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Technical Report and

Preliminary Economic Assessment of the


Yaoure Gold Project, Cte dIvoire
AMARA MINING PLC

Effective Date: 25 April 2014

Prepared By

Bruce Van Brunt


Group Technical Manager
Amara Mining Plc
In accordance with the Requirements
of National Instrument 43-101

PRELIMINARY ECONOMIC ASSESSMENT


YAOURE GOLD PROJECT CTE DIVOIRE
APRIL 2014

D ATE AN D SI GN ATUR E P AGE


This report has been prepared and signed for by the following Qualified Persons (within the meaning
of National Instrument 43-101). The effective date of this report is 25 April 2014.
Signed the 25 April 2014

________________
Bruce Van Brunt
Fellow AusIMM, Member SME
Group Technical Manager, Amara Mining PLC.

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APRIL 2014

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APRIL 2014

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PRELIMINARY ECONOMIC ASSESSMENT


YAOURE GOLD PROJECT CTE DIVOIRE
APRIL 2014
EX E CUTI V E SUM M ARY

Amara Mining Plc (Amara) presents the results of a Preliminary Economic Assessment
(PEA) of its 100% owned Yaoure gold project (Yaoure Project, Yaoure or Project) in
Cte dIvoire, West Africa.
The PEA supports a large scale operation, with favourable metallurgy and low
operating costs, which yields a strong financial performance at USD 1,250 per ounce
gold and offers significant scope for future project optimisation.
The study evaluated throughput scenarios of 5, 6.5 and 8 Mt/a and two different two
different sized open pit scenarios. An option for a small scale oxide heap leaching
operation has also been included in the report. The highlights of the Headline and Base
cases are provided below, with the results of the cases in the summary Table 1.
HIGHLIGHTS OF THE 8 MT/A HEADLINE CASE:

The PEA establishes the robust economic and technical viability of the Headline
Case 8 million tonne per annum operation at Yaoure, producing 325,000 ounces
per annum (average) over 12 years of mine life.

At an 8% discount rate, the post-tax net present value of the project is


USD 688 million at a gold price of USD 1,250 per ounce.

Post-tax cumulative net cash flow is USD 1,510 million, generating an IRR of 32%
and payback period of 2.4 years at USD 1,250 per ounce gold.

Mining from a single open pit using owner-operated equipment, with a strip ratio of
5.2:1, and a conventional whole ore leach processing plant, result in operating cash
costs (excluding royalties) over the life of mine of USD 598 per ounce.

Pre-production capital costs are USD 408 million, with sustaining capital over the
life of mine of USD 146 million, setting All-In Costs (including capital) of USD 792
per ounce.

Yaoures resilience to lower gold prices is demonstrated by the project achieving an


IRR of 23% at a lower gold price of USD 1,100 per ounce.

HIGHLIGHTS OF THE 6.5 MT/A BASE CASE:

The PEA establishes similar economics and the technical viability of the Base
Case 6.5 million tonne per annum scenario at Yaoure, producing 279,000 ounces
per annum (average) over 10 years of mine life.

At an 8% discount rate, the post-tax net present value of the project is


USD 613 million at a gold price of USD 1,250 per ounce.

Post-tax cumulative net cash flow is USD 1,260 million, generating an IRR of 33%
and payback period of 2.6 years at USD 1,250 per ounce gold.

Open pit mining from a single pit using owner-operated equipment with a strip ratio
of 4.9:1 and a conventional whole ore leach processing plant, provide operating
cash costs (excluding royalties) over the life of mine of USD 537 per ounce.
Executive Summary I

PRELIMINARY ECONOMIC ASSESSMENT


YAOURE GOLD PROJECT CTE DIVOIRE
APRIL 2014

Pre-production capital costs are USD 357 million, with sustaining capital over the
life of mine of USD 89 million, setting All-In Costs (including capital) of USD 743 per
ounce.

The Base Case also shows resilience to lower gold prices as demonstrated by the
project achieving an IRR of 25% at a lower gold price of USD 1,100 per ounce.

A conventional whole ore leach plant has been designed to process Yaoures
substantial sulphide resource, achieving a recovery rate of 95%. Project economics are
assisted by the low energy cost of 9 c/kWh, a high gold recovery, and a strip ratio of
around 5:1. These factors result in moderate operating cash costs and provide quick
payback and strong cash flows from the operation. The results strongly support
continued investment in the project
The project demonstrates solid economics over a range of scales and gold price
scenarios, providing a number of options for development. The PEA explored a number
of processing and scale scenarios, and has also identified further opportunities for
optimisation work in the following areas:

Staged development approach to reduce up-front capital;


Reduced operating and capital costs through improvements in mine and
infrastructure layout utilising project topography;
In-fill drilling to improve strip ratio and resource size;
Selective mining of the CMA zone to increase average processed grade;
Increased size of mining equipment to reduce operating costs;
SAG milling to reduce processing costs, subject to confirmatory test work;
Other processing routes such as pre-concentration via flotation to be explored to
see if cost savings possible; and
Kalsaka/Sega heap leach plant relocation for smaller oxides starter operation.

Executive Summary II

PRELIMINARY ECONOMIC ASSESSMENT


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APRIL 2014
Table 1: Key Project Parameters Table 1.1:
5 Mt/a

USD 800/oz
Pit Design

6.5 Mt/a
BASE
CASE
USD 800/oz
Pit Design

6.5 Mt/a

USD 950/oz
Pit Design

8 Mt/a
HEADLINE
CASE
USD 950/oz
Pit Design

Annual Production (Mt)

5.0

6.5

6.5

8.0

Mine Life (Yrs)

13

10

15

12

Ore Mined (Mt)

63.9

63.9

94.6

94.6

Average Grade (g/t)

1.53

1.53

1.39

1.39

Waste Mined (Mt)

314

314

492

492

Total Material (Mt)

378

378

587

587

Strip Ratio (t w:o)

4.9

4.9

5.2

5.2

3.1

3.1

4.2

4.2

Mining

Processing
Contained gold (Moz)

95.0

95.0

95.0

95.0

Gold Produced (Moz)

3.0

3.0

4.0

4.0

Annual Average Output (koz)

216

279

265

325

265

282

282

317

66

75

80

92

464

613

554

688

25

33

26

32

CIP Recovery (%)

Pre-Production Capital
Processing & Infrastructure
Mining (USD m)

Results
NPV (post-tax at 8%, USD m)
IRR (%)
Payback (Yrs)
Gold Price (USD/oz)

3.4

2.6

3.2

2.4

1,250

1,250

1,250

1,250

Executive Summary III

PRELIMINARY ECONOMIC ASSESSMENT


YAOURE GOLD PROJECT CTE DIVOIRE
APRIL 2014
CONTENTS
1.0

SUMMARY ............................................................................................................................... 1-1


