I seeing (sensing)? The next question is: What does it mean in context? If you answer too quickly, you will experience distortions. What looks like a parade, for example, may turn out to be a funeral, a holy procession, or a postal workers’ strike. One of the main purposes of this workbook is to encourage you to consider situations and perspectives you’d not ordinarily consider. Cross-cultural experience should expand consciousness. We guarantee that engaging the questions and exercises suggested in this cuaderno will provide you with experience and perspectives you’d not have attained if you simply followed your own agenda. Please don’t worry yourselves about the “right” answers. The “right” answer is the quest, the engagement with a mysterious world that yields up its secrets reluctantly. We encourage you to speculate. Instead of assuming there is an answer the instructors are “looking for” on every question; imagine that your discoveries and insights are valuable. Instead of assuming there is a correct, causal explanation, think of as many alternative explanations as possible, speculate, think. Too often, answering a question halts inquiry. Our aim is to encourage, not limit, inquiry.

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C. PREGUNTAS, CUESTIONES, MISTERIOS, ENIGMAS, ADVINANZAS I. In the following space, make a list of five questions, situations or topics of personal interest that you would like to explore, clarify or answer during the trip. How can you find the information you’re looking for? There will be opportunity to discuss this with professors and other students. Document your findings. (Reminder: use and insert the blank pages from the back for elaboration!)

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II. EL CHOQUE CULTURAL:
Everyone entering another culture, experiences culture shock. Culture shock is a response to another way of life. It can be subtle or intense. You will experience culture shock. Everyone does, even those who do not recognize it or deny it. We’ve found that culture shock is a powerful tool. It creates discomfort and motivation to learn. Each culture is a complete information system. One learns about culture by surviving culture shock and integrating the new perspective. Eventually a person begins to develop intercultural skills. At the same time, he or she comes to appreciate CULTURE and how it works for all humans. Emotionally, culture shock is transformed through support. One aggravating dimension of culture shock is that we are away from our usual sources of emotional support. In CONEXIONES we recognize that students need substitutes for their usual support systems. We form student support groups. Generally, the groups meet four times, once during the orientation classes at UNM, twice during the field session, and once during the final seminar session at UNM. The purpose of the groups is to provide a place for students to discuss their feelings in a safe, setting. Support allows students to retain emotional equilibrium. Here are some tips on support and how to give it. A. COMO IDENTIFICAR EL CHOQUE CULTURAL: As you encounter Nicaraguan culture you can expect to experience culture shock. You will assess situations incorrectly and behave in inappropriate ways. Nicaraguans will react (laughter is a common reaction). As you recognize your mistake, you’ll feel amusement, shame, discomfort, frustration, sadness, or even anger. The magnitude of the feeling varies greatly and is not necessarily predictable. Some of the feelings may be uncomfortable. People deal with these feelings in different ways. Defensive reactions are common and include (1) Denial (2) Escape (often to English or alcohol) (3) Blaming others - peers, authority figures, Nicaragua, etc. (4) Projection, thinking others are uncomfortable. (5) Justifying the feelings. (6) Identification with the other culture and one-sided criticism of one’s own culture. So, if you notice feelings that seem extreme, if you find yourself conducting an inner dialogue of denial, blame, evasion, etc., or if you find yourself acting out such feelings, you are probably experiencing culture shock. If a fellow student is having an emotional response that seems inappropriate, then that person may be experiencing culture shock. B. TÉCNICAS DE APOYO: When people are undergoing culture shock, what can be done? How can one person be helpful to another? The answer is simple. It is most helpful when one person is able to listen closely, without judgment, while someone else shares his or her feelings. Other support skills that are mentioned below are secondary to the deep listening that is the heart of the matter. The attitude you have, however, towards a person that needs support can encourage that person to share. Expressions of willingness include such things as offering (“Do you want to talk about it?”), accepting (as in simple assent “yeah, I know.”), encouraging (“Tell me about it.”), observing (“You seem tense.”), exploring (“What led

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up to this?”), reflecting (“So then you felt X.”), clarifying (“Let’s see if I have it straight.”), and summarizing (So far you’ve told me X.”), etc. Such expressions signal a willingness to listen. Avoid judgments and don’t try to solve the person’s problem. SUPPORT GROUPS encourage people to accept and understand the feelings that go with culture contact. We are not encouraging people to become dependent on the group, far from it. We feel that support allows people to feel their courage and engage Nicaraguan people and Nicaraguan culture in a clear and complete way. Support allows people to overcome emotional distress and learn Spanish more successfully. Attendance at support group meetings is absolutely required. C. EXPLORACIÓN: Write a few paragraphs that tell the story of THREE of your key culture shock experiences. Describe the situation (when, where, who present, what circumstances). Describe your feelings. Explain how you recognized your reaction as culture shock. Describe how you coped with the situation and feelings. Elaborate with drawings and photos if possible. (attach)

[OPTIONAL EXPERIMENT - an experiment in social perception: In pairs, walk around the busiest area in Granada in your most glaringly U.S. outfit possible. Don the “White Sox” cap, UNM tee, short shorts, and Nikes. At the exact same time the next day, do the same; yet try to dress as traditionally Nicaraguan as possible. Report on how you felt, how you were treated, why you were reacted to in the way that you were, etc.]

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III. LA CULTURA NICARAGÜENSA
A. EXPLORANDO ESTEREOTIPOS 1. Make a list of American stereotypes about Nicaragua and Nicaragϋenses. Use the following areas as guidance, and add more if you can: immigration, politics, gender roles, family life, media, physical appearance, the Border

2. After 2 weeks in Nicaragua, what have you found about the stereotypes above? What stereotypes do Nicaraguans have about Americans? If you feel comfortable doing so, ask your host family what they think.

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B. CARTOGRAFÍA ADD MAPS OF NICARAGUA AND GRANADA (attach your drawings/findings) 1. First orientation to Granada. Write a short description of how to get to school from your house. If you would prefer, you can draw a map instead. 2. Obtain maps of Nicaragua and Granada and get to know them. Check the papelerías: maps made with kids in mind can be especially helpful. Choose 2 of the following: 3. Choose a bus route (what are the buses called?) and take it to its end and then back to where you started. Where did you end up? Can you make generalizations about who takes this bus line (school kids, working people…)? Write, draw, or take pictures. 4. Make a map of your family’s house (ex. floor plan). Draw or include photos. 5. Map of your neighborhood. Draw or include photos. 6. Go to the Mercado (traditional market). Draw the layout or include photos. 7. Make a map of the plaza. During colonial times, las Leyes de Indias determined the design of many public places. Draw or include photos.

C. LENGUA Y CULTURA POPULAR TÚ Y USTED (answer at least 2) The use of tú or usted is very important because it indicates the social relationship between two people. The use of tú may indicate familiarity, intimacy, an interaction between two people of the same age, or social position of the speakers. The use of usted indicates formality, courtesy, that two people don’t know each other, deference, or interaction between members of different social classes.

1. Which form do you use when speaking to God or a saint, as if in a sentence?

2. Why at times do parents use the usted form with their kids?

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3. In your family, how do the kids address their parents?

4. Make a list of 3 situations in which you have observed someone talking in the tú form with another person.

5. Make a list of 3 situations in which you have heard the usted form used.

OPTIONAL 6. The transition between tú and usted in a relationship is very significant. Give two examples of this transition, noting when, where, who was present, and what was happening. (ex. How do store clerks address you? Your host family? Friends you’ve met in Granada?) a.

b.

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7. What does it mean to “echar flores” or “dar un piropo?” What do you notice about male-female interactions, especially on the streets?

Give examples of common piropos and/or the accompanying hand gestures. PIROPO SIGNIFICADO CONOTACIÓN

GESTO DE LA MANO

SIGNIFICADO

CONOTACIÓN

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REFRANES (DICHOS) Y ADIVINANZAS CHOOSE EITHER #1 OR #2 1. Collect five to ten refranes from your family. (ex. “A rolling stone gathers no moss”) Indicate how each is used and in what situations. Also, pay attention to who says them and to whom they are told. Which are used in daily conversation?

