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Info3 Ict Revision

Guide

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Table of Contents
Chapter One: Future Developments......................................................................5
Emerging Technologies....................................................................................... 5
Benefits to Leisure from Technology Advances...................................................6
Potential future uses of ICT.................................................................................6
Implications of future developments of ICT........................................................7
Issues surrounding the rapid development of ICT..............................................7
Chapter 2: Information and Systems.....................................................................8
What is an organisation...................................................................................... 8
Structure of an organisation............................................................................... 8
Pyramid Structures............................................................................................. 9
Horizontal Structures.......................................................................................... 9
How has the development of ICT affected the organisational structure...........10
Activities within an organisation.......................................................................10
Strategic Level of task...................................................................................... 10
Tactical level of task......................................................................................... 10
Operational Level of Task..................................................................................10
Exchanging Information with External Bodies..................................................10
Chapter 3: Types of ICT system........................................................................... 12
Common Ict Systems........................................................................................ 12
Legacy Systems................................................................................................ 12
Back office systems.......................................................................................... 12
Day-to-day working systems............................................................................ 13
Management Information Systems...................................................................13
Enterprise resource planning systems..............................................................13
Customer Relationship Management Systems..................................................13
Decision Support Systems................................................................................ 14
Ecommerce systems......................................................................................... 14
Chapter 4: Managing ICT..................................................................................... 15
Organisation Size.............................................................................................. 15
Information Flow............................................................................................... 15
ICT management and business strategy..........................................................15
Chapter 5 ICT Strategy........................................................................................ 16
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Factors Influencing a Strategy..........................................................................16


Managing Information Assets over time...........................................................16
The Need for a Corporate Strategy...................................................................17
Upgrading Hardware & software.......................................................................17
Standards......................................................................................................... 17
Chapter 6: ICT Policies......................................................................................... 18
Ict Training Policy.............................................................................................. 18
ICT security Policy............................................................................................. 18
ICT procurement Policy..................................................................................... 19
Chapter 7: Legislation.......................................................................................... 20
Impact of Legislation on ICT policies.................................................................20
Developed Legislation...................................................................................... 20
Copyright Designs and Patent Act 1988...........................................................21
Software theft................................................................................................... 21
Health and Safety Legislation...........................................................................21
Freedom of Information Act..............................................................................21
Chapter 8: Developing ICT Solutions...................................................................22
Factors Contributing to a Successful Development..........................................22
Factors that Contribute to an unsuccessful Development................................22
Chapter 9: Developing Methods..........................................................................23
Systems Development Life Cycle.....................................................................23
The Need for Systematic Formal Methods: Project Management......................24
Development Methodologies............................................................................ 25
Chapter 10: Techniques & Tools for System Development...................................26
Business Process Modelling Tools.....................................................................26
Data Modelling Tools......................................................................................... 26
Techniques for Testing...................................................................................... 27
Chapter 11: Introducing large ICT systems into organisations.............................28
Reliability & Testing.......................................................................................... 28
User Acceptance Testing................................................................................... 28
Testing Network Systems..................................................................................28
Installation........................................................................................................ 29
Documentation................................................................................................. 29
Maintenance..................................................................................................... 29
Chapter 12: Backup & Recovery..........................................................................31
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Backup & Recovery Strategy............................................................................31


Online backup................................................................................................... 32
Risk Analysis..................................................................................................... 32
Data recovery Plan........................................................................................... 32
Disaster Recovery & Contingency Planning......................................................32
Planning for Recovery from Disaster................................................................33
Contents of a contingency Plan........................................................................33
Options for recovery......................................................................................... 33
Chapter 13; Training Users..................................................................................34
Types of Training & Methods............................................................................. 34
Chapter 14; Supporting Users..............................................................................35
Support Options for Industry Standard Packages.............................................36
Documentation................................................................................................. 36
Factors to consider when choosing a support option........................................36
Chapter 15: External & internal Resources..........................................................37
Using external services and support.................................................................37
Ways of obtaining services...............................................................................37
Managing internal resources............................................................................ 38
Pre-Release.......................................................................................................... 39
The Vision......................................................................................................... 39
Key quotes about the task................................................................................ 39
Team Hope........................................................................................................ 39
Team Endurance............................................................................................... 40
Pre release notes.............................................................................................. 41
Chapter 15; Internal & External Resources..........Error! Bookmark not defined.

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Chapter One: Future Developments


Emerging Technologies

Personal Digital Assistants: a device acting as an electronic organise,


easy to use and can share information with a PC. A PDA can be used for
Personal Information Management: keeping calendars and managing
appointments/ appointments.

Global- Positioning System (GPS devices).

Smart Phones: a small device that combines mobile phones & PDAs. It
can run applications, use PIM systems, email and use word processing.
Some smartphones have WI-FI.

Mobile Dongles: allow people to use the internet on the go via a USB.

VOIP: Leading to an increased amount of office workers working from


home, allows for conference calls

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Benefits to Leisure from Technology Advances

Digital Photography: Storage and printing of photos using a computer.


Taking photos on mobile phones, the quality has improved through the
development of megapixels. Photos can be deleted: costly using a
disposable camera using film.

Image processing software packages: Modification of images,


changing the brightness, removing red-eye.

Faster Processing speeds: Gaming & Instant messaging

Music: Downloads via the internet, Streaming. The sound is in wave or


analogue form; the digital data needs to be converted into analogue form
and then amplified via a speaker. This conversion is carried out by the
sound card; its quality is determined by the sampling rate (the number of
times a second that a measurement of the sound wave is made and stored
as a number).

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Potential future uses of ICT


The move towards ICT-Based techniques of identification is likely to grow in the
future. Already, many passports contain encoded biometric data of facial
characteristics. Fingertip identification is used to register pupils in some schools.
More and more services are provided online; an increasing percentage of the
population makes the use of these services as a matter of routine. The potential
of the internet provides a challenge to businesses large & small.