1.1
Property Description and Location .............................................................................. 1-2
1.2
Geology and Mineralization ........................................................................................ 1-3
1.3
Exploration .................................................................................................................. 1-3
1.4
Process Development ................................................................................................. 1-5
1.5
Mineral Resource Estimates ....................................................................................... 1-6
1.6
Mining Methods ........................................................................................................... 1-7
1.6.1 Mine Development and Operations ............................................................... 1-7
1.7
Recovery Methods ...................................................................................................... 1-7
1.8
Project Infrastructure ................................................................................................... 1-9
1.9
Environmental ........................................................................................................... 1-11
1.10
Economic Analysis .................................................................................................... 1-11
1.10.1 Project capital costs ..................................................................................... 1-11
1.10.2 Operating costs ............................................................................................ 1-14
1.10.3 Economic analysis results ............................................................................ 1-15
1.11
Conclusions and recommendations .......................................................................... 1-16
1.11.1 Risks and opportunities ................................................................................ 1-17
1.11.2 Recommendations ....................................................................................... 1-18

2.0

INTRODUCTION.................................................................................................................... 2-19
2.1
Terms of Reference .................................................................................................. 2-19
2.2
Technical Report Preparation ................................................................................... 2-19
2.2.1 Sources of Information ................................................................................. 2-20
2.2.2 Site Visits ..................................................................................................... 2-20
2.3
Units and Currency ................................................................................................... 2-21
2.4
Glossary and Abbreviation of Terms......................................................................... 2-21

3.0

RELIANCE ON OTHER EXPERTS ....................................................................................... 3-24


3.1
General Statement .................................................................................................... 3-24
3.2
Sources of Information .............................................................................................. 3-24

4.0

PROPERTY DESCRIPTION AND LOCATION...................................................................... 4-26


4.1
Location ..................................................................................................................... 4-26
4.2
Property Description.................................................................................................. 4-26
4.3
Ownership and Title .................................................................................................. 4-27

5.0

ACCESSIBILITY, CLIMATE, LOCAL RESOURCES, INFRASTRUCTURE AND


PHYSIOGRAPHY .................................................................................................................. 5-30
5.1
Accessibility............................................................................................................... 5-30
5.2
Physiography ............................................................................................................ 5-31
5.3
Climate ...................................................................................................................... 5-32
5.4
Infrastructure ............................................................................................................. 5-32
5.5
Local Resources ....................................................................................................... 5-33

6.0

HISTORY ............................................................................................................................... 6-34


6.1
Exploration and Mining ............................................................................................. 6-34
6.2
Historical Mineral Resource Estimates ..................................................................... 6-35

7.0

GEOLOGICAL SETTING AND MINERALIZATION ............................................................... 7-36


7.1
Regional Geology...................................................................................................... 7-36
7.2
Local Geology ........................................................................................................... 7-37
7.3
Project Geology......................................................................................................... 7-37
7.3.1 Stratigraphy .................................................................................................. 7-37
7.3.2 Intrusions ...................................................................................................... 7-37
7.3.3 Description of Lithologies ............................................................................. 7-40
7.3.4 Structure ....................................................................................................... 7-44
7.3.5 Metamorphism ............................................................................................. 7-47
7.3.6 Alteration ...................................................................................................... 7-47
Contents i

7.4

7.5
7.6

PRELIMINARY ECONOMIC ASSESSMENT


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APRIL 2014
7.3.7 Deposits ....................................................................................................... 7-47
Mineralized Zones ..................................................................................................... 7-47
7.4.1 Yaoure Central ............................................................................................. 7-48
7.4.2 CMA North-Central ...................................................................................... 7-48
7.4.3 CMA South ................................................................................................... 7-49
7.4.4 CMA South-East .......................................................................................... 7-49
7.4.5 Cross-cutting Quartz Veins .......................................................................... 7-49
7.4.6 Cross sections and Relogging Exercise ...................................................... 7-49
Metallogeny and Paragenesis ................................................................................... 7-55
Summary of Field Characteristics of the Mineralization ............................................ 7-56

8.0

DEPOSIT TYPES ................................................................................................................... 8-57

9.0

EXPLORATION...................................................................................................................... 9-59
9.1
Coordinates, Datum Grid Control and Topographic Surveys ................................... 9-59
9.2
Summary of Exploration Activity ............................................................................... 9-59
9.3
Geological Mapping .................................................................................................. 9-59
9.4
Remote Sensing and Satellite Imagery..................................................................... 9-62
9.5
Geophysics ............................................................................................................... 9-62
9.6
Surface Geochemistry............................................................................................... 9-65
9.6.1 Stream Sediment Sampling ......................................................................... 9-65
9.6.2 Outcrop Sampling ........................................................................................ 9-66
9.6.3 Soil Geochemistry ........................................................................................ 9-67
9.6.4 Trenching and Pitting ................................................................................... 9-67
9.7
Geotechnical and Hydrology ..................................................................................... 9-70
9.8
Petrology, Mineralogy and Other Research Studies ................................................. 9-70

10.0

DRILLING ............................................................................................................................. 10-71


10.1
Summary of Drilling Activity .................................................................................... 10-71
10.2
Collar Coordinates .................................................................................................. 10-71
10.3
Downhole Surveys .................................................................................................. 10-73
10.3.1 Rotary Air Blast Drilling (RAB) ................................................................... 10-73
10.4
Yaoure Sulphide Project Drill Programme .............................................................. 10-73
10.5
RC Drilling ............................................................................................................... 10-74
10.6
Diamond Core Drilling Programme Phases ............................................................ 10-75
10.7
Diamond Core Drilling Methods .............................................................................. 10-78
10.7.1 Significant Drill Intersections ...................................................................... 10-82

11.0

SAMPLE PREPARATION, ANALYSES AND SECURITY................................................... 11-84


11.1
Sampling Methods Approach .................................................................................. 11-84
11.1.1 Bulk Density Measurements ...................................................................... 11-84
11.1.2 Soil and Trenches ...................................................................................... 11-87
11.1.3 RC Drillhole Sampling ................................................................................ 11-87
11.1.4 Diamond Drill Core Samples...................................................................... 11-87
11.2
Sample Preparation and Analysis ........................................................................... 11-88
11.2.1 Soil Samples .............................................................................................. 11-88
11.2.2 RC and RAB Hole Samples ....................................................................... 11-88
11.2.3 Diamond Core Hole Samples (DDH) ......................................................... 11-88
11.3
Chain of Custody and Security ............................................................................... 11-89
11.4
Sample and Assay QA/QC ..................................................................................... 11-90
11.4.1 QA/QC Procedures and Submission - Drilling Phases 1-3. ....................... 11-90
11.4.2 QA/QC Procedures - Drilling Phases 1-3 .................................................. 11-90
11.4.3 Inter-Laboratory Checks Drilling Phases 1-3 ............................................. 11-91
11.4.4 SGS vs. Intertek Inter-Laboratory Check Drilling Phases 1-3 ................... 11-91
11.4.5 Intertek vs. ALS Inter-Lab check Drilling Phases 1-3 ................................ 11-94
11.4.6 Blanks Drilling Phases 1-3 ......................................................................... 11-96
11.4.7 Certified Reference Materials (CRM / SRM) Drilling Phases 1-3 .............. 11-97
11.4.8 Field Duplicate Samples Drilling Phases 1 through 3 ................................ 11-99
11.4.9 Screen Metallic Fire Assays ..................................................................... 11-101
Contents ii