2. Ask a child to answer at least four of the following advinanzas. Also, ask the child if they can think of any more to add to your Cuaderno. . a. Una viejita con solo un diente llama a toda la gente. b. Agua pasa por mi casa cate de mi corazón el que no me adivine es un burro cabezón. RESPUESTAS c. Alto, alto, como un pino pero pesa menos que un comino. d. ¿Qué cosa es que cuando más grande es menos se ve? e. Si los amarro se van si los suelto se quedan ¿que serán? f. En alto vive, en alto mora en alto teje la tejedora. RESPUESTAS

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BRINDIS (“cheers, mate, clink your glasses”) Make a list of at least three traditional brindis:

VOCABULARY: 1. Keep a list of words that are new to you. Look them up later and try to use them throughout your day. This works really well if you keep a small notebook (cuadernito) in your pocket. 2. Nuhuatl (Azteca) and Purépecha (Tarasca) are very important indigenous languages in the region. Make a list of 8 words in Spanish that have Nahuatl origins: 1) 5) 2) 6) 3) 7) 4) 8) Make a list of 8 Spanish words with origins in Purépecha and explain their significance. 1) 5) 2) 6) 3) 7) 4) 8) LEMAS (attach) Look for, take pictures of or draw 5 different lemas written or painted on walls throughout the city (graffiti). What are the origins of the lemas and what do they mean? (ex. political?) Are they meant to be a denouncement or criticism of something?

CARTELES (attach) Different posters can be found in many public places around the city. Find and describe three, either through photos, drawings, or written analysis. If possible, take the poster. Si es posible, róbese un cartel.

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PRODUCTOS Find and analyze ten different brands. Are the brands imported from the US with different names, or are they Nicaraguan products?

Globalization, corporatization- What surprised you? Do you see more American products/stores/brands than you thought you would? What is their connotation?

Regarding large corporate stores: have you seen anything that surprised you? Stores you hadn’t thought would be in Nicaragua?

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EL LENGUAGE DE LOS NIÑOS If there are young children in your family, try to observe how they learn Spanish. Make a list of common word slips, “baby talk”. Kid talk varies according to region. For example, what is yaya in New Mexico? In Granada? Also include a list of nicknames that are based on the mispronunciation of kids. Observe los niños aprendiendo el español y haga una lista de las palabras que dicen, “baby talk.” Usualmente estas palabras son repeticiones de sílabas sencillas. El habla de los niños varía en los diferentes lugares donde se habla el español. Por ejemplo, ¿qué es una yaya en Nuevo México? ¿Cómo se dice en Granada? También haga una lista de apodos (nombres cortas de la gente) basados en la pronunciación incorrecta de los niños.

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NARRATIVOS ORALES: CHISTES (Jokes) 1. Chistes sobre Gringos.

2. Chistes de la política.

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HISTORIA ORAL Choose at least two of the following and answer on a blank page

1. Collect a narrative from your family about the Sandanista Revolution.

2. Collect a story about migration from Nicaragua to the United States.

3. Collect a funny story about one of your family's members.

4. Collect information about your family's history. Are they from Granada? For how many generations? What did their grandparents do?

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D. GASTRONOMIA: 1. Define and taste as many (at least 5) of the regional cuisines listed below as possible. Ask your family about other traditional foods of Michoacán.

uchepos tamales chocolate de metate charanda, charape blanco de pátzcuaro charales acúmara olla podrida sopa tarasca ates y Granadanas chongos zamoranos otros (describa)

2. Observe the preparation of two main dishes (comidas fuertes) in your family’s kitchen and write the recipes. Possibility to include photos.

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EL CHILE Make a list of at least 4 different types of chiles. Describe their uses and how they are served. NOMBRES USOS 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. LA SALSA Describe the uses and ingredients of 3 different salsas. Try to participate in the preparation of a salsa in your home. Una salsa verde

Una salsa roja

Un mole

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E. LOS MEDIOS Y LA CULTURA POP (attach answers) Compare and contrast the role of the media and pop culture in the United States and Nicaragua. Choose and complete two of the following sections: PERIODISMO, LA TELEVISIÓN, FOTONOVELAS Y CARICATURAS, EL CINE, LA MUSICA PERIODISMO 1. Identify the newspapers that your family reads and what type of coverage they offer. (regional, local)

2. Identify the main newspapers in the country and try to describe why they are considered so important.

3. Critique of magazines - Choose 3 magazines and complete the following: a. What is the intended audience of each one? b. How does the magazine relate to: i. advertisement? ii. Social positions? iii. The political system? c. Do the women in the magazines reflect the reality of Nicaraguan culture? How does their depiction affect the image of beauty that Nicaraguans have? d. Briefly describe the content of the magazine.

LA TELEVISIÓN Choose a telenovela and watch every episode for one week. What characteristics (physical and personality) do the victims display? The villains? 1. Compare the two largest television companies in Mexico, Televisa and TV Azteca: a. How many stations does each have? b. Are there differences in the type of shows each company puts on the air? Pay special attention to differences in the telenovelas. c. Ask your family what their favorite channels/programs are and why. 2. Compare the commercials in Mexico and the US. What are the differences?

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FOTONOVELAS 1. Read a fotonovela and critique it. a. What values are assumed/ presumed? b. Characterize the protagonists: (sex, class, work, age, appearance, life circumstances…) c. c. Identify evidence of social inclinations, institutions, and problems. EL CINE 1. Go to a Mexican movie and a movie from the US and critique them. a. What values are assumed/ presumed? b. Characterize the protagonists: (sex, class, work, age, appearance, life circumstances…) c. Identify evidence of social inclinations, institutions, and problems.

LA MUSICA 1. Learn about different types of music in Mexico. (Complete 4 of the questions) a. What music does your family like? b. Describe the different styles of music in Mexico and explain their differences in terms of content, themes, and language. c. Transcribe two songs from the radio or from a CD. d. Make a list of English-language songs that are popular in Mexico. e. Listen to and transcribe the chorus of a song in Purépecha.

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F. EL ARTE Y LA CULTURA EXPRESIVA Become familiar with the work, life, and setting of a Mexican rtist, sculptor, poet, musician, or other person devoted to aesthetic expression. Learn as much as possible about the place of art and expressive culture in Mexican prehistory, history, and society, to learn as much as possible about what art means and has meant to Mexicans. (Record notes on the following tasks on blank cuaderno sheets) TAREAS: 1. Visit a local artist’s studio. (Or sculptor, musician, poet, etc.) a. Describe the studio, how space is used b. Describe his/her work (media, content, style) c. Interview the artist -biography -training -inspiration -resume (shows, exhibits etc.) -philosophy of art/life -political beliefs (incorporated into art?) -economics -What kind of a living does the artist make? -Is he/she living from proceeds of sales? -How much does the work sell for? -What is the artist’s view of the importance of art? -Have the artist speak about a particular piece. -How it was conceived -What it means to him/her -How he/she hopes audiences will respond -describe the process of producing the piece -Is the artist satisfied, if not, why? d. If you or anyone in your group buys a piece (book of poems, tape, etc.) from the artist, describe how the interaction is transformed. 2. Attend a public expressive arts event of one kind or another (poetry reading, gallery or museum exhibition opening, concert, etc.) a. Who attended (what kind of people)? b. What do people like about the work? c. What’s the format? d. What subjects do the works address? e. What media does the artist use? f. What style does the artist employee? g. How does the artist fit into the Mexican Art world? h. How does the situation compare and contrast to similar events in US culture. i. Characterize your emotions as you respond to the work.

3. Visit the museum of Colonial art a. Characterize colonial art (in your own words).

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b. Note the reactions of other museum patrons to the art.

c. Ask someone about the importance of colonial art in Nicaraguan history and culture. 4. Name some muralists and give a brief history of muralism.

5. Who do people name as the most important Nicaraguan artists?

6. What criteria are used to determine “importance” of an artist?

7. Characterize the work of these “important artists.”

8. Alfredo Zalce is a well-known local muralist. See and describe some of his work.

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9. Interview a Nicaraguan about beauty. a. What constitutes beauty? b. What makes something beautiful? c. How important is beauty to life? d. Does art by nature express the beauty of the world? e. What constitutes ugliness? f. How does the person express his/her aesthetic sense? g. What’s the most beautiful thing the person has ever experienced? h. Make lists of beautiful things, ugly things, as characterized by the person interviewed. Also make your own list.

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IV. LA SOCIEDAD NICARAGÜENSE
A. INSTITUCIONES SOCIALES: Learn something about the roles and functions of the following social institutions. How are they perceived by the Mexicans you talk to? How do they differ from the same institutions in the US?

Choose at least 8 of the following : EL GOBIERNO Nacional, Estatal, y Municipal (National, State, and Local) Oficiales, sus papeles y responsabilidades (Officials, their roles and responsibilities) Impuestos (taxes) , Legislation

EL SEGURO SOCIAL

LAS PROFESIONES (médico, abogado, profesor, etc.)