Implications of future developments of ICT

Issues surrounding the rapid development of ICT


Social

Digital Divide: people getting left behind due to lack of skills &
resourced. The digital divide is between the rich & poor, physically
unable & able, old & the young and different economic backgrounds.
People missing out on information because of the use of post
instead of emailing.
Online job applications
Exposure to violent video games

Legal

Data Rights management: is a set of technologies that allows


copyright owners of media to ensure they get paid for the use of
their property. DRM uses encryption to protect the content and
authentication systems to make sure that only authorised users are

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able to decrypt the files. Data transmitted over the internet is


scrambled and cant be read by any one who does not have the
correct key. This allows files to be sold online and helps prevent
piracy.
Technical

A greater range of skills is required at different levels. These skills


quickly become outdated and people need retraining.
How technological advances help businesses meet business
objectives.
Older versions of software packages quickly become obsolete.

Ethical

Movements can now be tracked via phones & CCTV


ISPs store the recipients address, subject line and exact time an
email was sent
Government can track all this information: breech of freedom
Phorm: Records a users browsing habits and targets audience with
advertisements

Economic

Businesses need to keep up to date to remain competitive, this is


costly.
Offshoring & cheap labour

Environmental

Growth in phone masts: Some people believe this is a health hazard


Rising level of Co2 emissions, renewable energy.
How previous technology is disposed of or recycled: pressure on
businesses

Chapter 2: Information and Systems


What is an organisation
An organisation is a group of people with a specific purpose.
Activities and tasks are allocated to staff depending on their roles and skills. This
allocation of tasks is called the division of labour. It allows people to specialise
and develop their own knowledge & expertise in a particular group of tasks.
Information needs depend on;

Type or structure

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Scale of the organisation: Global companies have issues with the


national boundries.
Nature of the organisation: Banks, schools, authorities need
different information.
Management style of the organisation: Autocratic (Detailed
breakdowns) & democratic management ( Employee participation)
Tasks in the organisation

Structure of an organisation
Structures determine who is responsible to who, who can make which type of
decision & allow staff to co-ordinate/control their staff; the structure can be
presented within an organisation chart
Span of control: The number of employees who are directly supervised by one
person. Too wide a span of control leads to lack of control & inefficiency.
Chain of command: The path through the levels of management. Instructions
go down the level of authority and problems are referred up the lines to higher
levels. Long lines of communication mean messages can be distorted and take
time to reach their destination.

Pyramid Structures
The pyramid structure is the traditional shape of a structure within a large
business. Roles are clearly defined in a number of layers. At the top is the
managing director or chief executive, further down are the floor staffs: suitable
for centralised decision making by senior staff.

Advantages

Clearly defined authority &


responsibility
Effective use of specialist
managers
Employees loyal to their
department

Disadvantages

Horizontal Structures

Long time to make & implement

These structures have fewer layers and a wider span of control. People within
this structure are directly answerable to the managing director and decision
making power may be delegated.

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Advantages

Greater communication between management and workers


Less burocracy & easier decision making
Employees have more responsibility: more motivation
There are lower costs associated with fewer management levels

Disadvantages

Specialisation: departments may have little to do with each other


Managers can be responsible for several departments and their role isnt
always clear
Control of top management could be weakened as they may have too wide
a span of control
Fewer levels of management usually mean that there are fewer prospects
of promotion

How has the development of ICT affected the organisational


structure
Ict has lead to a flatter structure in order for the business to be able to cope with
the rapid & dynamic changes ICT brings. Ict has also helped provide managers
with the information needed to more easily monitor staff performance and in
some cases ICT has eliminated particular jobs. Middle management jobs have
also been eroded.

Activities within an organisation


Ordering systems: Allow businesses to manage the distribution of goods from
supplier to customer in an automated way which saves time & minimises
overheads. Track order systems allow management to manage & track orders
from their desktops.
Customer support: Consumers have high expectations and good future
support can boost sales. To boost sales a business needs to provide information
on a range of matters i.e. past orders to respond to queries & complains.

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Strategic Level of task


This is the highest level, it consists of upper management. Strategy is the long
term planning and major decision making i.e. whether to open a new factory or
move location.
A management information system can produce projectioernal and external, that
relate to the business. The nature of strategic management means that the
information that is required at this can be very varied in content & timing. One
off information may be needed.

Tactical level of task


This consists of middle management; tactical decisions include which training
courses to offer staff & timetable issues.
Tactical staffs are likely to have a number of operational staff reporting to them:
much of the information they need relates directly to the organisations
performance.

Operational Level of Task


The operational level is the lowest level. This consists of the workforces who are
making the product, taking orders and keeping accounts. These staff may be well
qualified and are closely involved at the productive end of the operation:
decisions may be to order new stock. The information they need must be in a
high level of detail.

Exchanging Information with External Bodies

Customers/ suppliers= extranets showing stock levels, stock and prices.


There will be issues of privacy and security along with this as the business
will not want the person viewing the data to be able to edit it.

Inland revenue= There are a range of taxes for which a company is liable
including PAYE income tax payments for employees, VAT and Corporation
tax that is paid by public limited companies on their profit

Information Commissioner= all personal data held about a data subject


under the data protection act 1998.

Charity Commissioner=
accounts

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Any charity must register and submit published

Chapter 3: Types of ICT system


Common Ict Systems
Name Of the
System &
process
Payroll
System
Can be
outsourced or
managed in
house
electronically/
manually
Personnel
systems

Accounting
Systems
A computer
system will be
used, these
can be
purchased off
the shelf
(SAGE).

Purpose

Information
Stored

Output

Calculates
Payments= Salary,
overtime, holiday,
bonuses and
Dedications=
national insurance,
tax, student loans

The records and


calculations
needed to work
out the payments
and deductions
for every
employee of the
business.

Deals with
recruitment,
induction, training,
disciplining and the
departure of staff.

Data on current
employees skills,
capabilities and
salary. Some
companies hold
photos and
driving licence
certificates.
Money coming in
& out of the
business listing
dates and names.

Each employee receives


a payslip that itemises
the payments and totals
to make the gross
income. The deductions
are also itemised and
subtracted to give the
net income, this is paid
to them.
Statistics such as staff
turnover and abscence,
tracking employee
development, supports
administration courses.

To keep formal
accounts of financial
transactions: to fulfil
legal requirements,
provide an overview
to the management,
keep track of money
coming in & out and
make sure the
accounts reconcile.

A detailed account which


can be used by senior
management to enable
them to make
appropriate decisions
and highlight serious
issues.

