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2003, v.1, 1

The 6th International Defence Exhibition & Conference


The first IMDS will

become not only a meeting
place of worlds elite of Navy,
maritime industry
and science, but also a real
naval celebration in one of the
most beautiful cities
of the world



25-29 June 2003

St. Petersburg, Russia

By cooperation to peace and



Shipbuilding Agency


Administration of
St. Petersburg

Russian Defence





Companies from all over the world involved

in naval activity including research, design,
manufacture,upgrading and service as well
as suppliers of various systems, equipment,
materials and services for the Navy, maritime and defence industry will
exhibit at IMDS 2003.


Fighting ships and auxiliary

vessels, shipbuilding
Weapons, armament and
weapon control systems
Combat control systems,
electronics, radar and sonar
Propulsion plants, ship systems, equipment and gear
Naval aviation
Navigation and
Armament of marines and
costal defence forces
Support infrastructure
of Navy
Equipment for search and
rescue operations
Education and personnel
Advanced materials and

Cooperation Committee


For further information, please contact: Secretary of IMDS Organizing Committee

16, Voznesensky av., St. Petersburg, 190000, Russia
Tel/fax + 7(812) 319-9630, Tel +7 (812)319-9821,










Anatolii SOKOLOV
KORD, FIRE WITHOUT FAILURE ..........................12


NOTHING CAN STOP Ataka ATGM ........................14

IN FIGHT AGAINST TERRORISM ..........................22

Grigory Orlov
FOR ANTISHIP MISSILES ................................39

CAPABILITIES AT LOWER COSTS..........................29


Anatolii SOKOLOV
A NEW LIFE FOR THE PECHORA ..........................32



A R M S - T A S S



2003, v.1, 1

Dear readers!
You are holding the first in 2003 issue of the magazine Defense
Technologies. This is one of the periodic English-Russian analytical publications of the ARMS-TASS News Agency established within Russia's ITAR-TASS
News Agency and specializing in information related to military technology and

Publisher ARMSTASS News Agency

Director General
Alexander Klein

aerospace research.
The magazine is primarily concerned with presentation of Russia's and the

Executive Director
Dr. Nikolai Novichkov

CIS's defense technologies abroad with a focus on international defense exhi-

Marketing Director
Andrei Svetlichny

international defense exhibition, IDEX-2003, at Abu Dhabi (the United Arab

Valery Mishakin
Valery Sherbakov
Abroad representations:
ITARTASS News Agency Bureaux in 76 countries

Defense Technologies

Dr. Nikolai Novichkov
Deputy EditorinChief
Vladimir Shvarev
Executive Editor
Dr. Anatoly Sokolov
Daima Timergaliyeva
Lyubov Milovanova
Alevtina Volkova
Computer design and prepress
Publishing Center IPK ITARTASS
Printed in Abu Dhabi
Circulation 12,000

Photos in this issue:

Arkady Chiryatnikov, Nikolai Novichkov,
Anatoly Sokolov, Vladimir Maksimovsky,
Design Bureaux and Production Companies
The magazine is registered in the Ministry
for Press of the Russian Federation. The certificate
of registration is N7714159, 20.12.2002.
All rights reserved. Any material in this publication
may not be reproduced in any form without written
permission of the publisher.
Authors are responsible for the content of their articles.
The editorial staffs opinion does not necessary coincide
with that of the authors.
Advertisers bear responsibility for the content of advertorials.

bitions and military shows. This issue has been prepared specifically for the 6th

Emirates) which is known for a vast display of high technology products offered
by the Russian, Ukrainian, and Belorussian military-industrial complexes.
The demand for such products in the Middle East gives every reason to
believe that the military technical cooperation of Russia and the CIS members
with the Middle East nations will keep growing on a mutually beneficial basis.
Along with the information supply and analysis magazines like Aerospace
Complex and Arms Markets published in Russian and English, the new publication will keep in the spotlight the issues of the military-industrial complex and
exporting politics of Russia and the CIS, the military technical cooperation with
foreign countries, the current state and growth of the world's arms markets as
well as positions of the CIS partners in those markets and their regional sectors.
All above said magazines are presented in the Internet at the ARMS-TASS
News Agency's site ( They are distributed via subscription
and direct shipments to representatives of the higher military and political management and business circles of Russia and foreign countries. The magazines
are distributed abroad via 80 foreign divisions and bureaus of the ITAR-TASS
News Agency accredited in 76 countries world-wide. In Russia and throughout
the CIS, the magazines are distributed via 71 representative offices of the ITARTASS in Russia's regions, via central and regional distribution agencies as well
as through embassies of foreign countries, representations of foreign companies, and bureaus of western mass media accredited in Russia and the CIS.
Additionally, the magazines are distributed at all major defense exhibitions and
military shows.

Defense Technologies

1012, Tverskoy blvd.,
Moscow 125993, RUSSIA
Tel:(+7095) 2028366; 2905052; 2296520
Fax:(+7095) 2028366; 2033049
w w w . a r m s - t a s s . r u

of the ARMS-TASS News Agency

Nikolai Novichkov




Mikhail Dmitriev,
Chairman of the RF Committee on the Military and
Technical Cooperation with Foreign Countries
Over the previous year Russia has taken
another step in strengthening its position in the
world arms market. Its total defense exports in
2002 amounted to US$ 4.8 billion, with currency
receipts reaching US$ 4.5 billion. Thus, the figures have for the first time in recent years topped
their targets, with target deliveries being exceeded by US$ 1 billion. This has been made possible
through teamwork of all involved in the process of
the military and technical cooperation (MTC).
Of Russia's total arms exports in 2002, US$
350 million worth of defense products were delivered in settlement of the state debt.

The available book of orders and their structure suggest that the Russian arms exports in
2003 will remain at a level of a target figure of
US$ 4.3 billion for 2002.
The company Rosoboronexport accounts
for 83% of the defense deliveries, whereas the
rest Russian special exporters provide 17%. The
export deliveries made through Rosoboronexport in 2002 amounted to US$ 4.0 billion and
the currency receipts - US$ 4.3 billion.
Among the exporting enterprises, the KBP
Instrument Design Bureau of Tula, the Russian
aircraft corporation MiG and the KBM
Engineering Design Bureau of Kolomna were the
most successful. MiG's exports totaled US$ 370
million, which is less than its target but tops other
exporters' figures. KBP has exceeded its target
more than twice and carried out US$ 350 million
worth of deliveries. KBM has met target figures
making US$ 50 million worth of deliveries.
There are currently five special exporters in
Russia having a right to sell their finished products abroad. Later, following reorganization of
the domestic defense industry, another several
major industrial holdings could join them. The
Committee will press for their smooth entrance to
the market and ensure that there is no unhealthy
competition among the special exporters in the
Russia's export order book in the field of
defense deliveries has substantially increased in
2002. On the whole, there is a favorable situation
to build up the rate of Russian arms deliveries.
Among the factors that contributed to this was a
reform of the MTC system that was realized in
accordance with RF President Vladimir Putin's
decree. The measures taken have markedly cut
a period of document preparation, agreeing and

approval and improved the coordination among

the agencies involved in MTC.
Russia's major partners in the MTC field
remain the same. We hope that RF President
Vladimir Putin's visits to China and India in 2002
will impart a fresh impetus to such cooperation.
From the further development standpoint, a
model of MTC being realized between Russia
and India is the most significant. Russia gives
paramount importance to bolstering the cooperation and will offer India its newest armaments.
India accounted for around one third of Russia's
total defense exports for 2001 and 2002, with the
Indian contracts making up 30% of the Russian
enterprises' order book in the near term.
September last year Russia has started
delivering the Su-30MKI multi-role fighters to the
Indian Air Force. This is one of few major programs in the field of aviation brought up to the
series production in the post-Soviet period. It is
no mere chance that these first-class machines
were developed for precisely Indian Air Force.
India is Russia's strategic partner and our countries have an agreed program of MTC for the
period through 2010.
The long-term Su-30MKI program clearly
demonstrates a qualitatively new model of MTC
with foreign countries, which has now reached
the phase of practical implementation.
The novelty of the Russian-Indian model of
MTC, which is currently being formed, consists in
transition form a 'buyer-seller' scheme to a higher level of relations between the two countries.
The Russian and Indian defense industry enterprises begin act as partners, whose plans envisage not only development and deliveries of finished aircraft, but also joint R&Ds, gradual transfer of a technological license to manufacture the

Su30MKI multirole fighter



A R M S - T A S S

TorM1 SP SAM system

Su-30MKI and its components at the Indian

enterprises, joint modernization of previously
delivered Su-30Ks to the Su-30MKI variant,
establishing a service center with the local industry on a parity basis.
Trying out the MTC model within the Su-30MKI
program will make it possible later to extend its
positive results also to other Russian-Indian programs in the field of defense developments.
In 2002 Russia has brought up the number
of its partners in the military and technical cooperation and is currently cooperating with 67
countries worldwide. It has increased defense
exports to the Southeast Asian countries, in particular to Vietnam, Myanma and Bangladesh. In
Africa, Russia has considerably expanded the
cooperation with the countries like Zimbabwe,
Zambia and Sudan. Cooperation with Algeria is
likely to produce weighty results in 2003. The
Algerians are considering the purchase of aircraft, air defense systems and naval armaments.
The previous year saw activities on setting up a
repair base and service centers in the country for
earlier delivered Soviet-built military equipment.
In Latin America, Venezuela is one of the
promising countries in the context of extension of
the bilateral MTC. The cooperation with Brazil
also has certain prospects for development.
Chile has proposed to jointly develop a helicopter for the Latin American countries around our
model. The issue is under discussion. Talks with
the countries of this region concern primarily the
deliveries of planes and helicopters.
Russia is interested in further development
of MTC with the Middle East countries. Today the
land forces' weapons and air defense aids offer
the greatest promise for promotion to the region.
We have experience of the fruitful cooperation
with the UAE and Kuwait, whose armies operate
Russian-made IFVs, MANPADs and MRLs. As to
Syria, we comply with all our commitments, and
the prospects for development are very hopeful.
The Syrian army is fully equipped with our armaments. The negotiatory process goes on virtually
without interruptions. In MTC with Iran, we may
make notable progress in deliveries and repair of
armored vehicles, aircraft and division- and
army-level air defense systems.
Russia is ready to expand MTC with the U.S.,
too, if Washington changes its position and offers
w w w . a r m s - t a s s . r u

RussianIndian Brahmos ASM

purchasing commercial batches of finished

products rather than single samples of one or
another of defense products.
In 2002 the Committee and other agencies
concerned continued improving the existing
regulations. At this point, I would like to emphasize the RF President's recent order on granting
several tens of defense industry enterprises the
right to be engaged in the foreign trade activities with regard to spare parts deliveries and
maintenance. The last year's results have
shown that Russia's performance in supplying
spare parts for previously delivered military
equipment was still inadequate. A mere US$
130 million worth of spare parts were supplied
in 2002, though Russia can ensure up to US$
1.5 billion worth of spare parts deliveries in the
coming two to three years. Sukhoi Corporation
alone is able to reach US$ 250-300 million
worth of spare parts deliveries within two to
three years.
To eliminate drawbacks in the field of servicing, the Committee, in accordance with RF
President Vladimir Putin's decree, is currently
dealing with expansion of a list of enterprises
having the right for independent foreign trade
activities in the field of spare parts supply, repair,
upgrade and servicing of previously delivered
equipment. We hope that greater number of the
MTC subjects will considerably improve the situation in this sphere.
Four enterprises received such a right in
2002. They include: the Pribor federal research
and production center, the Salyut machinebuilding production enterprise, the Rubin Central
Marine Design Bureau and the aircraft militaryindustrial complex AVPK Sukhoi. Another two
enterprises, the Splav state research and production enterprise of Tula and Kvant production
association of Veliky Novgorod, were granted the
right in February 2003. Later such a right may be
given to another 20 enterprises. The nearest
candidates are Uralvagonzavod, the Ural optical
and mechanical plant (UOMZ) and the
Zviozdochka Shipyard.
The work is going on. Of course, this will be
a long process. But now we may start tackling
our chronic problem linked with a poor quality of
servicing and inadequate management of spare
parts supply.

In 2003 we will face very serious and quite

complicated problems. First of all, this regards
Russia's strengthening in its traditional markets.
The RF President's new orders and decrees give
us such possibility.
To this end, we intend to set up consignation
warehouses and repair bases, improve quality of
servicing, ensure faster delivery of spare parts
and promote upgrade programs. These are the
promising markets offering great opportunities
for Russia and we are planning to deal with this in
real earnest.
In the structure of Russian arms deliveries,
aircraft hardware currently dominates accounting for around 75% of the defense exports in
2002, which is in line with the global trend in the
arms market. The exports of the Russian land
forces' equipment and air defense aids rank
second and third respectively, whereas in the
world market these items are arranged in the
reversed order. We have to change the situation
because there is great demand for the air
defense systems in the market. The Russian
export structure will be adjusted as soon as
2003. Emphasis in the current year will be given
to boosting exports of air defense systems and
naval hardware. These items are accounting for
4% and 6% respectively in the structure of the
Russian defense exports.
Russia is intensifying its efforts to protect its
intellectual property in the field of military equipment. The necessity of this stems from the fact
that some countries enter the upgrade market
for the Russian-made military equipment.
Carrying out such upgrade without the developer not only deprives Russia of profitable orders,
but also is unsafe for operators of the equipment.
Last year Russia concluded agreements on protection of its intellectual property with several
countries. Within the coming month such an
agreement is planned for signing with Israel that
actively operates in this upgrade market.
We will continue improving the appropriate
regulations. A great deal needs to be done in
this area. Of course, the MTC system should
operate more efficiently and in a teamwork manner in the period since the beginning of contractual process to the completion of contract negotiations. We have to cut the interval to a maximum extent.


Federal State Unitary Enterprise

Production Association
33b, Vostochnaya str., Ekaterinburg, 620100
RUSSIASales and Foreign Economic Relations Department
phone: +7 (3432) 241803, 248403
fax: +7 (3432) 241680





Mi24 helicopter equipped with Shturm missiles

Moskit ASM launcher

The funding of research and development for the

Russian armed forces has tripled in the past two years

In 2003, 120 new weapon types will go into

service with the Russian armed forces. This has
been announced by colonel-general Aleksei
Moskovskiy, deputy defense minister, Russia's
Armed Forces chief of arms procurements.
Last year's decision of the Russian government to introduce into service 70 state-of-the-art
defense developments testifies to the gradual
enlargement of the list of new arms and military
equipment that can be fielded with the troops in
the coming years. Naturally enough, this will happen if only adequate funding is made available
for arms procurement.
About three years have passed since the
adoption of the national armaments procurement program (NAPP) slated for fulfillment till
2010. During this period the situation in the
defense complex has steadied somewhat,
though it is still far from simple. The funding for
the NAPP is calculated for the provision until
2010 and, in the longer term, until 2015. During
the first five years 30% of the total funds will be
made available with another 70% due to be supplied in the next 5 years. Accordingly, in the first 5
years (until 2005) the emphasis will be laid on the
development of new prototypes and technologies whereas in the next 5 years (2005-2010)
plans are made to increase the procurements of
arms for the armed forces.
Because of budgetary constraints the
funding available today suffices for only purchases of individual examples of new weapon
types. "It is not the shortage of funds. The main
reason is that during the coming five years the
priority in the implementation of the national
arms procurement program will be given to the
scientific research and development. This will
allow us to depart from procrastination pracw w w . a r m s - t a s s . r u

tices and to switch to building advanced arms

and military equipment", explained Aleksei
At the same time, the steady growth of
defense spending on research and development
during recent years combined with the increased
concern over modernization of in-service arms
and military equipment (AME) testifies to the
emergence in the MoD of a comprehensive
approach to the national security issues.
A.Moskovskiy attributes the leap in arms
procurements by as many as 50 weapon types to
the considerably improved funding of the national defense order (NDO), which is channeled
towards ensuring the required level of Russia's
defense capability and security. The allocations
for the NDO have tripled in the past two years.
While in 2001 the NDO amounted to 40 billion
Russian rubles, in 2002 it was 80 billion and
climbed up to 113 billion in 2003. Around 40% of
the NDO (45 billion rubles) will be invested in military research. This is a considerable increase in
allocations for R&D, which accounted for a mere
10% of the total NDO just two years ago. Even
though, according experts, the budget of 2003
does not yet fully meet the needs of the national
arms procurement program, the increased funding of the NDO shows that "the fat is in the fire".
The funding of the NDO in the previous years
was, really, not up to the mark. Throughout the
90s the state chronically delayed for a long time
the payments for manufactured defense products. It was only in 1999 and 2000 that it was
finally able to live up to its financial obligations
under the NDO and pay the ordnance factories
100% of its debts. However, the state's indebtedness under the NDO accrued over the previous
years remained unrepaid. Today, the MoD is

gradually repaying this debt to the factories of the

military-industrial complex. While in 1999 the
indebtedness of the MoD to the defense complex for work done amounted to around 50% of
the NDO total, it progressively slid to 17% in
January 2002 and to 12% last December. As
reported by A.Moskovskiy, this year the MoD
plans to bring down its debt to 4% with a final settlement due in 2004.
Among the new programs due to receive
funding under the NDO in 2003, there are a few
projects of paramount importance to Russia's
security. Those include the 5th generation fighter
plane program assigned, as per results of last
year's tender, to the Sukhoi corporation as a
prime contractor. This year the corporation is to
carry out the initial design work on the fighter and
to declare tenders for development of the cockpit, avionics, engine, and airborne armament.
The 5th generation fighter calls for massive
allocations (around US$ 10 billion, as per
experts' estimates) whereas the budget provides
for covering only 20% of the expenditure. Under
such circumstances the country's leaders plan to
find a strategic foreign partner for realization of
this program. This a rather new phenomenon not
only for the Russian defense complex, but also
for the Defense Ministry whose executives used,
until recently, to count on nobody but themselves. Regarded here as the strategic partner is
India, the country with which Russia has a coordinated plan of military technical cooperation till
2010. .
A.Moskovskiy believes that the first flying
prototypes of the advanced fighter plane will be
built within 8 years with test flights due to start in
2010. In 2014-2015 the aircraft are to go into
service with the Air Force. The military's opinion
concerning the realization date of the 5th generation fighter program looks realistic enough and
is based on the well known fact that the airborne
combat system's development cycle is no less
than 8 years, which is extended to 12 years when

KhrizantemaS multirole mobile missile system

combined with manufacture of the pilot batch

and performance of test flights.
It seems probable that before the end of the
year a new tactical mobile missile system,
Iskander, will be fielded. This is designed for
covert preparation and delivery of effective missile strikes against high value small size and area
targets. It had been demonstrated to Vladimir
Putin at Nizhni Tagil as early as July 2000.
Ensuring a high precision engagement of various
target types at a range up to 300 km, the system
features a high probability of overcoming the
enemy anti-missile and air defense on the theater of war. The firing conducted on the proving
ground showed excellent results. Iskander missiles' hit accuracy was so high the experts
likened their effectiveness to that of a nuclear
A multi-purpose all-weather day/night mobile
missile system, Khrizantema (Chrysanthemum),
has passed state trials. It is due to go into service
in the coming months. A battery of three
Khrizantema combat systems is capable of
repelling an attack of a group of up to 14 tanks.
Among priorities of the NDO are the space
troops whose funding has been increased by 30%
in the current year and by nearly three times in the
last two years. As reported by general-colonel
Anatoliy Perminov, commander of the space
troops, in 2003 12 carrier rockets are scheduled
for launch whereas last year there were only 8 such
launches with 11 military spacecraft put into orbit.
This year, the MoD plans to purchase 9
spacecraft whereas last year it purchased 6. The
procurement of carrier rockets for military space
launches will be doubled.
According to A.Perminov, currently Russia's
orbital group consists of 97 spacecraft (SC),
among which 61 are for military and 36 for civil
The National Defense Order of 2003 does
not envision procurements of armor vehicles (AV)
and aviation materiel (AM). So far the quantity of

IskanderE battlefield mobile missile system

that equipment meets the needs of the MoD.