LA PRENSA (THE PRESS)

LA LOTERÍA

LAS FUERZAS ARMADAS

LA EDUCACIÓN Kinder, Primaria, Secundaria/ Prepatoria (Prepa), Universitaria, Tecnológico, Estudiantes y maestros: papeles, relaciones (Roles and relationships between teachers and students)

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LA IGLESIA (choose 5) Parroquia, Capilla, Catedral, Cofradía, Altares exteriores (en calles o carreteras) Sacerdotes y Monjas Veneración de los Santos, Devoción a la Virgen de Guadalupe Oraciones y promesas Protestantismo, Espiritualismo y “New Age”

EL SISTEMA PENAL

EL SISTEMA AGRICOLA

LOS PARTIDOS POLÍTICOS

LOS SINDICATOS (WORKERS UNIONS)

PEMEX

EL CORREO

EL SISTEMA DE SALUD

BELLAS ARTES ( FINE ARTS)

EL EJIDO (COMMON LAND)

LA FRONTERA

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LA POLICÍA Federal, Municipal, Judicial, Aduanas

DEPORTES NACIONALES Boxeo, Lucha Libre, Fútbol, Los Toros

ANY OTHERS?

B. LA FAMILIA Y LA SOCIALIZACIÓN: GOAL: To accurately characterize your host family. Try to learn as much as you can about your family, their traditions, origins, division of labor, history, opinions, world view, etc. Attach blank pages to answer at least 3 of the following:

1. Observe what your family talks about at meals. Note topics, who speaks, and how the members of the family interact. Do the subjects vary? 2. Are there other times throughout the day that they have extended conversations? What about? 3. Ask your family about their traditions, religion, opinions, world view, etc. What do they have to say? 4. Regarding division of labor: what chores do the daughters and sons have? Do the mom and dad share the housework? 5. Jot down your thoughts on comparisons to US families.

6. Draw the physical layout of your host family’s house. (include pictures?)

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C. LOS HIJOS GOAL: To identify and understand relationships between children and people significant to their upbringing. (answer 2)

1. What are your observations about how children learn socialization skills in Nicaragua?

2. If there are children in your family, how are they reprimanded or praised?

3. What are your thoughts on comparisons with the US?

D. LOS ESTUDIANTES (answer at least 4) 1. What are the academic options for students in Mexico after la prepa? 2. How does the Mexican University system function? (classes, careers, tuition…) 3. What universities are in Morelia ? 4. Ask a Mexican student about their college experience (what they study, their goals, social life, etc.). Compare their answers with your own college experience. 5. Investigate UNAM (Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México). Explain what it is, how it is organized, and what it means today and historically. 6. Ask your host family and other Mexicans about the UNAM student strikes in 1968. What do they think? 7. What happened on the night of Tlateloco, October 2nd, 1968? 8. Investigate more recent strikes at UNAM. How did they start and end? 9. Ask a student for their opinion on student strikes.

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E. GRUPOS Y CLASES SOCIALES (y sus apodos) Chilangos

Nacos

Chicanos

Ilegales

La Gente de Razón

Fresas

Bohemios

Pelados

Campesinos

Norteño

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F. LA ECONOMÍA Y EL MERCADO:

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1. Usted ya ha dibujado el arreglo de un mercado. Ahora, visite un súper mercado local. Haga una lista de las diferencias entre un súper mercado y un mercado tradicional. You have already drawn the layout of a market. Now, visit a local super Mercado. Make a list of the differences between a super mercado and a traditional market.

2. Fije en donde su familia va de compras cada semana. ¿Cuántas veces va al súper vs. mercado tradicional? Think about where your family goes to shop each week. How many times and for what do they go to the super vs. the traditional market?

3. Haga una lista de las comidas más importantes. Make a list of the most important/basic foods that your family eats.

4. Escoja una comida e investíguela desde su producción original hasta su venta y consunción. Choose a food and investigate it from production to consumption. (where is it grown? How is it prepared?)

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5. ¿Cuántas marcas de los Estados Unidos ha encontrado? Pregunte por cuánto tiempo han tenido productos. ¿Son populares? How many US brands have you seen here in Nicaragua? Ask how long those products have been available. Are they popular?

6. El Regateo: ¿Cuándo, dónde y en cuáles circunstancias regatean los Nicaragüeñses para productos y servicios? ¿En cuáles circunstancias no es adecuado regatear? Bargaining: When, where and in what situations do Nicaraguans bargain for products and services? In what circumstances is it inappropriate to bargain?

7. Comparación de los precios. Colecte precios para los siguientes artículos Comparing prices. Collect prices for the following items. (choose at least 3 from each category)

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precio EE.UU. COMIDAS tortillas frijoles pan leche té café refrescos carne res puerco aves pescado frutas naranjas manzanas plátanos piñas sandías fruta tropical

precio Nicaragua

EE.UU. SALARIOS mano de obra salario mínimo campesinos profesionistas maestros profesores médicos abogados dentistas psicólogos

precio Nicaragua

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VIVIENDA casas pequeñas grandes rentas: casas, departamentos SERVICIOS gasolina electricidad gas teléfono larga distancia agua

precio EE.UU.

precio Nicaragua

MERCANCIA Ford LTD Mercedes/BMW VW Bug, Rabbit Datsun vehículos usados

EE.UU.

Nicaragua

refrigeradora lavadora estufa televisión radio VCR/ DVD computadoras FINANZAS Tarjetas de crédito/interés Préstamos para la casa Préstamos para el coche Préstamos agriculturales Fondos mutuales Acciones (stocks) Interés/ cuenta de ahorros Certificado de depósito EE.UU. Nicaragua

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DESPERDICIOS Y CONTAMINACIÓN: (answer at least one) 1. ¿Cuáles cosas tiran a la basura los Nicaragüeñsess ¿De qué consiste la basura? ¿Cuáles artículos están tirados que no tiramos en los Estados Unidos. ¿Cuáles artículos están tirados en los Estados Unidos que no tiran en Nicaragua? ¿Cómo colectan la basura? ¿A dónde llevan la basura? What things are thrown away in Nicaragua? What does trash consist of? What is thrown away in Nicaragua that is not thrown away in the US? Vice Versa? How is the trash collected? Where is it taken?

2. ¿Cuáles formas de contaminación son las peores en Nicaragua? ¿Cómo la resuelvan? ¿Cuáles problemas tiene los Estados Unidos con la contaminación que Nicaragua no tiene? ¿Cómo es el movimiento ambiental en Nicargua? ¿Cuáles son las organizaciones principales y sus agendas? What forms of pollution are the worst in Nicaragua? How are they resolved/ combated? What environmental problems does the US have that Nicaragua doesn’t, if any? What presence does the environmental movement have in Nicaragua? What are the principal environmental organizations and their agendas?

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G. HISTORY, POLITICS, AND GOVERNMENT (answer at least 2) Goals: Attain familiarity with the stages, personalities and trends in Mexican History. To gain understanding of how the Mexican present is grounded in the Mexican past, and to attain a basic understanding of the workings of the Mexican government and political system. To gain an appreciation of Mexican perspectives on history, politics, and government. . -Record notes on blank cuaderno sheets and take advantage of notes from the conversation topics section above. HISTORIA (answer at least 2) 1. Write a brief biographical sketch of Tata Vasco de Quiroga, preferably gathered.

2. Write a brief biographical sketch of Lázaro Cárdenas.

3. What is the Mexican government doing to fight drug trafficking?

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4. Summarize the controversy presently surrounding proposed changes in US immigration law

Compile biographical data on at least one of the following personages in history: Gral. Antonio López de Santa Anna, Francisco Villa, Frida Kahlo, Los Hermanos FloresMagón, Emiliano Zapata, V. Carranza, Miguel Hidalgo, Maximiliano, Leon Trotsky, Miguel Alemán, Gral. Calles, Alvaro Obregón, Porfirio Díaz, Benito Juárez, La Malinche, Francisco Madero, José María Morelos, Sor. Juana Inés de la Cruz, Alexander von Humboldt.

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POLITICA (answer at least 8) 1. Describe the political leanings of your family.

2. What opinions do Mexicans have on the political impact of the Zapatista Rebellion in Chiapas.

3. Who is Subcomandante Marcos and how do Mexicans you talk with view him?

4. What are the economic and political connections between Mexico and Cuba.

What economic and political connections does Mexico have with other Latin American Nations (Venezuela, Brazil) ? European Nations? Nations in the Far East and Middle East

6. The peasantry of Michoacán is identical in many ways to the Chiapas peasantry that provides the backbone of the Zapatista movement. What are the politics of peasant Michoacán vs. urban Morelia?

