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known historically as infinitesimal calculus, constitutes a major part

of modern mathematics education. It has two major branches,

differential calculus and integral calculus, which are related by the

fundamental theorem of calculus. Calculus is the study of change, in

the same way that geometry is the study of shape and algebra is the

study of operations and their application to solving equations. A

course in calculus is a gateway to other, more advanced courses in

mathematics devoted to the study of functions and limits, broadly

called mathematical analysis. Calculus has widespread applications

in science, economics, and engineering and can solve many problems

for which aIntegral calculus

Calculating volumes and areas, the basic function of integral calculus, can be traced back

to the Moscow papyrus (c. 1820 BC), in which an Egyptian mathematician successfully

calculated the volume of a pyramidal frustum.[1][2]

Greek geometers are credited with a significant use of infinitesimals. Democritus is the

first person recorded to consider seriously the division of objects into an infinite number

of cross-sections, but his inability to rationalize discrete cross-sections with a cone's

smooth slope prevented him from accepting the idea. At approximately the same time,

Zeno of Elea discredited infinitesimals further by his articulation of the paradoxes which

they create.

Antiphon and later Eudoxus are generally credited with implementing the method of

exhaustion, which made it possible to compute the area and volume of regions and solids

by breaking them up into an infinite number of recognizable shapes. Archimedes

developed this method further, while also inventing heuristic methods which resemble

modern day concepts somewhat. (See Archimedes' Quadrature of the Parabola, The

Method, Archimedes on Spheres & Cylinders.[3]) It was not until the time of Newton that

these methods were made obsolete. It should not be thought that infinitesimals were put

on rigorous footing during this time, however. Only when it was supplemented by a

proper geometric proof would Greek mathematicians accept a proposition as true.

In the third century Liu Hui wrote his Nine Chapters and also Haidao suanjing (Sea

Island Mathematical Manual), which dealt with using the Pythagorean theorem (already

stated in the Nine Chapters), known in China as the Gougu theorem, to measure the size

of things. He discovered the usage of Cavalieri's principle to find an accurate formula for

the volume of a cylinder, showing a grasp of elementary concepts associated with the

differential and integral calculus. In the 11th century, the Chinese polymath, Shen Kuo,

developed 'packing' equations that dealt with integration.

Indian mathematicians produced a number of works with some ideas of calculus. The

formula for the sum of the cubes was first written by Aryabhata circa 500 AD, in order to

find the volume of a cube, which was an important step in the development of integral

calculus.[4]

The next major step in integral calculus came in the 11th century, when Ibn al-Haytham

(known as Alhacen in Europe), an Iraqi mathematician working in Egypt, devised what is

now known as "Alhazen's problem", which leads to an equation of the fourth degree, in

his Book of Optics. While solving this problem, he was the first mathematician to derive

the formula for the sum of the fourth powers, using a method that is readily generalizable

for determining the general formula for the sum of any integral powers. He performed an

integration in order to find the volume of a paraboloid, and was able to generalize his

result for the integrals of polynomials up to the fourth degree. He thus came close to

finding a general formula for the integrals of polynomials, but he was not concerned with

any polynomials higher than the fourth degree.[4]

In the 17th century, Pierre de Fermat, among other things, is credited with an ingenious

trick for evaluating the integral of any power function directly, thus providing a valuable

clue to Newton and Leibniz in their development of the fundamental theorem of calculus.

[5]

Fermat also obtained a technique for finding the centers of gravity of various plane and

solid figures, which influenced further work in quadrature.

At around the same time, there was also a great deal of work being done by Japanese

mathematicians, particularly Kowa Seki.[6] He made a number of contributions, namely in

methods of determining areas of figures using integrals, extending the method of

exhaustion. While these methods of finding areas were made largely obsolete by the

development of the fundamental theorems by Newton and Leibniz, they still show that a

sophisticated knowledge of mathematics existed in 17th century Japan.

The Greek mathematician Archimedes was the first to find the tangent to a curve, other

than a circle, in a method akin to differential calculus. While studying the spiral, he

separated a point's motion into two components, one radial motion component and one

circular motion component, and then continued to add the two component motions

together thereby finding the tangent to the curve.[7]

and expressed an astronomical problem in the form of a basic differential equation.[8]

Manjula, in the 10th century, elaborated on this differential equation in a commentary.

This equation eventually led Bhāskara II in the 12th century to develop the concept of a

derivative representing infinitesimal change, and he described an early form of "Rolle's

theorem".[8][9][10]

In the 15th century, an early version of the mean value theorem was first described by

Parameshvara (1370–1460) from the Kerala school of astronomy and mathematics in his

commentaries on Govindasvāmi and Bhaskara II.[11]

In the 17th century, European mathematicians Isaac Barrow, Pierre de Fermat, Blaise

Pascal, John Wallis and others discussed the idea of a derivative. In particular, in

Methodus ad disquirendam maximam et minima and in De tangentibus linearum

curvarum, Fermat developed a method for determining maxima, minima, and tangents to

various curves that was equivalent to differentiation.[12] Isaac Newton would later write

that his own early ideas about calculus came directly from "Fermat's way of drawing

tangents."[13]

The first proof of Rolle's theorem was given by Michel Rolle in 1691 after the founding

of modern calculus. The mean value theorem in its modern form was stated by Augustin

Louis Cauchy (1789-1857) also after the founding of modern calculus.

Greek mathematicians such as Eudoxus and Archimedes made informal use of the

concepts of limits and convergence when they used the method of exhaustion to compute

the area and volume of regions and solids.[14] In India, the 12th century mathematician

Bhaskara II gave examples of the derivative and differential coefficient, along with a

statement of what is now known as Rolle's theorem.

Mathematical analysis has its roots in work done by Madhava of Sangamagrama in the

14th century, along with later mathematician-astronomers of the Kerala school of

astronomy and mathematics, who described special cases of Taylor series, including the

Madhava-Gregory series of the arctangent, the Madhava-Newton power series of sine and

cosine, and the infinite series of π.[15] Yuktibhasa, which some consider to be the first text

on calculus, summarizes these results.[16][17][18]

It has recently been conjectured that the discoveries of the Kerala school of astronomy

and mathematics were transmitted to Europe, though this is disputed.[19] (See Possibility

of transmission of Kerala School results to Europe.)

In the 15th century, a German cardinal named Nicholas of Cusa argued that rules made

for finite quantities lose their validity when applied to infinite ones, thus putting to rest

Zeno's paradoxes.

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