SELF STUDY MATERIAL ON SCREW AIR COMPRESSOR

PREPAIRED BY: NESAR ALAM

APPROVED BY:

COMPRESSOR

ADHUNIK METALIKS LTD.

CONTENTS
S.NO TOPIC Introduction Classification Reciprocating compressor Screw compressor Features of screw compressor Basic components of screw compressor PAZE

COMPRESSORE
Compressors are a marching which raises the pressure of fluids by pressing it in a closed vassal, for the use of various industrial purposes. There are many types of compressors and they classified as follows.

Positive displacement compressor
In the positive-displacement type, a given quantity of air or gas is trapped in a compression chamber and the volume it occupies is mechanically reduced, causing a corresponding rise in pressure prior to discharge. At constant speed, the air flow remains essentially constant with variations in discharge pressure.

Dynamic compressor
‡ Dynamic compressors impart velocity energy to continuously flowing air or gas by means of impellers rotating at very high speeds. The velocity energy is changed into pressure energy both by the impellers and the discharge volutes or diffusers. In the centrifugal-type dynamic compressors, the shape of the impeller blades determines the relationship between air flow and the pressure (or head) generate

Type of compressor

Positive displacement

Dynamic

Reciprocating

Rotary

Centrifugal

Axial

Reciprocating compressor:

Reciprocating pump is just a reciprocal of IC engine. In IC engine pressure developed in side cylinder piston due to combustion heat, and this pressure pull piston which is connected with crank shaft and crank shaft start rotating. In a reciprocating compressor a prime mover rotate the crank shaft and piston start reciprocating in cylinder. When piston go back (Suction stroke) it suck air from spring loaded suction valve. When

piston goes forward (Compression stroke) spring loaded discharge valve open and air discharged on discharge line, by means of this continuous suction and compression stroke air get compressing.

Advantages of reciprocating Compressor. 1. It has high compassion ratio 2. It has wide range of pressure and capacity selections. 3. It has available in many configurations. a. Air & water cooled b. Lubricated and non lubricated c. Single and double acting d. Horizontal, & vertical

Disadvantages of reciprocating Compressor.
1. It has low discharge rate. 2. It has very noisy. 3. Maintenance cost is high. 4. Discharge Pr pulsation continuously.

Screw compressor
Compressors have rotors in place of pistons and give a continuous pulsation free discharge. They operate at high speed and generally provide higher throughput than reciprocating compressors. Their capital costs are low, they are compact in size, have low weight, and are easy to maintain. For this reason they have gained popularity with industry. They are most commonly used in sizes from about 30 to 200 hp or 22 to 150 kW. Basic working principle of Screw compressor

‡ Figure 1 shows the basic geometry of the rotary screw compressor. View (A) is a simple representation of the actual rotors. We have labeled the male rotor lobe and the female rotor flute. As the rotors turn in an outward direction, the male flute will unmesh from the female flute forming an area for the gas to enter. The gas becomes trapped in the machine and compression occurs when the lobes of the rotors begin to mesh together again. The shaded area represents the pocket of gas that Occurs within a specific flute. View (B) is a representation of the side view of the machine. The same flute is shaded for comparison. Here we see the suction port in the upper left corner and the discharge port in the lower right corner. The rotors will turn in an outward direction forcing the

male and female flutes to unmeshed, allowing process gas to enter the top of the machine. The gas will travel around the outside of the rotors until it reaches the bottom where the compression actually occurs. Gas will be discharged in the lower right corner of the picture.
Suction Discharg

Mail rotor

Suction

Discharg Female

(A) Rotors

(B) Side View Rotary

FEATURES OF THE SCREW COMPRESSOR
The rotary screw compressor is a positive displacement machine that operates without the need for suction or discharge valves. It has the ability to vary suction volume internally while reducing part load power consumption. Screws provide a much wider operating range and lower maintenance costs than conventional reciprocating machines. The machines are much smaller and create much lower vibration levels than piston machines as well.

Reduced Maintenance
The only significant moving parts in a screw compressor are the male and female rotors. There are no valves, pistons, rings, or connecting rods that require regular maintenance. With the elimination of the pistons, rings and valves, annual maintenance costs are also reduced on screw machines. It is not uncommon to operate screws for several years without ever performing any significant maintenance repairs. When comparing screw compressors and reciprocating machines, it is important to consider maintenance costs into the overall project cost.

Turn Down
Screw compressors offer turn down capabilities up to 90% of full load with very good part load power requirements. This turn down capability occurs within the machine and is independent of engine Speed or bypass. This makes the machine an attractive alternative for areas where flow rates and operating conditions are not constant. The capacity control can typically be handled manually or automatically within the machine to meet the exact demands of the overall system.

