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UNIT 2: LIVING DIGITALLY

Past simple and past continuous
Past simple (regular verbs): affirmative, negative, interrogative form and short answers
Past simple (irregular verbs): affirmative, negative, interrogative form and short answers
Past simple, affirmative: regular and irregular verbs
Uses, examples and expressions often used with the past simple
Past continuous: affirmative, negative, interrogative form and short answers
Past simple vs. Past continuous (1)
Past simple vs. past continuous (2). When and while

you didn’t • He lived • He didn’t live • Did he live?  Yes. she did / No. you didn’t • They lived • They didn’t live • Did they live?  Yes. you did / No. she didn’t • It lived • It didn’t live • Did it live?  Yes. we didn’t • You lived • You didn’t live • Did you live?  Yes. I didn’t • You lived • You didn’t live • Did you live?  Yes. S + did / No. S + didn’t • I lived • I didn’t live • Did I live?  Yes. it didn’t • We lived • We didn’t live • Did we live?  Yes. I did / No. it did / No. he did / No. you did / No. they did / No. they didn’t didn’t = did not Short answers . he didn’t • She lived • She didn’t live • Did she live?  Yes.Past simple: regular verbs Affirmative Negative Interrogative S + Ved S + didn’t + V (infinitive) Did + S + V (infinitive) + ? Yes. we did / No.

we did / No. they did / No. we didn’t • You bought • You didn’t live • Did you buy?  Yes. she did / No. S + did / No. it did / No. you did / No. they didn’t didn’t = did not Short answers . he didn’t • She bought • She didn’t live • Did she buy?  Yes. you didn’t • He bought • He didn’t live • Did he buy?  Yes. S + didn’t • I bought • I didn’t buy • Did I buy?  Yes. you didn’t • They bought • They didn’t live • Did they buy?  Yes. she didn’t • It bought • It didn’t live • Did it buy?  Yes. it didn’t • We bought • We didn’t live • Did we buy?  Yes. I did / No.Past simple: irregular verbs Affirmative Negative Interrogative S + V (irregular form) S + didn’t + V (infinitive) Did + S + V (infinitive) + ? Yes. I didn’t • You bought • You didn’t live • Did you buy?  Yes. you did / No. he did / No.

affirmative: regular and irregular verbs 1. waited. batted. • Monosyllabic verbs ending in a single vowel + consonant* double the final consonant: stopped. ripped. • A few verbs can add either –ed or –t: learned/learnt.Past simple. • Verbs ending in –e add only –d: telephoned. • Verbs ending in consonant + y form the past simple by replacing –y with –ied: worried. Many common verbs form the past simple affirmative in an irregular fashion. Affirmative: regular verbs 2. • Travel also doubles the final consonant. unwrap  unwrapped. Affirmative: irregular verbs Regular verbs form the past simple by adding –ed: played. although the stress in on the first syllable: travel  travelled . arrived. spelled/spelt. rowed • All two-syllable verbs ending in vowel + consonant double the final consonant when the stress is on the second syllable: refer  referred. See page 136 of the Student’s book for a list of these verbs. *Except x and w: fixed. carried. moved. laughed. earned/earnt.

for (three years) First he opened the door. finally .Uses. then he came in and after that he took off his coat. (two years) ago. next. in (2007). 3. Yesterday. last (night/week/year). then. 2. Expressions often used with the past simple First. examples and expressions often used with the past simple Use Examples 1. To describe a single finished action in the past. I saw a film yesterday. To describe a finished continuous action in the past. For a long time. To describe a series of actions in the past. They lived in Berlin for three years. after that. We met at the supermarket.