11.5
11.6

11.7

PRELIMINARY ECONOMIC ASSESSMENT


YAOURE GOLD PROJECT CTE DIVOIRE
APRIL 2014
Independent Review of QA/QC Results Drilling Phases 1-3 ................................ 11-102
QA/QC Results, Phase 4 ...................................................................................... 11-102
11.6.1 QA/QC Submissions ................................................................................ 11-103
11.6.2 Results ..................................................................................................... 11-104
11.6.3 Coarse Duplicate...................................................................................... 11-106
11.6.4 Pulp Duplicates ........................................................................................ 11-108
11.6.5 Blanks ...................................................................................................... 11-110
11.6.6 Cross Laboratory Checks ........................................................................ 11-110
Conclusions ........................................................................................................... 11-112

12.0

DATA VERIFICATION ....................................................................................................... 12-114


12.1
Data verification by Amara .................................................................................... 12-114
12.1.1 Site Visit ................................................................................................... 12-114

13.0

MINERAL PROCESSING AND METALLURGICAL TESTING.......................................... 13-116


13.1
Test Work Summary ............................................................................................. 13-116
13.1.1 Phase 1 tests April 2012 ....................................................................... 13-116
13.1.2 Leach variability tests December 2012 ................................................. 13-117
13.1.3 Phase 2 scoping tests May 2013 .......................................................... 13-118
13.1.4 Phase 3 tests November 2013.............................................................. 13-119
13.1.5 Summary .................................................................................................. 13-121
13.2
Process Options .................................................................................................... 13-121
13.2.1 Comminution ............................................................................................ 13-121
13.2.2 Pre-concentration ..................................................................................... 13-122
13.2.3 Leaching, adsorption and elution ............................................................. 13-123
13.2.4 Heap leaching .......................................................................................... 13-124

14.0

MINERAL RESOURCE ESTIMATES ................................................................................ 14-125


14.1
Background ........................................................................................................... 14-125
14.2
Drill Hole Data ....................................................................................................... 14-125
14.2.1 Assay Data ............................................................................................... 14-126
14.2.2 Mineralization Envelope ........................................................................... 14-126
1.1
Geologic Data and Geologic Model ...................................................................... 14-128
14.2.3 Oxidation .................................................................................................. 14-130
14.2.4 Final Estimation Domains ........................................................................ 14-131
14.3
Compositing and Exploratory Data Analysis ......................................................... 14-135
14.3.1 Topography .............................................................................................. 14-137
14.4
Block Model ........................................................................................................... 14-138
14.5
Resource Estimation Strategy and Parameters .................................................... 14-140
14.6
Bulk Density Evaluation ........................................................................................ 14-141
14.7
Grade Capping and Indicator Statistics ................................................................ 14-142
14.7.1 Indicator Statistics .................................................................................... 14-143
14.8
Variography ........................................................................................................... 14-143
14.8.1 Gold Variograms ...................................................................................... 14-148
14.9
Grade Estimation .................................................................................................. 14-150
14.9.1 Estimation Procedures ............................................................................. 14-150
14.9.2 Post-processing MIK and IMOK estimates .............................................. 14-150
14.9.3 Model Validation....................................................................................... 14-152
14.10 Resource Classification ........................................................................................ 14-153
14.11 Mineral Resource and Grade-Tonnage ................................................................ 14-155

15.0

MINERAL RESERVE ESTIMATES ................................................................................... 15-157

16.0

MINING METHODS ........................................................................................................... 16-158


16.1
Pit Optimization ..................................................................................................... 16-158
16.1.1 Whittle model ........................................................................................... 16-158
16.1.2 Input parameters ...................................................................................... 16-158
16.1.3 Optimization Results ................................................................................ 16-159
16.2
Mine Design .......................................................................................................... 16-160
Contents iii

16.3

16.4

16.5
16.6

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APRIL 2014
16.2.1 Lithology ................................................................................................... 16-161
16.2.2 Geotechnical Evaluation .......................................................................... 16-161
16.2.3 Final Pit Designs ...................................................................................... 16-163
16.2.4 Oxide (heap leach) pit designs ................................................................ 16-168
Mine Schedule ...................................................................................................... 16-169
16.3.1 Schedule Cases ....................................................................................... 16-169
16.3.2 Base case - USD 800 Pit Design, 6.5 Mt/a scenario ............................... 16-170
16.3.3 Other whole ore leach cases ................................................................... 16-171
16.3.4 Oxide case ............................................................................................... 16-171
Open Pit Mine Operation ...................................................................................... 16-172
16.4.1 Equipment ................................................................................................ 16-172
16.4.2 Drill & Blast ............................................................................................... 16-172
16.4.3 Loading .................................................................................................... 16-172
16.4.4 Haulage .................................................................................................... 16-173
16.4.5 Ancillary Equipment ................................................................................. 16-173
Manpower ............................................................................................................. 16-173
16.5.1 Staff .......................................................................................................... 16-174
Mine Layout ........................................................................................................... 16-174

17.0

RECOVERY METHODS .................................................................................................... 17-176


17.1
Sulphides Tank Leach ....................................................................................... 17-176
17.1.1 Crushing ................................................................................................... 17-176
17.1.2 Milling ....................................................................................................... 17-176
17.1.3 Leaching ................................................................................................... 17-176
17.1.4 Adsorption ................................................................................................ 17-177
17.1.5 Elution and Regeneration ........................................................................ 17-177
17.1.6 Electrowinning and Smelting .................................................................... 17-177
17.1.7 Tailings Management ............................................................................... 17-177
17.1.8 Reagents .................................................................................................. 17-178
17.2
Oxides - Heap Leach ............................................................................................ 17-180
17.2.1 Crushing and Agglomeration ................................................................... 17-180
17.2.2 Heap Leaching ......................................................................................... 17-180
17.2.3 Solution Recovery .................................................................................... 17-181
17.2.4 Adsorption ................................................................................................ 17-181
17.2.5 Desorption ................................................................................................ 17-182
17.2.6 Electrowinning and Smelting.................................................................... 17-182