However, the modernization of a certain number
of armored and flying vehicles stands high on the
agenda. According to colonel-general Vladimir
Mikhailov, Air Force Commander, in 2003 20 Su27 fighters will get an upgrade.
The MoD is particularly concerned over the
state of the army aviation, which since 1 January
2003 is officially incorporated into Russia's Air
Force. The priority jobs in this area are already
being done. In 2002 10% of the army aviation
has been repaired. This, as per Aleksei
Moskovskiy, will keep the inventory of rotary-wing
aircraft at the required level for 6 to 7 years.
Simultaneously, development work is being
completed aimed at modernizing the in-service
"Now we are completing a number of developments that will give a new capability to the Mi24 army aviation helicopters, making them operational in all weathers and at all times. Such helicopters are already being deployed to the
troops. Initially, they will form separate tactical
and special operations groups based in various
areas, including those in the North-Caucasian
military district" said the Russian Armed Forces'
Arms Procurements Chief.
No easy time is now for the Russian Navy that
needs to maintain its technical capability and combat preparedness in order to prevent the erosion of
Russia's maritime potential. The Naval Command
is taking measures aimed at resolving under the
state's supervision of problems in construction and
operation of the Navy in order to secure its steady
and well-balanced development in all key areas.
Vladimir Kuroyedov, Naval Force Commander,
believes that for insurance of Russia's national
security the number of warships in its Navy must
not be below today's level. Currently in service with
the Russian Navy are around 300 combat surface
ships, around 50 submarines, including 20 dieselpowered boats, up to 300 warplanes and a group
of shore-based troops.

According to Vladimir Kuroyedov, the development of the Russian Navy envisions the construction and introduction into service of multirole combat ships. Featuring a relatively small
displacement, such ships have a powerful defensive and offensive armament and are capable to
effectively perform not only in a near sea but also
in a distant ocean area.
A second multi-role Project 20380 corvette
will be laid down in autumn this year. Also this
year, the Command will finally work out the concept of the frigate of the 21st century and
approve its design. The type frigate will be laid
down in 2004.
The fulfillment of the NDO depends largely
on the state the Russian military-industrial complex (MIC) is in. The current workload provided
by the National Defense Order for the defense
industry companies utilizes roughly one fourth of
their capacity. Says Aleksei Moskovskiy "Today
the National Defense Order accounts for 20% to
25% of the defense industry's workload. Another
30% to 35% of the industry is engaged in work
under contracts with foreign customers. Thus the
companies of the Russian MIC run at roughly half
of their capacity. Considering the financial constraints of the country the load of its ordnance
factories looks fairly high. But since the bulk of
work done by the factories is paid for by foreign
customers, such a situation in this segment of
our economy is hardly acceptable to us".
It is Aleksey Moskovskiy's opinion that over
the last two years, in spite of difficulties in the
national economy, the NDO has become rather
stable. "The stability today is evident. The
National Arms Procurement Program approved
by the President for implementation till 2010 outlines the spread of work till 2015. This provides
grounds for confidence. The realization of the
comprehensive program for re-equipping the
Russian Armed Forces is underway and there is
every reason to believe that next year it will be
fully funded," he said.


A R M S - T A S S




Over recent years, various opinions based

on various financial, political and social considerations, have been broadcast with reference to
the possible use of armored combat vehicles
(ACV) in future conflicts. One such opinion
ignores the role of tanks and heavy armored
vehicles as a force of consequence. The preference in this case is given to the combination of
the long-range smart weapons with fairly efficient rapid deployment forces.
However, the experience of local wars and
armed conflicts has shown that the nature of
armed struggle permanently changes in the
course of evolution of weapon systems and military technology. Evidently, ever more emphasis is
being laid on the combined use of strength and
hardware of various services, on improving the
armored protection of forces involved in hostilities (demand is made of all types of armored
vehicles to be protected not worse than modern
tanks), and on the growing dynamism of combat
Given below is data on the use of tanks in
local wars with involvement of regular troops.
Thus the military science suggests that the
demand for tanks will remain in the future
unabated provided those are modern machines.
The foreign experience of perfecting ACVs
shows that the leading tank building nations,
such as Germany, the UK, the US and France,
start to depart from the adopted concept of 60
ton armored vehicles and seek possibilities to
manufacture more mobile armored vehicles for
rapid reaction forces.
As the war in the Gulf showed, air- and seaborne precision weapons can be an essential and
in a way determining factor in scoring a final victory. To achieve this end, however, general utility
forces are required that come into direct contact
with fire assets of the enemy. The tanks will indisputably remain the main close-in weapon. Due to
their reliable protection, they are capable of operating at the front line, destroying with their fire a
variety of targets, including well-armored ones.
However, the machines weighing less than
20 tons, a goal the US tank designers strive to
eventually achieve, can hardly provide adequate
protection against direct exposure to fire.
Therefore most specialists are inclined to believe
the future armored combat systems will weigh
between 40 and 50 tons.
For example, specifications are being elaborated at the tank technology center in Fort Knox
(Kentucky, USA) according to which the weight of
the future tanks should not exceed 43 tons. Also,
measures are being taken to ensure the crew
survivability, one of which is the placement of
crewmen only inside the tank hull. In this case the
crew are securely separated from ammunition
and fuel.
w w w . a r m s - t a s s . r u


Front (km)
Depth (km)
Number of tanks

3 years

(1956, 1967, 1973)
5 days
6 days

Another critical parameter of a future

machine is its speed, which needs to be
increased to 100 km/h, a normal speed of a
wheeled armored vehicle weighing 20 tons. This
requirement stems from the need of land forces
to disperse over the theater in order to avoid
excessive casualties. The concentration of such
forces must be prompt and unanticipated by the
enemy, which necessitates use of speedy and
highly mobile vehicles.
According to the US data, the area of the
theater in a divisions operational zone has been
steadily growing since 1941 till 1998. Whilst in
World War II it amounted to 147 sq. km, in Korea
it was 441 sq. km, in 1986 - 6,000, in 1998
- 10,000
Currently, the major tank manufacturers in
Germany, the US, and France do not only build
mobile ACVs and work on a future machine, but
Upgraded T80UK command MBT

17 days

8 years
over 4,000

Persian Gulf
34 days
over 9,000

also keep modernizing the existing fleet of

Leopard, Abrams, and Leclerc tanks. For example, simultaneously with creating new light
machines, the US is modernizing M1Abrams
tanks to the M1A2SEP standard by equipping
them with digital electronic devices, systems for
information exchange with other machines, drivers digital automated work station, on-board
navigation equipment, etc.
The M1 tanks are expected to remain in
service till 2015-2020. The seriousness of intentions is verified by the modification given to those
machines and the funds allocated to this work.
For example, the modernization of the Abrams
tank to the M1A1 variant costs US$ 3.5 million,
while the tank per se costs US$ 2.517 million (in
1990 prices). The capabilities are enhanced by
installing a 120 mm XM-gun, optimizing the
instrumentation suite with adaptation of the bal-

Arzamas machinebuilding plant JSC
2, 9th May str., Arzamas 607220,
Nizhni Novgorod region, RUSSIA
Phone: +78314796750, 96778
Fax: +78314743140, 44833




listic computer to the ballistics of a 120 mm gun,

perfecting the FCS with laser range finder and
thermal imager, using new types of depleted uranium armor steel, introducing a new collective
protection system that generates surplus pressure, heightening the reliability of transmission
and chassis plus some other modifications in
reduction gears and minor changes in the tank
interior layout (reduction of ammunition reserve
and other amendments).
The basic evaluation criteria for the modern
tank that has taken an upgrade are as follows:
armament (fire power, target hit probability,
number of shots fired, lethality of each round);
protection (combination of passive and active
protection, electromagnetic protection, the use
of advanced materials combined with new layout and design decisions in the turret area);
mobility (increase of specific power, of vehicle
movement speed in forward and reverse, new
decisions in running gear and vehicle controllability).
Over recent years, much emphasis has been
laid on survivability of the tank (crew) on the battlefield. In case of the tanks defeat its crew can
survive thanks to various factors, such as:
layout decisions;
efficient means of monitoring the operational
maximum elimination of disclosure features;
simplified threat detection procedure;
prompt response to emerging threats;
high precision of locating priority targets;
rapid preparation and firing of the first and subsequent shots with a high hit probability;
fast withdrawal from under hostile fire (vehicle
training and ability of the crew to operate under
stress and with insufficient information about
operational conditions plus their confidence in
the machines combat worthiness;
automatic fire extinguishing aids, protective
clothing for the crew, use of noninflammable
fluids in hydraulics, employment of electric
drives and fast-to-respond sensors.
The survivability is essentially a parameter
ensured by all systems of the tank or any other
ACV on the battlefield. It is also critical that the
crew should be adequately trained and know
about the technical capabilities of their machine
and those of the enemy in order to be able to
choose the right tactics on the battlefield.
During the Soviet era the development of
tanks was the concern of parent companies
cooperating with many co-developers and suppliers of components. A new machine took 5 to 8
years to build. Used for this purpose was also the
engineering potential of all the countrys companies. Now the situation has changed and many of
those companies are no longer involved in work
carried out by the Chief Tank Directorate.
This is probably what determines the final
result of work on modernization of the existing
armored vehicles and creation of new ones.
The experience of developers shows that
there are four approaches to modernization work
that differ in amount of funding, duration and
1. Modernization of a serially produced tank
simultaneously with building a new example
with consideration of manufacturing capabiliw w w . a r m s - t a s s . r u

Black Eagle MBT on the basis of upgraded T80U tank

Possible appearance of a near future tank

ties, experience in production and previous

achievements (in the area of components and
subsystems); all this is done with a minimum
2. Successive upgrading of a serially produced
tank with accumulation of positive results for
future work.
3. Upgrading of a serially produced tank with
subsequent switch to the development of a
new prototype.
4. Development of a new prototype, organization
of serial production and subsequent modernization.
With the funds currently available and considering the availability of spares, repair, training
and ease of acquisition of skills in control and
maintenance, the advantages of the first variant
are evident. The creation of T-80, T-80B, T80BV, T-80BVK, T-80U, T-80UK, and T-80AT
tanks is a practical proof of this. The last modification is essentially a new machine different from
the T-80 tank in protection, turret, hull, running
gear, instrumentation package, FCS, guided
armament, transmission with engine, etc.
In service with the Russian army are still great
numbers of tanks of the first post-war production

(T-54, T-55, T-62), only a fraction of which had

taken an upgrade during the Soviet era. Also,
there are next generation tanks like T-72, T-80,
and T-90. Modernization of those tanks must
proceed with the maximum satisfaction of the
above-described requirements, with regard to
expenses sustained in terms of cost-to-effectiveness ratio, and taking into account the operating environment of the specific region.
Much more complex is the question of what
the future combat system should be. It is supposed that with the current funding the optimum
way to create such a system would be to make
the best use of the experience accumulated by
Russias tank building, to utilize the units and
assemblies optimized and tested throughout
the years, and to find new engineering decisions that ensure fighting capability of the
weapon system. In the last aspect, Russias
lagging from its Western competitors is growing
at a high pace.
In addition, the increased requirements
applied to the modern tanks survivability on
the battlefield make it inadequate in terms of
this parameter. The problem is resolved by
ensuring the controllability, by using tank-


Upgraded T80UM1 Bars MBT mith Arena active selfprotection system

based anti-aircraft weapons, multiple launch

rocket systems, reconnaissance and tank support vehicles as well as engineering support
vehicles providing for independent operations
of a company, battalion, regiment or division.
The notions like the range endurance, the servicing of the system and POL replacement in
machines subsystems during operations must
be discarded. In addition, a parameter of reliability must be included in the specifications of
all such systems being designed or manufactured. .
The T-80 tank can serve as a base for an indepth upgrade and creation of a future combat
system. This machine features high reliability
proven in many trials in virtually all climates
across the globe.
To minimize financial risks and temporary
losses in the development of the tank of the 21st
century, the following must be done:
manufacture of a new, common, well protected, seven roller, multi-function, tracked chassis
making the best possible use of assemblies
and sub-units of the T-80U tank which provides
a tank armored volume of no less than 10 m3
and construction of a standardized small size

engine and transmission compartment with

power units fed by diesel or turbine;
continuation of research and development of
gas-turbine engines in view of their promising
initiation of research and development of a
number of diesel engines;
setting the task of maximum utilization of
engines in national economy;
creation based on a common chassis of a family of vehicles, including tanks, capable of independent operation at a level from a company
up to a division;
initiation (or termination) of research and
development in the area of ammunition, active
protection aided armament, welded turrets,
hulls, running gears, engine and transmission
compartment, on-board armament package
with FCS, standardized lubricants, fuels and in
other areas related to the machine of 21st century.
All work must be done on a competitive basis
with maximum utilization of the intellectual potential of Russian tank designers and with involvement of the civil industries concerned with engineering problems whose resolution could be

applied to all types of combat vehicles. Thus, it is

necessary to develop a standardized chassis
and separately a turret with armament. Those
developments must be simultaneously introduced in tank upgrade packages. This will contribute to creating a type of armored vehicles
capable of operation in todays combat environment with minimum losses.
The modernization must result in a family of
combat vehicles using a single type of gas-turbine engine. This will provide the following
1. The machines will have common single basic
chassis, armament, engine and transmission
compartments, instrumentation suites, and
protection not inferior to that of the T-80U
2. The training of drivers and crewmen will proceed based on standardized programs with a
possibility of crewmen interchange up to the
point where any crew of any machine can be
replaced, if operationally required, by any
3. Common type of maintenance in operating all
the machines with the use of individual and
common SPTAKs (spare parts, tools and
accessories kits).
4. In maintenance, the FCS and other units can
be checked out on the same equipment.
5. For repair at the troops facilities (after combat
engagements or during normal operation)
spares will be supplied based on a common
directory or scheduled servicing will be offered
in which the crews knowledge of materiel will
be checked and training provided if necessary.
The servicing will relieve the troops stocks of
surplus spares, enabling upgrade, should any
be required, and scheduled maintenance.
6. The common system of supplying the
machines with POL, ammunition, cartridges,
7. The power plant will require no cooling fluids
and oils.
8. T-80 tanks are refueled under pressure within
less than 15 minutes. No other diesel powered, armored vehicle can boast such a capability.
9. Ready-to-move time of the gas-turbine
engine is no more than 3 minutes at all environmental temperatures while that of the
diesel type is 30 minutes.
10. The power plant is immune to combat
aerosols that affect oils lubricating properties. During operation, it doesnt accumulate
radioactive and poisonous compounds.
11. The power plant with gas-turbine engine has
a marginal ecological impact on the environment as compared to the diesel type and has
a very low noise level when moving in
12. During parking, all power supply systems and
armament are fed by GTD-18 unit (a 18 kW
gas-turbine system with low fuel consumption).
Other problems that need to be resolved are
the insurance of practically the same firing range
by day and night, the creation of modern simulators, advanced engine and transmission compartments with electrical transmission, development
of new principles of projectile propulsion, manufacture of intellectual control systems, modern
manufacturing facilities, new materials, etc.


A R M S - T A S S


Anatolii SOKOLOV


The V.A.Degtyarev Plant at Kovrov is
Russia's oldest manufacturer of arms that celebrated its 85th anniversary in June 2002. It is well
and widely known for its achievements in the
development of modern arms. Apart from
Degtyarev, working at the plant at various times
of its history were such eminent designers of
weapons as Fyodorov, Vladimirov, Simonov,
Goryunov, Shpagin, Voronkov, and Kalashnikov.
The plant is famous all over the world primarily
for its various types of large caliber small arms.
The current demand for large caliber (heavy)
machine guns accounts for their manufacture in
the US, Belgium, the UK, Russia, and other
countries. The analysis of technical characteristics of the best known and the world's most widely used machine guns shows that the Russian
types of those weapons are not inferior to their
foreign counterparts, being superior to them in
such parameters as weight and size ratio, firing
rate and reliability of automatic operation.
Considering the requirements of the day,
the arms designers of OJSC "V.A. Degtyarev
Plant" have developed in a short space of time a
series of new standardized 12.7 mm large caliber machine guns generally designated KORD.
Those had been readily adopted by the armed
forces. The guns are designed as general utility
weapons with improved performance and maintainability. In 1998 the KORD type was fielded in
three variants - tank mounted (6P49), infantry
type (6P50) and left side ammunition feed type
The KORD tank mounted machine gun with
an electric release is a basic variant. It can be
installed on various moving and stationary
objects for fighting low flying aerial targets, for
destroying lightly armored and unarmored
materiel, weapons, and concentrated enemy
personnel at ranges up to 2,000 m.
The machine gun for infantry is designed for
installation on mounts and is used for effective
fire support of motorized units in operations.