Legacy Systems
A legacy system is an existing system that is likely to have been used for many
years, these are usually never replaced because

To replace them would be expensive


To replace them would be disruptive
A new system would not improve the current system

It is vital that any new system can link to legacy systems.

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Back office systems


A system which runs the businesses administration processes which do not
directly deal with customers. An example of a back office system is within a
bank, inside a bank back office systems deal with tasks such as producing
customer statements, calculating interest and updating stock records. The
system could produce management information from the data that is stored.

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Day-to-day working systems


A transaction processing system deals with the routine, day-to-day
transactions of an organisation. They carry out repetitive, routine business
activities such as the sale of goods recording the loan of books in a library or the
sale of goods. As a transaction is carried out, the database records are updated
before another transition is processed, this prevents double booking.
Document approval workflow is when a document is passed between staff to
be reviewed and approved: this is done with insurance claims.
Document management system controls the flow, storage and retrieval of
documents. Many organisations scan in and digitise all documents and store the
digital record in a large database. The physical copies can be stored in a safe,
off-site location as long as they are needed, or if they do not need to be kept
they could be thrown away to save storage space. Accessing physical records
can become a problem if they are misfiled; some important documents are given
stickers that include transponders that allow a filling clerk to locate them. As
more data is created and shared on a daily basis there is a great demand on
keeping it sure and available. Links can be set up to make it easy to cross
reference between documents.

Management Information Systems


These use operational level data to provide management level information.
Within these data is combined from internal & external sources and presented in
an easy-to-read format such as tables or graphs. This information is then used by
senior management to make quick decisions at a strategic or tactical level. An
MIS is usually based on one or more database and allows people at different
levels to access appropriate information in an understandable form.
An Executive information System is a form of MIS. This provides
aggregated information for senior management. These have user-friendly,
graphical interfaces. If a manager clicks on the information displayed they can
dive deeper by using the hotspots. The information then presented often
compares with previous years or estimated budgets.

Enterprise resource planning systems


This is an integrated suite of software applications which support and automate
business processes. It may consist of modules dealing with manufacturing,
shipping, finance, payroll etc. The modules depend on the nature of the business.
This is back office software and is designed to improve overall business
efficiency, reduce money tied in stock and lower costs. ERPS tie together all
functions into one integrated system that has a common user interface.

Customer Relationship Management Systems


This allows a business to collect, update and maintain all its customer data in
one centralised location. The information is accessible to everyone within a
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company who needs customer information. This information is up to date and


can help improve customer service. The aim of installing this is to improve
customer satisfaction, happy customers are likely to shop with the company
again and recommend it to others: this reduces costs, wastage, complaints and
better customer relations.

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Decision Support Systems


This converts raw data into information that can be used to make high quality
decisions and identify problems. A DSS is an interactive application that can
provide him with information in a form that makes the process of decisionmaking easier. A DSS processes data from a business system and outputs it in an
easily understandable form which can include an expert system.
A form of DSS is an executive dashboard, business performance software
allows a manager to make certain decisions very quickly by identifying negative
trends and allocating resources appropriately. They tell the manager the key
information needed to run the company.
A Medical decision support system is used to assist doctors in making clinical
decision and can improve the quality of medical care giving reliable diagnosis
and treatment; this avoids errors that can be made by insufficient knowledge on
behalf of the doctor. These decrease the cost of healthcare by giving a faster
diagnosis and minimising the need for consultations with specialist doctors.

Ecommerce systems
Removes the possibility of double booking and means fewer staff is needed.
Offers a wider pool of customers but postage needs to be paid.

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Chapter 4: Managing ICT


Organisation Size
Ict systems must be managed effectively if the organisation is to gain the most
benefit from them. Usually small organisations have informal systems whereas
large organisations have formal ones. The formal systems need to be carefully
planned in advance and be strictly adhered to. Here is a typical structure;
Managing
Director

Head
of

Head
of

Head of ICT
services
Head of
management
information

Head of
technical
support

Help Desk
Manager
Policies define how to
put a strategy into
action.

Network
Manager

Information Flow
This is the way information moves around an organisation.
Formal information flow is the flow created by procedures of an organisation.
I.e. internal memos, formal meetings, noticeboards and the company intranet.
Informal information flow is not structured but is naturally arising within the
organisation i.e. from phone calls, the office grapevine, stories in the local press,
personal conversation.
An increasing way of communicating is by sending a global mail list to every
employee. If email is tied into proper procedures i.e. an agenda for a meeting
then it is formal information. Another example of formal information is submitting
stationary requests to the supplies department.

ICT management and business strategy


A large organisation is likely to have a chief information officer ad a member of
the companys executive. In a way, the CIO acts as a bridge between the
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business goals of the organisation and the implementation of the ICT solutions
that are needed to see these goals. They will be instrumental in writing the
strategy and overseeing the implementation within the budget.

Chapter 5 ICT Strategy


Factors Influencing a Strategy

Managing Information Assets over time


It is important to be able to predict any likely growth so that planning can be
effective. Substantial growth may mean moving to a new building and employing
new staff who will need to be provided with the appropriate equipment and
network access. With a growing business, there will be an increased load of data
needing to be managed to prevent a build-up and breach of the data protection
act, here are a few options for data management;

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Deleting Records: taking into consideration later customer enquiries


Archiving Records: Storing records offline.
Expanding Storage space

Unstructured data is data such as document files & emails: these need
the same level of protection as other files.

The Need for a Corporate Strategy


Procurement is the acquisition of hardware at the best possible price
for the use of an organisation. Hardware can be purchased outright or
leased. This is important in achieving the objectives of an organisation and
appropriate services can only be given with the appropriate hardware.
Future proofing: Concerns finding ways of making sure a system has a
reasonable life and does not need to be totally replaced too soon. Systems must
be designed to cope with rapid growth and predicated change; changes in
software, increased data storage.