18.0

PROJECT INFRASTRUCTURE ........................................................................................ 18-184


18.1
Tailings Management Facility ............................................................................... 18-184
18.1.1 Site options study ..................................................................................... 18-184
18.1.2 Design criteria .......................................................................................... 18-193
18.1.3 General layout .......................................................................................... 18-194
18.1.4 Embankment fill material .......................................................................... 18-196
18.1.5 Depth Capacity Evaluation and Staged Construction .............................. 18-196
18.1.6 Tailings deposition ................................................................................... 18-198
18.1.7 Seepage collection ................................................................................... 18-198
18.1.8 Drainage Management ............................................................................ 18-198
18.1.9 Basal Liner ............................................................................................... 18-199
18.1.10 Closure ..................................................................................................... 18-199
18.1.11 Recommendations ................................................................................... 18-199
18.2
Water Supply......................................................................................................... 18-200
18.3
Heap Leach Design............................................................................................... 18-200
18.3.1 Site optimization ....................................................................................... 18-200
18.3.2 Design criteria .......................................................................................... 18-201
18.3.3 Solution management .............................................................................. 18-202
18.3.4 Solution control ........................................................................................ 18-202
18.3.5 Solution Collection ................................................................................... 18-202
18.3.6 Solution Corridor ...................................................................................... 18-202
Contents iv

18.4
18.5

PRELIMINARY ECONOMIC ASSESSMENT


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18.3.7 Emergency discharge .............................................................................. 18-203
18.3.8 Process ponds ......................................................................................... 18-203
18.3.9 Closure ..................................................................................................... 18-203
Power Supply ........................................................................................................ 18-204
18.4.1 Consultations between Amara and CIE ................................................... 18-205
Access ................................................................................................................... 18-208

19.0

MARKET STUDIES AND CONTRACTS ........................................................................... 19-210


19.1
Market Study ......................................................................................................... 19-210
19.1.1 Refining Charges, Gold Pricing & Revenue ............................................. 19-210
19.2
Contracts ............................................................................................................... 19-210

20.0

ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES, PERMMITTING AND SOCIAL OR COMMUNITY IMPACT20-211


20.1
Introduction ........................................................................................................... 20-211
20.2
Critical Discussion and analysis ............................................................................ 20-211
20.2.1 Licences and Authorisations .................................................................... 20-211
20.2.2 Water Resources/Water use .................................................................... 20-213
20.2.3 ARD Issues .............................................................................................. 20-214
20.2.4 Flora and Fauna ....................................................................................... 20-214
20.2.5 Air Quality................................................................................................. 20-215
20.2.6 Noise ........................................................................................................ 20-215
20.2.7 Land acquisition and compensation issues ............................................. 20-216
20.2.8 Resettlement ............................................................................................ 20-216
20.2.9 Power and Energy ................................................................................... 20-216
20.2.10 Road Accesses and diversions ................................................................ 20-217
20.2.11 Abandoned equipment ............................................................................. 20-217
20.2.12 Illegal small scale mining operations ....................................................... 20-218
20.2.13 Social Investments ................................................................................... 20-218
20.2.14 Cultural heritage ....................................................................................... 20-218
20.3
Conclusion and Recommendations ...................................................................... 20-218
20.3.1 Recommendations ................................................................................... 20-219

21.0

CAPITAL AND OPERATING COSTS ................................................................................ 21-220


21.1
Processing and Infrastructure Capital Estimates .................................................. 21-220
21.1.1 Estimate Structure.................................................................................... 21-220
21.1.2 Estimate Basis ......................................................................................... 21-221
21.1.3 Estimation Method ................................................................................... 21-225
21.1.4 Qualifications and Clarifications ............................................................... 21-227
21.1.5 Processing and Infrastructure Capital Cost Summary ............................. 21-228
21.2
Mining Capital Estimates ...................................................................................... 21-233
21.2.1 Estimate Basis ......................................................................................... 21-233
21.2.2 Mining Equipment Fleet ........................................................................... 21-233
21.2.3 Sustaining capital ..................................................................................... 21-234
21.2.4 Mining capital costs summary .................................................................. 21-234
21.2.5 Oxide (heap leach) capital estimates ....................................................... 21-235
21.3
Capital cost summary............................................................................................ 21-235
21.4
Processing Operating Costs Estimate .................................................................. 21-236
21.4.1 Estimate Basis ......................................................................................... 21-236
21.4.2 Reagents and Consumables.................................................................... 21-236
21.4.3 Processing Operating Costs Estimate Summary..................................... 21-237
21.5
Mining Operating Costs Estimates ........................................................................ 21-238
21.5.1 Estimate Basis ......................................................................................... 21-238
21.5.2 Mining operating cost estimate summary ................................................ 21-243
21.5.3 Oxide (heap leach) mining operating cost estimate................................. 21-244
21.5.4 Other General and Administration costs .................................................. 21-244

22.0

ECONOMIC ANALYSIS ..................................................................................................... 22-246


22.1
Evaluation Method ................................................................................................ 22-246
22.1.1 Model Assumptions .................................................................................. 22-246
Contents v

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22.1.2 Evaluation Results ................................................................................... 22-248
22.1.3 Sensitivity ................................................................................................. 22-252
22.1.4 Summary and discussion of scenarios .................................................... 22-253
23.0

ADJACENT PROPERTIES ................................................................................................ 23-254

24.0

OTHER RELEVANT DATA AND INFORMATION ............................................................. 24-255


24.1
Project development and implementation ............................................................. 24-255
24.1.1 Preliminary Feasibility Study (PFS) ......................................................... 24-255
24.1.2 Definitive Feasibility Study (DFS) ............................................................ 24-256
24.1.3 Front End Engineering and Project Execution ......................................... 24-256

25.0

INTERPRETATION AND CONCLUSIONS........................................................................ 25-257


25.1.1 Conclusions .............................................................................................. 25-258
25.1.2 Risks ........................................................................................................ 25-258
25.1.3 Opportunities ............................................................................................ 25-260

26.0

RECOMMENDATIONS ...................................................................................................... 26-262


26.1
Exploration ............................................................................................................ 26-262
26.2
Metallurgy/process Recommendations ................................................................. 26-263
26.3
Mining recommendations ...................................................................................... 26-264

27.0

REFERENCES ................................................................................................................... 27-265