Caliber, mm....................................12.7
Firing rate, rounds per minute........not less than 600
Bullet muzzle velocity, m/s ............820860
Aimed firing range, m ....................up to 2,000
Machine gun weight, kg ................25
Machine gun weight
on mount 6T19, kg ........................31
Barrel weight, kg ............................9.25
Loaded magazine weight, kg ..........11.1
50 cartridges belt weight, kg..........7.7
Machine gun length in combat
configuration, mm..........................1980
Machine gun width
(bipod support scope), mm ..........450
Machine gun height
(with sight), mm ............................500
Machine gun traverse angle
relative to fixed bipod .................... 15
Grouping (R50)
at 100 m range, mm ......................not more than 300
Technical endurance, shots............10,000
Armor piercing capability
at 100 m, mm ................................up to 20
w w w . a r m s - t a s s . r u

The KORD machine gun with left side

ammunition feed can be used jointly with right
side ammunition feed guns in twin mounts on
naval and land-based installations.
The analysis of employment of large caliber
machine guns in hostilities late last century
shows that their weight should not exceed 40 kg
when used in infantry battle formations. In addition, the hostilities in Chechnya and other antiterrorist operations proved the necessity for a
common 12.7 mm machine gun that could be
operated both from a truck, armored vehicle,
helicopter and, when dismantled, from an
infantry battle formation.
However, the existing machine gun systems
for infantry have a number of serious disadvantages that impede satisfaction of those requirements. The main problems are considerable
weight that kills mobility; the need to remove the
gun from the mount in changing the firing position; bulkiness that impedes the choice and
preparation of a firing position.
In order to resolve those problems, to
enhance mobility and expand combat application, a KORD 12.7 mm common standardized
machine gun on support (6P50-1) has been
made. It can be used either as a hand-held
weapon or mounted on various supports and
pieces of combat materiel.
The automatic action of the KORD machine
gun is provided by the energy of withdrawn powder gasses, the barrel is locked by rotation of
bolt head and alignment of its locking lugs with
those of the barrel. The trigger mechanism of
the machine gun is of lever type with a safety
against an accidental shot and with a device that
prevents the feeding of a round to the barrel
bore in case the moving parts are cocked when
the trigger mechanism is at safety. The deflector
of spent cartridges is attached by a hinge to the
piston extension and assures their deflection
forward (6P49, 6P50, 6P51, 6P50-1) or downward-to the right (6P50-2, 6P50-3).
The machine gun fires 12.7 mm rounds with
B-32 and BZT-44 bullets. Firing can be conducted in short and long bursts of 2 to 3 and 10
to 15 rounds respectively, or in continuous mode
provided by effective air-cooling of the barrel.
The machine gun is fed by a portable 50 rounds
magazine or a cartridge belt arranged by the
side of the machine gun.
The propitious engineering and design
decisions along with manufacturability gave the

KORD machine gun effective combat performance and ease of maintenance. It differs from its
counterpart in:
high reliability of operation at environment temperature of +500 C, in dusty conditions, after
immersion in water, without cleaning and lubricating for a number of days, in case of icing and
in other adverse operating conditions;
the trouble-free operation and the capability to
conduct intense fire without additional cooling of
the barrel and with retention of aiming accuracy;
consistent grouping, accuracy and rate of fire
throughout the entire service life of the
ease of maintenance and the capability to rectify faults by the crew in course of combat
employment with the aid of individual SPTA;
high reparability of the machine gun at troops'
The KORD machine gun's attractive feature
to the troops is the similarity of its weight, size
and connection parameters with those of the
Utyos (Rock) machine gun. This allows to
replace the latter without adjustment in all
machine gun complexes. It's worth noting that in
terms of main characteristics the KORD
exceeds by far its predecessor.
Around 22 countries manufacture now
12.7x99 mm NATO cartridges. On this basis, the
KORD machine gun has been developed in all
above described variants using those cartridges. The performance and maintenance
specifications of the machine gun did not
change despite changes in the design decisions
of the barrel and feeding mechanism.
OJSC "V.A. Degtyarev Plant" is one of
Russia's leading companies specializing in manufacture of arms. It has to its credit the many year
expertise and remarkable achievements. It possesses the required scientific and engineering
potential for production of modern highly effective
weapons and invites all interested companies and
customers to mutually beneficial cooperation.



Ataka ATGM

Kovrov Mechanical Plant, or KMZ, specializes on the

manufacturing of small arms, anti-tank guided
weapons and surface-to-air missiles (SAM). It has
been exporting its products to around 100 countries
over more than fifty years.
A major part of the plant's output is accounted for by
the Ataka anti-tank guided missile (ATGM) developed
at the KBM Engineering Design Bureau of Kolomna,
which is known in the Middle East market with its
man-portable air defense systems (MANPADS) like
Igla. The Ataka missiles are produced to meet the
Russian armed forces and export needs.


The Ataka supersonic ECM-immune radioguided ATGM was adopted in the early 1990s
and is available in two versions, 9M120 and
9M120F, differing in a type of warhead. It can be
employed as part of the Shturm-V missile system
installed on helicopters like Mi-24V, Mi-28, Mi8AMTSh and the Shturm-S missile system
mounted on the 9P149 combat vehicle. By 2005
it is planned to develop an Ataka version for
installation on new-generation armored vehicles.
The 9M120 ATGM is fitted with a shapedcharge warhead and is intended to destroy all
types of tanks, including those outfitted explosive
reactive armor. Its armor piercing capability
against ERA-protected homogenous steel armor
is no less than 800 mm (at normal). Today the
missile is among a few of production and the
most reliable heliborne ATGMs (according to the
Russian MoD's statistics data, as few as ten failures in 5,000 launches were recorded over last
three years).
There are well enough helicopters that can
carry the missile. To date, 22 countries worldwide, whose armies operate around 1,500 Mi24s, have already expressed interest in equipping them with the missile. KBM has developed
versions of the missile for installation onto the Mi17 and Mi-8 helicopters, should the latter be
used as a combat ones.
The 9M120F ATGM carries a HE thermobaric warhead and is designed to neutralize firing
points and destroy defensive installations, light
armored and soft-skinned vehicles and covered
manpower. Its explosion has an explosive power
equivalent to 9.5 kg of TNT. The missile has a
w w w . a r m s - t a s s . r u

Commissioning of new capacities has also

contributed to an increase in production of the
plant's other products that are in demand in the
market. Among them are artillery guided projectiles and the Strela-10M3 SAM system's 9M333
The SAM, incorporating an optical and
ECM-immune IR homing channels, is one of the
most sophisticated missiles of this type. It can
effectively engage low-flying planes, helicopters,
cruise missiles, guided aerial bombs and
unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) in difficult ECM
environment. The 9M333 missile is currently
undergoing an upgrade intended to increase its
engagement envelope up to 7 km in range and
up to 4.5 km in altitude.
In connection with fielding the Igla-S SAM,
the plant has started producing the PKP 9V8662 checkout equipment for these missiles.
Building up production of advanced small
arms, KMZ has begun manufacturing the
Kalashnikov machine guns in several versions,
including the latest Pecheneg adopted in 2002.
An upgraded Kalashnikov 7.62mm tank machine
gun, the PKTM, part of the T-90S MBT being
delivered to India, has hopeful prospects for
license production.
The coming international armaments exhibition in Abu Dhabi will see a new 9mm submachine gun, the AEK-919K Kashtan, which can
kill enemy manpower within 100 meters and be
effectively used in special missions. With its min-

range within 6 km, ensuring its applicability by

helicopters beyond reach of current MANPAD
systems. It has proven its high effectiveness in
fight against Chechen terrorists.
The missile features a great growth capability. Intensive work on enhancing its lethality and
improving its guidance aids is currently under
way. A new version of the missile, which will be
undoubtedly in demand, may be available as
soon as 2004.
A state order for
the Ataka missiles was
increased in 2002. It is
Ataka ATGM
expected that the missile's sales may reach
US$ 10 million in the
coming four to five
years. All in all, the
Ataka's export potential
is estimated at US$ 100
million. To meet the Caliber, mm
needs, KMZ has drawn Length, mm
up a program to Mass, kg
increase output of the
missiles. In particular, a Range, m
new assembly shop Top flight speed, m/s
has permitted doubling
its production, whereas Number of missiles aboard
an established long- Mi24V (Mi28) helicopter
term cooperation with
Number of missiles aboard 9P149 combat vehicle
components suppliers
has enabled the plant Operational altitude range, m
to participate in the
Operational temperature range
international tenders.

1,000 to 5,800
0 to 4,000


9M333 SAM



Caliber, mm


Bullet muzzle velocity, m/s

no less than 325

Missile length, mm


Firing rate, rds/min

no more than 1,000

Wing span, mm


Aimed range, m

up to 100

Missile mass, kg


Firing mode

singleshort, continuous

Mass of the missile in a container, kg


Magazine capacity, rds

20 and 30

Warhead mass, kg

Cartridge type

9 18 mm PM

Explosive mass, kg


no more than 1.8

Slant target range, m

8001,200 to 5,000

Mass of the submachine gun

with empty magazine, kg

Average missile speed, m/s


Dimensions (with folded butt), mm


Target altitude, m

10 to 3,500

Ambient temperature range


imum weight, Kashtan is the most powerful

weapon in its category. It is operational with the
Russian Ministry of Justice and Interior Ministry.
The army aviation and air defense arms are
expressing a great interest in the sub-machine
gun. The Kashtan with rounds, a silencer and
various accessories is carried in a cover bag (in a
traveling position), on a belt (in a combat position) and covertly beneath the outer- clothes
(with its butt folded).
Over many years KMZ has been successfully cooperating with the state-owned research
and production enterprise Bazalt, which consistently yielded good results. Among them is the
development of new rocket-propelled assault
grenades, the RShG-1 and RShG-2, with different warheads intended for use by disposable
rocket launchers. The plant is currently building a
new shop for their production. In terms of lethality, the grenades are competitive with the best foreign counterparts. In addition, they weigh a mere
8 kg and 4 kg, respectively, so each infantryman
could have several such grenades in its first line
The plant, in conjunction with Bazalt, is currently engaged in an upgrade work on the worldknown RPG-7 grenade launcher that involves the
installation of a range and target speed sensors,
which will significantly increase its single-shot kill
probability. One of the upgrade versions, the
multi-purpose RPG-7V2, and its assault variant
RPG-7D3, which both were fielded with the
Russian army, have already aroused a notable
interest in the world market. The RPG-7V2
grenade launcher can fire all previously known
HEAT grenades as well as new rounds with a
thermobaric and fragmentation warheads
designed to kill both covered and bulletproofbody-armor wearing enemy personnel. With
regard to the available experience, the upgrade
work could be organized on the customer's territory.
New developments by KMZ and Bazalt
include also the RPG-29 Vampir 105mm
grenade launcher weighing a mere 11.5 kg. This
is virtually an infantryman's artillery weapon
whose capabilities steadily increase. The RPG29 can be installed on a mounting and fitted with
w w w . a r m s - t a s s . r u

sighting and fire control equipment. Basalt is

developing new types of ammunition for it.
KMZ plans bringing output of these and
other close combat weapons which are in a
steady demand in the arms market, up to several tens of thousands pieces a year.
Among KMZ' latest developments is the
Falanga-M drone target system intended for
training of air defense weapons' crews. Around
200 launches and firings from the Igla, Strela10M3 and Tunguska air defense systems, including those at night, were conducted against the
Falanga-M targets during firing exercises in
The Falanga-M's price is not high
since it is manufactured of discarded ATGMs. It
can be widely employed to demonstrate the
combat capabilities of the current SAM systems
for intercepting small-sized objects, as well as for
development of such systems during their modernization.
To simulate a maneuvering air target and its
characteristics in the IR and radar bands, the
Falanga-M has eight maneuvering programs. It is
fitted with an emitter operating in a visible band
that allows the operator not only to observe it but
Mi28N helicopter equipped with Ataka missiles

also to record its flight parameters using tracking

trajectory measurement facilities. The target may
be equipped with optional Grozd- and Diez-type
false hot targets ejected in the trajectory.
According to experts, the Falanga-M, depending
on its delivery set, may cost several thousands
dollars, whereas the price of its foreign counterparts reaches as high as US$ 50,000. Several
countries have already shown their interest in the
KMZ' future plans are linked with manufacturing of weapon systems. Currently the plant is
mastering the Mashina-M tracked fire control
vehicle using design documentation from the
Signal VNII Research Institute. The vehicle is
equipped with target position fixing sensors and
the Baghet computing system to process reconnaissance data and produce target coordinates
and external ballistic corrections. This enables
large-caliber artillery systems to open fire within 1
min, whereas the current counterparts' response
time is approximately ten minutes. KMZ has
started low-rate production of the Mashina-M
systems and up to 40 such vehicles are planned
to be built a year since 2004.



current state, capabilities and future developments

The water supply is a major problem of our

times. It is attributable to the presence of a great
number of regions with limited water reserves, a
deteriorating general ecological situation, a possible use of BW and CW agents by conflicting parties for contamination of water supply sources,
and a growing threat of terrorist acts. These and
other issues linked to water production have
PBU50m Modernized Mobile Drilling Rig

PLVS Field Water Laboratory

OPS5 Water Desalination Plant

PVU300 Portable Water Purifier

become vital in maintaining activities of the whole

regions and states in peace-time. Handling these
issues in war-time could be one of the core tasks
of supporting military operations.
For instance, during World War II this was a
major task in defense of Odessa, preparation of
and during combat actions near Stalingrad, liberation of Northern Caucasus and during Operation
Yasso-Kishinev. A water supply problem was especially demanding and large-scale in preparation of
and during Operation Khingan-Mukden in
September 1945 when troops were to cross the
arid desert Gobi and the Great Khingan Mountains.
The successful provision of the civil population and troops with water in a variety of situations
depends primarily on the capabilities of aids
used to tackle the task. The latter include water
source prospecting, water production, purification and desalination units. Russia has accumulated vast experience in their development and
Surface water source prospecting means can
be used to conduct a qualitative chemical and
bacteriological water tests during several hours. A
field water supply laboratory being part of water
treatment plants provides determining organoleptic (transparency, odor, taste, flavor, color) and
chemical (pH value, active chlorine, hardness,
alkalinity, nitrate, ammonium ion) quality indicators
of the water as well as the presence of poisonous
(toxic) substances in it. With its weight of 30 kg, the
laboratory set permits conducting up to 200
organoleptic tests and up to 100 toxicity ones. In
future the prospecting aids will include a component ensuring a quick water quality test during 1 to
2 minutes using special indicators.
Among a variety of current geophysical methods used for prospecting underground water
sources, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), an
integrated refracted-wave (electric seismic
prospecting) and a high-frequency radio wave
methods are deemed to offer the most promise.
However, their application individually does not
allow obtaining accurate data on the presence
and location of underground water sources. So,
specialists believe that a combined application of
these methods by a single device could help tackling the water prospecting problem. Such a device
would enable prospecting of and obtaining data
on water sources lying at a depth of 200 meters.
Abyssinian wells, drilling rigs and water-lifting
equipment. These permit drilling water wells as
deep as 200 meters and constructing Abyssinian

wells to a depth of 20 meters as well as pumping

out the water out of them. Currently underground
water production facilities like the MTK-2m
small-diameter pipe well, the UDV-25 water production unit, as well as the PBU-50m, PBU150m and PBU-200m mobile drilling rigs can be
used for military water supply (Table 1).
The UDV-25 water production unit is intended to produce underground water in field conditions by completing temporary wells in grounds
of up to density category IV inclusive as well as to
purify the water from surface and underground
sources. Application of a combined auger drilling
technology that calls for burying a water-lifting
device with a filter and an Archimedean screw
piston pump into a water-bearing layer permits
one to start pumping out water immediately after
completion of drilling.
The PBU-50m mobile drilling rig ensures production of groundwater through constructing temporary and permanent drill wells with up to 200
mm dia. and shaft wells of up to 1,000 mm dia. in
grounds of up to density category IV for drill wells
and up to density category III - for shaft wells. The
rig is mounted on a cross-country chassis.
The PBU-150m mobile drilling rig ensures
drilling holes and shaft wells to a depth of 150 m
and 20 m respectively in rocks of up to density
category XII inclusive. The equipment set
includes: a drilling rig with a mud pump and two
compressors mounted on the URAL-4320 truck
chassis; two trailers with a set of spares, drilling
tools and jigs; an auxiliary truck with a set of pipes
and a spares and accessories.
The PBU-200m mobile drilling rig provides
underground water production by completing
temporary and permanent drill wells in rocks of
up to density category VI inclusive. The rig
includes: a drilling unit, a pumping and compressor unit, a hydraulic crane, a generating unit,
water intake and welding equipment, drilling and
auxiliary equipment, and three KRAZ-260 G
trucks. The rig design relies on the use a combined drilling and temporary well completion
technology that involves using drill pipes as casings. The drill design allows both cable tool and
rotation drilling with clay drilling mud flushing.
According to specialists, given existing
requirements, core lines of water production
equipment development in the near term will be
linked with the creation of drilling rigs offering
completion of water-intake wells without or with a
limited use of a flushing fluid. This is achieved by
applying a drilling technology that provides for

Table 1


MTK2m smalldiameter pipe well

UDV25 water production unit
PBU50m mobile drilling rig
PBU150m mobile drilling rig
PBU200m mobile drilling rig
w w w . a r m s - t a s s . r u

Drilling depth of, m

Time to complete, h
Closure Crew Capacity, cu. m/h
Abyssinian well Wells
Abyssinian well time, h
Pumping out

Down to 7.0
Down to 150

Down to 20

Down to 120

Down to 15






Applies to the pump




BRNO 28. - 30.4.
7th International Exhibition
of Defence and Security Technologies
and Special Information Systems









In cooperation with the

Association of Defence Industry
of the Czech Republic



IDET 2003 is held under the auspices of:

Committee on Foreign Affairs, Defence and Security of the Senate of the Czech Parliament
Committee for Defence and Security of the Chamber of Deputies of the Czech Parliament
National Security Council of the Czech Republic
Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Czech Republic
Ministry of Defence of the Czech Republic
Ministry of Industry and Trade of the Czech Republic
Co-operating organizations and co-organizers of the accompanying programme:
Association of Defence Industry of the Czech Republic
AFCEA Czech Republic (Armed Forces Communications and Electronics Association)
Association of the Aviation Manufacturers of the Czech Republic
Czech Air Force Benevolent Funds Agency
Czech and Moravian Electrical and Electronic Association ELA
Military Academy Brno

Trade Fairs Brno

Vystaviste 1
647 00 Bmo
Czech Republic
Tel.: +420 5 4115 3272
Fax: +420 5 4115 3054


Table 2
Purifying and
desalinating systems
NF45m Portable filter
VFS2,5 Filtering plant
MAFS3 Filtering plant
VFS10 Filtering plant
PVU300 Portable waterpurifying plant
SKO03s Integrated water treatment plant
SKO8s Integrated water treatment plant
OPS Desalinating plant
OPS5 Desalinating plant

2045 l/h
2,5 cu. m/h
78 cu. m/h
10 cu. m/h
0.3 cu. m/h
0.3 cu. m/h
8 cu. m/h
1.82.2 cu. m/h
1.86.0 cu. m/h

UDV25 Well Drilling Equipment

PBU200 Mobile Drilling Rig

Vega Individual Water Filter

NF45m Portable Filter


the use of double drill pipes and hole blowing,

resulting in cutting drilling time in rocks of density
category up to VIII two to three times. The technology will be implemented in new drilling facilities as well as when retrofitting the PBU-50m. In
the latter case the PBU-50m will retain its capability for auger drilling of temporary wells and for
completing shaft wells as deep as 15 meters.
Water purification and desalination facilities,
from individual to complex ones with capacity of
up to 10 cu. m /h are equally important in tackling
w w w . a r m s - t a s s . r u

Time, min



water supply problems. Today, regarding general

deterioration of the ecological situation, systems
incorporating advanced reagent-free membrane
separation technologies are in great demand.
They can purify water of natural contaminants,
disinfect it of disease causing microbes, neutralize harmful toxic substances as well as desalt bitterish saline water, including sea water with a
high salt content (Table 2).
Given limited possibilities to deploy shared
water treatment means, individual and group filters
and water-purifying devices can be widely used.
The Vega individual filter disinfects water
form open reservoirs of bacteria and viruses as
well as purifies it of natural contaminants, toxic
and poisonous substances and heavy metal
salts. It can be used by personnel in radioactive,
chemical and bacteriological contamination
zones. Its rated treatment capacity is 10 l/h.
Should the water from open reservoirs is free
of toxic and poisonous substances, an individual
water-purifying device, the Biriuza, can be used
to disinfect it of bacteria and viruses. Its capacity
ranges between 5 to 10 l/h, with a total life of 150
A portable filter, the NF-45, has proved to be
efficient in combat conditions. It purifies fresh
water of natural contaminants, poisonous,
radioactive and highly active toxic substances as
well as provides an additional treatment of city
water. The filter set includes a case with a built-in
pump and a sorption-and-membrane filtering
element, a cover bag, a set of spares and accessories, two 25-liter containers for raw and treated
water, and a disinfecting compound. The filtering
elements life to replacement depends on composition of the water being treated and averages
between 190 hours and up to 50 hours for water
purification of natural contaminants and poisonous and bacteriological agents, respectively.
VFS-2,5, MAFS-3 and VFS-10 mobile filtering plants offer considerable capabilities for
water purification of natural contaminants, its disinfection and neutralization of toxic compounds
in field conditions. They are mounted on a crosscountry chassis giving them high mobility and
autonomy. All required equipment, spare parts
and accessories are carried by a trailer. The plant
sets include a motor-driven pump, reservoirs,
chemical water treatment reagents, and field
water quality laboratories. The VFS-2,5 and VFS10 plants feature increased capabilities. These
and the above facilities have shown high reliability and water treatment quality in various regions
of Russia.
Integrated water treatment plants, the SKO03s and SKO-8s, have won high appraisals following their extensive use in a wide range of

Time between filter

element replacements, h

Mass of
a set, t

weather, climatic and geographical conditions.