Upgrading Hardware & software

Changes in available devices (Up to date) : flat screens


Software improvements
New software increases the need for more RAM and disk space
Processing Speed
Memory Capacity
Enhanced transfer speed over a network
Higher quality image or printing

Standards
A standard is a common way of doing something. Strategic choices
concerning the purchase of hardware can be affected by standards.
A company might decide to use standard formats for storing business documents
so that they can easily exchange data with other organisations through
Electronic data interchange. The ability to transfer data to and from another
package or platform is known as portability. Without portability data would need
to be re-typed which would lead to wasted time and errors. Portability can only
exist if manufacturers agree to using standards: it is an important sales feature.

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Chapter 6: ICT Policies


Ict Training Policy
Continuing Professional Development (CPD) is a systematic updating and
extending of skills and knowledge relating to the workplace. As the term CPD
implies, development should continue throughout an individuals career
regardless of their age or role. The goal of CPD is to improve personal
performance and enhance career progression.
The training policy should fit in with other policies within the organisation. ICT
training in a company needs to be planned and developed, based on its
objectives. Training is a vulnerable to budget cutting as management sees it as
an expensive luxury that has to be dropped when times are hard, This can lead
to reduction in the amount of training altogether or management may look to
deliver training in different ways i.e. e-learning.
However, if strategy is successful it is important that decisions involving the
ways in which training should be acquired fully take into account the needs of
both the organisation and the individual employee. The training must also be
planned to complement the installation of new hardware and software.
New legislation may bring new training needs and these must be planned for in
advance. New ventures within an organisation may also generate ICT training.
These must also be identified early and planned for. All this can be done through
appraisal.
As employees are becoming more literate, so their training needs are changing
over time. Many people are going to demand further ICT training to develop their
skills further.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

Review the ICT skills gap- carry out a regular review


Review an individuals needs annually
Encourage an atmosphere of on-going ICT learning within an organisation
Build in-time for an employee to consolidate any new skills
Ensure the organisation benefits As much as possible
Take into consideration training costs to new hardware/software purchases
Provide new employees with an induction to ICT systems
Take immediate steps to replace any valuable ICT skills held by an
employee leaving the organisation.

ICT security Policy


If an organisation does not have adequate security then its operations will be at
risk. Knowledge and data are probably the most important aspects of any
organisation. Companies must make sure that the confidentiality, integrity and
availability of their data is maintained at all times;

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Who sees the data?


Has it been corrupted?
Can I access the data when I need it?

External threats= hackers, illegal access, poor security


The policy must aim to;

Prevents misuse
Detect misuse through regular checking
Investigate misuse through monitoring software and audit trails
Prevent unauthorised access
Lay down staff responsibilities in the prevention of misuse
Lay down disciplinary procedures for breaches of security

The policy must be altered when new systems are introduced

ICT procurement Policy


The ways in which hardware and software is obtained for the organisation.
Organisations spend a lot of money on ICT: for the hardware, software and the
people who support it. Any large organisation would have an ICT procurement
policy to ensure that the best use is made of their investment in ICT and that any
systems introduced do benefit the organisation.
Without a centralised policy, as an organisation grows different sections can
develop their own systems that meet their specific needs; they may choose
different hardware platforms and software. This can lead to difficulties making it
harder to transfer data and information because of incompatibilities.
A timescale needs to be laid down for the replacement of hardware. This allows
the managers involved with purchasing equipment to plan ahead as the
replacement costs of hardware can be anticipated. With centralised control, new
technology can be implemented over a reasonable period without having to
change every piece of equipment at the same time.
Within a company, hardware and software procurement should be standardised
to ensure;

Compatibility with existing data


Compatibility with existing hardware
That colleagues can share data when necessary
That they can communicate when necessary
That technical support is available
That legal software licencing requirements are met
That training is available
That the hardware can cope with future demands
Legacy systems are taken into account

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Chapter 7: Legislation
Impact of Legislation on ICT policies
The procedures within a company must reflect the requirements on the
legislation to ensure all laws are being adhered to. If a companys employee
breaks the law when at work, the company is legally responsible as well as the
individual. This impacts on publicity;

Developed Legislation

Data Protection Act 1998

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Copyright Designs and Patent Act 1988


Copyright laws protect the intellectual rights of authors, composers and artists.
They also apply to computer software. When you buy software you do not buy
the program, only the right to use it under terms of the licence. It is illegal to
copy or use software without this licence.
Particular care needs to be taken with this when LANS are used as sufficient
licences for the number of users must have been obtained. This can be done
through network software which keeps track of users of a particular piece of
software and limit the number of concurrent users to the number of licences
held. Laptops should be spot checked to ensure the software installed has been
correctly authorised and employees cannot take a copy of the software home.
An inventory should be kept that holds all the details of all software installed on
computers within the organisation and the licences that are held. Such
centralisation also allows reliable, known suppliers to be used and makes the
checking that no unauthorised software had been installed a relatively straight
forward matter.

Software theft
Is divided into two categories: piracy and counterfeiting.
Piracy occurs when more copied of software are made then the number of
licences purchased. Many users do this and dont realise that this is illegal and
can sometimes do it unwittingly.
Counterfeiting is when software is illegally copied for sale to other users. The
software cannot be registered, so there is no technical support or upgrade
available. An added problem is that such software carries a high risk of carrying a
virus.

Health and Safety Legislation


Management should encourage and give recognition to a trade union health and
safety representative who could act on and report the concerns of colleagues.
These should be given thorough training. It is the managements responsibility to
ensure risk analysis is carried out on a regular basis.

A health and safety policy should be given to all staff.


The role of a health and safety officer, who checks that the appropriate
laws are compiles with, must be established. The safety officer should
review health and safety issues.
Regular training should be undertaken top inform and remind
Regular workstation inspections should be carried out against the health
and safety criteria
Procedures should be in place to replace faulty equipment in a timely
manner
Inspections should take place about ergonomic factors

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Should establish a policy that specified the HCI requirements for software
design that should be adhered to when new systems are developed.

Freedom of Information Act


On receiving a request for information, publish authorities must acknowledge
and log it. The request must be answered within 20 working days. The
organisation needs a system in place to help this. Any organisation covered by
the Act must establish an active publication scheme. This must be approved by
the Information commissioner and regular be approved/updated.