I wasn’t • You were living • You weren’t living • Were you living?  Yes. we weren’t • You were living • You weren’t living • Were you living?  Yes.Past continuous Affirmative Negative Interrogative Short answers • I was living • I wasn’t living • Was I living?  Yes. they weren’t wasn’t = was not weren’t = were not . you were / No. they were / No. I was / No. you were / No. he was / No. she was / No. it wasn’t • We were living • We weren’t living • Were we living?  Yes. he wasn’t • She was living • She wasn’t living • Was she living?  Yes. we were / No. you weren’t • He was living • He wasn’t living • Was he living?  Yes. it was / No. she wasn’t • It was living • It wasn’t living • Was it living?  Yes. you weren’t • They were living • They weren’t living • Were they living?  Yes.

the past simple describes the action. the past continuous describes a continuous action.: While she was living in Badajoz.g. e. she made a lot of friends. someone knocked at the door. CONTEXT ACTION As he was reading a book.Past simple vs. CONTEXT ACTION a) The past simple describes a single action. (past simple: single action) What were you doing at 7 o’clock? I was watching TV. (past continuous: continuous action) . Compare: What did you do at 7 o’clock? I started to watch TV. past continuous (1) a) The past continuous provides the context.

. past continuous (2) When and while • Past simple + past simple = series of actions and events (one happens after the other). • While is frequently used with the past continuous (never with the past simple).: .I was having a shower when the telephone rang.: .: .Mike saw the accident when he was walking his dog. e. e.g. • Past continuous + past continuous = two actions happening at the same time in the past. .Past simple vs.g.: . had breakfast and went out.g. • When is frequently used with the past simple (but you can also use it with the past continuous).Laura was watching TV while his father was making dinner.I was studying while my brother was finishing his homework. e.: .She woke up.g. e. • Past simple + past continuous = one action interrupts another action (the shorter action interrupts the longer one).g. e.Mike was walking his dog when he saw the accident.

see previous unit (unit 1) . examples and expressions often used with the present perfect simple Words commonly used with the present perfect simple Present perfect simple vs. past simnple * For the use of the present perfect simple to describe an action that started in the past and continues into the present. interrogative form and short answers The past participle Uses.Present perfect simple further uses* Affirmative. negative.

he hasn’t • Has she lived?  Yes. I have / No. you have / No. you have / No. you haven’t • Have they lived?  Yes. they have / No. she has / No. we have / No. it hasn’t • Have we lived?  Yes. he has / No. you haven’t • Has he lived?  Yes. it has / No. S + have/has • I have lived • I haven’t lived • You have lived • You haven’t lived • He has lived • He hasn’t lived • She has lived • She hasn’t lived • It has lived • It hasn’t lived • We have lived • We haven’t lived • You have lived • They have lived I have lived = I’ve lived He has lived = He’s lived • You haven’t lived • They haven’t lived You haven’t lived = You have not lived She hasn’t lived = He has not lived participle No.Present perfect simple Affirmative Negative Interrogative Short answers S + have/has + past participle S + haven’t/hasn’t + past participle Have/has + S + past Yes. S + haven’t/hasn’t • Have I lived?  Yes. they haven’t . she hasn’t • Has it lived?  Yes. we haven’t • Have you lived?  Yes. I haven’t • Have you lived?  Yes.

earned / earnt. . *Except x and w: boxed. unwrap  unwrapped 2) Travel also doubles the final consonant. snapped. batted. prepared. although the stress is on the first syllable: travel  travelled. 5) Monosyllabic verbs ending in a single vowel + consonant* double the final consonant: stopped. flowed 1) All two-syllable verbs ending in vowel + consonant double the final consonant when the stress is on the second syllable: refer  referred. 2) A few verbs can add either –ed or –t: learned / learnt. 3) Verbs ending in –e add only –d: telephoned. 4) Verbs ending in consonant + y form the past participle by replacing –y with –ied: married. See pages 136 and 137 of the Student’s book for a list of these verbs. walked. spelled / spelt. translated. 1) Many common verbs form the past participle in an irregular fashion. tried. listened.The past participle Regular verbs Irregular verbs 1) Regular verbs form the past participle by adding –ed: played.

yet. still … not. .I have never read The Lord of the Rings. To talk about an action / event in the past that is still relevant to the present. lately. this is the first time that ….War has started in the Middle West. 2. recently. it’s a long time since … .I have seen him before. never. To describe very recent actions / events. once. this morning / week / year before. To introduce the news. 3. today. . . already. Examples .He’s cut his finger! . not … yet.Uses.She has been to Italy once. examples and expressions often used with the present perfect simple Use 1. .I haven’t seen her lately. Expressions often used with the present perfect simple just.