They ensure a high degree of water purification
of natural contaminants, toxic and radioactive
substances, bacterial agents and highly active
poisonous compounds. Their operation relies on
the use of sorption filters and ultrafiltration units.
For their operation, the plants need a power
source of 0.5 kW and 12 kW respectively.
In desert and seaside areas an issue of water
desalination is of paramount importance. It could
be tackled using desalination plants, like the
OPS and OPS-5 that enable water desalination,
purification and disinfection in troops water supply. The salt content of the water is reduced to a
level that makes it suitable for drinking, manufacturing and sanitary purposes by water vaporization followed by condensation (the OPS plant)
and the use of a reverse osmosis method (the
OPS-5 plant). The modern plant OPS-5 is
mounted on a cross-country chassis in a special
van-type body. It includes water treatment and
desalination equipment, a 17-kW generating
unit, a laboratory, water tanks, reagents and a set
of spares and accessories.
Further development of the Russian water
treatment and desalination facilities relies on
application of reagent-free technologies incorporating:
For individual filters (up to 20l/h capacity) sorption and ion exchange on cross-linked and
globular polymers. The devices should be easy
to operate and ensure water purification to a
degree when it could be used in any conditions, including the radioactive, chemical and
bacteriological contamination zones;
For group (up to 500l/h capacity) and shared
(to 10 cu. m/h and more) plants - ceramicbased ultrafiltration, ion exchange on the basis
of cross-linked and globular polymers, sterilizing microfiltration, ozonization, magnetization,
sorption, ultraviolet irradiation, reverse osmosis, electrodialysis and electrolysis.
The group and shared water and desalination aids are suggested to have a module design
with a flexible purification and desalination technology depending on a raw water quality and to
ensure water preparation for long storage, its
bottling and packaging.
So, field water supply facilities are a key factor in maintaining vital activities of the population
living in arid regions with limited water reserves.
They are of paramount importance in natural disasters, accidents at ecologically hazardous
industrial installations, terrorist acts at water supply facilities in peace-time as well as in supporting troops survivability in combat operations
involving the application of bacteriological,
chemical and other weapons.




Unfortunately, terrorist acts of a various
scope have become a distinguishing feature of
today's world. A whole set of causes, including
those of interreligious and interethnic nature,
contribute to this. Individual nations seek to attain
a regional leadership through causing an unstable political and economic situation on the territory of countries of interest to them.
Among such countries is Russia against
which a full-scale terrorist war has been made
over the recent years. According to specialists, a
foreign financial and military aid to the terrorist
units operating on its territory comes from 24
countries. The money are used to form bandit
groups comparable to army units.
The Russian power-wielding agencies have
gained vast experience in conducting operations
against terrorist units, including those in denselypopulated regions. Tactical scenarios of such
operations are characterized by a severe difficulty in applying unguided weapons that attack
areas and could endanger the civilians.
Application of the precision weapons striking
concrete targets could be a way out of the current situation. Such a weapon permits delivering
highly accurate surprise and hence effective
strikes on stores of weapons and ammunition,
command and communication posts, terrorist

training and relaxation bases. It's worth noting

that these targets feature no a distinctive 'signature', which dictates the expediency of using precision weapons relying on various methods to
home on a target.
The Russian Army has accumulated certain
experience in applying precision weapons
against armed bandit units. Many such weapons
were used in combat conditions and are in
demand in the world arms market. These
weapons are currently operational with the Land
Forces' and army aviation's units.
To effectively destroy small-sized targets, the
field artillery can use, for instance, the Krasnopol
and Santimeter laser-guided projectiles as well
as Smelchak 240-mm laser-guided mortar projectile. Most popular in the world are the
Krasnopol 152-mm, Krasnopol-M 155-mm production projectiles and the newest Kitolov-2
122-mm, Kitolov-2M 120-mm projectiles. Their
main characteristics are given in Tables 1, 2.
The Krasnopol and Kitolov projectiles are
guided onto a laser beam reflected from the target being illuminated by a forward artillery controller using a laser rangefinger/target designator. At the homing phase the trajectory of such a
projectile is corrected using aerodynamic control
surfaces. The recent years have seen a marked


KornetE missile

KornetE ATGW (portable version)

Table 1
Weapon system





Kitolov2M precision munition

Tulabased KBP





Caliber, mm





Projectile weight, kg





Projectile length, mm








Warhead weight, kg





Explosive weight, kg




Range, km





Guidance system
Artillery system

Krasnopol 155mm laserguided projectile

Inertial plus semiactive laser

2S3, 2S19, G6, M109

Laser designator

2S3, 2S19, G6, M109

2S9, 2S23


1D15, 1D20, 1D22

Table 2
Weapon system

1K113 Smelchak

SmelchakM SantimeterM








SmelchakM SantimeterM


Caliber, mm





Projectile weight, kg





Projectile length, mm 1,635









Explosive weight, kg





Range, km

3.6 9.2




Artillery system

M240, 2S4


M240, 2S4

D20, 2S3, 2S19

Laser designator

1D15, 1D22

1D15, 1D22

1D15, 1D22

1D15, 1D22M

Guidance system


2K24 Santimeter

Semiactive laser homing

w w w . a r m s - t a s s . r u

ATGW KonkursM

KhrizantemaS ATGW

Table 3




Mass, kg:
transporting/launching 46
container with a missile



Missile length, mm




Missile diameter, mm




Range, m




Guidance system

Radio command Radio command

Warhead types

tandem HEAT

Tandem HEAT,
tandem HEAT, rod HEAT/fragmentation

Warhead mass, kg




Table 4

Diameter, mm Length, mm Mass, kg Warhead, kg Range, km






KAB1500L 580





KAB500KR 350










increase in export sales of he projectiles.

Besides, the Russian developers are now
increasingly expanding cooperation with the
world's leading firms, primarily with French companies, in the joint manufacturing of such
Recently India and China have considerably
resupplied their inventories with the Krasnopol
155-mm projectiles. Under a first contract, India
will receive 2,000 such projectiles. China, in its
turn, has started producing the Krasnopol projectiles under a license purchased from KBP.
An upgraded version of the projectile, the
Krasnopol-M1, has attracted considerable interest of potential buyers. It is intended for firing from
the 155-, 152-mm artillery systems as well as
from the Msta-S SP howitzer. Compared to the
basic model, the new munition is shorter (970
mm) and has its warhead and explosive weights
increased from 20.5 kg to 22 kg and from 6.5 kg
to 9 kg, respectively. In addition, the projectile's
total weight was reduced from 50 kg to 45 kg.
The Santimeter and Smelchak munitions are
homed onto a target using a reflected laser
beam, too. At the terminal phase of the trajectory the projectile's seeker locks-on an illumination
spot and outputs control commands to pulsed
thrusters to change the trajectory.
Artillery guided projectiles were used in
combat conditions in Afghanistan and
Chechnya, with the Smelchak mortar munition,
which carries a 20+ kg explosive charge, showing high lethality.
Of great importance in destroying the concentrations of terrorists and small-sized targets is
a surprise in launching a strike. The use of precision weapon systems enables attaining this
thanks to the possibility of employing artillery systems at a long range, their concealment, and
covert operation of an artillery controller illuminating the target.
These and some other features of the precision weapons, with regard to a time spent to
accomplish a fire mission, secure them a significant advantage over conventional artillery projectiles.
Anti-tank guided weapons (ATGW) have
proved to be highly effective against terrorist

units. Unlike their initial purpose, a range of targets to be destroyed by today's ATGWs has substantially increased. In addition to tanks, they can
be successfully used against soft-skinned and
light armored combat vehicles, fortified defensive
installations, and diverse objectives in the populated areas. These additional capabilities were
attained by applying various types of warheads.
The Russian ATGWs are divided into portable,
mobile and mixed systems. The portable weapons
include light-weight systems (Metis-M, Fagot-M),
mobile - systems carried by self-propelled chassis, helicopters, tanks, etc. and launched from the
platforms (Khrizantema, Ataka). Mixed-application (portable/mobile) ATGWs can be used,
depending on the situation, both from the carrier
and as portable weapons (Kornet). It should be
noted that, in terms of range and effectiveness,
the Kornet ATGW can replace a heavy gun, with
conversion of such an ATGW into a portable
weapon taking a mere several minutes.
The high effectiveness of anti-tank missiles is
achieved due to equipping them with a HEAT
warhead providing assured destruction of protected and buried targets. Also, the Kornet,
Metis-M, Shturm, Ataka and other ATGMs can be
fitted with FAE type (thermobaric) warheads.
Fragmentation effect of various munitions is
known to decrease against targets shielded by
obstacles or terrain. In this case a FAE warhead
creates an aerosol cloud in the air leaking into
shelters and other structures, and its detonation
produces a shock wave that effectively kills personnel. Adding the thermobaric warheads to the
existing range of ATGW warheads increases
combat capabilities of these weapons.
The Shturm ATGM, whose combat use in
Afghanistan and Chechnya has demonstrated
high firing accuracy and effectiveness, deserves
attention. The missile is the first production
model flying with a supersonic speed, resulting in
its high fire rate and a reduced time for an enemy
to apply jamming. The Shturm-V system is
installed on the Mi-24, Mi-28, Ka-29 helicopters,
and the Shturm-S - on the MT-LB light armored
amphibious tractor. The Ataka ATGW has derived
from the Shturm. Unlike ATGMs relying on a laser
guidance system, theses weapons use a radio

command guidance system whose operation

doesn't depend on the optical transparency of
the atmosphere. The Ataka system can be
installed on the Mi-24, Ka-29 helicopters, and on
the MT-LB light armored amphibious tractor.
Table 3 gives characteristics of some ATGMs.
KBM's Khrizantema ATGW compares favorably with the above systems and meets the upto-date requirements. It features an all-weather
and round-the-clock capability, a radar guidance
system and can be fired to 6 km. Besides, its
missile can be fitted with tandem HEAT and thermobaric warheads.
So, the Russian anti-tank missiles fitted with
additional thermobaric warheads have combined features typical of the artillery and anti-tank
weapon systems. This makes them highly effective against not only armored vehicles, but also
permanent defensive installations, soft-skinned
vehicles and covered personnel.
Equipping army planes and helicopters with
precision weapons dramatically increases their
capabilities. One prominent example of this is the
use of guided aerial bombs with laser (KAB500L, KAB-1500L) and TV (KAB-500KR) guidance systems as well as the Kh-25ML type missiles during combat operations in Chechnya.
They were carried by the Su-24M bombers and
Su-25 attack aircraft.
These weapons (Table 4) have enabled
destroying a chief HQ of Dudayev's terrorist units,
underground ammunition depots located in silos
of a former Soviet ballistic missile base, several
fortified areas and other military installations of
the terrorists.
A major distinction of the airborne precision
weapons is a considerable mass of their warheads ensuring a high effectiveness against
heavily fortified and deeply buried military structures. Such weapons were applied to destroy
concentrations of terrorists and their bases.
So, the real combat experience suggests
that the precision weapons are far superior to
conventional ones in terms of cost-effectiveness.
In the context of applying armed methods in fight
against terrorism, the employment of precision
weapons is quite justified and is one of the possible ways to tackle the international problem.


A R M S - T A S S





Even though the world's arms markets have
been weak over recent years while the competition between the manufacturers of high technology defense products (DP) shows no signs of
weakening, Byelorussia is still holding a notable
position among the leading exporters of arms,
albeit at the bottom of top ten.
Being for two successive years (2001-2002)
in the group of the world's leading exporters of
arms, Byelorussia made a serious claim for a
niche in the world's arms market. Byelorussia's
military exports were at their highest in 1997, the
time of active marketing of the Defense Ministry's
redundant stocks. The earnings then reached
US$ 500 million, which placed the republic ninth
among the world's major exporters of arms.
However, having depleted the redundant stocks
of military hardware, the export sales of
Byelorussia plummeted. In 1998 they yielded
US$ 100 million (15th place) and US$ 40 million
in 1999 (22nd place). However, even at the rock
bottom of its military exports Byelorussia managed to conclude fairly profitable contracts.
In 2001-2002, an essential change took
place in the military exports of Byelorussia. By
contrast to the previous years, the emphasis now
was laid on modernization in third countries of
the Soviet/Russian-made equipment. There was
good reason for doing so since the militaryindustrial complex of the republic has a number
of companies with a wealth of expertise in
research and production, which enables them to
embark on high technology projects. Among
such companies is Minotor-Service, one of the
leaders of Byelorussia's defense complex that
specializes in repair, modernization and development of tracked vehicles for various uses.
The specialty of Minotor-Service is tracked
vehicles for air defense systems, transport
means and armored vehicles. This assures a fairly large market for repair and modernization of
2T Stalker AFV

w w w . a r m s - t a s s . r u

arms and military equipment supplied by the former Soviet Union in the 70s and 80s.
In particular, the company repairs chassis for
the Tunguska gun and missile air defense selfpropelled system (GM-352), Buk SAM system
(GM-569, -577,-579), Kub SAM (GM-568, 578), Shilka ZSU-23-4 (self-propelled air
defense system) (GM-575), and Tor SAM system
(GM-355). In Minsk there is a base for repair of
Krug SAM system (facilities 123 and 124) and
Strela-10 SAM system (MTLB facility).
The company has optimized the program of
upgrading Shilka ZSU-23-4 to the M4, M5, and
BTR-50PK standard (armored personnel carrier).
Based on the combat experience of land
forces in Afghanistan, Yugoslavia and Chechnya,
the Byelorussian company has built on its own initiative a Mule vehicle. This is designed for hostilities in areas (zones) that require a better protection of the personnel and cargo being conveyed.
Also, a radically new, in-depth reconnaissance, armored vehicle, Stalker 2T, and a fast
transport tracked vehicle, 3T, have been developed and are now undergoing trials.
The design of those new vehicles utilizes the
results of research and development carried out
in such areas as advanced prototype development of military hardware, modernization of inservice weapon types, protection of equipment
against means of detection and destruction, provision of stealth for combat systems, development of advanced propulsion systems for dedicated equipment, automation of control for combat vehicle chassis, protection of combat vehicles' crews, development and manufacture of
combat equipment simulators.
The 50PKM armored personnel carrier is a
light type of amphibious tracked vehicle with an
assault troop compartment. This is built based on
the modernized BTR-50PK in order to extend its
service life. In addition, the modernization pro-

gram envisions the extension of the service life not

only of the BTR-50PK but also vehicles having the
similar chassis (BTR-50P, BTR-50PU, PT-76, PT76B) with improvement of their mobility, ergonomics and reparability. The modernization makes the
machines interchangeable with modern military
equipment in the event of joint combat operations.
The modernization implies replacement of
the obsolete engine, transmission and brake
systems' subunits for those used on the BMP1/BMP-2. The appearance and dimension of the
APC remain unchanged. At the same time, the
vehicle's weight and the location of the center of
gravity do not change, due to which fact it retains
its floating capability. The modernization extends
the service life of APCs, making them more
mobile and improving their off-road capability,
speed and technical serviceability. In particular,
the fitting of fuel, water and air pipelines with
quick-to-remove connectors improves the vehicle reparability. The replacement of the engine in
the field will take just an hour.
Most changes are made in the rear powerpack. Replaced here are the engine together
with the cooling and air cleaning systems. A
pneumatic engine-start-up system has been
mounted, the main engine oil tank relocated and
a modified, larger fuel tank fitted. Installed in the
driver's cabin are a T-shaped (motorcycle type)
steering wheel, a parking brake and an additional control panel. The transmission and brake
drives are replaced with cable linkages.
The layout of the modernized BTR-50PKM
retains the floating and off-road capability of the
vehicle. Weighing 14.5 tons, the machine develops the maximum speed of 60 km/h over land and
12 km/h afloat. The road range is 450 km. The
improved mobility of the BTR-50PK is provided by
a more powerful diesel engine and transmission
combined into an engine-and-transmission unit.
The new engine has increased the specific power

BTR50PKM armored personnel carrier

of the APC to 20.7 hp and the maximum speed
over highway and dirt road up to 60 and 45 km/h,
respectively. The new engine is much more cost
effective. The modernized APC consumes on the
average 8% less fuel and 53% less oil.
As per the competent source, Jane's Defence
Weekly, the BTR-50PK modernization project
drew attention of the Defense Ministry of Egypt
that signed a contract with Minotor-Service.
Among the new developments of MinotorService worth of special note is the Stalker BM2T
fast, high mobility, tracked vehicle for in-depth
reconnaissance role. The all-purpose armament
suite and powerful armor reliably protect a crew
of three in hostile firing engagements. The
design of the vehicle provides stealth capability
in radar, IR and optical frequency bands.
The armament of the 2T combat vehicle is
comprised of a 30mm cannon with a 7.62mm
twin barrel machine gun, two retractable launching units with two Ataka (Attack) anti-tank or Igla
(Needle) anti-aircraft missiles on each, and a 30
mm automatic grenade launcher.
Installed on the 2T combat vehicle is a radically new passive, multi-channel, optic-electronic system that ensures day and night detection, automatic selection and tracking of moving targets as
well as target range finding in laser and optic frequency bands. The transmission of intelligence to
the command post proceeds automatically.
The vehicle is equipped with a laser radiation
warning and protection system plus a driver's TV
observation device.
The equipment and armament of the combat vehicle are based on a highly mobile tracked
chassis. This provides the 27.4 ton vehicle with
the maximum speed of 95 km/h and a road
range 1,000 km.
The vehicle measures 7.7 m in length, 3.38
m in width, 2.5 m in height. The ammunition
reserve onboard and the supply of water and
food provide for a protracted self-sufficient operation of the combat vehicle and its crew away
from supply bases.
The Mule front-line transport vehicle (TMPK)
has been built based on the combat experience
of land forces in recent local conflicts. This is
designed for delivery of ammunition, fuels and
lubricants and other technical materials to the
first echelon troops' positions. Also, this is for use
in areas (zones) that require added protection of
the materiel and manpower being conveyed.
BTR50PKM armored personnel carrier

The internal volume of the behind-the-armor

space (8 m3) and the carrying capacity (4 tons)
are practically equal to those of the Ural truck
used for delivery functions.
The Mule TMPK can carry at any one time 3
stocks of a company's ammunition reserve,
which provides for one ammunition load per unit
of arms.
In any one trip the vehicle can deliver:
622,000 5.45mm rounds for AK-74 assault rifles
and 253,000 7.62mm rounds for PKM and PKT
machine guns, or 240 Mukha (Fly) RPG-18 antitank rocket weapon systems, or 12,000 30mm
rounds for AGS-17 grenade launcher.
According to experts, the Mule TMPK offers
such advantages as armored protection of equipment and manpower, improved off-road and
floating capabilities. In addition, the reliable protection of the vehicle raises the morale of its crew.
The specialists of Minotor-Service have
recently created a TGM 3T fast transport tracked
vehicle. This is an air-transportable multi-role
transport platform designed for carrying manpower and materiel over country and in roadless areas.
The vehicle has a diesel engine, automatic
gearbox, and hydrovolumetric turning mechanism. Those make the vehicle fast, agile and simple to operate.
The TGM 3T accommodates a driver and 5
fully equipped crewmen. The location of the crew
provides them an all-round surveillance capability.