7. Is there anything comparable to the Zapatista Movement in Michoacán?

8. How do Mexicans feel about the opening of Mexico to US trade and influence that culminated in the TLC (NAFTA)? Ask people in different social sectors.

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9. What do people fear in the politics they oppose?

10. Find party officers and talk to party functionaries about party policies, plans, and ideology.

11. What images are the various parties trying to portray ?

12. What US and world leaders are admired by (1) Mexican politicians (2) Mexicans of various kinds and classes?

13. What newspapers back which parties and government officials? The important newspapers for national politics are national newspapers based in Mexico City. Name these newspapers and analyze their political slant.

14. When did women achieve suffrage? Describe the role(s) of women in national politics.

15. Describe political discussions you overhear rather than initiate. Do people in the combi you ride discuss politics? Do taxi drivers share their opinions with alacrity? Where do you hear politics being discussed.

16. Ask people about electoral fraud. What are their opinions as to the existence and extent of fraud? How does it occur? Is it likely to be a factor in the coming election?

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17. Learn something about Fidel Velásquez and the Mexican union movement.

18. Why was the PRI such a powerful and pervasive institution? Get opinions on this.

19. Since 1988 the PRI , PAN, and PRD both encountered and promoted “hard ball” politics in Michoacán and DF, what are some examples?

20. What do the Mexicans you talk to think are the most important social and political issues What issues do the media (TV and newspapers) seem to emphasize?

21. How is president Calderon being portrayed in the media? What do people think of his presidency?

22. What are some issues and personalities in local races in Morelia and Michoacán.

23. What was the Bracero Program and how did it affect the State of Michoacán?

24. Consult with instructors on the possibility of broadening inquiry and formulating a Student-generated Seminar or panel on the topic of the election or any of the above items that particularly captures your interest.

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OPINIONES (Complete at least 3, gathering 3 or more opinions for each. ATTACH YOUR ANSWERS) 1. Make a list of opinions you have heard or solicited about the government.

2. Make a list of opinions you have heard or solicited about former president Fox and current president Calderon.

3. Make a list of opinions you have heard or solicited about the PRI, the PAN, and the PRD.

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4. Make a list of opinions you have heard or solicited about the impact of the 9/11 terrorist attack and the subsequent wars on US-Mexican relations.

5. Make a list of five opinions you have heard or solicited about the TLC and Mexicans working in the US?

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6. Make a list of opinions you have heard or solicited about the murders of women in Cd. Juarez,

7. What is the future of Mexico? (Do an extensive interview with family member or friend).

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H. ELECCIÓNES (answer at least 8)
(Each year, there is some process or event that more or less defines CONEXIONES that year in terms of the intellectual and/or emotional center. 1991, for example was El Año Del Eclipse - Michoacán and CONEXIONES were in the path of a total eclipse of the sun. 1989 was El Año De la Piedra, so named after a rock on the Mexican City highway disabled the UNM vehicle. 1994 was El Año Del Hidalgo or El Año De la Campana because of the presidential election. Students will have the opportunity to see the Mexican national political process this year as well, 2000 was El Año de Fox. 2006 was El Año del Copa Mundial y Cardenas. Mexican politics is at a unique, exciting moment in Mexican history, with the PAN in control of the Presidency, the PRD gaining and the PRI still in play. CONEXIONES students often get caught up in the political excitement of the times and do some memorable work. In Morelia you will enjoy one of the finest situations for watching the process unfold. All national issues are on the table in Morelia. All political factions have powerful impact in Michoacán, and Michoacán has a tradition of leadership in national politics. The following tasks and questions are designed to produce a torrent of information about Mexican politics.

1. Who holds power in the various state and local offices and what parties do they represent?

2. What are the current political issues and what are the positions of the (PRI, PAN, PRD) on these issues?

3. What is the TLC (NAFTA) and how does it factor into elections and the political life of the country?

4. How are the votes in the election counted and by whom? What happened to the vote count in the ‘88 election.

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5. If possible, attend a campaign/political rally. Describe the event and summarize any speeches given.

6. Interview at least three different people about their political views, write down and analyze their opinions.

7. Ask your family and at least two other people their opinions regarding how the country was affected by the 2006 Presidential election.

8. Collect political literature and paraphernalia.

9. What kinds of people support the PRI, PAN, PRD?

10. What role does the media play in the election process? Compare with the US.

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11. Watch, describe, and analyze a television campaign ad.

12. Collect jokes about candidates and parties, derisive nicknames, etc. and have people explain what makes the jokes funny.

13. What is the impact of the sexenio in Mexican national life? (ask) Have someone explain what the Año de Hidalgo is.

14. Compare election propaganda in the Mexico and the U.S.

15. Ask about the changes that Cardenas and the PAN (the current administration) have brought to Mexico and Mexican politics?

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V. CONVERSACIONES (pura plática):
Todas las conversaciones y platicas se pueden ver como entrevistas informales. Las conversaciones usualmente tienen varios puntos y metas. Unos de estos incluyen placer, compañerismo, lograr comodidad y confianza, intercambio de información, revelación de sí mismo y movimientos hacía la intimidad. Entonces, las conversaciones siempre tienen agendas y metas, unos son obvias otros no tan obvias. Usted va a participar en muchas conversaciones, y a veces la pregunta “¿de qué hablamos?” surgirá. Le puede ayudar mucho tener una lista de preguntas sobre temas que a los mexicanos les gustan hablar y que también le ayudará a profundizar su entendimiento de la cultura mexicana. Aquí les tenemos una lista de temas de conversación que son interesantes para la mayoría de los michoacanos y gringos. La mayoría están relacionados con otras partes del Cuaderno y tendrá mucha suerte si por tener una buena conversación puede también cumplir una tarea del Cuaderno. Si eso pasa, escribe la hora, lugar y personas involucradas en la conversación. Every conversation and chat can be seen as an informal interview. Conversations usually have various points and goals. Some of these include pleasure, friendship, to gain comfort and confidence, interchange of information, revelations about oneself, and movements towards closer friendship. So, conversations always have agendas and goals, some obvious and others not so obvious. You will practice in many conversations and at times the question “What do we talk about?” will arise. It can be very helpful to have list of questions covering themes that Mexicans like to talk about and questions that will help you deepen your understanding of Mexican culture. The majority of the following questions have to do with other parts of the Cuaderno and their answers will be very helpful in completing those other parts. Que chido to have a good conversation and get work done at the same time?! Write down time, place, and people involved in the conversation. TEMAS DE CONVERSACIÓN Y PREGUNTAS (complete at least 8) 1. ¿Qué fue la Rebelión Cristera? What was the Christian Rebellion?

2. ¿Qué es el IVA? What is the IVA?

3. ¿Qué es el Conasupo y cómo funciona? What is el Conasupo and how does it work?

4. ¿Qué fue la causa de la Crisis (económica)? What was the cause of the economic Crisis?

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5. ¿Qué es el sistema del compadrazgo y cómo funciona? What is the compadrazgo system and how does it function?

6. ¿Por qué es el pasado indígena tan importante en México? Why is its indigenous past so important in Mexico?

7. ¿Qué pasó en Michoacán durante la Revolución? What happened in Michoacán during the Mexican Revolution?

8. ¿Qué importancia tiene la Iglesia y el Papa en México? What importance de the Church and the Pope have in Mexico? 9. ¿Cómo se sienten los mexicanos en cuanto a la compañías de los Estados Unidos que tienen inversiones en México? How do Mexicans feel about US companies that have investments in Mexico?

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10. ¿Qué tipos de trabajos tienen las mujeres mexicanas? ¿Conforman al estereotipo de los “trabajos femeninos”? What types of jobs do Mexican women have? Do they conform to stereotypes of “womens’ work”?

11. ¿Qué es el TLC y cómo se siente la gente en cuanto al TLC? What is the TLC (Tratado de Libre Comercio, NAFTA) and how do people feel about it?

12. ¿Piensan los mexicanos que armas nucleares son buenas? ¿Qué piensan de la energía nuclear? Do Mexicans think that nuclear weapons are a good thing? What do they think about nuclear energy?

13. ¿Cuáles son los escritores, artistas y músicos más importantes en México? ¿Cuáles son sus obras y por qué son importantes? Who are the most important writers, artists and musicians (past/ present, both?) in Mexico? Which of their works and why?