Chapter 8: Developing ICT Solutions


Factors Contributing to a Successful Development

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Factors that Contribute to an unsuccessful Development

Chapter 9: Developing Methods


Systems Development Life Cycle

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1. Preliminary:
Looks at the need for a system, may
be initiated if a manager feels the
system can be improved
2. Feasibility
Will the new system work?
Will it save the company money?
Does it comply with the law?
Will it solve the problem?
Can it be built in time?
3. Analysis
Finding out about the current
system and investigating
requirements: use DFD to represent
the current system. Draw up
deliverables.
4.

Design
determines how the requirements specification is implemented. It involves
breaking the problem down into smaller sub-problems. A specification is
drawn up in sufficient detail for the programmers to create the system.
Clear timescales are needed.

5.

Construction
The stage when the system is produced by the development of programs
or customisation of software packages. Programs are coded, tested and
documented. It is vital the work is monitored carefully, and that timescales
are adhered to.

6.

Testing
Test data should test that all branches of the program perform to
specification. Data should be used to test extreme cases. Any
discrepancies should be investigated and corrected if necessary
Types are;
Module: Each part of the system is tested.
Functional: Sometimes called black box testing, testing for given inputs.
System; Called alpha- the developers test the system to make sure
requirements are met.
User: Sometimes called beta- in which potential users test the software
on their real data. Beta testing is done to make sure it does the right job, it
is thoroughly tested.
Operational: In which software is tested in its normal operating
environment.

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7.

Installation & Conversion


Hardware must be purchased, staff trained and user documentation can
be written.
Direct Changeover, this is scrapping the old system and immediately
replacing it with the new one. This means no time is wasted but there is
higher risk of something going wrong, this is normally carried out at quiet
times i.e. after closing.

8.

Review & Maintenance


Once a system is in full operation it is monitored to check that it has met
the objectives set out in the original specification. Inevitably, changes will
need to be made: this is called systems maintenance. More
programming hours are spent on maintaining existing systems than
producing new ones.
Tests of performance should be made, such as speed tests. Surveys can be
used to check if information flows are correct and the quality of the
information.

The Need for Systematic Formal Methods: Project


Management

Agreeing to deliverables that state exactly what the system must do,
when it will be done by and what it will cost
Gaining approval to proceed
Creating a project plan
Setting Milestones- Dates
Achieving Sign off- The client signing to say the project is complete

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Development Methodologies

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Chapter 10: Techniques & Tools for System Development


Investigating and Recording Techniques

Business Process Modelling Tools


Diagrams are much easier to understand than the same information in text
format.

Gantt Charts

Business Process Modelling Notation: Graphical Representation of


workflow within a business. Represents complex processes in intuitive
diagrams. Software can be downloaded to do this for free online.

Structured Systems Analysis and Design Methodology: Developed


to provide a standard methodology for developing UK government IT
projects. It uses structured techniques and tools to study data flows,
models and life cycles.

Data Modelling Tools

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Entity- Relationship Diagrams: used in deigning relational databases.


They show the relationships between the tables. One to many
relationships is shown.

Data Flow Diagrams: Show the movement of data through the whole
organisation. This is used in systems analysis to show how data moves
through a system. External sources are called external entities. They are
people such as suppliers etc.
Symbols
External
Entity:

Process:

Data Store:
D2
Flow of
Data:

Level Zero
Context
This is a high
level overview of
the system.
These start with
a rectangle in
the middle of a
piece of paper
which represents
the system.
Next to it, oval
shapes represent
the external
entities.
Arrows show the
data flows.

Level One

Level Two

The DFD is broken


down by dividing the
processes into
individual detailed
processes.
This shows data
in/outflow and the
associated processes.
Each process refers to
a separate part of the
system.
Data flow cannot
directly go from one
store to an external
entity: only by process.

These just
simply break
down the
system even
further into the
various
processes
involved. Each
process has its
own DFD.

There should be a data store for each entity


Information Flows show data and not physical items.
Entities dont link directly to data stores.
What goes in must come out.

Techniques for Testing

A test harness is a collection of software and test data configured to


perform specific tests on a module of a program by running it under
the different conditions, comparing actual outputs with expected
outputs.

Volume Testing tests that the new system works with large volumes
of data. After a long period of use, data files may become very large.
Volume testing tests that this does not affect the performance of the
software.

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Scalability Testing; Tests that a system will still perform as required


even if the system has to deal with an increased workload.

Prototyping means producing a scaled down, simple version of the


software which is used to show how the system will work. Can be
constructed and tested in a short time.

Multiplatform Testing: Ensures the software can be sued with a


variety of hardware specifications and operating systems: i.e. new
browsing software with Windows XP & Vista. Important with Legacy
Systems.

Simulated Environments: With various inputs and outputs can be


used to test software in as realistic an environment as possible.

Chapter 11: Introducing large ICT systems into


organisations
Reliability & Testing
A large system has many users; it is particularly important with these large
systems that they always operate as expected. When a new system is
developed, extensive testing must be planned to ensure reliable operation. The
testing will be structured and involve teams of people: it is the most expensive
part of the development of software.

Developer Testing

Takes stage at many parts of the development. The developers use a


range of tests to make sure their code performs as required by the
specification.

This can include methods such as a code walkthrough. This is a formal


testing technique where the program code is worked through by a group
with a small set of test cases; as this is done the state of program
variables is manually monitored. This form of testing checks that the
internal program logic is correct. This is an example of white-box
testing. This concentrates on how the programs carry out what is
expected.

The second round of testing is Black box testing; based on what the
software should do rather than how it is done. Black box testing is carried
out by the developers. Functional testing is an example of this: checks the
features, operations and erroneous actions.

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Automated testing employs tools which execute tests without manual


intervention.
Compatibility testing checks that the software is compatible with the
other parts i.e. hardware & operating systems.
A software release is the initial generation if a new or upgraded
application.

User Acceptance Testing


Done after the release and is not usually carried out by the client to determine
whether or not to accept a software product. These criteria are likely to be
agreed upon at the start of the project and real data is likely to be used. Test
cases are created to ensure proper coverage of all possible scenarios during
testing and realistically should be as similar to the real-world environment as
possible.

Testing Network Systems


Tests the effect of running the system on the current network and its structure
i.e. too much traffic on the network and slowed responses when using a WAN.

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Installation

Documentation

System Documentation: is produced for the programmers who will


maintain the system. This will consist of structure and other diagrams,
annotated program codes and records relating to testing.