The layout decisions resulted in an optimum

weight of the vehicle.
Weighing 2,800 kg, the vehicle moves over
land at 90 km/h and floats at 3-6 km/h. The TGM
3T can negotiate a grade with inclination of 30
degrees and at a tilt of 20 degrees.
According to experts, the underlying design
decisions allow to build a wide range of dedicated vehicles on a basis of the parent construction.
In particular, the layout and construction of
the 3T provide for installation of various weapon
types: large caliber machine gun, grenade
launcher, various types of ATGW, SAM system,
which enhances the response capability of military units and the effectiveness of use of arms.
According to experts, the arms market will
readily embrace the IMT-72 simulator designed
for comprehensive simulation of the T-72 tank in
optical, IR and radar bands. The life-sized simulator is based on an automobile trailer that
mounts a turret mock-up and exterior add-on
elements (front and rear mudguards, side
screens, chassis simulator, gun barrel, anti-aircraft machine gun and others). The simulator has
a deforming painting and a thermal simulation
device. The probability of taking the simulator for
a real tank at a range of 200 m is 0.9.
The simulator weight does not exceed 3.5
tons. The simulator deployment time by 3 men in
the field is 20 minutes. Dismantling by same
takes up 30 minutes.

Mule forward area supply carrier

IMT72 tank mockup



A R M S - T A S S




Defense Systems is a management company of the Russian-Belarusian Interstate Financial

and Industrial Group (IFIG) 'Oboronitelnye
Sistemy' (Defense Systems) and has more than
6-year experience in integrating developers and
manufacturers of sophisticated air defense systems. In terms of sales and profits, it ranked
among ten biggest enterprises of the Russian
defense industry in different years. Now Defense
Systems JSC op. is a system integrator responsible for fulfillment of an export contract that calls
for upgrading of the S-125 Pechora fixed SAM
systems to a mobile version Pechora-2M and
their delivery to customers.
The Pechora-2M program involved 27 enterprises, including three ones of Belarus. The
Minsk wheeled tractor plant is currently manufacturing three types of chassis for the upgraded
SAM system - for its launcher, radar and control
post. In all, the plant is to deliver 90 such chassis.
The upgrade program for the Pechora may
be quite an attractive cost-effective solution for
the armed forces in a number of countries. In
particular, Pechora's combat effectiveness can
now be significantly enhanced, with its operational costs more than halved. Ninety per cent
of the equipment in the upgraded system was
replaced with modern digital electronic systems. Automated reception of target designation from any external radars is provided
through the addition of a navigation system and
a telecode communications system. The
improved 5V24 and 5V27 short-range surfaceto-air missiles (SAMs) not only increase the kill
zone from 17 to 27 kilometers in range and up
to 20 kilometers in altitude, but also provide a
greater kill probability for air targets, including
low-level ones
The upgraded SAM uses a new booster, a
new warhead and an improved ECCM-capable
radar fuze and enables firings against low-level
targets, including cruise missiles, at the altitudes
as low as 20 meters.
The SAM system may be completed with an
optional all-round electro-optical (EO) viewing
system, the Feniks, ensuring round-the-clock
target acquisition in a passive mode as well as
target designation without using active radars.
The Feniks, which is unique worldwide, can perform passive EO airspace reconnaissance within
20 km, acquire stealthy aircraft and cruise missiles with instantaneous output of target data for
the missile launchers. At the same time it is
impossible to detect the system itself due to lack
of distinctive signature.
w w w . a r m s - t a s s . r u

BM2T combat vehicle

The Feniks station may also be employed to

build up capabilities of concealed air and surface
monitoring systems at coastal observation posts
and patrol ships.
When Defense Systems looked for new applications of air defense technologies, an idea of
developing a unified territorial automated air/sea
surveillance (TAASS) system has emerged These
technologies allow one to obtain information on
targets in real time by processing data on hundreds
of targets within 10 seconds, automatically display
information from a great number of sources, and,
finally, provide data exchange with the sources, i.e.
relay control commands and assess operational
status of a source via a target data link.
Among potential customers for the TAASS
system are the seaside countries, for which the
protection of national interests in sea-shore lines
has recently become particularly urgent. In addition, introduction of the system is considered as
a way to improve the existing surveillance systems and save resources. According to calculations, with such a system, the costs linked with
environmental monitoring and control of the suppression forces decrease 1.5-2 times. In this
case a data processing rate increases 40 times
compared to traditional observation means and
the system's reaction time shortens to 20-30
seconds. The TAASS system uses air/sea monitoring means that are already available in the
countries and allows joining efforts of not only
separate departments, but also different countries of a region.

It has a multi-echelon structure that is determined by the customer's requirements. The sys
tem's first echelon provides surveillance of surface objects and low-flying aircraft at a range up
to 40 km and up to 100 km from the coastline,
respectively. It includes coastal technical observation posts equipped with air/sea surveillance
radars, EO devices, as well as data acquisition,
processing and transfer means.
The second echelon consists of ships at sea
equipped with the same means that carry out
control at a range up to 100 km and beyond.
Surface ships of any type can be used for patrol
missions. The company is ready to install on
them Russian-made radars or fit the customer's
radar with special operator's positions that provide data transfer to a coastal observation post
and the ship's navigation using the Navigator100P electronic mapping system.
The third echelon of air/sea observation and
ecological monitoring at a range of up to 600
km and further is provided by patrol planes or
helicopters. The plane (helicopter) carries the
Sea Serpent search system that can acquire
surface and air targets within 320 km and 90
km respectively and track up to 30 targets and
more at once. With this system, the planes can
control surface, ground and air situation and
provide information to coastal control posts, as
well as designation for appropriate suppression forces.
The search system incorporates radar and
EO systems, emission monitoring system, a con-

Interstate financial and industrial group

Defense Systems JSC
29 Vereiskaya St.
Moscow 121357 Russia
Tel: (095) 4400912
Fax: (095) 4400687
40 Myasnikov St.
Minsk 220050 Belarus
Tel./Fax: (10 37517) 2178404
President Yuri Rodin-Sova

Director General Serguei Batekhin

Phora2 SAM
The upgraded
Phora-2 SAM system
will be effective against
low flying and smallsized air targets under
any types of electronic
countermeasures. The
upgrade will enable
extending service life of
the basic system and
cutting its maintenance
and repair costs.

Feniks EO/IR target

The Feniks EO/IR
target acquisition station ensures detection
of air, ground and surface targets in a zone of
responsibility or determination of a time to
their entry into the zone;
selection of the critical
targets and their tracking with determination
of azimuth, range and
elevation and subsequent output of these data to users; combat operation documenting; operational capability status monitoring; learning and
training of the combat crew.

Despite its low weight (a mere
800g), the Bot kit provides for calculation of whereabouts, storage of a
large amount of positions in the
memory, and, above all, integration
with practically all existing means of
communication. Being pressed for
time in adverse operational conditions, the soldiers may have difficulty
in using the kit. That is why the software does all functions concerning
terrain orientation.

Defense Systems ("Oboro-nitel-

IFIG's planned activities include

nye Sistemi") JSC op. is a man-

ensuring of export deliveries of

agement company for the inter-

highly effective air defense missile

state financial and industrial group

systems and automated control

(IFIG) of the same name that was

systems of various levels, mod-

created in accordance of an inter-

ernization of the S-125 Pechora

governmental agreement

SAM system, provision of a wide

between the Russian Federation

range of services on repair and

and the Republic of Belarus

servicing of armaments and mili-

signed on 11 February 2000.

tary hardware.

FIG Defense Systems incorpo-

IFIG can develop and implement

rates the leading developers and

integrated air defense networks

manufacturers of high-tech prod-

for the customer countries' type

ucts in Russia and Belarus'

areas and installations ensuring

defense industries. Among them

their reliable protection against

are known worldwide federal uni-

current and future air threats, pre-

tary enterprise (FGUP) Fakel,

cision weapons, tactical and bat-

state enterprise (SE) 'Moscow

tlefield ballistic missiles.

Research Institute for Instrument

Automatics', FGUP 'State

IFIG Defense Systems is open for

Obukhov Plant', 'Design Bureau

cooperation and among its partic-

Kuntsevo' JSC op., FGUP

ipants may be legal entities of

'Komintern Plant', SE 'Minsk-

other states on the terms of

based Wheeled Tractors',

agreements between the partici-

Electronic Weapon Repair Plant

pants and the governments of

#2566, the research and produc-

these states.

tion enterprise 'Alevkurp', etc.

Bot compact navigation/communications kit

trol computer system, a navigation support system, communications and data transmission
The fourth echelon provides for earth remote
sensing from space and aerial vehicles.
So, the TAASS ensures a reliable and allweather control of the whole region. The information
surveillance/control posts where it is generalized
and furnished to customers, which could include
various departments and the whole states. One
area surveillance post can handle information
from 8 to 10 sources and convey data to 4 to 6
interacting higher posts.
The length of the controlled section of a border may reach 800 km, and the number of simultaneously tracked objects - up to 200. The
regional observation center can control up to
2,400 km of a border and track up to 300 objects
at once.
As radar aids, the system may include the
Nayada-5MR coast centimeter (X-band) radar
for sea surveillance;
Baltika-B coast millimeter (Ka-band) radar for
acquisition of point targets. It can be supplied
completed with video and IR imaging aids;
Mys-M1 coast centimeter (X-band) radar for
Tropa compact navigation/communication kit

w w w . a r m s - t a s s . r u

long-range detection of surface and low-flying targets;

Kasta-2E2 decimeter (Lband) radar for acquisition
of air and surface objects.
The first TAASS system was
successfully tested during
an experimental operation
within a zone of responsibility of a Federal Border
Service's (FBS) unit in the
Novorossisk direction and
now is under preparation for
adoption. Its development
was financed in equal
shares by FBS and Defense Systems.
Another product that relies on the company's
vast experience in the development of integrated
SAM systems was an individual navigation/communications kit for a soldier. The kit was developed around GPS receivers and commercially
available pocket PCs. For them, Defense
Systems has developed a navigation/telemetric
data recorder (NTDR), which is, along with the
kit's unique software, is the company's know-how.
A compact navigation/communications kit
(CNCK), the Tropa, derives from these developments and comprises a portable VHF radio station, NTDR with a GPS antenna, a pocket PC with
an electronic mapping system and a battery that
has a 10 h operating life. Connecting the NTDR
to the radio station enables transferring information on the soldier's whereabouts to the microcomputer and the command post.
Despite its low weight (a mere 800g), the
Tropa kit provides for calculation of whereabouts,
storage of a large amount of positions in the
memory, and, above all, integration with practically all existing means of communication. Being
pressed for time in adverse operational conditions, the soldiers may have difficulty in using the
kit. That is why the software does all functions
concerning terrain orientation.

A soldier carrying the kit is relieved of having

to control his movement. Prior to a mission, his
commander inputs the route, danger zones and
other data into the computer. All the combatants
will have to do en route is just follow the voiced
instructions generated by the computer.
Moreover, all the information about the whereabouts is relayed to the command post and displayed on the terrain electronic map enabling the
commander to change the route depending on
the situation.
CNCK operates in three modes: as a "travel
recorder" with accumulation of no less than
30,000 messages; continuous data exchange
with the command post; a combined mode with
a possibility for sending emergency messages. A
headset enables the soldier to simultaneously
converse with the command post and his cooperatives and hear voiced instructions like "you are
on route", "you deviate", "20 meters left till the
mine field".
The Tropa kit uses software developed by
Transnetservis JSC cl. that managed to adapt the
big computers' software to pocket PCs. It's noteworthy that unlike its American or European
counterparts, this software operates not with
locality plans, but with fully adequate electronic
maps of various scales and formats. It has an
open architecture, which permits buildup of the
CNCK and NTDR capabilities and their upgrade
without modifications to their designs.
The CNCK may include radio stations of various formats and protocols enabling talks and
information exchange via SW, VHF, GSM cellular
communication, Global Star satellite communication system, including trunking communication
(LTR, MPT-1327, ESAS, EDAX, SmartZone,
So far, the Tropa kit has relied on the GPS
system, but Defense Systems has found technical solutions how to use the data of the domestic
GLONASS system, which will be introduced as
the Russian orbital constellation is restored.
The first request for CNCKs was made by
the Federal Border Service's Department of
Marine Protection, which plans to equip its
patrol boats and inspection groups. For maritime navigation and real-time tracking of
mobile objects, a special software package,
called Bot, was developed. Though the Bot
performs generally the same functions as the
Tropa, it is essentially different in that it uses SMar's professional marine navigation electronic maps. The Bot not only displays its position
on the electronic map, but also does all navigation and tactical calculations.
Display of the map's objects and the color
fully coincide with the traditional paper sea
maps, which is quite attractive to professional
sailors. The electronic mapping system contains a list of all objects shown on the map,
including sounding marks. Any object of the list
may be indicated as dangerous. When
approaching it at a distance preset by the navigator, a voiced warning is provided. This function is particularly important when sailing without a pre-laid route.
The maritime kit, like the land one, can be
placed in a carry case or be part of a life jacket.
Prototypes of the Bot and Tropa kits have
passed all tests and are ready for series production.



Increase in effectiveness of weapons,
including surface-to-air systems, is a
major and costly problem facing the
militaries. Modernization is a way to
solve it.
A pressing need to upgrade existing surfaceto-air weapons is caused primarily by a rapid
capability enhancement of modern air threats. As
offensive weapons, the latter objectively surpass
air defense aids in terms of their development
rates forcing the military to continually improve
their defensive capabilities. An increase in their
performance could be achieved by fielding
newest expensive AD systems. However, for
many countries facing a complicated economic
situation this way is rather burdensome.
Another way to improve the armed forces'
capabilities for repelling air attacks is also available. Modernization of current AD weapons permits tackling the problem at far lower costs. This is
quite feasible since the use of advanced technologies and new circuitry components during
retrofitting of existing AD systems gives them often
new capabilities and makes them competitive with
the latest models of such weapons. For this reason, greater attention to the AD weapon upgrade
issues is a distinctive feature of our times and has
become a steady trend of the world arms market.
Russian army surface-to-air missile (SAM)
systems have received worldwide acceptance,
and now the Russian defense industry enterprises offer the customers their upgrade packages.
One of them is the Osa (NATO: SA-8,
'Gecko') self-propelled SAM system that has
been operational with Russia and more than ten
countries of Europe, the Middle East, Africa and
Asia since 1972. Its low cost combined with reliability, simple operation and high performance,
which was repeatedly proved in combat, are the
reason for its further employment and an
increased interest in its upgrade. With regard to
this, several Osa upgrade variants were developed and could be implemented.
One of them involves: an update to telecode
combat management equipment and a
NATO/Parol-Kremny air target identification system and their installation on a combat vehicle
(CV); introduction of a mobile air target acquisition/control post, the PPRU-M1 (the Ranzhir-M
unified command post or the PU-12M7 command post) into the OSA's firing battery; expansion of a bandwidth of air search and target
tracking radars, etc.
The telecode control channel automates a
targeting process in a unit of upgraded Osa CVs
and greatly improves the quality and stability of
their information support. Also, the double-standard identification system (NATO WESTERN and
Parol-Kremny EASTERN) allows employing the
SAM system jointly with aircraft fitted with various

Table 1
Main performance data

OsaAK (OsaAKM) SAM system

Upgraded version

Engagement range, km

1.5 to 910 km

1.5 to 1314 km

Target tracking in
a passive mode

Semiautomatic angle tracking in the

Automatic, semiautomatic and inertial
daylight under good visibility conditions angle tracking in the daylight and at night

Warhead lethality
CV automatic control

Increased by 20% to 25% over

the wholekilling envelope


Telecode channel's range N/a

15 km with the CV at the halt and

10 km on the move

The system's ECM

immunity and EM

Improved by using a new target

search/tracking method, a wider band
width of the CV's air search and target
tracking radars, and the PPRU1's radar

friendorfoe system
CV's stealthiness
is ensured by


Yes (compatible with NATO standards)

Using accurate designation from
the battery command post and
a passive target search/tracking method

OsaAKM combat vehicle



A R M S - T A S S

Table 2

SAMs serve as the

air target simulators.
Following certain modiPreparation time for operation, s
No more than 15
fication, the missiles
Target altitude range, m
100 to 5,000
can accomplish an
Target's maximum range, km
Up to 20
proFlight time, s
Up to 90
grammed flight simulating the flight of various
Target simulator speed in the engagement envelope, m/s 150 to 250
types of targets. ATS
Radar cross section, sq. m
Down to 1.03
are newly manufacDive at trajectory angles, deg.
5 to 70
tured products or modBallistic trajectory's maximum altitude, km
Up to 9
ified versions of operaTarget tracking
IR, optical, radar
tional SAMs, including
those with assured
Forced or selfdestruction range during guided flight, km Up to 10
shelf-life limits.
Guided range, km
The Kub SAM sysnational identification systems while broader tem (NATO: SA-6, 'Gainful') gained even greater
bandwidth of the radars enhances ECM immuni- recognition throughout the world and has been
ty and electromagnetic compatibility among the operational with more than 25 countries since
1967. Its export version, the Kvadrat, proved to
system's CVs.
In parallel with the combat vehicle, the sys- be extremely effective in all the local conflicts in
tem's missile also undergoes an upgrade the Middle East region. In particular, the systems
through replacing propellants in its sustainer and shot down 64 Israeli AF aircraft during October
booster as well as using a more powerful war- 6-24 and approximately 110 by the end of the
head with an increased number of fragments. Yom Kippur war of 1973.
Russian manufacturers offer two upgrade
The latter enhances its lethality by 20% to 25%
and the system's overall capabilities for engaging versions of the Kub system aimed at enhancing
its performance and survivability under enemy
modern air threats.
Table 1 gives comparison characteristics of fire and electronic suppression conditions, prothe Osa-AK (Osa-AKM) system and its upgraded viding a cost-effective transition from a secondgeneration SAM system to the current-generaversion.
Another line in the Osa upgrade includes the tion one, as well as its integration with modern
development of a target complex, the Saman-M, automated AD systems.
A first version involves an update to its core
around it (Table 2).
The Saman-M target system is designed to components.
launch air target simulators (ATS) that can simu- acquisition/guidance station will have its analate flights of piloted aircraft, cruise missiles, UAVs logue moving target selection system replaced
and precision weapons at extremely low, low and with a digital one, a six-frequency illumination
medium altitudes in radar and IR wave bands. It channel - with a 12- frequency one and will also
can be used for testing of SAM systems being receive new circuitry components. In addition, an
objective function monitoring system and control
developed and for combat firings by AD units.
ATS are fired by production CVs fitted with and measuring equipment may be installed.
Under a second upgrade variant the Kub will
additional trajectory forming devices that do not
receive the Buk-M1-2 SAM complex' modified
affect the SAM system's performance.
Upgraded ZSU234M4 ShilkaM4 SP AA gun system

w w w . a r m s - t a s s . r u

firing SP vehicle and an automated control system (instead of the Krab ACS). If so, radar support of the upgraded Kub could be carried out by
the Buk-M1-2's organic target acquisition radar
or the P-15 (19), P-12 (18), P-40, and PRV-9
type radars.
Upgrading the Kub to the full will double its fire
rate, increase its kill envelope in range and altitude
1.7 and 3.5 times respectively, and significantly
expand the number of types of targets being
engaged ranging from fixed- and rotary-wing aircraft to tactical ballistic missiles, cruise missiles,
and other aerial vehicles and surface targets.
Besides, the upgraded Kub will have an increased
functional reliability and survivability under enemy
mass fire and electronic suppression conditions
and will be able to identify a class of the targets
being tracked. Its components will feature
improved technical and operating characteristics
and an objective function monitoring system will be
integrated. The system's service life will be extended until its components serve out their life in full.
The upgrade program provides for the
development of a target complex and the conversion of the ZM9-type faulty SAMs or ones
having their service lives served-out into air target simulators. In this case the missile's warhead
is replaced with a special compartment that
accommodates a flight control system (up to
seven possible trajectories can be implemented), an IR decoy dispenser, a self-destruction
system and a pulsed responder.
The target complex (Table 3) can simulate
piloted and unmanned air threats, including precision weapon components at low and extremely low altitudes in radar and infrared wave bands.
It can be used in firing exercises that involve such
SAM systems as Igla, Stinger, Mistral, Blowpipe,
RBS-70, Starstreak, Javelin; SP air defense systems like Shilka, Tunguska-M1, Tor, Kvadrat, Osa,
Buk, Hawk, Roland, Crotale, Rapire, and ADATS.
There are also no signs indicating the erosion of interest in SAM systems that provide
direct coverage to army units. It is believed that