14. ¿Por qué tradicionalmente el gobierno mexicano no ha estado de acuerdo con la política de los Estados Unidos en otros países, especialmente Cuba y Centro América? Why has the Mexican government traditionally not agreed with the policies of the US in other countries, especially Cuba and Central American countries?

15. ¿Cuáles son las actitudes de los mexicanos en cuanto a la gente indígena que vive en las “afueras”? What are the attitudes of Mexicans regarding indigenous peoples that live in the “afueras”?

16. ( If your family has servants or maids) ¿Es difícil tener criados? ¿Cómo se debe tratar a los criados? Is it difficult to have servants? How should you treat them?

17. ¿Cómo deben estar enseñados y disciplinados los niños? How are children taught and disciplined?

18. ¿Qué opinan los mexicanos en cuanto a la política de los Estados Unidos? ¿Que piensan los mexicanos sobre Bush y las guerra de Afganistán e Irak? What do Mexicans think of the politics of the US? What do they think about Bush and the wars in Afghanistan and Iraq?

19. ¿Hay leyes que prohíben el aborto en México?

¿Cómo se sienten los

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mexicanos en cuanto al aborto? Are there laws that prohibit abortion in Mexico? How do Mexicans feel about abortion?

20. En los Estados Unidos se dice que algunos gobiernos estatales de México, la policía y el ejército están involucrados en el comercio del contrabando (drogas). ¿Es cierto? In the US, they say that some state governments of Mexico, the police, and the army are involved in drug trafficking. Is it true?

21. ¿Qué son Fayuqueros?

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22. ¿Qué pasó en Tlatelolco en 1968?

23. ¿Por qué hay tantas huelgas estudiantiles en México y opina la gente en cuanto a las huelgas? Why are there so many student strikes in Mexico and what do people think about the strikes?

24. ¿Cuál es la cosa más importante que puede lograr un hombre mexicano? ¿Una mujer mexicana? What is the most important thing a Mexican man could gain? A Mexican woman?

25. ¿Cuál es la punta de vista mexicana en cuanto a los chicanos y los mexicanos “del otro lado”? What is the Mexican point of view regarding Chicanos and Mexicans in the US?

26. Cómo debe México resolver su problema con la deuda nacional? How can Mexico solve its problem of national doubt?

27. Las alegaciones de fraude han surgido en elecciones recientes en México. Cuales, y ¿Son ciertas? Allegations of fraud have been made regarding recent Mexican elections. Which, and are the allegations true?

28. ¿Quiénes son las figuras de los deportes más celebradas en México? ¿En los medios y cultura popular? ¿Qué se opinan los mexicanos en cuanto a las mujeres en los deportes? Who are the most celebrated sports figures in Mexico? In media and pop culture? What do Mexicans think of women in sports? 29. ¿Cuáles personas asisten a una corrida de toros? ¿Partidos de fútbol? Who goes to bullfights? To soccer games?

30. ¿Qué opinan los mexicanos de la controversia reciente entre los inmigrantes ilegales y los rancheros de Arizona y Texas en la frontera? What do Mexicans think about the controversy between illegal immigrants and ranchers in Arizona and Texas ( Minutemen)?

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VI. VIAJES Y TRABAJO DE CAMPO
A. EXPLORANDO MORELIA Find, describe, and identify the historical importance of the following sites: Casa Natal de Morelos

La Catedral

El lugar donde fusilaron a Mariano Morelos

Palacio Clavijero

Colegio de San Nicolás

Las Tarascas

El Acueducto de Morelia

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REGIONAL CENTERS
You will be expected to visit one of the regional centers. If you go to Uruapan, you should probably plan to spend at least one night, perhaps two, particularly if you are going to use the city as a base from which to visit one or more rural villages. Pátzcuaro can be visited on a “commuter” basis from Granada. These trips should be undertaken in small groups. As regional centers of dynamic cultural and natural areas, both Pátzcuaro and Uruapan attract a considerable number of tourists. It is important to remember that you are expected to maintain a focus that is different from that of a tourist. You are attempting to come to a deeper understanding of culture and society. To do this, use the worksheets that follow. Evaluation will be based on the breadth and depth of the work you do in completing the exercises suggested on the worksheets. Some students will elect to focus on certain topics or exercises in depth. Others will take a more global approach, giving the entire assignment equal attention. Either approach is okay. Your assignment sheets and supplementary material should reflect the energy you bring to bear in completing the assignment. The CONEXIONES van will be making trips to allow you to complete these Cuaderno sections. Not all students will be able to travel extensively and complete all Cuaderno sections. Not all students will want to make overnight trips that will involve the extra expense of lodging and meals away from Granada. Note that you can meet requirements by making day trips to Pátzcuaro and villages such as Capula, Quiroga, Santa Fe de la Laguna and San José de Los Torres. Weekend trips with the van offer students an opportunity to extend their experience and expertise. CONEXIONES is often able to help students save money by getting special rates on hotel rooms. Bethzi will help to arrange accommodations.

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PÁTZCUARO: A REGIONAL CENTER Goal: Enlightened exploration of the city of Pátzcuaro. An increased understanding of Michoacán regional geography, history, culture, and architecture. Comparisons and contrasts with Granada, on the one hand, and rural villages, on the other. Pátzcuaro (“place of stones,” or “place of temple building-blocks”) is a prehispanic city founded at the beginning of the 14th century by Curatamo. Along with Tzintzuntzan and Ihuatzio, Pátzcuaro formed a triple alliance of Tarascan cities. The Tarascan league successfully repulsed invasion attempts from central Nicaragua on several occasions. When the Spanish came, the sovereign Tangajoan Tzintzicha submitted to Hernán Cortés and converted to Christianity. Later, the infamous Nuño Beltrán de Guzmán occupied Michoacán and perpetrated so many atrocities that Pátzcuaro was abandoned. By 1540, however, repopulation was underway thanks to the efforts of Don Vasco de Quiroga, the first bishop of Michoacán, who established Pátzcuaro as capital of Michoacán. After Quiroga’s death political ascendancy returned to the Europeanized city of Granada. Pátzcuaro is known for the lake, the strength of indigenous culture in the lacustrine region, regional crafts, and a unique architectural melding of styles. Travel to Pátzcuaro is best by bus unless the program van is going. Tickets are available at the Central Camionera. There are many bus lines, and you can generally count on getting on a bus within an hour of arriving at the station. A possibly preferable approach is to go to the Central Camionera a couple of days before your trip and reserve a seat on a first-class bus. Tres Estrellas de Oro (tel. 2-1186) or Autotransportes Galeana (tel. 2-5558) are first class carriers. Flecha Amarilla and Transportes Del Pacífico are reputedly speedier options, but you may not be able to make reservations. There are quite a number of hotels in Pátzcuaro. These include (from most to least expensive) Posada de San Rafael, (on the Plaza Principal tel. 2-0770), Mansión Iturbide (on the Plaza Principal tel. 2-0368) Hotel Los Escudos (also on the plaza ppl. tel 2-1290), Hotel Valmen (Llereda 34 tel. 2-1161) and Posada de la Rosa (on the Plaza San Agustín tel.2-0811). There is also a Casa de Huéspedes which we have not checked out but is probably inexpensive, perhaps understandably so. It is Casa de Huéspedes Pátzcuaro (Ramos 9 tel.2-0807). Market Days: Tues, Thurs, Fri, Sun. Fiestas: Sagrado Corazón June 19, in the Ibarra neighborhood Fiesta de San Pedro/Pablo celebrated June 29 at San Pedro Pareo, Jaracuaro, and Tzurumútaro (within 10km of Pátzcuaro) Fiesta de San Juan Bautisa - June 24 Several villages – climb a hill and listen for the explosions of cuetes and the sounds of bands. Then go to the villages with the action

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WORKSHEET: PATZCUARO 1. Orientation: attach a map of Pátzcuaro. Either hand drawn or attained. List the places you visit and locate them on the map (develop a number or color code).

2. Identify the following and indicate its importance in Pátzcuaro. A. Muelle B. Lacas C. Don Vasco de Quiroga D. Virgén De Salud E. CREFAL F. Día de Los Muertos G. Los Balcones H. El Estribo I. La Fuente de Don Vasco (Transcribe the dedication)

3. Visit the Market and do one or more of the following tasks: A. Make a rough map of the market indicating directions streets, and sections (i.e. produce section, pottery section, etc) B. Interview a person selling in the market. Find out at least the following minimal information: what is his/her name? Where is he/she from? What are the products being sold? Who produces them? What is the price? How does the price vary? (is it seasonal?) How is it produced? Does the seller have any other source of livelihood? C. Take photos for a photo essay. Note each shot, suggest a sequence and explain the reasoning behind your sequencing. D. Find and identify ten unfamiliar items (give the name in Spanish and explain what it is and what it does). E. Find out how the administration of the market is accomplished. F. Ask about other markets, specifically the pottery market. Where is it and what’s its schedule?