User Documentation: is designed to enable the users to operate the


system. It can consist of procedure manuals that describe how to perform
business tasks; tutorials that teach a user how to use components of the
system and reference manuals that allow a user to research specific
function.

Maintenance
Can account for up to 80% of programming costs.
The cost of maintenance is affected by;

Its structure
The number of Users
The number of undiscovered errors

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The quality of documentation


The skills of the maintenance team members

The job of maintenance can be outsourced to an external organisation.

Maintenance releases are the versions of a software package released after


the initial release. They include changes to the original software. Very often a
software patch is produced. A software patch is a mini program, a brief piece of
code that will make the changes to overcome a specific problem.

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Chapter 12: Backup & Recovery

Backup & Recovery Strategy


The aim of producing backups is to make sure that if data is lost from a system
that it can be recovered and the system is restored to its original state. The loss
might occur because of;

A hardware fault
Accidental deletion
A natural Disaster
Deliberate actions i.e. terrorism

The strategy should cover;

The best time to back up


How often to back up
The type of backup to use
Whose responsibility it is
The media that will be used
Where the media will be kept
A log of backups taken
Testing the recovery of backed up data

RTO= the period of time after an outage within the systems and data must be
restored.
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Online backup
Disk mirroring may be used to store identical data on two different disks.
Whenever data is stored, it is stored on two disks. If the main disk fails, identical
data is available on the second disk. The mirror disk does not have to be located
in the same place as the original disk.
RAID; Redundant array of inexpensive disks
Is a fault-tolerant system which uses a set of two or more disk drives instead of
one disk to store data. By using two disks to store the same data, a fault in a disk
is less likely to affect the system.

Risk Analysis
Risk analysis plays an important part in counteracting potential threats to ICT
systems. The continuing operation of any organisation depends on its
managements awareness of potential disasters and their ability to develop a plan
that will minimise disruptions and ensure successful recovery.
It involves:
1.
2.
3.
4.

Identifying each element of an information system


Placing a value on that element
Identifying any threats to that element
Assessing the likelihood of threats occurring.

Businesses should consider the potential threats to the data, the vulnerability of
the data and the value of the data to the business. Risk analysis compares the
vulnerability to threats and the cost of potential losses.

Data recovery Plan


Several levels need to be considered;

Partial or full loss of data


Loss of data & applications software
Loss of data, applications software & operating system
Loss of everything.

A recovery plan needs to be put together in place for every level of failure; this
needs regular testing.

Disaster Recovery & Contingency Planning


There is much that can go wrong when using an ICT-based system, it is important
that any potential problems are identified before they occur and appropriate
measures are taken to minimise their occurrence. This is known as disaster
avoidance.

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A fault tolerant computer has extra hardware, such as memory chips, processors
and disk storage in parallel. Special software routines or built-in self-checking
logic detects any hardware failures and automatically switches to the backup
device. Detectors can be placed with CO2 extinguishers; fireproof safes can be
available for disks & backup tapes.
Uninterruptible power supplys and standby generators prevent loss of
power supply.

Planning for Recovery from Disaster


A contingency plan or disaster recovery plan sets out what to do to recover from
a failure. It is a planned set of actions that can be carried out if things go wrong
so that disruption is minimised. The contingency plan or disaster recovery plan
sets out what to do to recover from a failure.
The contingency plan covers equipment, data, staff and business functions. The
plan chosen depends on;

The size of an organisation & its systems


The method of processing
The length of time before the alternative system needs to be up and
running
The financial losses sustained
The cost of the backup & recovery options
The likelihood of the disaster happening

Contents of a contingency Plan

Alternative computer hardware


Backup Procedures
Recovery Procedures
Staff Responsibilities
Alternative Working Location

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Options for recovery

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Chapter 13; Training Users


Types of Training & Methods

Method
Face-to Face or
instructor led: On
the job or in
external classroom
courses

Advantages

Disadvantages

Questions can be answered


Immediate feedback/help
More interaction

On the job

In-house courses

Time spent observing


colleague
Realistic setting
Lower cost is run by
employees
Tailored needs are met
Employees do not have to
travel
Learn when & where they
want
Immediate access to help
Convenience
Some are free/ others
cheap

E-learning

Online Tutorials

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Expensive
Has to be planned in
advance
Things can be forgotten if
not practised
Often difficult to learn when
dealing with everyday
stresses of the job
The managers may not
have the specialist
knowledge
May lack facilities
Lack of employee
enthusiasm
Demanding of network
resources
See above

On screen help

Paper based
material

Provided by software
package (F1)
Natural language: user
friendly
Availability, Quick, free
Step by step instructions
Work at their own pace

Vary in quality, not a good


source
Hard to follow

Chapter 14; Supporting Users


On-site help

Call-out Support

When a software house supplies and


installs a large, new, bespoke system for
an organisation, considerable support is
likely to be needed for the first few
weeks. New users will need guidance
from the software houses development
team in its use. At this stage,
unforeseen errors may occur in the
software and modifications may need to
be mad. This is the most expensive
option

Less wide-ranging, cheaper method of


support. A service will make a technician
ready to go on-site to an organisation.
It can be expensive for the software
house to provide call-out support but its
crucial that a customer does not have to
wait too long for help to arrive;
otherwise confidence will be lost in the
product.

Telephone Help Desks

Email Support

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May be available during business hours.


It is likely that the software will have a
large number of operators.
These are sometimes monitored using
call logging giving as unique call
reference number. A computerised
database of known errors and their
solutions, together with frequently
asked questions could take the form of
an expert system.
Number of calls per hour, response
time, time taken to resolve and number
of repeat calls are often recorded.

If a problem is not time-critical, email


could be used as an alternative. This has
the advantage of soothing out demand.
A priority system can be used to ensure
more critical enquiries are answered
first. Operators spend their time finding
solutions without telephone interruption.
Lacks human interaction, instant
messaging can be used to resolve this.

User Guides

On-Screen Help

Typically provided free with software.


May come in a hard or soft copy form.
May describe how to install the
programs and explain how to perform
common tasks.

Wizards can be provided to make


complex procedures within the package
easier by breaking down the tasks into
clear manageable steps.
This helps to prevent user error during
data input and is more suitable for
novice users.