T ABLE S
Table 1: Key Project Parameters ............................................................................................................ III
Table 1.1: Scenarios studied in the PEA .............................................................................................. 1-1
Table 1.2: Yaoure Total Mineral Resource, as at 1 December 2013.................................................... 1-6
Table 1.3: Material quantities contained in USD 800 & USD 950 Pit Designs ..................................... 1-7
Table 1.4: Pre-production Capital Cost Estimates - Process & Infrastructure .................................... 1-12
Table 1.5: Sustaining Capital Cost Estimates - Process & Infrastructure ........................................... 1-12
Table 1.6: 1.6 Mt/a Oxide Circuit (Heap Leach) Capital Cost Estimates ............................................ 1-12
Table 1.7: Capital Cost Estimates - Mining ......................................................................................... 1-13
Table 1.8: Total Capital Cost Estimates - Summary ........................................................................... 1-13
Table 1.9: Operating Cost Estimates .................................................................................................. 1-14
Table 1.10: Unit Cash Cost Estimates LOM .................................................................................... 1-15
Table 1.11: Fiscal Assumptions .......................................................................................................... 1-15
Table 1.12: Key Financial parameters by case ................................................................................... 1-16
Table 1.13: Base case NPV (USD m) & IRR sensitivity to discount rate and gold price .................... 1-16
Table 2.1: Glossary and Abbreviation of Terms.................................................................................. 2-21
Table 3.1: Report Authors ................................................................................................................... 3-25
Table 4.1: Mineral Tenure Information ................................................................................................ 4-27
Table 4.2: Coordinates of the Exploration Licence (EXPL 168) ......................................................... 4-28
Table 4.3: Coordinates of the New Exploration Licence (EXPL 397) ................................................. 4-29
Table 10.1: Summary of Drilling from 2009 to 2013 ......................................................................... 10-72
Table 10.2: Drilling Excluded from Resource Estimation .................................................................. 10-74
Table 10.3: Yaoure Diamond Drill Programme Phases .................................................................... 10-75
Table 10.4: Proportion of Core Sizes in Diamond Drilling ................................................................ 10-79
Table 10.5: Yaoure Intersections (> 50 m g/t) ............................................................................... 10-83
Table 11.1: In situ bulk dry densities by lithology and weathering code ........................................... 11-84
Table 11.2: Intertek Inter-Laboratory Check of SGS CRMs .......................................................... 11-91
Table 11.3: Summary Statistics of Check Assays - SGS vs. Intertek ............................................... 11-92
Table 11.4: Summary of Inter-Laboratory Check Intertek and ALS ............................................... 11-95
Table 11.5: Analysis of Certified Reference Materials at SGS and Intertek (All Rocklab Samples) 11-98
Table 11.6: Summary Statistics of Original Assays vs. Field Duplicate Assays ............................... 11-99
Table 11.7: Commercial Standards Characteristics ....................................................................... 11-103
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Table 11.8: Yaoure Phase 4 Diamond Drilling - Descriptive Statistics of Coarse Duplicates ........ 11-107
Table 11.9: Yaoure Phase 4 Diamond Drilling - Descriptive Statistics of Pulp Duplicates ............. 11-109
Table 11.10: Yaoure Phase 4 Diamond Drilling ALS vs. Intertek Descriptive Statistics ........... 11-111
Table 13.1: Cyanidation Variability Test Results ............................................................................ 13-117
Table 13.2: Cyanidation Grind/Extraction Test Results .................................................................. 13-118
Table 13.3: Gravity Product Leaching Test Results ....................................................................... 13-119
Table 13.4: Falcon/Mozley Product Leaching Test Results ............................................................ 13-120
Table 13.5: Flotation Variability Test Results .................................................................................. 13-120
Table 13.6: Leach Type Test Results ............................................................................................. 13-120
Table 13.7: Leach Variability Test Results ...................................................................................... 13-121
Table 13.8: Relative costs of process options (at 5 Mt/a) ............................................................... 13-123
Table 14.1: List of Available Drill holes, Survey, Assay and Lithology Intervals ............................. 14-125
Table 14.2: Assay Intervals Inside 0.1 g/t grade shell; Statistics are length-weighted ................... 14-128
Table 14.3: Original and Simplified Geologic Codes. The second row shows the 11 Simplified Codes.
For a complete explanation of the Original codes, see W. Bonds report (2013b). ... 14-129
Table 14.4: Eleven Simplified Geologic Codes and their description ............................................. 14-130
Table 14.5: Rationalization of Weathering Codes into Oxide-Sulphide Domains........................... 14-131
Table 14.6: Final Geologic Codes that define Gold Estimation Domains ....................................... 14-133
Table 14.7: Length-weighted statistics, gold assays, 8 main units, below Base of W3 (sulphides) only14-135
Table 14.8: Length-weighted statistics, 2m gold Composites, 8 main units, below Base of W3
(sulphides) only .......................................................................................................... 14-136
Table 14.9: Model Dimensions and Cell Sizes ............................................................................... 14-139
Table 14.10: Model Fields and Codes ............................................................................................ 14-139
Table 14.11: Indicator Thresholds and Statistics, Domains FR+AC; and CV+EXT+INT+OTH ...... 14-143
Table 14.12: Indicator Thresholds and Statistics, Domains QV; AL+ALSH; and SH+ALFR .......... 14-143
Table 14.13: Search Parameters used for Gold and Indicator Estimates ...................................... 14-150
Table 14.14: Yaoure Total Mineral Resource ................................................................................. 14-155
Table 16.1: Coordinate limits and block size of the Whittle model ................................................. 16-158
Table 16.2: Whittle optimization results .......................................................................................... 16-159
Table 16.3: Resource quantities contained in USD800 & USD950 Pit Designs, at 0.5g/t cut-off .. 16-165
Table 16.4: Material quantities contained in USD 800 & USD 950 Pit Designs ............................. 16-166
Table 16.5: Primary CIP Scenarios scheduled ............................................................................... 16-169
Table 16.6: Base case 6.5 Mt/a CIP mining schedule .................................................................... 16-170
Table 16.7: Summary of CIP Cases scheduled tonnages .............................................................. 16-171
Table 16.8: Project Manning Base Case ..................................................................................... 16-173
Table 18.1: TMF Site Options Environmental Base Data ............................................................... 18-186
Table 18.2: TMF Environmental Ranking Scoring Criteria ............................................................. 18-187
Table 18.3: TMF Site Option Environmental Ranking .................................................................... 18-189
Table 18.4: TMF Site Option Technical Ranking Base Data Plant Option 1 ............................... 18-191
Table 18.5: TMF Site Option Technical Ranking Base Data Plant Option 2 ............................... 18-191
Table 18.6: TMF Site Option Technical Ranking Process Plant Option 1 ................................... 18-192
Table 18.7: TMF Site Option Technical Ranking Process Plant Option 2 ................................... 18-192
Table 18.8: TMF Site Option Overall Ranking Process Plant Option 1 ....................................... 18-193
Table 18.9: TMF Site Option Overall Ranking Process Plant Option 2 ....................................... 18-193
Table 18.10: CIE proposed power costs as of 22 March 2012 ....................................................... 18-206
Table 18.11: CIE proposed power costs as of 17 March 2014 ....................................................... 18-207
Table 18.12: Power connection Options ......................................................................................... 18-207
Table 21.1: Process Plant Mobile Equipment Fleet ........................................................................ 21-223
Table 21.2: Sulphides Plant and Infrastructure Capital Cost Estimate ........................................... 21-228
Table 21.3: Oxides Plant Capital Cost Estimate 1.6 Mt/a ............................................................ 21-230
Table 21.4: Schedule of Sustaining Capital Expenditure - Sulphides Plant 6.5Mt/a ................... 21-231
Table 21.5: Schedule of Sustaining Capital Expenditure - Oxides Plant ........................................ 21-232