High Compression Ratios

Screw compressors can operate from roughly 2 to 20 ratios of compression on a single stage while maintaining high volumetric efficiencies. These efficiencies are achieved by injecting large quantities of lube oil into the machine during the compression process. Reciprocating machines can operate at much higher pressures than screw machines, but are typically limited to roughly 4 ratios of compression per stage.

Accommodates Wide Operating Ranges
The screw compressor itself can operate over a very wide range with little or no changes required to the machine. This makes it very well suited to the natural gas industry where flow rates and operating conditions are often changing.

Smaller Package Sizes
Rotary screws provide high capacities with minimal installation space compared to piston machines.

Lower Vibration

With only two major moving parts operating in a circular motion, screws create much lower vibration levels than reciprocating machines. Although the slide valve assembly also moves to control capacity, it happens at such a slow rate that we do not consider it a maintenance concern. With lower vibration levels, screw compressors do not require the same type of foundation as the reciprocating machines, which can result in lower installation costs. In general, screw compressors are considered to provide very high reliability, resulting in lower

maintenance costs and reduced down time compared to reciprocating machines.

Main components of Screw Air compressor 1. Air filter

2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12.

Intake valve Air end (Helical screw) Receiver tank Oil separator Minimum Pr valve Pr relief valve Oil filter Thermal valve Cooler Moister separator Cooling fan

Flow Diagram of a screw compressor

Moister filter
Service line

Moister drain line Minimum Pr valve Air cooler
Safety valve

Oil filter Air filter

Oil separator element Oil separator tank

Air intake valve

Motor Oil tank Air end

Cooling fan

Oil cooler

Thermal valve

AIR LINE s Mixed oil & Air Oil

Function of various systems and component
1. Air intake system

Air inlet system has a paper type dry filter, which filter the intake air and prevent foreign partials from entering the air end.

2. Air intake valve
This is a butter fly type valve fitted at top of air intake port, and controls the intake air amount as per capacity and control, of system requirement.

3. Air End.
Air end is the heart of compressor. It consists of two screw male and female rotors & suction and discharge port. It is the part where compression action takes place.
Suction port Screw

Discharge port

Drive Shaft

4. Receiver tank
Receiver tank received oil and air mixture discharged from air end where oil and air are separated through oil separate.

5. Oil separator
Oil separator is a filtering element which separates the oil from oil and air mixture,

6. Minimum Pr valve
Minimum pressure valve is non return type valve fitted at the end of the separator tank , this valve ensures a minimum receiver pressure of 4 bar during all conditions for proper oil separation and proper oil circulation to the air end.

7. Pr relief valve
This valve is fitted on separate tank, it is spring loaded safety valves and it is operate when thank pressure exceeds 2 bar more than maximum working pressure.

8. Oil filter
It may be Paper or mesh type oil filter, to filter the system circulating oil.

9. Thermal valve
The thermal valve is fitted in oil line as shown in fig.oil temperature get rise due to compassion heat as the temperature rise thermal valve start closing and is fully closed at 155F. And the oil through the oil tank, oil filter to air end diverted through, oil tank, oil cooler, oil filter & air end.

CONTROL ELEMENTS 1. Discharge temperature sensor
It is fitted in the air end discharge line to sense the air end discharge temperature of air and oil mixture and set go give warning message.

2. Pressure switch
Pressure switch is fitted on intake valve mourning adapter to ensure the compressor switched off in case of reverse rotation of compressor.

3. Pressure sensor
Pressure sensor is fitted on discharge line, it gives a signal to activate blow- down solenoid valve and so the un load automatically based on pressure seating in microcontroller.

4. Solenoid valve
Solenoid valve is fitted on through the separator tank with blow down and in take valve acctutor. This valve operates on pressure signal, and with it blow down and intake valve also operates. 5. Blow down valve This valve operates on pressure signal, and with it solenoid valve and intake valve also and reduce sump pr below 2 Bar.

OPERATING MODES 1. Start mode
When the compressor is turn On the solenoid valve activated the blow down valve for a set time this reduce the load on motor on starting , this time set till star to delta takes place in motor starting circuit.

2. On load mode (Normal operating mode.)
In this mode solenoid valve de activated and blow down valve close and intake valve opens and compressor start normal working.

3. Un load mode
When the pressure sensor sense the higher pressure set on controller, controller operates solenoid valve, and so blown down valve operates and intake valve close. In this mode compressor running but not making pressure.

4. Standby Mode
When compressor running continue in unload mode more the set time in controller, compressor step running,(motor stopped) and automatically start when pr get down below minimum set level.

Maintenance of Screw compressor