4. Visit the Basílica de Nuestra Señora de la Salud and do one or more of the following tasks: Collect a story of a miracle accomplished by the virgin. Collect data on the Cathedral itself (history, arch. style. Collect data on the virgin herself (the statue) Interview a person involved in some way with this church (priests, members of lay orders, sellers of religious paraphernalia, grounds keepers etc.) E. What are milagros and ex-votos; explain beliefs surrounding these items. A. B. C. D.

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5. Visit El Museo de Arte Popular and describe at least one item of particular interest to you on exhibit there.

6. Locate and describe the famous mural by Juan O’Gorman.

7. Visit El Museo del Agrarista and describe an exhibit

8. Visit El Cue Mayor and collect a narrative based on Prehispanic Pátzcuaro

9. Visit and briefly characterize the following: A. Casa de los Once Patios B. Plaza De San Agustín C. Plaza Principal D. Colegio de San Nicolás/ Museo de Artes Populares

10. Name some birds that can be seen from the muelle (in Spanish, get help!)

11. Gather data on the architecture that predominates in Pátzcuaro. What is it called? What are the constituents? How would you describe it? Is there a building code protecting it?

12. Gather a story about the city of Pátzcuaro or the Lake.

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URUAPAN: A DISTINCTIVE REGIONAL CENTER Goals: (Enlightened exploration of the city of Uruapan. An increased understanding of the economic bases of the state of Michoacán. An increased understanding of the geography and ecology of Mesoamerica. An introduction to the Sierra Tarasca area of Michoacán. Comparisons and contrasts with Granada and Pátzcuaro.) Uruapan was founded by Fray Juan de San Miguel, a Franciscan, in 1532. It was laid out on a chessboard plan which is still quite evident. Since its founding, Uruapan has been an important market center. The early markets were held on the vast square that forms the plaza principal. It has always been most important as a center of trade and activity for the Tarascans from the numerous surrounding villages. Its’ distinctive ambience is imparted by the way that it serves as a place where people and things are brought together. Travel to Uruapan is best by bus unless the program van is going. Tickets are available at the Central Camionera. There are many bus lines, and you can generally count on getting on a bus within an hour of arriving at the station. A possibly preferable approach is to go to the Central Camionera a couple of days before your trip and reserve a seat on a first-class bus. Tres Estrella de Oro (tel. 2-1186) or Autotransportes Galeana (tel. 2-5558) are first class carriers. Flecha Amarilla and Transportes Del Pacífico are reputedly speedier options, but you may not be able to make reservations. There are quite a number of hotels in Uruapan. These include (from most to least expensive) El Tarasco (Independencia 2 tel. 2-1680), Villa de Las Flores (Carraza 22 tel. 2-0184), Hotel Regis (on the plaza ppl. Tel 3-5844), Hotel Hernández (on the pza. ppl. tel. 2-1600). A budget choice is Hotel Mirador (on the pza. ppl. tel. 2-0473). Market Days: Sat., Sun. Fiestas: Fiesta de San Pedro y Pablo June 29. This fiesta is also celebrated at nearby Paracho and not so nearby Ocumicho. The Fiesta of San Juan is celebrated at nearby San Juan Nuevo and Capacuaro on June 24.

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WORKSHEET: URUAPAN 1. Orientation: attach a map of Uruapan. Either hand drawn or attained. List the places you visit and locate them on the map (develop a number or color code).

2. Identify the following and indicate it’s importance in Uruapan. A. Aguacates B. Lacas C. Fray Juan de San Miguel D. Domingo de Ramos E. Café F. Charanda

3. Visit the Market and do one or more of the following tasks: A. Make a rough map of the market indicating directions streets, and sections (i.e. produce section, pottery section, etc) B. Interview a person selling in the market. Find out at least the following minimal information: what is his/her name? Where is he/she from? What are the products being sold? Who produces them? What is the price? How does the price vary? (is it seasonal?) How is it produced? Does the seller have any other source of livelihood? C. Take photos for a photo essay. Note each shot, suggest a sequence and explain the reasoning behind your sequencing. D. Find and identify ten unfamiliar items (give the name in Spanish and explain what it is and what it does). E. Find out how the administration of the market is accomplished.

4. Visit the Church on the Plaza Principal and do one or more of the following tasks: A. Collect a story of a miracle accomplished by the Patron Saint. B. Collect data on the Church itself (history, arch. style). C. Collect data on the saints statues. D. Interview a person involved in some way with this church (priests, members of lay orders, sellers of religious paraphernalia, grounds keepers etc.)

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5. Visit and briefly characterize the following: A. Guatapera B. Parque Nacional Cupatizio C. Plaza Principal D. Cascada Tzararacua E. Name some birds that can be seen an the Cascada or the Parque Nacional

6. Gather data on the agricultural basis of the Uruapan area. What crops are grown? How many crops a year are taken? How long is the growing season? Etc.

7. Gather a story about the city of Uruapan, the Rio Cupatizio, the Cascada Tzararacua, The volcano Paricutín, or The Rodilla del Diablo.

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GUANAJUATO: a city steeped in history Goal: Enlightened exploration of the city of Guanajuato. An increased understanding of Mexican history, art, and architecture. Comparisons and contrasts with Granada and the milieu of Michoacán. In pre-hispanic times the region of Guanajuato was inhabited by Otomi Indians under the dominion of the Tarascans. The Tarascan overlords called this place Cuanaxhuato (“hill of the frogs”). The region was conquered in 1529 by Nuño Beltrán de Guzmán. Silver mines in the area were worked beginning in 1548, and Guanajuato became the center of silver mining in Mexico. The silver from the Veta Madre mine, established in 1760 provided a quarter of Mexico’s silver production until the late 19th century. Shortly after the proclamation of Independence by Miguel Hidalgo at Dolores (Sept. 10, 1810) Ignacio de Allende, a leader of the Independence movement, established himself as a leader in Guanajuato. Defense of the town was strategically untenable and Allende retreated before the Royalist general Calleja. Guerilla warfare continued in the area until 1817. In 1811 the leaders of the Independence movement were captured by the “Gachupines” (royalists) and executed in Chihuahua. Royalists considerately shipped the now quite portable heads of Hidalgo, Allende, Jiménez, and Aldama where they were preserved and fixed on hooks to the walls of the Alhóndiga de Granaditas. There they stayed in a remarkable state of preservation through 1821. the year that General Iturbide entered and took command of the city. Iturbide authored the Iguala plan. In 1858 Guanajuato was briefly the capital of Mexico under Juárez after the coup by Comonfort. Guanajuato is the capital of the state of Guanajuato. The city is characterized by Carlos Fuentes as “the most Mexican of Mexican cities.” Guanajuato is known for its preservation of large numbers of colonial buildings, and for its unusual, multi-level labyrinth of cobbled lanes and underground streets. It is a university town famed for its drama festival, The Entremeses Cervantinos. Artists and musicians are attracted to the city and live there in hoards. Guanajuato is also “home” to the infamous “Momias de Guanajuato” that have figured so prominently in Nicaraguan horror films Travel to Guanajuato is best by bus unless the program van is going. Tickets are available at the Central Camionera. There are many bus lines, and you can generally count on getting on a bus within an hour of arriving at the station. A possibly preferable approach is to go to the Central Camionera a couple of days before your trip and reserve a seat on a first-class bus. Autobuses del Bajío (tel. 2-0077) or Transportes Chihuahuenses are first class carriers. Flecha Amarilla (tel. 2-1552) and Estrella Blanca (tel 2-2989) are reputedly speedier options, but you may not be able to make reservations. There are quite a number of hotels in Guanajuato, and lodging in this popular city is fairly expensive. Hotels include (from most to least expensive) Posada de Santa Fe, (facing the Jardín Unión, tel. 2-0084), Hotel El Insurgente Allende (near the bus station, tel. 2-2294), Hotel San Diego (facing the Jardín Union, tel. 2-1300), Hotel Reforma (Av. Juárez 113 - a few blocks from the bus station, tel. 2-0469) Hotel Central (next to the Hotel Reforma tel. 2-0080 - an economy option.