Kub SP launcher at a firing position

Table 3
Main characteristics
Type of a launcher


Type of ATS

RM M20

Number of ATS on the launcher

Flight range, km

Up to 25

Flight altitude, km

0.5 to 5

Flight speed, m/s

200 to 650

Flight time, s

Up to 40

Maximum load factor

Up to 8

Radar cross section, sq. m

0.3 to 0.7

Weight, kg


AD aids due to their effectiveness and operational

reliability, relative cheapness, manufacturability,
high mobility, survivability and other features.
During a conflict in the Suez Canal area the
Strela-2 systems (NATO: SA-7, 'Graile'), which
were adopted in 1968, downed six Israeli aircraft
in one day in August 1969 and another 12 ones
in November-December that year. In all, some
88 Israeli aircraft were shot down by these systems through May 1974. With an average onemissile probability at 0.2, a military-economic
damage caused by them considerably exceeded their cost.
The Strela-2 has become the most popular
MANPADS among the existing weapons of this
type in the world. According to specialists, more
than 50,000 Strela-2s and its derivatives are
abroad: since 1974 - the Strela-3 (SA-14
'Gremlin') surpassing the US Redeye and British
Blowpipe; since 1981 and 1983 - the Igla-1 (SA16, 'Gimlet') and Igla (SA-18), respectively; since
1996 - the Strela-2M2 (with an increased range
of applications).
Its latest version, the Igla-S (Igla Super) has
retained all the advantages typical of the previous ones but outperforms them in effectiveness,
reliability, service life duration, and survivability. In
fact, this is a new-generation MANPADS offering
a far longer range and a greatly enhanced killing
probability against all types of air threats (Table
Jigit twinround launcher
4), especially cruise missiles and UAVs.
According to the manufacturer, in terms of effectiveness of countering planes, helicopters and
cruise missiles, it is superior to the earlier versions two to five times. In addition, the Igla-S was
tailored to the Jigit twin-round launcher (with a
turret mount) and the Strelets launching module
and equipment set.
Over 40 years of its use, the ZSU-23-4
Shilka self-propelled AA gun system has proved
to be a quite potent weapon for countering lowflying air targets. Military experts estimate that
around 2,500 such systems could be now retrofitted to the ZSU-23-4M4 Shilka-M4 and ZSU23-4M5 Shilka-M5 configurations. The former is
fitted with a radar fire control system, the latter with a radar and opticTable 4
location FCS. The
Main characteristics
upgraded Shilka models have been presentEngagement range, m
10 3,500
ed at several armament
Engagement altitude envelope, m
Target speed headon/tailchase, m/s
An upgrade to the
Weight of the weapon system, kg
No more than 19
SP system allows one
to significantly improve
Time to change over from traveling to firing position, s No more than 13
its combat and techniECM immunity
cal characteristics and

precisely these SAM systems employing IRguided missiles had caused most of the allied
aviation losses in Operation 'Desert Storm' in Iraq
and had forced NATO aircraft to limit their minimum operational altitude at 3,000 meters in
Yugoslavia. Despite the use of airborne precision
weapons, NATO Command gave up using its aircraft if clouds did not provided a visual contact
with targets from the above altitudes.
The Strela-10 SAM system (NATO: SA-13,
'Gopher') has been widely popular since 1976
and has been operational with more than twelve
countries. The system, along with other army AD
aids, has been undergoing planned upgrades.
Its latest upgrade version, the Strela-10M
('Giurza'), is equipped with a passive air search
electro-optical (EO) station and a digital computing system. New acquisition and automation
means have ensured its round-the-clock capability and a high survivability under fire and electronic
suppression conditions, increased its target
acquisition/tracking range, cut a response time,
enabled data exchange and command and control over six Giurza CVs, etc. Combined with a new
SAM, this has greatly improved the system's capabilities in countering diverse types of air targets,
particularly low-flying cruise missiles and UAVs.
Man-portable air defense systems (MANPADS) occupy a prominent place among modern

extend its service life and servicing time by 8 to

10 years. As a result, its kill probability increases
from 0.3 to 0.6 approaching similar figures for
short-range SAM systems, and ammunition
expenditure per a downed target decreases 5.5
to 9.5 times. A telecode radio link provides the
AA system with continuous designation and
information exchange with the PPRU-M1 command post at the halt and on the move, thus
enabling its use in various organizations and
establishments of troops.
The ZU-23 type AA systems, too, can be
used to engage low-flying targets. They feature
high mobility, simple design and use, operational
reliability and are widely fielded in troops.
With its gun/missile armament, a retrofitted
ZU-23M system can destroy air targets flying at
low and extremely low altitudes and shell ground
and surface light armored targets round-theclock and under reduced visibility conditions. To
this end, it is fitted with a set of instruments and
an EO system (a laser rangefinder, a TV channel,
an optic-mechanical unit, a heat direction-finding channel or a low-level TV system), including
also a launching module to fire two Igla-type missiles. In addition, identification equipment, a surveillance radar and a portable designation
reception equipment could be added to the ZU23M (M1). Reduced upgrade configurations for
the ZU-23 system with subsequent build-up of its
capabilities could be developed to meet customers' wishes.
To command and control units equipped
with the above AD aids, a mobile
acquisition/command post, the PPRU-M1
(Ranzhir-M, PU-12M6), could be employed.
The PPRU-M1, for instance, provides reliable command of the AD units equipped with
short-range and portable AD systems, including
upgraded ones, like Osa, ZSU-23-4M4 ShilkaM4, Tunguska-M1, Strela-10M2(M3), Strela2(3) and Igla.
Unlike other similar control posts, the PPRUM1 features a standard surveillance radar operating in the S frequency range. When used with
the Osa CV and other AD aids, it ensures automatic and manual target tracking on the basis of
data coming from its own radar or from a higher
command post, as well as automatic collection
and analysis of data on status and position of the
guided weapons. Also, the PPRU-M1 provides
designation, warning and other information in
automatic or manual modes, automatic electronic equipment condition monitoring and crew
Another important reason to use the PPRUM1 is the opportunity to create mixed AD units
around it. Aside from the Osa-AKM CVs, these
could include the Tor-M1 system, Igla-type
MANPADS, Shilka-M4 (M5), ZU-23M1, etc. The
telecode data could be relayed from them to
other units, too. The Ranzhir-M or the PU-12M7
could be used as battery command posts, given
additional radars or other radar data sources
interfaced with them are available.
Closing the problem under consideration, it is
worth noting the following. Modernization in general and of the air defense aids in particular is an
objective process whose need is obvious. Its
expediency is driven by a paramount factor - a real
opportunity to improve AD protection of troops
under today's conditions at relatively low costs.


A R M S - T A S S


Anatolii Sokolov

A New Life for the PECHORA

Currently, the armed forces of
many states still operate a sizable
quantity of Russian air defense
systems of the previous generations that need an upgrade.
One such type is S-125Pechora surface-to-air missile system.
The use of modern technologies and components resulted in the simultaneous growth of
both fighting capability and cost of new air
defense systems. The latter factor was one of the
reasons why the demand for such systems
diminished somewhat, giving way to modernization of the in-service air defense assets.
One of the most favored items on the
upgrade market of the Russian air defense systems of the previous generations is the S-125
Pechora short-range surface-to-air missile system (known in the West as SA-3, Goa) operated
by many countries worldwide. The Soviet Union
is believed to have delivered during 1972-1986
around 400 such systems to 35 countries. The
main importers were Egypt, India, Libya (each
took 60 SAM systems), Vietnam (50), Iraq (30),
Syria (24), Cuba (12), and Peru (11).
During the period between 1972 and 1999
the S-125 system had been used in the hostilities
in Vietnam, in Arab-Israeli wars, in Mozambique,
Libya, Angola, Ethiopia, and Somalia. The use in
combat operations proved the weapons high
effectiveness in fighting various types of fixed and
rotary-wing aircraft, especially low flying ones. In
spite of its venerable age of 30 years, the SAM
participated in repelling air strikes in the Persian
Gulf (1991) and in the Balkans operations (1999).
It has to its credit a total of 100 downed aircraft,
including F-117A Stealth planes in Yugoslavia.
However, todays fighting capability of the
system in dealing with modern air threats does
not meet the requirements of the day. Its weakest
point is now low survivability in the event of massive use of electronic countermeasures and
Shrike type of anti-radar missiles. In addition, the
use of the SAM system in a stationary configuration and the lack of passive thermal imaging
optic-electronic devices for detecting aerial targets usually resulted in its destruction right in the
firing position.


Another important reason why the Pechora altitudes, and enhances the stability of SAM
system needs modernization is the aggravating functioning during intense active and passive
problem of spares and its maintenance in operable jamming, among reflections caused by meteorocondition. The systems transition to new compo- logical disturbances and underlying surface. The
automation of operation and the transition of the
nents also resolves, among others, this problem.
Considering the results of operational use of component package to up-to-date elements
the system in Iraq (1991) and Yugoslavia (1999) enhance the system reliability and performance.
and the arising interest in it, the companies of the In addition, this improves the crew training aids,
Russian military-industrial complex (MIC) have reduces the amount of scheduled servicing, its
developed and proposed two upgrade packages frequency and the power consumed while
for the S-125 Pechora SAM system. With either increasing the functional reliability and service life
of them implemented, the system acquires a new of the system.
The upgraded Pechora-2A SAM system
potential that ensures anti-air defense of administrative, industrial, and military facilities against includes:
fixed and rotary wing aircraft and cruise missiles, SNR-125M-2A missile guidance station comprised of the upgraded control cabin (UNKincluding those with a stealth capability, that fly at
M2A), antenna post (UNV) with the upgraded
low altitudes in plain or sophisticated jamming
unit (UV-40) and mobile repair workshop (PRM);
The first upgrade package (the S-125-2A, missile battery that can be comprised of up to
Pechora-2A) has been proposed by
Antenna post of the upgraded S125 Pechora2A SAM system
the A.A.Raspletin OAO NPO Almaz
(research and production public limited company named after Raspletin).
It envisions the replacement of 60% of
instruments of the UNK cabin,
enhancement of resistance to all
types of active and passive jamming,
expansion of engagement area and
increase of the systems overall efficiency, as well as continued in-depth
modernization of the SAM jointly with
the Customer and with due regard to
his requirements.
This improves the target kill probability, including for those flying at low

Engaged targets minimum effective area of dispersion, m2
Impact zone, km: in range
in elevation
in ground range
Maximum speed of engaged targets, m/s
Time to acquire target for automatic tracking, s
Resistance to active interference jamming, w/m Hz
Interference suppression ratio, dB
Simultaneous suppression of passive jamming and
reflections from objects on locality
Cost of modernization in conventional units (without missiles)
w w w . a r m s - t a s s . r u

3.5 25
0.02 18
up to 8

3.5 28
0.02 20
2.5 3


0.8 1.5

4 quadrupled launchers (5P73) and up to 8
transportation and loading vehicles (PR-14AM)
equipped with anti-aircraft guided missiles of
5V27U and 5V27D types);
SAM electric power supply system comprising
the distribution and conversion cabin (RKU-N),

tions. The target covered by powerful active jamming (4 kw/MHz, which is equivalent to interference generated by jamming aircraft at a range of
100 km) was destroyed in an assured fashion.
The error in homing the missile on to the target
did not exceed 2 m.

Table 2.

Minimum effective area of dispersion of engaged targets, m2

Impact zone, km: in range
in elevation
in ground range
Maximum speed of engaged targets, m/s
Time to acquire target for automatic tracking, s
Resistance to active interference jamming, w/MHz
Number of channels / missiles used for engagement
Number of missiles on one launcher
Probability of distracting missile REPK from SAM
in attack from two directions
Deployment / closedown time, hr

Pechora Pechora2K Pechora2M

0.1 0.15
3.5 25
3.5 30/32*
0.02 18
0.02 20
16 16.5
up to 8
not more than 3
1 / 2 (2 / 4) **

0.96 0.98

*) with upgraded 5V27DE missile

**) with a second UNV2M antenna post included in SAM component package

diesel-electric power plant (DES 5E96A) and

mobile transformer substation (PTP 5E74M230).
The system can be supplied extra with a
cable layer (KU-03T) with a set of cables. The
notable feature is that the SAMs missing elements can be replaced by foreign-made ones
and the upgrade work can be done both in
Russia and at the customers facilities. By comparison, Table 1 shows the basic data for the
SAM system before and after its modernization.
The live firings conducted in early December
completed the first stage of the systems modernization and demonstrated that the goals set
had been achieved. The modernized Pechora2A provides an assured kill of low flying targets at
ranges out to 20 km, which is nearly twice the
capability of its counterpart. Still more impressive
are the firing results obtained in jammed condiMobile launching unit of S125 Pechora2M SAM system

Launching unit of S125 SAM system in firing position

The results of practical firings proved the

significant increase in jamming immunity and
guidance accuracy of the SAM system in
sophisticated air environment. Also they
showed an expansion of the impact zone due to
the use of special techniques and trajectories of
missile flights.
The second upgrade package for this SAM
system has been jointly elaborated by AOOT KB
Kuntsevo (public limited company for designing
and engineering), MKB Fakel (design bureau),
Moscow Radio Engineering Company, Special
Engineering Bureau at St. Petersburg, and other
Russian and Byelorussian companies sponsored
by OAO Oboronitelnyye Sistemy (Defense
Systems plc). It can be either in self-propelled
(S-125-2M Pechora-2M) or containerized configuration (S-125-2K Pechora-2K).
The prime objective of the second version of
upgrading the SAM system is to improve its firing
capability and increase the target engagement
zone as well as to enhance its survivability by
installing new optic-electronic devices and jamming suppression instruments. For better mobility the basic units of the system have been
mounted on the automobile chassis and are fitted with independent power supply
and satellite navigation systems. In addition, the
transition of the bulk of equipment to modern
components restores the service life, significantly enhances reliability, improves performance
and provides the SAM system with spares for an
extended period of time. The automation of con-

trolling the systems condition significantly

reduces its servicing time.
The component package of this SAM system
includes: SNR-125-2M (K) missile guidance
radar comprised of upgraded antenna post (selfpropelled UNV-2M or containerized UNV-2K
versions), upgraded control cabin, UNK-2M,
mounted on an automobile chassis, missile battery and anti-aircraft guided missiles (of 5V27U,
5V27D, 5V27DE types). The missile battery can
have up to 8 5P73-2M launchers, two guides on
automobile chassis (self-propelled version) or up
to 4 launchers on four guides with vehicle prime
movers (containerized version) and up to 8 transportation and loading vehicles.
The power supply arrangement of the SAM
system includes the distribution cabin (RKU-N)
and diesel power plant (5E96A). Supplied
optionally as per the Customers requirement are
a cable layer (KU-03T), mobile repair shop
(PRM-NM1A) with a single set of spare tools and
accessories, sets of cables, and a radio electronic protection kit (REPK).
The inclusion of a second antenna post, UNV2M, in the SAM systems component package
increases to two the number of channels and to four
the number of missiles used to engage a target.
The data for comparison of the Pechora
SAM systems characteristics before and after
upgrading are shown in Table 2.
The Pechora SAM systems modernization
program is quite attractive to the armed forces of a
number of states in the cost-to-effectiveness
aspect. It significantly enhances the fighting capability while reducing by more than half the operating costs. The upgraded system, with more than
90% of its subunits replaced, uses many components of todays S-300PMU1 SAM system.
The upgrading of land-based sub-units of the
system went side-by-side with perfecting of its
short range guided anti-aircraft missiles 5V24 and
5V27. This was achieved by installing a new solid
propellant booster, a warhead featuring 2.5 to 3
times higher effectiveness and an improved radio
controlled fuse with enhanced jamming immunity.
This increased not only the impact zone, but also
the kill probability of low aerial targets, including
cruise missiles, flying at altitudes up to 20 m.
A marked advantage of the modernized
Pechora-2M is its equipment with a thermal
imager that provides for effective firing at night in
sophisticated electronic environment with
employment of the passive mode of operation.
According to some data, it was the use of the
thermal imaging channel that doomed the US F117A stealth plane to defeat in Yugoslavia.
The UNK-2M (MZKT-8022) control cabin,
UNV-2M (MZKT-80211) antenna post, and
5P73-2M (MZKT-8021) launcher are equipped
with a wheeled chassis made by the Minsk
wheeled prime movers manufacturing plant. The
plant participates in the creation of the modernized Pechora-2M SAM system.
The positive results of upgrading the S-125
SAM system to the Pechora-2M (K) standard
were verified by successful operational launches
in April 2002.
Proposed by the Russian military-industrial
complex, the upgrade packages of the worldrenowned S-125 Pechora SAM system significantly enlarge its capability to fight modern aerial threats.


