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Orange (Citrus reticulate) Oil as an Insect Repellent on Mosquitoes (Culicidae

)
Orange oil contains an extract from the peel called d-limonene, which is rated as an insecticide.
According to University of Florida's IFAS Extension, it kills fleas, aphids, mites, fire ants, house crickets,
paper wasps and some flies. The active compound is a nerve toxin, which kills insects on contact within
minutes. It evaporates quickly and leaves no residue.
http://homeguides.sfgate.com/orange-oil-insecticide-recipe-75749.html
The orange (Citrus sinensus), sometimes known as sweet orange, is a valuable fruit not only for its
edibility, but for the high quantities of the substance limonene, sometimes called d-limonene, found in its
peel and zest. Limonene is a pesticide and is found in many commercial insect repellents.

Limonene
Oil derived from sweet orange peel has a 90 to 95 percent content of limonene, which is lethal to fleas,
fire ants and flies. Limonene affects insects on contact, effectively suffocating them by damaging their
respiratory systems. Many insects such as roaches, ants and silverfish do not care for the scent of orange
oil and will avoid it. Placing bits of orange peel or zest around the garden repels flies and mosquitoes.
Rubbing orange peel on the skin is a home remedy for preventing mosquito bites.
http://homeguides.sfgate.com/sweet-orange-natural-bug-repellent-86116.html
(+)-Limonene is the isomer that is found in oranges. And unsurprisingly it smells of oranges!
The smell of (-)-limonene is similar to turpentine, although some people suggest it has a
lemon like aroma. Most naturally occurring chiral compounds are found as a single optical isomer only.
www.chm.bris.ac.uk/motm/limonene/limoneneh.htm
D-limonene
Citrus fruits like oranges and lemons contain a compound called d-limonene. While it has no effect on
humans and pets, d-limonene drives away nuisance insects including fleas, flies and mosquitoes. Dlimonene is found in citrus oil. You can create your own citrus oil infused solution by chopping up a few
whole citrus fruits, then pouring nearly-boiling water over them. Let the fruit and water sit until they cool,
then strain the water into a spray bottle. It contains citrus oil and can repel insects. Citrus oil is also
available for purchase in the same places you will find rose geranium oil.
http://hol-ders.blogspot.com/2015/03/organic-mosquito-repellent-ingredients.html
Botanical Insecticides
Many plants and minerals have insecticidal properties; that is, they are toxic to insects. Botanical
insecticides are naturally occurring chemicals (insect toxins) extracted or derived from plants or
minerals. They are also called natural insecticides. Organic gardeners will choose these insecticides, in
some cases, over synthetic organic materials.

Fungicide and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA). Products containing ingredients derived from plants (Table 1) are considered pesticides . with a few exceptions. In order to market these products in Texas.200-1. Generic Name Oral LD50 Dermal LD50 Signal Word Pyrethrins 1.In general.800 Caution Rotenone 60-1.tamu.500* 940-3.578-8.500 >1.180 3.000 Caution Nicotine 50-60 50 Danger d-Limonene >5. degrade rapidly and have.374 Caution Neem 13. low mammalian toxicity. they act quickly. they must also be registered by the Texas Department of Agriculture.edu/types-of-pest-control/chemical-control/organic/botanical/ .000 — Caution http://landscapeipm.000 Caution Sabadilla 4.000 — Caution Ryania 750-1.440-3. products containing these active ingredients must be registered for use by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and used in accordance with the provisions of the Federal Insecticide. However.200 4.000 — Caution Linalool 2.