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WORKSHEET: GUANAJUATO 1. Orientation: attach a map of Guanajuato. Either hand drawn or attained. List the places you visit and locate them on the map (develop a number or color code). 2. Identify the following and indicate its importance A. Monumento Pípila B. Callejón del Beso C. “Muerte a los Gachupines” D. Panteón E. Teatro Juárez F. Estatua de Don Quijote G. Alhóndiga de Granaditas H. Presa de Olla I. Teatro del Pueblo J. Universidad de Guanajuato K. Iglesia de la Compañía de Jesús L. Castillo de Santa Cecilia M. Mineral de Raya N. Templo de San Augustín O. El Bajío P. Entremeses Cervantinos Q. Nuestra Señora De Guanajuato R. La Valenciana (Pueblo, Mina, Iglesia) S. Baron Alexander Von Humboldt T. Santa Fe De Guanajuato U. Cerro de Cubilete V. Silver 3. Visit the Mercado Hidalgo and do one or more of the following tasks: (Record notes on blank cuaderno sheets) A. Make a rough map of the market indicating directions streets, and sections. B. Interview a person selling in the market. Find out at least the following minimal information: what is his/her name? Where is he/she from? What are the products being sold? Who produces them? What is the price? How does the price vary? (Is it seasonal?) How is it produced? Does the seller have any other source of livelihood? C. Take photos for a photo essay. Note each shot, suggest a sequence and explain the reasoning behind your sequencing. D. Find and identify ten unfamiliar items (give the name in Spanish and explain what it is and what it does). E. Find out how the administration of the market is accomplished.

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4. Visit the Panteón and do one or more of the following tasks: A. Collect a story of the Panteón or circumstances surrounding the Panteón. B. Interview a person involved in some way with the Panteón (guides, taxi drivers, people selling momia recuerdos, grounds keepers etc.). C. Jot down your thoughts on comparisons with the U.S. D. Note your own reactions, emotional, intellectual, and physical. 5. Name some birds that can be seen from the Monumento Pípila (in Spanish get help!)

6. Gather data on the architecture that predominates in Guanajuato. What is it called? What are the constituents? How would you describe it? Is there a building code protecting it?

7. Gather a story about the city of Guanajuato.

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GUADALAJARA, JALISCO Guadalajara is the second most populated city of Mexico with an estimated 6 million people and is the capital of the state of Jalisco (known as la perla de occidente). The state is well known for many things that are “very Mexican” like its charros, jaripeos, palenques, mariachis, and the ever present tequila. The city is commonly known as la ciudad de las rosas and it was founded in the 16th century in a location that now belongs to the state of Zacatecas. During the prehispanic times, the region of the state of Jalisco was under de control of the Toltecas first, and later the Chichimecas who were finally conquered by the Spaniards in the process of establishing the Provincia de Nueva Galicia. As the importance and size of the city grew, a push to have its own university began early in the 18th century resulting in the foundation of the second university in Mexico, the Universidad de Guadalajara, late in that same century. In the last few decades the city of Guadalajara has grown at an incredible rate, and as such the infrastructure that supported the smaller population has been stretched beyond its original design. However the government has made great efforts to provide the necessary services to its growing population. Unlike Mexico, D.F., the subway system (SITEUR) is still in the early development stages and most of the travel is best done in city buses. However, like in Mexico, D.F., the size of the city requires careful planning before arrival in order to make the most out of the available time. Every one should visit the Catedral, Teatro Degollado, Instituto Cultural Cabañas, and the Mercado San Juan de Dios on the first day. This itinerary allows you to visit the main centers that will allow you to complete the cuaderno and still give you time to see other areas near by. On the second day perhaps the best thing to do is to travel to Tlaquepaque to admire the arts and crafts of this well know artisan center which range from pottery and blown glass, to upper scale papier-maché. This walk can always be finished at el Parían where abundant food and Mariachis are available. The advantage of this itinerary is that Tlaquepaque is located near the bus station, making for a logical progression out of the city.

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SURVIVAL - The essentials: 1. A Map of Guadalajara. 2. A copy of your tourist card left with CONEXIONES staff. 3. Vigilance - pick pocketing is endemic in some spots, the SITEUR, buses, the Mercado San Juan de Dios, etc. Stay alert. It’s no worse than New York City (but better than Nicaragua, D.F.!) 4. Sense of humor. Don’t get stuck in the present. All things, even this, will pass. 5. Money - more of it than you need in Morelia. 6. Discretion, humility, good sense, and attention - more of these than you need in Albuquerque. WORKSHEET: GUADALAJARA 1. Orientation: attach a map of downtown Guadalajara. Either hand drawn or attained. List the places you visit and locate them on the map (develop a number or color code). 2. Identify the following and indicate it’s importance in Guadalajara. A. Catedral. B. Rotonda de los hombres ilustres. C. Teatro Degollado. D. Instituto Cultural Cabañas. E. Palacio de Gobierno. F. Palacio de Justicia G. Plaza de la Liberación. H. Plaza de Armas. I. Museo Regional de Guadalajara. J. Plaza de los Mariachis (o Plaza Pepe Guízar) K. Mercado San Juan de Dios (o Mercado Libertad) L. Iglesia de Santa María de Gracia. M. Plaza Tapatía. 3. Visit the Market and do one or more of the following tasks: A. Make a rough map of the market indicating direction streets, and sections (i.e., produce section, pottery section, clothing section, etc) B. Interview a person selling in the market. Find out at least the following minimal information: what is his/her name? Where is he/she from? What are the products being sold? Who produces them? What is the price? How does the price vary? (is it seasonal?) How is it produced? Does the

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seller have any other source of livelihood. C. Take photos for a photo essay. Note each shot, suggest a sequence and explain the reasoning behind your sequencing. D. Find and identify ten unfamiliar items (give the name in Spanish and explain what it is and what it does). E. Find out how the administration of the market is accomplished. 4. Visit the Instituto Cultural Cabañas and do one or more of the following tasks: A. Describe the history of the building. B. Visit the murals by José Clemente Orozco and describe the overall meaning of them, when where they painted, etc. C. Select a mural and write in detail what you find most interesting about it. D. Visit some of the other galleries (temporary exhibits) and find out who the artist(s) is/are, what it the main theme of the exhibit, etc

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5. Visit the Catedral and do one or more of the following tasks: A. Collect a story of a miracle accomplished by the virgin. B. Collect data on the Cathedral itself (history, arch. style. C. Collect data on the virgin herself (the statue) D. Interview a person involved in some way with this church (priests, members of lay orders, sellers of religious paraphernalia, etc.) E. What are milagros and ex-votos, explain beliefs surrounding these items. 6. Locate and describe the murals and sculptures at the Palacio de Gobierno, Palacio de Justicia, the Teatro Degollado and la Biblioteca Iberoamericana Octavio Paz. 7. Visit the Museo Regional and describe an exhibit. 8. Visit La Rotonda de los Hombres Ilustres and note the names of some of the people buried there. Why are they important to the history of Jalisco and Guadalajara, etc. 9. Gather the history of Guadalajara. 10. Gather data on the architecture that predominates in the downtown area of Guadalajara. What is it called? What are the constituents? How would you describe it? Is there a building code protecting it? Ask around and find out if there was any controversy when the Plaza Tapatía was first built.

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WORKSHEET: TLAQUEPAQUE 1. Orientation: attach a map of the commercial area of Tlaquepaque. Either hand drawn or attained. List the places you visit and locate them on the map (develop a number or color code). 2. Identify the following and indicate it’s importance in Tlaquepaque. A. El Parián B. Museo de la Cerámica C. Santuario de la Soledad 3. Visit the Museo de la Cerámica and gather information on the history of the ceramic styles displayed there. 4. Interview a person selling art in the street or in a store. Find out at least the following minimal information: what is his/her name? Where is he/she from? What are the products being sold? Who produces them? Where are they produced? How is it produced? What is the price? 5. Gather data on the architecture that predominates in Tlaquepaque. What is it called? What are the constituents? How would you describe it? Is there a building code protecting it? 6. Visit the Santuario de la Soledad and la Parroquia de San Pedro and try to gather some historical information on these two buildings.