A R M S - T A S S







The large-scale application of radio-electronic aids is one of the reasons for the rise and
rapid development of novel warfare forms and
methods. This is especially typical of the developed nations whose armed forces actively
employ a variety of electronic reconnaissance,
armament control and communications systems.
In this context, electronic warfare (EW) aids
are currently crucial in diminishing enemy troops'
capabilities to the point of a complete disruption
of their missions. An experience in their application during recent local conflicts confirms this.
According to specialists, EW equipment's contribution to reduction of an enemy group's combat
potential reached 20% to 30% and was comparable to that of weapons.
Employment of EW aids plays currently a key
role in opposing reconnaissance/strike air threats.
For their effective use, the Russian defense industry has developed a concept of highly effective systems that calls for a combined use of EW and air
defense (AD) means. It relies on the great capabilities of domestic EW equipment that is highly competitive with its best foreign counterparts. This is
confirmed by a wide range of EW products and the
possibility to both deliver separate EW models and
create their sets within a unified automated control
system; an established engineering and technological base to support EW equipment service and
upgrade; and a possibility for tailoring EW aids to
meet customers' requirements.
Electronic warfare against air targets is a set
of measures incorporating several major components: radar reconnaissance, jamming of airborne radars, including AWACS (Hawkeye) type
radar detection and control systems, radar
deception, reduction in radar signature and simulated covered installations.
The recent combat experience points out to
a steadily increasing role of electronic intelligence (radar reconnaissance) in a total set of air
electronic warfare (AEW) measures. This is due
to its long acquisition range for radio-emitting
targets, a possibility of determining their coordinates, their identification, subsequent tracking
and some other features.
Of special importance in today's conditions
is a problem concerning an improvement in survivability of air acquisition radars that is tackled
largely by cutting their transmission time. This,
however, diminishes their capabilities to timely
w w w . a r m s - t a s s . r u

Avtobaza electronic reconnaissance station

acquire enemy air targets. Specialists believe

that using ELINT stations enables passive
(covert) reconnaissance of air targets, thus cutting radar transmission time to 30% in peacetime and to 50% in a pre-war period.
In particular, the problem could be solved by
applying a ground-based ELINT complex, the
85V6, consisting of three radar reconnaissance
sets (of K, B, A types) that cover a frequency
range between 1.5 MHz and 18 GHz. Each of the
sets includes three mobile automated stations,
which provide acquisition, bearing, classification,
analysis and recording of radio sources, and an
automated central control station.
On the whole, the 85V6 complex can handle
the following tasks:
Automated panoramic search, acquisition, signal measurement, and classification of radio
Bearing and localization of radio sources using
a triangulation procedure with their mapping;
Acquisition, accumulation and comparison
analysis of data on radar situation in a dynamic
Data exchange with higher command posts
and SAM sites via telecode radio links.
The 85V6 components can be employed both
independently and as part of automated ELINT
and EW systems.

Table 1 gives main characteristics of radio

source reconnaissance sets, and Figure 1 shows
a general view of the 85V6-A's acquisition/direction-finding station.
The use of electronic countermeasures
(ECM) against enemy airborne armament control systems is of vital importance under present-day conditions. The necessity was confirmed in large-scale combat operations like
Desert Storm, Desert Fox and in Balkans in
1999 that were accompanied by a massive
employment of reconnaissance and strike aircraft. ECM means made it possible to reliably
reveal the opposing side's plans and to provide
a real-time guidance for precision weapons
onto enemy installations.
Airborne dedicated and multi-function
acquisition/armament control radars are the
paramount source of data on air, ground and sea
radar situation. Their use largely determines the
effectiveness of air reconnaissance aids and
weapons. The issue is extremely pressing in priority missions like gaining air superiority, air
defense penetration, and air interdiction. For this
reason, a combined application of the EW and
AD aids, with retaining their capabilities for independent actions, is the most reasonable variant
of their use for repelling massive missile/air
strikes. In addition, their concerted action will

85V6V passive electronic reconnaissance station

make the most full use of both components and

boost their capabilities.
To effectively jam reconnaissance and strike
aircraft's multi-function and dedicated airborne
radars, the Russian defense industry has created
a unique ground-based high power jamming
complex. It consists of the SPN-2, SPN-4 jamming stations, the Avtobaza ELINT station and
the AKUP-1 automated jamming command and
control post. The complex, which is unrivalled in
the world, features:
Highly effective ELINT and suppression of airborne radars in all their major operation
Centralized command and control over a
group of the jamming stations when repelling
massive air strikes using external radar information and information coming from the
Avtobaza ELINT station;
Capability for information/technical interface
with both Russian- and foreign-made air
defense aids and systems.
The complex, which is organized as a battalion
and controlled by an automated battery command post (ABCP), comprises three jamming
companies. Each company is controlled by an
automated company command post (ACCP)
and consists of up to nine SPN-2, SPN-4 jamming stations.

Pelena1 high power jammer

Based on radar data coming from air

defense's radar reconnaissance aids, ABCP
assigns operational jamming sectors to the companies and specifies a procedure for relaying
radio-emitting target data to the AD system's
command post. ACCP identifies and matches
data from air defense's radar reconnaissance
aids with that from the Avtobaza ELINT system.
On the basis of the generalized information, targets are assigned among the jamming stations
and commands are generated to point them
towards the targets to be jammed.
A battalion consisting of three companies
can oppose a massive air raid comprising up to
50 simultaneously transmitting aircraft onboard
radars. This involves ELINT and ECM against
side-looking reconnaissance radars, aircraft
armament control radars and low-altitude flight
A distinguishing feature of the SPN-2, SPN4 jammers is their commonality among themselves despite different operating bands. This
permits forming a jamming group with regard to
an expected composition of enemy threats and
operating frequency bands of their onboard
The SPN-2, SPN-4 ground-based high
power jammers are intended to jam aircraft multifunction and dedicated centimeter-wave radars

that are currently installed on practically all the

current and advanced aircraft. They detect and
jam aircraft radars used for target reconnaissance, armament control, side looking and lowlevel flight support.
The Avtobaza ELINT station is an essential
component of the complex and provides it with
required radar data. It carries out a circular scan
of an assigned air area and provides ACCP with
data on 60 emitting target bearings each 5 to 10
s. Also, it furnishes data on types of the targets
and their operating frequencies in a band
between 8 GHz and 17.5 GHz.
The complex can provide coverage for an air
defense group from reconnaissance and air
strikes by enemy aircraft, thus significantly
improving its survivability. Using EW means in
conjunction with other survivability measures
(operational camouflage, SAM site change,
using decoy firing sites) prevents radar reconnaissance by multi-function or dedicated sidelooking airborne radars.
EW aids can be crucial in opposing air
enemy's attempts to use low and extremely low
flight altitudes. This action is known to be a core
method for aircraft, especially strike ones, to
penetrate air defense zones. For this purpose,
modern aircraft are equipped with dedicated
low-level flight radars or use an appropriate


A R M S - T A S S





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MKT3LR camouflage sheet

AKUP1 auvtomatedjamming command and control post

Mockup of the S300PMU1


operation mode of their multi-function radars. By

scanning terrain, these radars generate control
commands for an automatic flight in a terrain following mode, thus significantly easing pilotage.
Countermeasures applied against such an onboard radar forces the pilot (especially when flying over broken or high ground terrain) to give up
the use of the radar and go to medium and high
altitudes. As a result this would increase a target
detection zone from 30-40 km to 80-100 km and
hence their kill effectiveness.
The combat experience suggests that the air
strike effectiveness depends largely on using airborne early warning and control systems, like
AWACS and Hawkeye. For instance, an AWACS
aircraft provides acquisition of air (including lowflying) and ground (surface) targets to a range up
to 600 km and subsequent guidance of friendly
strike aircraft onto them, thus boosting the effectiveness of their operations and the capability to
repel enemy air strikes. So, destruction of enemy
AEW&C aircraft is a priority task for air defense
aids and fighter aviation.
Using AD aids jointly with ground-based EW
complexes considerably alleviates the task: at
ranges up to 150 km AWACS-type aircraft could
be engaged by AD aids with a probability close to
1.0, whereas at ranges exceeding 150 km their
onboard radars could be effectively jammed with
a similar probability.
With regard to this, an enemy reconnaissance aircraft loitering at more than 150 km off
the state border (an armed contact line), whose
onboard radar has been jammed, will be forced
either to approach, which makes it a target for
SAM systems, or give up its mission.
For electronic reconnaissance and jamming
of an AWACS radar, a Russian high power jammer, the Pelena-1, with a jamming range up to
250 km could be used. Thanks to its capabilities,
Pelena-1 can prevent detection of targets and
guidance of enemy strike aircraft onto them as
well as cover SAMs and fighters in flight that
attack AWACS aircraft. Organizing a combined
combat application of EW and AD aids in this
case amounts to electronic and radar reconnaisw w w . a r m s - t a s s . r u

sance of a target to be killed (or jammed) and a

timely assignment of tasks to appropriate jammers and AD aids depending on its loitering
Another essential EW component is electronic countercountermeasures (ECCM) intended for protection of armaments and military
equipment against enemy reconnaissance and
destruction. It practice, ECCM is implemented
through carrying out technical and organizational measures on deception, simulation and reduction in signature in diverse frequency bands (IR,
RF, optical).
At present, along with camouflage and simulation of objects in the optical band, reduction in
their signature in a radar band is playing an everincreasing role. For example, decreasing a target's cross radar section by 10 dB and 15 dB
reduces its acquisition range by an airborne
radar 1.8 and 2.4 times, respectively. Combat
application of ECCM means, exercises results
and studies show that a maximum effect is
achieved when EW aids and radar signature
reduction means are applied together. Reducing
targets' radar cross section by 10 dB and by 15
dB increases their coverage range provided by
the SPN-2 (SPN-4) jammer more than three and
five times, respectively.
The combined use of jammers and radar
signature reduction means makes it possible to
cut the number of jammers required to cover a

Table 1. Performance data of the 85V6 stations

85V6K SW ELINT station

troops group or a territory, as well as relax

requirements to the installations' characteristics if
they cannot be met.
Among effective ECCM aids are various
camouflage sets for military equipment against
diverse backgrounds (summer foliage, desert,
etc.) as well as in a radar band. For example, the
MKT-3LR camouflage sheet, which makes up
strings of twisted or perforated strips of a threelayer conducting material interwoven in a net-like
structure, has shown a good performance.
Diverse dummies of military equipment
have proved to be effective in combat operations in Iraq (1991) and in the Balkans (1999).
For example, special inflatable dummies of military equipment made of metallized specialtechnology rubber truly simulate actual objects
(infantry combat vehicles, tanks, SAM and tactical missile launchers) in optical and radar
bands. When fitted with flameless heat generators, they provide forming a simulated image
whose signature is quite close to an actual one
in the infrared band. A time to assemble such
dummies and fill them with air takes 10-20 minutes, and they can be delivered to a given area
by any type of transport.
So, the combined application of various EW
and AD aids drastically enhances the effectiveness of aerial target interception and is a core
line in organizing a reliable nationwide airdefense network.

85V6V UHF ELINT station

85V6A ELINT station

Frequency band, MHz




range, km

Using a space wave

up to 2,000,
a surface wave up to 60

Ground radio sources 30

Aerial radio sources 300

Aerial radio sources

up to 300

Bearing mean
square error, deg.



Frequency accuracy,



Capability for
signal intercept


Grigory ORLOV



Radar MMS Director General Georgy Antsev

Modern 'smart' weapons differ from conventional

ones in an extensive use of electronic guidance and
control systems. Thanks to latter, they offer high kill
effectiveness against a selected target and are current
ly the basic weapons used to destroy highvalued
enemy installations. This explains a particular attention
given to such systems employed in modern precision
Radar MMS, a joint stock company of St.
Petersburg, is recognized by right as one of the leading
Russian developers and manufacturers of uptodate
electronic systems for precision weapons. Its director
general and designer general Georgy Antsev gave
ARMSTASS an exclusive interview where he told
about the company's recent advances and some plans
for future.
A main area of Radar MMS' activities currently
involves the development of highly intellectual guid
ance systems for tactical, theater ballistic and multi
purpose sea and airlaunched antiship missiles
(ASM), as well as tactical airtosurface missiles.
According to Antsev, in their development the
company relies on basic mature solutions proven in a
variety of radar systems and on recent research
advances. With regard to current requirements and an
open system concept, this allows the company to
upgrade and considerably build up the capabilities of its

Launching the Kh35E ASM from the UranE missile


earlier family of products. Such an approach to organ

izing a research and production process gives Radar
MMS the possibility to expand a range of its products
to meet any customer's specific requirements. The
company's strong research and manufacturing capa
bilities allow performing all required work.
As its basic advanced model, the company has
selected a multipurpose guidance system with infor
mation channels differing in a concept of operation,
wave bands used and physical fields of targets. It has
utilized virtually all known types of information chan
nels used in ASM guidance systems. Employing a
modular concept permits forming an efficient configu
ration of a guidance system tailored to the customer's
Radar MMSdeveloped guidance systems feature
high ECM immunity, which allows their use in difficult
EW environment while ensuring a given operational
effectiveness. To date, the company has developed
highperformance coherent active radar seekers to
equip submarine, surface and shorelaunched ASMs.
For instance, the Kh35E ASMs with ARGS35E
seekers are part of the UranE shipbased missile sys
tems, which have equipped or will equip in the near
term modern and advanced surface combatants like
destroyer, frigate, corvette and missile craft. Besides,
the ASMs are used by the BalE shorebased missile
The Kh35E airlaunched ASM

active radar

The Kh35E ASM in flight.

systems and are part of onboard missile systems on

various planes and aircraft. The 3M54E and 3M54E1
missiles fitted with the ARGS54E and ARGS54E1
seekers respectively are deployed as part of the Club
S/N missile systems on surface combatants like
destroyer and frigate and submarines, which have been
exported to several countries.
Foreign buyers have appreciated high perform
ance, quality and operational reliability of our guidance
systems used in the Kh35E, 3M54E and 3M54E1
precisionstrike cruise missiles, stressed Antsev.
Fitting the UranE, BalE and ClubS/N's missiles with
active radar seekers makes them highly competitive
and ensures a steady demand in the world arms mar
ket. Specialists believe that, in terms of accuracy and
effectiveness, missiles equipped with such seekers
compare well with the best foreign counterparts and
even surpass them in some factors.
Among Radar MMS' current activities is the devel
opment of a new radar seeker, the ARGS59E, for the
Kh59MK airlaunched missile being upgraded.
Creation of allnew precisionstrike weapons and
a further upgrade of their earlier models on the basis of
the latest scientific achievements and with regard to
current needs urgently requires more effective guid
ance systems to achieve better homing accuracy of
ASMs onto targets, wider range of operational condi
tions and their improved ECM immunity. For this pur
pose, Radar MMS has developed and is implementing
sets of special technical solutions. Their realization will
permit effective homing of missiles onto reduced sig
nature targets, their use in complex geographic and
weather conditions in various regions, selective guid
ance of the missiles onto the most vulnerable elements
of targets, stealthiness, etc. According to independent
experts, this will ensure for long the competitiveness of
the Russian guidance systems for precisionstrike
weapons with their foreign counterparts.
Radar MMS invites all companies, enterprises and
our product users to mutually beneficial cooperation.
Radar MMS
37, Novoselkovskaya St.
St. Petersburg, 197349, Russia
Tel: +7 (812) 3021313
Fax: +7 (812) 3021616


A R M S - T A S S



Orion mobile automated electronic reconnaissance station.


Okhota mobile automated radio monitoring post.

At present SpetzRadio is engaged

in the development and manufacturing
of special products (under orders by
the domestic power-wielding ministries
and agencies) and industrial and technological production (ordered by companies and enterprises).
Within the first line, the company
has developed and built a mobile automated electronic reconnaissance station, the Orion, and an electronic
reconnaissance system, the Vega,
derived from these stations. Also,
A multichannel digital radio receiver.
SpetzRadio has developed and fabricated a prototype mobile automated
radio monitoring post, the Okhota.
Among its industrial and technological products, the most representative model is a multi-channel digital
radio receiver for radio monitoring
The company adheres to a
strategic principle of its technical
policy, which says: "Be a step ahead
of the competitors!" The principle is
realized by using tomorrow's techA distinguishing feature of the recent time is monitoring means as well as passive detec- nologies in today's products, maintaining strong
scientific and technological capabilities and
the large-scale use of military and commercial tion/ranging systems.
The company focuses on theoretical and continuous tracking of the world trends in the
electronics that has become a peculiar kind of
the modern society's 'nerves' whose perform- experimental studies in the field of radio recep- development of electronic reconnaissance and
tion and processing and radio source recogni- monitoring aids and passive detection/ranging
ance determines its overall status.
The closed joint-stock company SpetzRadio tion in a difficult EW environment. Employing facilities.
Based on its scientific and technological
of Belgorod is a major Russian developer and recent advances in filtering, decision making and
manufacturer of up-to-date electronic devices. statistic radio engineering has made it possible advances gained within the Orion, Okhota and
Holding a license from the RF Ministry of Industry, to virtually reach a potentially attainable levels of other projects, the company is currently
Science and Technologies, it now specializes on the receiver sensitivity and the measurement engaged in a full-scale development of new ER
the development and production of high-tech accuracy of radio signals whose parameters are equipment relying on various methods for radio
source localization. The emphasis is placed on a
standardized electronic reconnai sance and unknown in advance.
SpetzRadio's state-of-the-art combined application of the methods for
Orion's main technical characteristics
research and manufacturing capabil- accomplishing a variety of reconnaissance misities allow it to carry out a complete sions whose major aim is obtaining a potentially
Frequency band, GHz ....................................0.2...18.0
development and production cycle attainable accuracy of radio source position fixPower potential, dB/W ..................................minus 130...140 for its products. The cycle includes ing, especially under severe ECM conditions.
A priority in these efforts is given to providing
business planning, marketing and
Instantaneous reception band, MHz ............500.0
exploratory studies, detail design and guaranteed assurance of radio source carrier
Okhota's main technical characteristics
manufacturing of products, their cer- recognition on the basis of certain features and
tification tests, guarantee and post- criteria.
Frequency band, GHz ....................................1.0...18.0
To support its research and design activities,
guarantee servicing, as well as trainPower potential, dB/W ..................................minus 120
the company successfully employs a CAD system
ing and certification of specialists.
Instantaneous reception band, MHz ............170
The company is committed to and various mathematical, full-scale and hardassuring a high reliability and quali- ware-in-the-loop simulation methods. This
ty of all its high-tech products. For approach together with existing scientific and
Main technical characteristics of a digital radio receiver this purpose, it has established a technological capabilities enables SpetzRadio to
certified effective quality system comprehensively substantiate a structure, comFrequency band, MHz ..................................20.0 2,900
that complies with the ISO 9000 position and technical characteristics of advanced
Sensitivity, W/m ........................................10...50
standards. The RF Ministry of electronic reconnaissance and monitoring aids
Economics' licenses for develop- and passive detection/ranging systems.
Panoramic reception band, MHz ..................10...100
ment, manufacturing and repair of SpetzRadio
Number of receiving channels ......................3
ground reconnaissance equipment 4, Promyshlennaya St., Belgorod, 308023, Russia
granted to SpetzRadio indicate its Tel: (0722) 342272
Dimensions, mm ..........................................380520470
capabilities to create competitive Fax: (0722) 347682
Mass, kg ......................................................No more than 40
w w w . a r m s - t a s s . r u




Granit ASM launch


The first antiship missile (ASM) Regulus-1

was developed in the United States and intended
to equip submarines. However, its drawbacks
were perceived as common for the new type of
weapon and further developments were cancelled.
In contrast, the Soviet specialists have seen
in ASM an effective naval weapon offering a great
potential. As a result, air-, ship-, underwater- and
ground-launched ASMs were developed and the
principles of their combat employment were
drawn up. Experience gained with in the use of
ASMs during the Arab-Israeli Wars in 1967 and
1973, subsequent Indo-Pakistani and Falkland
Islands' conflicts in 1971 and 1982 respectively
has confirmed the expediency of this.
The major characteristics of an ASM are a
range, flight speed and altitude and warhead
weight. Each of them has its advantages and
drawbacks, so attaining their maximum values in
a single ASM simultaneously is impossible. This
suggests the use of an all-round approach to
achieve optimal combination of all factors with
regard to their contributions to the total effectiveness, reliability, cost and ease of handling.
In terms of their characteristics, the existing
ASMs are divided into long- range (over 100 km),
medium-range (40-100 km) and short-range
(less than 40 km) missiles; subsonic and supersonic; ship-, air- and shore-based.
Adoption of the P-15 ASM (NATO: SS-N-2
Styx) in 1960 has led to the emergence of a new
class of ships - missile boats operational with
many Navies. It was precisely these four P-15
missiles launched from Egyptian Project 183-P
w w w . a r m s - t a s s . r u

boats that on 21 October 1967 sunk the Israeli

destroyer Elath. In 1965 a modernized P-15U
ASM is taken into service, and in 1972 - a longerrange and more ECM-immune P-15M Termit
missile. The latter was used to develop the
mobile shore-based missile system Rubezh.
Work on over-the-horizon missile systems
with the P-6 ASM (for submarines) and P-35 (for
surface ships) were carried out since 1956. To
provide them with target designation data, air
and space reconnaissance and target designation aids were created, resulting in the development of reconnaissance/strike systems.
To destroy highly protected surface groups
under enemy ECM and counterfire conditions, a
new-generation missile weapon with a longrange ASM, the Bazalt, was fielded in 1974 for
equipping submarines and cruisers. The Bazalt
was the first supersonic missile (flying at up to
Mach 2) that could bypass the attacked ship's air
defense area and carried an onboard jammer.
The last version of this generation missiles, the P1000 (Vulkan), had even a longer range and went
into service in 1987.
The Ametist (SS-N-7 Starbright) adopted in
1968 was the first underwater-launched ASM in
the world (its counterpart, the Harpoon, was not
taken into inventory until 1977). The Malakhit versatile ASM (SS-N-9 Siren) was its scaled-up
derivative and could be launched from a submarine (in a submerged or surfaced position) and a
surface ship. The ASM featured a longer range
and lower flight altitude and incorporated radar
and IR target acquisition channels ensuring selective destruction of a target out of a group of ships.