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Table 21.6: Sulphides Plant Closure Cost ...................................................................................... 21-232
Table 21.7: Oxides Plant Closure Cost ........................................................................................... 21-232
Table 21.8: Pre-production capital Mining Fleet .......................................................................... 21-233
Table 21.9: Sustaining capital Mining Fleet (LOM) ...................................................................... 21-234
Table 21.10: Mining Capital Cost Estimates Summary .................................................................. 21-235
Table 21.11: Total LOM Capital Cost Estimates - Summary .......................................................... 21-235
Table 21.12: Operating Cost Summary 6.5 Mt/a Sulphide Plant ................................................. 21-237
Table 21.13: Operating Cost Summary 5 Mt/a Sulphide Plant .................................................... 21-238
Table 21.14: Operating Cost Summary 8 Mt/a Sulphide Plant .................................................... 21-238
Table 21.15: Operating Cost Summary Oxide Plant .................................................................... 21-238
Table 21.16: Loading Equipment Parameters ................................................................................ 21-241
Table 21.17: Haulage parameters .................................................................................................. 21-242
Table 21.18: Truck Cycle Parameters ............................................................................................ 21-242
Table 21.19: Annual haulage requirements Base case ............................................................... 21-242
Table 21.20: Mining operating cost estimates summary ................................................................ 21-243
Table 21.21: G&A charges included in Mining & Processing costs ................................................ 21-244
Table 21.22: Other G&A charges .................................................................................................... 21-244
Table 22.1: Scenarios included in economic analysis .................................................................... 22-246
Table 22.2: Key assumptions in the economic evaluation .............................................................. 22-246
Table 22.3: Fiscal Assumptions ...................................................................................................... 22-247
Table 22.4: Sunk capital assumptions ............................................................................................ 22-247
Table 22.5: Summary results by Project case ................................................................................ 22-248
Table 22.6: Cash cost breakdown by Project case ......................................................................... 22-249
Table 22.7: Base case (6.5 Mt/a, USD 800 Pit Design) discounted cash flow model .................... 22-250
Table 22.8: Base case NPV (USD m) & IRR sensitivity to discount rate and gold price ................ 22-252
Table 22.9: Base case NPV (USD m) & IRR sensitivity to CAPEX ................................................ 22-253
Table 22.10: Base case NPV (USD m) & IRR sensitivity to OPEX ................................................ 22-253
Table 22.11: Base case NPV (USD m) & IRR sensitivity to gold production* ................................ 22-253
Table 26.1: Yaoure Infill Drilling Cost Estimates ............................................................................. 26-262
FIGURES
Figure 1.1: Project Location .................................................................................................................. 1-2
Figure 4.1: Location Map Yaoure Gold Project ................................................................................... 4-26
Figure 4.2: Yaoure Gold Project Land Tenure: Exploration Licences ................................................ 4-29
Figure 5.1: Location of the Yaoure Gold Project ................................................................................. 5-30
Figure 5.2: Yaoure Exploration Licence: Topography and Drainage .................................................. 5-31
Figure 5.3: Yaoure Gold Project - Typical Vegetation and Terrain: Looking North ............................ 5-32
Figure 5.4: CIE Hydroelectric Power Station, Kossou ........................................................................ 5-33
Figure 6.1: BRGM Gold-in-Soil Anomalies and Structural Trends...................................................... 6-35
Figure 7.1: Geological Map of Cte dIvoire and surrounding countries ............................................. 7-36
Figure 7.2: Simplified Geological Map of the Yaoure Area ................................................................. 7-38
Figure 7.3: Geology Map of the Yaoure Gold Deposit ........................................................................ 7-39
Figure 7.4: Oxidation of possible Granodiorite, Yaoure Central North Pit .......................................... 7-40
Figure 7.5: Oxidized Pillow Basalt, Yaoure Central South Pit ............................................................ 7-42
Figure 7.6: Polymict Volcaniclastite with Felsic to Intermediate Matrix .............................................. 7-42
Figure 7.7: Basaltic Autolithic Volcaniclastite ...................................................................................... 7-43
Figure 7.8: Mafic Lapilli Tuff with Alteration Rims around Lapilli ........................................................ 7-43
Figure 7.9: Granodiorite with Mafic Xenoliths ..................................................................................... 7-44
Figure 7.10: Fresh Porphyry with Plagioclase and Mafic Phenocrysts ............................................... 7-44
Figure 7.11: Interpreted Structures in the Vicinity of the Yaoure Gold Deposit .................................. 7-45
Figure 7.12: PNG Reinterpretation of Magnetic and Radiometric Data .............................................. 7-46
Figure 7.13: Drill Section 777680 mN (7500 mN local) after relogging .............................................. 7-50
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Figure 7.14: Original Drill Section 777680 mN (7500 mN local) section from May 2013 NI 43-101
Technical Report ............................................................................................................ 7-51
Figure 7.15: Simplified Drill Section 777680 mN (7500 mN local) ..................................................... 7-52
Figure 7.16: Drill Section 776680 mN (6500 mN local) after relogging .............................................. 7-53
Figure 7.17: Simplified Drill Section 776680 mN (6500 mN local) ..................................................... 7-54
Figure 7.18: Key for Major Units from Relogging Exercise ................................................................. 7-55
Figure 8.1: Geology Map of West Africa showing Gold Deposits ....................................................... 8-57
Figure 9.1: Map Showing Prospects near to the Yaoure Gold Deposit .............................................. 9-60
Figure 9.2: Geological Mapping - Yaoure Central North (Prospect 4) Pit. Level 215 mRL ................ 9-61
Figure 9.3: Composite Natural Colour Image over the Yaoure Mine Site .......................................... 9-63
Figure 9.4: Remote Sensing Interpretation Simplified Geology of Exploration Licence Area ......... 9-64
Figure 9.5: Aeromagnetic Survey - Analytical Signal of the Total Magnetic Intensity ........................ 9-65
Figure 9.6: Results of Stream Sediment Sampling Showing Anomalous Catchment Areas .............. 9-66
Figure 9.7: Results of Soil Sampling Throughout the Exploration Licence ......................................... 9-68
Figure 9.8: Soil Sampling Results in the Vicinity of the Yaoure Gold Deposit .................................... 9-69
Figure 9.9: UCC Normalized Plots Mineralized Samples ................................................................... 9-70
Figure 10.1: Diamond Core Drilling Rig: CMA North (Infilled) Pit ..................................................... 10-75
Figure 10.2: Yaoure Sulphide Drilling Phases and Locations ........................................................... 10-76
Figure 10.3: Yaoure Sulphide Project Diamond Drillhole Traces ..................................................... 10-81
Figure 10.4: Marking the Bottom of a Run for Core Orientation ....................................................... 10-82
Figure 11.1: Check Densities, BV vs. Amara, Yaoure. ..................................................................... 11-85
Figure 11.2: Cumulative Relative Difference Plot, Check Densities, BV vs. Amara, Yaoure. .......... 11-86
Figure 11.3: Cumulative Frequency Plot, Check Densities, BV vs. Amara, Yaoure......................... 11-86
Figure 11.4: Correlation Plot - SGS vs. Intertek................................................................................ 11-92
Figure 11.5: QQ Plot - SGS vs. Intertek ............................................................................................ 11-93
Figure 11.6: HARD Plot - SGS vs. Intertek ....................................................................................... 11-93
Figure 11.7: Histogram of Relative Percentage Difference SGS vs. Intertek ................................ 11-94
Figure 11.8: Scatter Plot - Intertek vs. ALS....................................................................................... 11-95
Figure 11.9: Quantile-Quantile (QQ) Plot - Intertek vs. ALS ............................................................. 11-96
Figure 11.10: HARD Plot - Intertek vs. ALS ...................................................................................... 11-96