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LA CIUDAD DE MEXICO Goals: Enlightened exploration of the city of Mexico City. An understanding of the overwhelming importance of Mexico City to the nation as a whole. Comparisons and contrasts with Morelia and the milieu of Michoacán. Encounter with the world’s largest urban center. Writing about a phenomenon as vast as Mexico City is a staggering chore. The population numbers around 20 million. There are 60,000 factories. It is one of the most savage and highly cultured places in the world. It is a labyrinth and seemingly infinite set of human worlds, tragic, comic, violent, ecstatic, tedious, and exciting. It is a capital city like no other, although the analogy of ancient Rome comes to mind. The city dominates the economic, political, social, artistic, and intellectual life of the country. It is the center of communication, transportation and government. In Mexico all major movements have their most vital expressions in Mexico City. The city has the largest Indian language speaking population in the world (at least 1,000,000 monolingual speakers of Indian languages). It harbors the largest concentration of homeless people on earth. It has an automobile population larger than the human population of New York. The facts about the city could be list in this manner ad nauseam. The most important fact to remember is the importance and dominance of the city in all things Mexican. Travel to Mexico City is best by bus, though students may well want to consider flying. For flight schedules, information, reservations, and fares call Aero Mexico (tel. 3-6533). Bus service to Mexico City is frequent (a bus leaves Granada for Mexico City every 15 minutes), but often crowded. Buying tickets early is a good idea. Be sure to take a bus that goes the “vía corta.” Avoid the buses that route through Zitácuaro unless you like mountain scenery and have plenty of time. There are several bus lines running schedules to Mexico City. These include, Tres Estrellas de Oro (tel. 2-1186), Transportes del Pacífico (tel. 2-0285), Autotransportes Galeana (tel. 2-5588), Flecha Amarilla (tel. 2-1552), and Estrella Blanca (tel. 2-2989). If you take the bus you will arrive at the Central Norte station in Mexico City. When you arrive is often a good time to purchase your return trip tickets. Another option is the train. There may be a comfortable overnight train, El Purépecha that leaves Morelia for Mexico City each evening. See Bethzi for tips and help with train, plane, or bus reservations.

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SURVIVAL - The essentials: 1. A Map of Mexico City 2. A copy of your tourist card left with CONEXIONES staff. 3. Vigilance - pickpocketing is endemic in some spots, the Metro, The Zona Rosa, The Basilica of the Virgin of Guadalupe, the Merced Market, etc. Stay alert. It’s no worse than New York City. 4. Sense of humor. Don’t get stuck in the present. All things, even this, will pass. 5. Money - more of it than you need in Morelia 6. Discretion, humility, good sense, and attention - more of these than you need in Albuquerque. 7. The Metro. It is the fastest way to traverse great distances. There are three intersecting lines with stops being 4-8 blocks apart. Use it. there are metro stops near all of the important sites. 8. A reasonable itinerary planned in advance of what you are going to see and do in D.F.

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WORKSHEET: MEXICO, D.F. (Note. It is absurd and probably futile to try to characterize what “should be” seen and experienced in Mexico City. Much depends on your interests and predilections. Meet with one of the instructors, and we’ll help you develop an agenda and plan for the time you spend in the city. Everyone should visit the Museum of Anthropology, planning a minimum of 4 hours for the visit. In addition to this assigned excursion, there are archaeological sites (Cuicuilco, Tenayuca, Teotihuacán, Tula, and the Templo Mayor). There are numerous theaters, markets, parks, churches and historical sites. Explore your inclinations early, before you go, with a guidebook and map to work out your itinerary. The tasks assigned below are general and can be accomplished regardless of the particulars of your visit. 1. Orientation: attach a map of the city. Either hand drawn or attained. List the places you visit and locate them on the map (develop a number or color code).

2. Collect a story (about the earthquake, about the Virgin of Guadalupe, about the building of the metro, about the excavation of the Templo Mayor, etc. Mexican love stories. Often these stories, though rendered as fact, are mythic or apocryphal. 3. Focusing on an edifice at an archaeological site (Tenayuca, Tenochtitlán, Cuicuilco, or Tula, write about its relation to the site as a whole. (Make a drawing to illustrate) 4. Describe in narrative form the behavior of people participating in some large event. (Seeing the pyramids, for example, picnicking in Chapultepec Park, waiting for the Metro, etc.) 5. Ask at least 5 Mexican people in DF where they’re from and how they came to live in la gran ciudad. 6. Write an essay on the experience that for you captured the essence of the city and/or life in the city. 7. Interview a Mexican at either the museum of anthropology or the pyramids and ask them about the importance of the ancient Indian heritage in their life and in the “life” of Mexico as a whole. 8. Self generated assignment

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RURAL VILLAGES
(Introduce and define rural villages in preparation for field study.) You will be required to visit at least one rural village while in Nicaragua. You should visit rural village in small groups (2-4 people that stick together) and you should have a “reason” for being in the village. “Reasons” to visit a village include: 1. Visiting an important local archaeological, historical, architectural, or renowned natural site in or near the village. Examples: Santa Fe de La Laguna - Historical “Hospital” Tzintzuntzan - Yácatas (Archae.) and church Janitzio - Tourist trap - no excuse needed Quiroga - “ “ “ “ “ Angahuan - Paricutín Volcano 2. Attending a Fiesta: Santa Fe de La Laguna - June 24 - San Juan Bautista San Juan Nuevo - June 24 - San Juan Capacuaro “ “ Purapeo “ “ Tarerio “ “ Chavindo “ “ Jarácuaro June 29 - San Pedro y Pablo Tzurumútaro “ “ “ San Pedro Pareo “ “ “ Paracho “ “ “ Ocumicho “ “ “ Acámbaro July 4 - Virgin del Refugio Quiroga July 6 - Día de la Sangre Preciosa 3. Visiting a Craftsman or artist: Santa Fe de La Laguna - Jose Dimas - Musician Tócuaro - Juan Horta - Mask Maker Santa Clara de Cobre - artisans in copper Paracho - makers of musical instruments The list goes endlessly on. in face it might be a good idea to learn the craft specialties of as many villages as you can. If you visit a village to explore the crafts, be prepared to buy some examples out of courtesy. 4. Accepting an invitation to visit someone. 5. Visiting the village on Market day - example: Sunday Eronguarícuaro etc.

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WORKSHEET ON VISITING RURAL VILLAGES: 1. List impressions of the village. Do this at least three times during the day.

2. Draw a rough map of the village or a section of the village, depending on size.

3. What is the economic base(s) that the community depends upon?

4. How integrated into the Mexican national society and economy is the village? List evidence that indicates significant integration. Similarly list evidence of independence or isolation from the national economy.

5. If the village has a craft specialty, find and interview an artisan on his or her craft. You can allow the interview to be open-ended, or you can focus it on some aspect of the craft (ie. the economics of the craft - how much is made, is the work seasonal.

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WORKSHEET ON VILLAGE FIESTAS BACKGROUND: Readings TBA GOALS: - To develop a deeper understanding of the articulation between ritual, dance, humor, ecstatic excess, and social communion in Nicaragüense society. - To contrast village ceremonialism with urban religion. - To expose students to an extreme cultural difference.) TASKS: 1. Attend a village fiesta 2. Note on an hourly basis what events have transpired, who was involved and what was done. 3. Describe the interaction of villagers with you. 4. Talk to as many people as you can. Ask questions about the fiesta and the events. Make notes on these conversations. 5. Notice your responses to the fiesta. What sort of play of emotions did you experience 6. Make a photo essay of the fiesta . 7. Find out the complete agenda of the fiesta 8. If there is dancing, describe the choreography and find out what the significance of the dance is 9. Note and describe ephemeral art 10. Speculate on the place of alcohol consumption during the fiesta 11. Summarize your observations in a 1-2-page paper on the fiesta 12. Consult with instructors on the possibility of broadening your inquiry and formulating a student-generated seminar 13. Talk with students who attended fiestas at other villages. What were the similarities and differences? 14. Speculate on fiestas, what are they, what are they for, what do they do for and to people, why do relatively poor villagers make such expenditure in effort and resources on such an ephemeral event?

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VI. MUSICA - LETRAS Y PREGUNTAS
The Conexiones CD is a survey of recorded Mexican Music from several decades. All of the songs have been commercially successful (meaning that many people value the music and the “message”). Music provides a special pathway into the sometimes elusive truths of culture. Listen to as much music as you can especially live music.

Copied song selections are provided to no more than twenty students in this course. This set of selections functions as a sampler. Students are given both written and oral information on the sources of the selections, the authors and musicians responsible for those selections, and sources for purchase of the original, works from which the selections are taken. This serves to promote and support the artists and publishers who provide the public with the opportunity to buy the works from which these modest selections are excerpted. The instructor of this class and the University of New Mexico in no way wish to violate the spirit of protection of artistic and intellectual property on which copyright regulations are based. Use of these materials is likely to lead to enhanced rather than diminished sales of the CDs from which the selections are drawn.

Notas:

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