The advantages of underwater launch

(Ametist and Malakhit systems) and a long range
and high speed of the Bazalt missiles were combined in the Granit ASM system (SS-N-19
Shipwreck). The latter could destroy any surface
task groups in heavy ECM and counterfire conditions. A high-speed (over Mach 2.5) M) longrange (500 km) missile with an autonomous
selective guidance system was developed for the
first time. The Granit system permitted salvo
launch of the missiles and their optimal formation
in flight. The missile was versatile in terms of type
of launch (underwater, surface) and platforms
(submarine, surface ship). The Granit ASM systems are installed on modern Russian Type 949,
949A submarines, a Type 1143.5 aircraft-carrying cruiser, Type 1144, 1144.2 heavy nuclearpowered cruisers, other surface combatants.
The Moskit supersonic ASM (SS-N-22
Sunburn) is equally effective. Today this is the
single missile worldwide whose speed at low altitudes exceeds Mach 2 (Exocet's speed is four
times less). The Moskit is an autonomous system
implementing the fire-and-forget principle. After
the missile has arrived to a targets area, its
onboard guidance system provides autonomous
search and selection of a target, antiaircraft-fire
maneuver and a 'snaking' flight to the target at 36 meters above sea level. Its design kill probability in ECM environment is 0.94-0.99. With its
enormous kinetic energy, the missile penetrates
any ship's hull and explodes inside. Today the
Moskit is unrivalled in the world in terms of effectiveness and is around ten years ahead of all
other developments worldwide.
In 1966 the Russian Navy commissioned the
P-35 ASM system with a fire-and-forget supersonic missile designed to selectively destroy
enemy ships beyond the radar horizon, and in
1982 - its upgraded version, the Progress. The
systems were intended to equip cruisers. Later
the P-35 was used as the basis for development
of shore-based missile systems, Redut (mobile)
and Utios (stationary).
A versatile missile system with the Yakhont
ASM (SS-N-26) is quite potent. It is designed to
equip submarines and surface ships and is available also in air- and shore-based (mobile and
stationary) versions. The missile takes off from a
transport-launching container. The surface ship
can carry six vertical modular-type launch cells
or a four-seat angled containerless rack-type
launcher; on a submarine the missiles are
launched from vertical silos. The missile warm-up
time doesn't exceed four minutes, the active
radar seeker's range is no less than 75 km. A
missile inside the transport-launching container
is routinely checked every three years.
Primary targets for the Uran shipborne missile system are surface combatants, boats and

transports. The Kh-35 ASM (SS-N-25
Switchblade) uses an inertial navigation system
(INS) for mid-course and an active ECCM-capable radar seeker for terminal guidance. The missile carries a penetration warhead. An extremely
low sea-skimming flight altitude and the missile's
low radar cross section ensure covertness and
surprise of the attack.
Coastal mobile missile systems like the
Redut (with the P-35 ASM) or the Progress and
SSC-X-5 Bastion (with the standardized Yakhont
fire-and-forget ASM) offer impressive capabilities for destroying large and medium surface
ships, transports and landing transport ships.
The mobile Bastion's deployment time is 5 minutes, alert time in deployment areas - 30 days.
The stationary Bastion has its ASMs housed in
protected launchers. The fully equipped system
controls an area of 280,000 km2. The missile
warm-up time is within four minutes. The number
of missiles in a salvo can be as high as 36.
The Bal coastal mobile missile system with a
standardized ASM, the Kh-35, is designed to kill
surface ships, boats, landing ships in approaches to coast, in strait, island and skerry areas
under heavy enemy ECM. With its maximum road
speed of 60 km, the Bal has a fuel range within
800 km. The system can fire missiles both individually and in salvo. Application of a wheeled
cross-country chassis with night vision devices
and navigation equipment enables the Bal to
rapidly move to a new region round-the-clock in
any weather conditions.
Compared to its foreign counterparts (like
the Harpoon), the Bal carries more missiles on
the launcher, can fire them in salvo and provides
a higher rate of fire. This ensures a high saturation of ASMs approaching a perimeter of enemy
surface groups' air defense weapons and significantly enhances its fire effectiveness.
The coastal missile system Rubezh
equipped with the fire-and-forget Termit-P ASM,
too, offers wide capabilities for engagement of
surface ships, landing ships and fast small boats.
The Russian specialists emphasized also
on the development of air-launched ASMs. In
1960 the Russian Air Force adopted the KS10S ASM, which incorporated a command
guidance system for mid-course and a homing
system for terminal guidance. Its further derivative, the Kh-15S, was a wingless solid-propellant supersonic missile. It featured a supersonic
speed (up to Mach 5) in a final dive attack following the target lock-on. The Kh-65SE airlaunched subsonic ASM is designed to destroy
major surface ships. The missile flies most of its
trajectory at the altitude of 40-110 m and in the
vicinity of a target it climbs, locks onto and
homes onto the target descending to low altitudes and performing a maneuver in horizontal
and vertical planes.
Another achievement of the Russian ASM
developers is the Alfa, a versatile two-stage
cruise missile designed to destroy sea and land
targets. The first stage's turbojet gives the missile
a speed of 220-240 m/s and a range up to 200
km. At 20 km from a target, the second stage's
solid-propellant booster ignites accelerating the
ASM to 700 m/s (over Mach 2.0). Contrast targets are destroyed by direct hit, others - with
errors within 20-30 meters. The missile warm-up
time doesn't exceed two minutes.

The Russian and Western developers

adhere to different approaches to the development of the ASM systems. Whereas the U.S. and
European countries have focused on modernization of existing systems, Russia is developing
new-generation ASMs. While in the early 1970s
ASM's average kill zone time was 120 s, now it
doesn't exceed 25 s; the flight speed increased
from Mach 0.9 to Mach 1.8-3.0, and the terminal
flight altitude decreased from 60 m to 5 m. In
addition, ASM's radar cross section decreased

from 5 m2 to 0.1 m2. Another aspect is also

indicative. While the Western manufacturers have
concentrated their efforts on upgrading subsonic missiles like the Harpoon, Exocet, Kormoran,
Gabriel, Russia has fielded supersonic ASM
Moskit, Yakhont, Alfa, Kh-31, Kh-15, etc.
Thus, modern ASMs are a formidable naval
weapon able to determine the results of engagement and battle. This is confirmed by the fact that 70
navies are equipped with them and accumulated
stocks have reached around 40,000 missiles.

Granit versatile system's missile


Range, km

Flight altitude, m

Launching weight
Warhead weight , kg

Guidance system


Flight speed,




INS + active radar

seeker (IR seeker)


8 80




INS + active radar

seeker (IR seeker)






INS + active radar






INS + active radar

seeker (IR seeker)


10 120


7 20


INS + active radar



7 130


35 1015


INS + active radar



25 300




TV + active radar


250 350


100 7,000


TV + active radar





TV + active radar





INS + active radar



Up to 300


515 14,000


INS + active radar



Up to 300


Up to 20,000

3,400; 2,600; 1,600


INS + active radar



25 300


2040; 4,000;


TV + active radar

Kh65 SE





INS + active radar


Kh15 S





INS + active radar




A R M S - T A S S



TsNII Granit:

The central research institute (TsNII) Granit
dates back to 18 July 1921 when the Specialized
Technical Bureau on Special-Purpose Military
Inventions was set up.
In pre-war years the institute developed for the
Soviet Navy 450- and 530-mm radio-guided torpedoes, aircraft torpedoes, shipborne jam-resistant VHF radio communications facilities, radioguided unmanned torpedo boats, target drone aircraft (prototypes of cruise missiles), submarines
and bombs. Precisely at that time its specialists laid
the foundation for hydroacoustics and gyroscopy.
After WWII Granit started developing new
types of equipment relying on the available scientific and engineering experience. These
included: submarine surveillance radars, shipand shore-based target position radars, shipborne torpedo/missile weapons control systems
and onboard control systems for antiship missiles (ASM). Virtually all post-war built ships,
including 'Peter the Greatest', 'Admiral of the
USSR Fleet Kuznetzov', 'Admiral Chabanenko',
carry Granit-developed weapon systems.
Today, strengthening its traditions, the institute continues to develop electronic weapons
control systems for the Russian Navy's ships. It
focuses on the creation of an integrated control
system, so called a 'reconnaissance/strike loop'
that unites a target designation system, shipboard and onboard missile control systems. This
ensures an optimal solution to a task in each part
of the loop.


Typical workstation
w w w . a r m s - t a s s . r u

Monopulse radar seeker for ASM

Shipborne automated ASM control system

GarpunBal radar system's console


Development of the first ASM systems

involved scientific and technological challenges
novel at those times related to missile guidance
systems that were successfully met: an underwater launch of ASM was developed for the first time
in the world (Ametist); a self-contained over-thehorizon target designation system was created
(Bazalt, Vulkan ASMs); a fire-and-forget homing
method was implemented in ASMs (Ametist,

Purga system's torpedo/bomb weapons control rack

Granit); a monopulse radar

seeker employing a sophisticated probing signal was used in
ASM for the first time in the world
practice; a salvo launch mode
was realized.
Among the institute's major
achievements was the development of the radically new Granit
ASM in the 1970s. Adopted in
1984, the missile can be used
both from a submerged submarine and a surface combatant
and autonomously destroy aircraft carriers at long ranges. Its
revolutionary design incorporated many advanced concepts
and solutions.
Keeping up the traditions of
the past, TsNII Granit is holding
now the leading positions in its
field of activities not only in
Russia, but also abroad. Based
on original solutions, it is developing control systems for fourth-generation ASMs. Its established
approach to a set of tasks to be performed by
shipborne equipment calls for a comprehensive
consideration of specific features of weapons and
the carrying ship. This ensures an optimal design of
equipment and maximum weapon effectiveness.
Closely cooperating with the research and
production association Mashinostroenie, the

GarpunBal radar system's antenna

onboard control systems for the P-6,
Ametist, Bazalt, Vulkan,
Granit and Yakhont
In parallel, shipborne torpedo/bomb
weapons control systems like Leningrad,
Brest, Akkord and
Purga were developed.
One of Granit's latest developments in the
field of radio detection
and ranging is the
Garpun-Bal active/passive radar complex used
in the Uran and Club
antiship missile systems
abroad. The complex
offers a great power in
an active mode ensuring over-the-horizon acquisition of ships. Currently the institute is engaged in
the active development of surveillance systems for
fourth-generation submarines and target designation systems for missile weapons that could
accomplish missions using information from air
and space reconnaissance aids.
A major attraction of Granit's products is
wide application of up-to-date electronics, network structure and standardized interfaces. This
enabled creating an integrated instrumentation
suite for a ship's command complex. The institute is currently developing a main command
post for an advanced frigate. The post includes:
workstations for a ship commander, its senior
assistant, gunnery/missiles and torpedo officers,
radio officer, ASW/missile operator and ECM
operator. It provides centralized control over
strike missile and torpedo systems, indication of
their status and operation phases, target data,
the ship's recommended course and speed for
its taking a firing position, etc.
Granit's multi-year experience and established extensive network of cooperating enterprises together with the newest technical solutions and technologies have contributed to
entrance of its products to the world market.
Over seven last years alone the institute has
delivered a great number of the Uran's shipborne
automated ASM control systems, Garpun-Bal
radar systems, Purga systems and other auxiliary
equipment to a variety of countries.
Today the institute is among the leading
instrument-building enterprises in Russia, fulfils
the Ministry of Defense's and export orders, and
actively implements a dual technology concept
in the commercial market. Its highly qualified and
talented researchers and engineers ensure competitiveness of its products. With its high research
and technological capabilities, Granit invites all
domestic and foreign enterprises and organizations to fruitful cooperation.
Federal state unitary enterprise
TsNII Granit
3, Gospitalnaya St.
St. Petersburg, 191014, Russia
Tel.: (812) 2716756,
Fax: (812) 2746339,


A R M S - T A S S




BalE coastal mobile antiship missile system


Experts at various research centers predict

that the world sales of antiship missiles (ASM) will
reach US$ 6.6 billion to US$ 10-12 billion in the
coming ten years. Around 2,000 ASMs worth
over US$ 2 billion are expected to be sold during
the first phase (next three to five years) alone.
According to major research centers, Forecast
International among them, Russia may hope for a
deserved place among other ASM exporters.
At present the U.S. and European companies dominate the market. They offer potential
buyers upgraded versions of MBDA Exocet,
Boeing Harpoon Block 2 ASMs, etc.
Despite strong competition, Rosoboronexport
is planning in the near term to markedly step up a
share of naval hardware exports in the total arms
exports due to an increased demand for this
equipment. Of its current order book through
2005, naval equipment and armaments account
for some 40%. These include the 3M-54E, 3M54E1 ASMs from the Novator Design Bureau of
Yekaterinburg and the Kh-35E from the state
research and production center Zvezda-Strela.
It's worth noting a steadily increasing interest
of foreign buyers in the Kh-35E type ASMs. This
is a subsonic low-altitude guided missile standardized for various platforms. This essential feature ensures its application in shipborne missile
systems like the Uran-E, tactical aircraft missile
systems, by search-and-rescue and patrol
planes and helicopters as well as in coastal
mobile systems like the Bal-E.
The Kh-35 offers increased capabilities for
homing onto surface targets in ECM environment. This is achieved owing to its low radar signature, the use of extremely low flight altitudes,
application of a state-of-the-art radar guidance
system and some other features. The ASM flies
at a high subsonic speed at an altitude of 10 to
15 meters and approximately 4 meters above
sea level in cruise and terminal phases of its trajectory, respectively. In an airborne version, with
its launching weight of some 520 kg and a warhead weight of around 150 kg, the missile reaches a range of 130 km.
w w w . a r m s - t a s s . r u

Kh31P airbased antiradar missile launching

The seeker's composite coherent signal

enables accurate speed discrimination of a target
selected for attack, as well as high ECM immunity through the application of special design features and operation algorithms. The seeker's high
accuracy characteristics and wide scan area
make it possible to launch the ASM in the direction of a target search area using data from
remote target designation sources. The seeker
selects an active mode in the immediate vicinity of
the target under attack, thus significantly reducing
the likelihood of the missile's being detected and
engaged by enemy air defense means.
Of great interest for customers is an opportunity to tailor the Kh-35E missile for its installation on foreign-made platforms.
Thanks to its compactness combined with a
powerful warhead, the missile could be used
from small platforms to destroy diverse targets. A
500-ton missile craft could be equipped with the
Uran-E ASM system whose unit of fire includes
up to 16 Kh-35E missiles. This number of missiles enables effective destruction of both lowdisplacement ships and a group consisting of up
to three and more ships like frigate or destroyer.
Late in the 1970s, along with the Kh-35E, the
enterprise completed development of the supersonic missile the Kh-31, the first production combat air missile worldwide powered by an integral
ramjet. The missile is still considered to be one of
the best among medium-range tactical missiles.
The Kh-31P high-speed air-to-radar missiles fitted with changeable passive seekers can destroy
continuous-wave and pulse radars. These fireand-forget missiles can be fired either individually
or in salvoes from a range within 110 km in visual
and adverse weather conditions. The missile's
long range combined with autonomous guidance
and a high flight speed gives it advantage in duel
engagements with modern air defense means.
Next-generation missiles, whose effectiveness
will several times higher compared to the existing
level, are currently undergoing tests. Development
of tactical ASMs intended to destroy surface targets
ranging from missile boats to destroyers inclusive is

among major lines in Zvezda-Strela's activities. This

is due to the enterprise's vast experience, its significant research advances in solving tasks linked to
target acquisition/selection and weapon guidance,
as well as high priority given today to destruction of
enemy ships.
Zvezda-Strela is now among the leading
defense industry enterprises in Russia, prime
developer and a major supplier of multi-purpose
tactical precision weapons. Noteworthy is a fact
that the enterprise implements a complete cycle
of weapon development - from concept definition to flight tests and series production. Its performance results have been steadily rising. In
2001 Zvezda-Strela was among ten best Russian
defense industry enterprises. It keeps and
expands its positions on the world market. For
the above reasons, Zvezda-Strela was selected
as a founding enterprise of a new integrated
organizational structure meeting present day's
requirements for defense industry.
Currently an open joint-stock company,
Tactical Missile Armament Corporation, is being
organized around Zvezda-Strela. The first phase
of the reorganization is nearing completion,
which will result in forming a major interbranch
industrial company. The latter will include: the
Ural Design Bureau 'Detal'; the plant 'Krasny
Hidropress'; the Engineering Design Bureau
'Iskra'; the plant 'Avtomatika' of Omsk; the
Engineering Design Bureau 'Soyuz' of Tura. Later
some other enterprises may join the company,
too. Such a corporation will create optimal conditions to successfully complete in the shortest
possible time the development and production of
new sea- and shore-based ASM systems and
other kinds of tactical missile weapons.
Scientific and technological advances and
business successes achieved by Zvezda-Strela
enable its personnel to face the future with confidence and optimistically. With its strong scientific
and manufacturing capabilities, the enterprise is
ready for fruitful cooperation with all domestic
and foreign enterprises and organizations on
mutually advantageous terms.