 Have you ever since a ghost?  She still hasn’t answered me.  I’ve never been to Africa.  I’ve just emailed him. .Words commonly used with the present perfect simple • already • yet (in questions) • not … yet • just • never • ever (in questions) • still … not  We’ve already seen that film  Have you seen him yet?  She hasn’t arrived yet.

Compare: 1. (present perfect: he still Works there) . so we won’t see it now) 3. (past simple: last week is finished and in the past) 2. (past simple: the film is no longer showing. I saw him at the cinema last week. (present perfect: the film is still showing. We use the past simple to refer to an action or event that is entirely in the past. I am still there)  Tom has worked in Paris for five years. (past simple: 4. Tim worked in Paris for five years. (present perfect: she may visit me again. We didn’t see the new Spielberg film. (present perfect: this week is continuing. so we may see it)  Fiona has visited me in Scotland several times. Fiona visited me in Scotland several times. (past simple: he no longer works there)  I have seen him at the cinema this week.Present perfect simple vs. past simple: We use the present perfect simple to refer to a completed action or event that happened in the past but is still relevant to the present. and I may see him again)  We haven’t seen the new Spielberg film.

negative. examples and expressions often used with the present perfect continuous Present perfect continuous vs. see unit 1.Present perfect continuous further use* Affirmative. past continuous For the use of the present perfect continuous to describe continuous actions that started in the past and continue into the present. * . interrogative form and short answers Uses. past continuous Present perfect continuous vs.

they have / No. it has / No. S + haven’t/hasn’t  Yes. I haven’t  Yes. he has / No.Present perfect continuous Affirmative Negative S + have/has + been + past participle S + haven’t/hasn’t + been + past participle Interrogative Short answers Have/has + S + been + past participle + ? Yes.I haven’t been living = I have not been living / I’ve not been living . you haven’t  Yes. you have / No. they haven’t .He hasn’t been living = He has not been living / He’s not been living • Have you been living? • Have they been living? No. you have / No. we haven’t  Yes. it hasn’t  Yes. S + have/has • I have been living • I haven’t been living • Have I been living? • You have been living • You haven’t been living • Have you been living? • He has been living • He hasn’t been living • Has he been living? • She has been living • She hasn’t been living • Has she been living? • It has been living • It hasn’t been living • Has it been living? • We have been living • We haven’t been living • You have been living • You haven’t been living • Have we been living? • They have been living • They haven’t been living . I have / No. you haven’t  Yes. he hasn’t  Yes. she has / No.She has been living = She’s been living . she hasn’t  Yes. we have / No.They have been living = They’ve been living .

He’s been reading a lot recently. . recently today. this morning / week / year .Uses. examples and expressions often used with the present perfect continuous Use Examples To describe a continuous / repeated action in the recent past .I’ve been painting the studio this morning. Expressions often used with the present perfect continuous lately.

(present perfect simple: she’s finished reading the book) . for example: . present perfect simple • We use the present perfect continuous when we are interested in the action or event.She’s read The Lord of the Rings recently.She’s been reading The Lord of the Rings recently.Present perfect continuous vs. (present perfect continuous: we don’t know whether she’s finished reading The Lord of the Rings) .

and he is probably still reading the book) . (past continuous: you didn’t arrive. We use the past continuous to refer to a continuous or repeated action that is entirely in the past.She has been waiting for you in the restaurant. past continuous • We use the present perfect continuous to refer to a continuous or repeated action that happened in the past but is still relevant to the present.He’s been reading that book all this week.Present perfect continuous vs. (past continuous: yesterday is finished and in the past) . Compare: . (present perfect continuous: if you arrive son.She was waiting for you in the restaurant.He was reading that book yesterday. she may still be waiting) . and so she stopped waiting) . (present perfect continuous: this week is continuing.