Online Support

Package Credibility

Information can be kept very up to date


and users can access patches to fix
errors.
Online self-help groups are available i.e.
a bulletin board, discussion forum or a
thread. Other users will share their
knowledge to help others.

It is not cheap for companies to provide


and staff a customer help desk. The
provision of user support reassures
customers about the product which
makes them more likely to buy it.
A poor quality product could result in
thousands of expensive help-desk calls.

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Support Options for Industry Standard Packages

Online
Faqs
Newsletters
Support articles
Bulletin boards
User groups: users get together to solve problems ( for complex software)

Documentation
Documentation consists of written material that provides information on how to
use a software package. The documentation quality is often a considered
criterion when choosing software. Different types of user will have differing
documentation needs. The technical support team will need documentation that
provides installation instructions using disk peripheral devices whereas a data
entry clerk will need functional instructions.

Factors to consider when choosing a support option

Skill level: Experienced users need less help with everyday functions
Whether the new system is different from the one it replaces
How critical the system is: The more critical it is, the more fast expertise
is needed
The number of employees: Access to external help desks if small numbers
The patterns of work: Night shift, call out work available

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Chapter 15: External & internal Resources


Using external services and support

Outsourcing
Outsourcing is the subcontracting of aspects of the business to an external
organisation or agency. Functions which may be outsourced include testing
& payroll or backup. Reasons for outsourcing include cost or for the
expertise. Outsourcing can also improve e on overall company
performance.

Off shoring
When an organisation purchases services in one country to be
provided in another, this is called off shoring. Most offshoring places
take place in locations such as Africe & China. This improves
businesses profitability. An example of this is the HSBC bank has set
up a section in India where it has 2000 employees working on back
office operations.

Service level agreement;


A service level agreement is a contract that is made between a company
obtaining a service and the company providing it. It specifies the nature,
scope and quality that is needed to be provided.

Bulk printing
Specialist companies provide a service to carry out bulk printing, for
example a payroll and billing system. These companies have high speed,
high quality printers that enable them to print at much higher speeds ,
they also have equipment which folds and places documents in
envelopes.

Ways of obtaining services

Contracting: Way of acquiring human resources, space or equipment.


Individuals who work at freelance can be hired on a specific task.
Contractors are often used to take on a role in developing a new system or
in testing.

Leasing
A lease is an agreement whereby one person or organisation hires a
particular asset. Hiring equipment or office space avoids the capital cost
that is involved in owning it. The hire costs require regular payments from,

45 | P a g e

income. Standard software can be leased; the costs cover any


maintenance and upgrades that become available.

Managing internal resources


Hardware:
Any organisation should have a procurement policy that specifies how decisions
concerning hardware acquisition should be decided. Hardware can be purchased
outright or leased. Once the hardware arrives on site, details should be entered
into an inventory. An inventory is an itemised catalogue of all hardware held by
an organisation. It is likely to be held in database management software and is
very important that they are kept up to date. Data recorded includes

Serial number
Description
Supplier
Date of purchase
Purchase Price
Location
Maintenance Agreements

Software
if bespoke software is used, very careful management of software development
will be needed. Training and reference manuals will need to be kept up to date
whenever changes are made. When off the shelf software is purchased: licence
agreements must be kept.
Communication Resources
An organisation may have WAN lines, leased lines or may have access to a WAN
via the internet. The hardware that is required for a network infrastructure will
need to be set up and maintained.
The type of communications link that an organisation uses is important to the
quality and speed of communications.
Consumables
these are the regular minor items that need to be purchase for an Ict system
such as paper & ink. An organisation will need to manage the reordering &
distribution of consumables appropriate trustworthy suppliers need to be
contacted.
Facilities
Organisations need buildings to house their computer hardware and provide
office space for employees. These can also be owned or leased. Rooms that
house alot of electronic equipment may need to have air conditioning installed
and cables need to be safely installed.

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People
While most people use ICT as part of their job, there are some roles which are
specifically related to ICT systems. A large organisation will have its own ICT
support team of technicians who will manage the network, organise backups,
install & monitor use of software and hardware. There is likely to be a staffing
structure with specific areas of responsibility and chain of command. Support
staff will need to be provided with appropriate training on a regular basis.

Pre-Release
Overview notes

Scarlett Price wants to create and operate a large youth community centre
A derelict warehouse has been purchased as the venue
She wants to recruit teams of graduates; Designers, Administrators &
Professionals.
These will be recruited via a TV program
The ICT team selection is about to begin
She has grown up in the town of the warehouse

The Vision

Multi-purpose hall on the ground floor


Gym, squash courts, cafe and meeting rooms on the second floor
The upper floor will be turned into accommodation for staff and guests

Key quotes about the task

I want lots of ideas about the ICT that could be used to help us succeed
Dont give me an insecure ICT facility where data can be lost
Useful if we could track and record every business trader
Speak to the administration team

Team Hope
How they approached the task

Established the business goals with the administration team and produced
a joint document
Obtained information about the available finance from this
Interviewed the administration team to determine the functionality.
Discussed the project with a focus group: Youth group leaders. Market
research
Formulated a strategy based on requirements and available finance

What they recommend

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A package system: Within budget and would fit requirements


A CRM facility: meet the need to record customer details
A booking system: Hotel rooms & functions
Accounting System for the administration team
Mailing system: post forthcoming events

Provision of ICT

No internal: all outsourced. A SLA agreement will be made


Five year contract: better deal with a seven year
ICT manager needed to monitor the work of the outsourcing
Wireless facility

Pros

Cons
They listened to Scarlet prices
vision
Discussed & acknowledged
budget
Interviewed the User
Discussed with focus group
Taken into consideration each
aspect of the business including
bookings
Noted the fact that a bespoke
system is out of scope
Considered a SLA agreement

Alot of systems in place


No time frame specified
Outsourced contract: may find the
company isnt reliable
The systems may not work together
as they are on different platforms,
unless a software house is
purchased

Team Endurance
How they approached the task

Established the business goals without the administration team


Researched online
Asked for help from a university professor
Formulated a strategy by themselves