Used to Affirmative. examples and expressions often used with used to . negative. interrogative form and short answers Uses.

it did / No. I did / No. S + didn’t V (infinitive) + ? • I used to live • I didn’t use to live • You used to live • You didn’t use to live • He used to live • He didn’t use to live • She used to live • She didn’t use to live • It used to live • It didn’t use to live • We used to live • We didn’t use to live • You used to live • You didn’t use to live • They used to live • They didn’t use to live didn’t = did not • Did I use to live? • Did you use to live? • Did he use to live? • Did she use live? • Did it use to live? • Did we use to live? • Did you use to live? • Did they use to live? Short answers  Yes. it didn’t  Yes. she did / No. I didn’t  Yes. he did / No. they didn’t .Used to Affirmative Negative Interrogative S + used to + V (infinitive) S + didn’t use to + V (infinitive) Did / didn’t + S + use to + Yes. you did / No. you didn’t  Yes. you didn’t  Yes. S + did / No. we didn’t  Yes. he didn’t  Yes. she didn’t  Yes. you did / No. they did / No. we did / No.

Expressions often used with used to in the past. before. when I was young . years ago. To describe an action that someone did frequently in the past but doesn’t do now. I used to play football twice a week. 2. examples and expressions often used with used to Use Examples 1. To describe a lasting condition or situation that no longer exists.  London used to be the biggest city in the world.Uses.

Topic vocabulary 2. Words in the text: run 3. Word building: adjective suffixes –ful and -less .Unit 2: Living digitally (vocabulary) 1.

) • Layout: diseño • Web surfer: internauta • Load (of a Web page): carga (de una página web) • Log on to: iniciar sesión • Multitask: hacer distintas actividades al mismo tiempo . Topic vocabulary • Bookmark: añadir a favoritos • Refresh: refrescar • Broadband: banda ancha • Reload: recargar • Browse (the web): navegar (por internet) • Scroll down: desplazar hacia abajao la página web • (Web) browser: navegador • Site map: mapa de la página • Click on: hacer clic en • Smartphone • Digital device: aparato digital • Social network: red social • Download: descarga / descargar • Surf (the web): navegar por internet • Drop-down menu: menú desplegable • Tab: etiqueta • Email: email / mandar un email • Tablet: tableta • FAQs (frequently asked questions): preguntas frecuentes • Text: enviar mensajes de texto • Google: googlear / buscar en internet • Update: actualizar / actualización • Laptop: ordenador portátil • Upload: subida (de documentos. etc. etc.) / subir (documentos.1.

dinero) • Run over (a pedestrian): atropellar (a un paetón) . money): quedarse sin (paciencia. Words in the text: run • Run (a company): llevar (una compañía) • Run (a computer program): abrir / hacer funcionar (un programa) • Run (a red light): saltarse (un semáforo) • Run into (an old friend): encontrarse con (un viejo amigo) • Run into (problems): encontrarse con (problemas) • Run out of (patience.2.

discriminatory (discriminatorio) • Integrate (integrar) • Integrated (integrado) • Prejudice (prejuicio) • Prejudice (prejuzgar) • Prejudiced (prejuicioso) • Properity (prosperidad) • Prosper (prosperar) • Prosperous (próspero) • Race (raza). esfuerzo) • Struggle (costar. racism (racismo) • Racist (racista). luchar) • Struggling ( en aprietos) • Success (éxito) • Succeed (tener éxito) • Successful (exitoso) . racial (racial) • Respect (respeto) • Respect (respetar) • Respected (respetado). Word building: nouns. respectful (respetuouso) • Struggle (lucha. verbs and adjectives Noun Verb Adjective • Discrimination (discriminación) • Discriminate (descriminar) • Integration (integración) • Discriminated (dricriminado).3.

servicial) Helpless (indefenso. sin esperanza) Meaningful (significativo) Meaningless (sin sentido) Painful (doloroso) Painless (indoloro) Powerful (poderoso) Powerless (incapaz. inútil) - Homeless (sin techo) Hopeful (esperanzado) Hopeless (inútil. impotente) Successful (exitoso) - Thoughtful (considerado) Thoughtless (desconsiderado) Useful (útil) Useless (inútil) Youthful (juvenil) - .Word building: adjective suffixes –ful and -less -full Less Careful (cuidadoso) Careless (descuidado) Colourful (colorido) Colourless (incoloro) - Friendless (sin amigos) Fruitful (fructífero) Fruitless (infructuoso) Harmful (dañino) Harmless (inofensivo) Helpful (útil.