What they recommend

Bespoke system; meets requirements precisely

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The system will record all contacts, including mobile phone information
and details of social networking sites used.
Used to contact past customers and promote future events

Provision of ICT

Recruit 12 staff
All in-house
Computer suite in warehouse
Off site Data store

Pros

Cons
Off site data store provides
protection against disasters
Researched online

Did not consider Budget: too many


staff, expensive bespoke system
Formulated goals without the user
Did not consider a timeframe: two
years to implement
Did not consider the space for this,
Scarlet wants a community centre
and not an office
Did not consider the data protection
act (Up to date, Relevant)
Asked for help: lack of coordination

Pre release notes


1. What is a business Administrator
somebody who presides over the daily operations of an organisation.
They oversee all the functions relating to managing a business i.e.
planning, controlling, staffing and organising. They work closely with all
the departments and sometimes with external bodies.
2. What is meant by an ICT professional
Somebody who works within the industry in ICT, they may have specific
qualifications and expertise in the development, maintenance and
support of ICT systems.
3. What makes an effective team
Leadership, co-ordination, mix of skills, agree to standards, effective
communication, adequate planning
4. ICT facilities
The physical infrastructure that provides ICT hardware i.e. RC14 is a
room of 30 PCs as a facility. Or a room which holds the servers & the

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network equipment
5. What is an ICT system
A setup consisting of hardware, software, data, information and the
people who use it
6. Factors for a successful project
Management involvement, End user involvement, Effective Teamwork
7. Factors for unsuccessful Development
Inadequate analysis, Unrealistic Project plan, Insufficient Monitoring,
Lack of standards, Loss of control
8. Threats to data
Physical Failure, Hardware, Software, Telecoms, Computer Crime/Abuse,
Invalid Data/ Inaccuracy, System Design Failure.
9. How to Secure Data
Password, Biometrics, Train Staff, Lock Doors/windows, alarms,
encryption software, audit trailing
10.What is a business Goal
The overall aims of the business i.e. to cater for 300000 youths over 3
years
11.Publicise
Online advertising, Social Networking, Posters, Gather addresses & mail
merge, Video on java, emailing and texts to existing customers about
forthcoming events.
12.What is an ICT strategy
The strategy is what helps a business achieve its goals, it often defines
what the business needs to do to be successful, influences on the
strategy are;
Goals, Available Finance, Legacy Systems, Geography of clients,
Business fulfilment, Structure
13.Methods of communication
Formal= the flow created by procedures of an organisation i.e memos,
presentations
Informal is unstructured and naturally arising i.e from phone calls.
The flows need to be planned so that the information arrives where and
when it is needed- the size, type and structure depend on this.
A hierarchical structure requires careful planning otherwise information
can become distorted.

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14.What is a fully integrated Bespoke System


A bespoke system is a system tailored to the users needs- these are
expensive and time consuming to make.
15.Package Software
Multiple software programs that work together from the same platform
and therefore sold together. Also known as a software suite. Off the shelf
software which is already set. Advantages: dont need an in-house
development team, cheaper option, time savings
16.CRM
Customer relationship management software allows a business to
collect, update and maintain all its data within one centralised location.
Customer details could be recorded and the information is accessible to
everyone within the company that needs customer information.
Up to date information helps provide better service
Increases customer satisfaction
Reduces costs, wastage and complaints

17.Booking Systems
Is a form of transaction processing system, it is used where the input
needs to be dealt with straight away. Each transaction is processed
individually in line with the main system.
18.MIS
Uses operational-level data to provide management level information.
The data can come from both internal & external sources and is
combined in a n easy to read understandable way. This information is
used by senior management to make strategic decisions. It is usually
based on one or more database and allows people access at different
levels.
An executive information system is a form of MIS; this provides
aggregated information for senior management. The manager can dive
deeper by using hotspots. The information presented is often compared
with previous years.
19.Outsourcing
The moving of a particular process or function to an external
organisation i.e. bulk printing. A business may not have the facility to
print out large graphics or business cards and an external company
could provide the outsourcing for this.

Service level agreement


A service level agreement is a contract that is made between a company
obtaining a service and the company providing it. It specifies the nature,

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scope and quality that is needed to be provided.


20.Wireless Internet access
Dont physically need a pc. Accessing systems on the internet without
having to be physically connected by a cable connect; they connect via
a wireless hub.
21.Data storage
An off-site data store is where all the data is stored externally- this could
be provided by another company or be done via cloud computing
22.Strategy should cover
When
How often
Type
Testing
Who
Which Media
Where
23.What is hot desking
This is where employees do not have their own desks, but are in a
different space each day? Hot desking relies on advanced systems with
flexible technology.

Recommendations
ERP to integrate the information which incorporates all the different sections, this
will make the data easier to share between different. As it is already integrated
the system is already designed to be able to share rather than needing to
duplicate.
Training= Outsourcing the training. Add that as part of the provision of the
software.
Hot desking wirelessly, eliminates the need for a large office and gives more
space for the community centre activities.

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24.Security Policy
First of all a security policy will be a document that, if you start work for
an organisation, you will be expected to read and understand and
probably sign.
It can include many statements or rules that you, as an employee,
should follow and be aware of. The primary aim of a security policy is to
ensure the security and privacy of the data within an organisation.
Some possible inclusions:
No user can use their own USB memory stick on any work-based PC or IT
system.
All users must adopt strong passwords that are at least 8 characters in
length and a combination of letters, numbers and symbols.
No user shall disclose their password to anyone, including work
colleagues.
Users are expected to change their password monthly.
No user shall leave their PC/workstation unattended without logging off
or locking it.
Users are expected to encrypt data when it is being transferred to
another organisation - this includes email. They must use the company
provided encryption program.
The company reserves the right to monitor, for security purposes, any
employee's email or file access.
The employee has a responsibility to check his or her virus software is
up to date and where they suspect it isn't they must report it
immediately to the IT support staff.

25.Acceptable Use policy


An Acceptable Use Policy may well include rules that cover how an
employee should use email and the internet. Some companies are
stricter than others - ask yourself would you like it if you were a boss and
you were paying your workers to go on Face book, browse for a new pair
of shoes or simply email their mates. This also reduces the bandwidth of
the network and can cause congestion and slowness.

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