Figure 11.11: Results of Blank Control Samples .............................................................................. 11-97
Figure 11.12: Field Duplicate Correlation Analysis ........................................................................... 11-99
Figure 11.13: Field Duplicate Analysis - Mean Pairs vs. Relative Difference ................................. 11-100
Figure 11.14: Field Duplicate HARD Analysis ................................................................................ 11-101
Figure 11.15: Original Fire Assay vs. Metallic Screen Fire Assay (All Data) .................................. 11-101
Figure 11.16: Original Fire Assay vs. Metallic Screen Fire Assay (with 3 Outliers Removed) ....... 11-102
Figure 11.17: ROCKLABS OXA89 Plot .......................................................................................... 11-105
Figure 11.18: ROCKLABS 0XE106 Plot ......................................................................................... 11-105
Figure 11.19: ROCKLABS OXI96 Plot ............................................................................................ 11-105
Figure 11.20: ROCKLABS SI64 Plot ............................................................................................... 11-106
Figure 11.21: ROCKLABS SL61 Plot .............................................................................................. 11-106
Figure 11.22: Yaoure Phase 4 drilling - Scatter Plot of Coarse Duplicates .................................... 11-107
Figure 11.23: Yaoure Phase 4 Diamond Drilling - QQ Plot of Coarse Duplicates .......................... 11-108
Figure 11.24: Yaoure Phase 4 Diamond Drilling HARD Plot of Coarse Duplicates .................... 11-108
Figure 11.25: Yaoure Phase 4 Diamond Drilling - Scatter Plot of Pulp Duplicates ........................ 11-109
Figure 11.26: Yaoure Phase 4 Diamond Drilling Quantile-Quantile Plot of Pulp Duplicates ....... 11-110
Figure 11.27: Yaoure Phase 4 Diamond Drilling HARD Analysis of Pulp Duplicates ................. 11-110
Figure 11.28: Yaoure Phase 4 Diamond Drilling ALS vs. Intertek Assay Plot ............................. 11-111
Figure 11.29: Yaoure Phase 4 Diamond Drilling ALS vs. Intertek QQ Plot .............................. 11-112
Figure 11.30: Yaoure Phase 4 Diamond Drilling ALS vs. Intertek HARD Plot ......................... 11-112
Figure 13.1: Phase 1 Test Bottle Roll Kinetic Extraction Curve ...................................................... 13-117
Figure 14.1: Modelling Boundary and Constrained Drilling Data .................................................... 14-126
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Figure 14.2: Perspective view of 0.1 g/t Gold Grade Envelope and Drill holes, looking from SW . 14-127
Figure 14.3: E-W Section: Initial Grade Shell and Final Mineralized Shells, Section 776,880 ....... 14-127
Figure 14.4: Cross Sectional view (Sec. 776,880N) of Base of W3 surface (in brown),
oxides/sulphides interface, in relation to drill holes and 0.1 g/t grade shell ............... 14-131
Figure 14.5: Quantile-Quantile plot, gold grades, Altered and Altered-Sheared vs. Quartz Veins . 14-132
Figure 14.6: Quantile-Quantile plot, gold grades, Altered and Altered-Sheared vs. Quartz Veins . 14-132
Figure 14.7: Box plot, gold assays, 8 main units, below Base of W3 (sulphides) only ................... 14-135
Figure 14.8: Probability plot, gold 2m composites, CMA, below Base of W3 (sulphides) .............. 14-136
Figure 14.9: Probability plot, gold 2m composites, Oxides, above Base of W3 ............................. 14-137
Figure 14.10: Topography Plan View, Yaoure Project .................................................................... 14-138
Figure 14.11: CMA Pit Surface Cross Section N776,980 ............................................................... 14-138
Figure 14.12: Cross Section (776980N), Lithological Units ............................................................ 14-140
Figure 14.13: Histogram and basic statistics, Above Base of W3 .................................................. 14-141
Figure 14.14: Histogram and basic statistics, Above Base of W3 .................................................. 14-142
Figure 14.15: Indicator Variogram Model, 0.2 g/t gold; Domains QV; AL; ALSH; SH; ALFR; horizontal
slices through ellipsoid of continuity; note the N40W azimuth .................................. 14-144
Figure 14.16: Indicator Variogram Model, 0.2 g/t gold; Domains QV; AL; ALSH; SH; ALFR; E-W cross
sectional slices through ellipsoid of continuity; note the 25-30 dip to the East ......... 14-145
Figure 14.17: Indicator Variogram Model, 0.2 g/t gold; Domains QV; AL; ALSH; SH; ALFR;
Longitudinal slices through ellipsoid of continuity ...................................................... 14-145
Figure 14.18: Indicator Variogram Model, 2.0 g/t gold; Domains QV; AL; ALSH; SH; ALFR; horizontal
slices through ellipsoid of continuity; note the almost NNW azimuth ......................... 14-146
Figure 14.19: Indicator Variogram Model, 2.0 g/t gold; Domains QV; AL; ALSH; SH; ALFR; E-W cross
sectional slices through ellipsoid of continuity; note the 50 dip to the East (steeper for
higher grades) ............................................................................................................ 14-147
Figure 14.20: Indicator Variogram Model, 2.0 g/t gold; Domains QV; AL; ALSH; SH; ALFR;
Longitudinal slices through ellipsoid of continuity ...................................................... 14-147
Figure 14.21: Correlogram Model, Sulphides; horizontal slices through ellipsoid of continuity; observe
how the main anisotropy is in the expected NNW direction, but there is a structure with a
NE continuity, interpreted to correspond to higher grades......................................... 14-148
Figure 14.22: Correlogram Model, Sulphides; E-W cross sectional slices through ellipsoid of
continuity; note the dip at about -30 to East ............................................................. 14-149
Figure 14.23: Correlogram Model, Oxides; Longitudinal slices through ellipsoid of continuity ...... 14-149
Figure 14.24: Block with Gold Grade Estimates, Section 776,980N .............................................. 14-151
Figure 14.25: Block with Gold Grades Estimates, Section 776,720N ............................................ 14-151
Figure 14.26: Swath plot, Gold, CMA, Northings ............................................................................ 14-152
Figure 14.27: Swath plot, Gold; Domains QV, AL, ALSH, SH, ALFR; Eastings ............................. 14-152
Figure 14.28: Resource Classification, Cross Section 776,880N ................................................... 14-155
Figure 16.1: Whittle optimization results - pit by pit graph .............................................................. 16-160
Figure 16.2: The USD 950 pit design showing the location of oxide (brown) and fresh (green) rock in
the pit wall and the measured slope angles in various sectors. ................................. 16-162
Figure 16.3: Pit design based on the USD 800 gold price .............................................................. 16-164
Figure 16.4: Pit design based on the USD 950 gold price .............................................................. 16-164
Figure 16.5: Cross section at 7100 N of Block model and USD 950 vs USD 1500 pits ................. 16-165
Figure 16.6: Cross section at 6900 N of USD 950 Pit Design, showing Yaoure and CMA zones . 16-167
Figure 16.7: Cross section at 6900 N of Block Model & USD 950 Pit Design ................................ 16-167
Figure 16.8: Heap Leach (oxides) pit designs ................................................................................ 16-168
Figure 16.9: Base case 6.5 Mt/a CIP mining schedule ................................................................... 16-171
Figure 16.10: Mine layout ................................................................................................................ 16-175
Figure 17.1: Block Flow Diagram Sulphides Treatment Plant ..................................................... 17-179
Figure 17.2: Block Flow Diagram Oxides Treatment Plant. ......................................................... 17-183
Figure 18.1: Tailing Management Site Options............................................................................... 18-184
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Figure 18.2: TMF General Layout ................................................................................................... 18-194
Figure 18.3: TMF Embankment Typical Sections ........................................................................... 18-195
Figure 18.4: TMF Depth Capacity Curves ...................................................................................... 18-197
Figure 18.5: Heap Leach Facility General Layout........................................................................... 18-201
Figure 18.6: Kossou Dam ............................................................................................................... 18-208
Figure 20.1: Site Map used for Field Tour ...................................................................................... 20-212
Figure 20.2: Photos of Algae colonized ponds & Typha and algae colonized pond....................... 20-214
Figure 20.3: Photos of Electrical Pylons ......................................................................................... 20-217
Figure 22.1: Project NPV sensitivity Base case ........................................................................... 22-252
Figure 23.1: Adjacent Properties to Amaras Yaoure Licence Area ............................................... 23-254
Figure 24.1: Project Implementation Schedule Sulphides Plant .................................................. 24-255
APPENDICES
A
Appendix A:
B
Appendix B:
C
Appendix C:
D
Appendix D:
E
Appendix E:
F
Appendix F:
G
Appendix G:
H
Appendix H:
I
Appendix I:
J
Appendix J:
K
Appendix K:
L
Appendix L:
M
Appendix M:
N
Appendix N:
O
Appendix O:
P
Appendix P:

Process & Infrastructure Risks & Opportunities


Process Design Criteria Sulphides Plant
Process Design Criteria Oxides Plant
Design Criteria TMFs
Design Criteria Heap Leach
TMF Site Options
Typical TMF Sections
Heap Leach Pad Earthworks General Arrangement
Pit Sections
Opex Estimates Processing & Infrastructure
Sustaining Capital Processing & Infrastructure
Mining Cost Estimates
Manning
Mine Schedules and Discounted Cash Flow Models
Sensitivity Analysis
Qualified Persons Certificates

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1.0

SUMMARY
This Technical Report has been prepared by Amara Mining Plc (Amara) for the Yaoure
gold project, located in the central (Vallee du Bandama) region of the Republic of Cte
dIvoire. The report is a Preliminary Economic Assessment (PEA) of the Project.
This study was overseen by Bruce Van Brunt, MEng of Amara. Amara commissioned
the following entities to review the following aspects of the project:

GeoSystems International, Inc. - Mineral Resources

AMEC Earth & Environmental UK Ltd Recovery Methods, Process Plant, Project
Infrastructure, Tailings Management Facility (TMF)

SGS Environmental Services Ltd Environmental, Permitting and Social Impact

The report has been prepared in accordance with the requirements of National
Instrument 43-101 (NI 43-101), Standards of Disclosure for Mineral Projects, of the
Canadian Securities Administrators (CSA) for lodgement on the CSAs System for
Electronic Document Analysis and Retrieval (SEDAR).

Scope and scenarios


Assessing the potential economics of the large, low grade sulphide resource at Yaoure
was the predominant focus of the study. This sulphide material makes up the bulk of
the Yaoure resource, representing 94% of the December 2013 Mineral Resource
estimate. A number of whole ore leach scenarios at throughput capacities ranging from
5 to 8Mt/a were evaluated, as well as a small scale heap leach operation focused on
the smaller oxide resource.
The scenarios covered by the PEA are summarized in Table 1.1.
Table 1.1: Scenarios studied in the PEA
Throughput

Process Circuit

Pit Design

Material

Nomenclature

5.0 Mt/a

Whole ore leach

USD800/oz

Oxide & sulphide

6.5 Mt/a

Whole ore leach

USD800/oz

Oxide & sulphide

6.5 Mt/a

Whole ore leach

USD950/oz

Oxide & sulphide

8.0 Mt/a

Whole ore leach

USD950/oz

Oxide & sulphide

headline case

1.6 Mt/a

Heap leach

Oxide

oxide case

base case

Cautionary statements
The purpose of this technical report is to present the PEA findings of the Project. The
contents of this report reflect various technical and economic conditions at the time of
writing. Given the nature of the mining business, these conditions can change
significantly over relatively short periods of time. Consequently, actual results may be
significantly more or less favourable.

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The reader is cautioned that the PEA summarized in this technical report is preliminary
in nature and is only intended to provide an initial, high-level review of the project.
Further studies are required with regards to the resource, infrastructure and operational
methodologies. The PEA mine plan and economic model include the use of a
significant portion of Inferred Resources that are considered to be too speculative
geologically to have economic considerations applied to them that would enable them
to be characterized as mineral reserves. There is no guarantee that Inferred Resources
can be converted to Indicated or Measured resources. There is no guarantee that the
project economics described herein would be achieved.

1.1

Property Description and Location


The Yaoure gold project is located in central Cte dIvoire in West Africa, 40 km
northwest of Yamoussoukro, the political capital, and 270 km north-west of Abidjan, the
economic capital of Cte dIvoire.
Figure 1.1: Project Location

The Yaoure project comprises two exploration licences granted to Amaras 100%
directly-owned subsidiary, Cluff Gold (WA) Cte dIvoire SARL. Both exploration
licences are due to expire on 9 August 2015 and cover a combined area of 141.76
square miles (367 km).
The site is accessed by paved national and main roads, with the last 5 km section of
the primary access west of the Kossou dam being gravel. Electrical power is supplied
by a 33 KV feeder line from the nearby 150 MW Kossou hydroelectric power station.
The population immediately surrounding the Yaoure gold project is estimated at about
5,000 local people from several villages. The main economic activities in the area are
pastoral and cultivated agriculture, forestry, artisanal mining, and fishing.

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Project history
Artisanal gold mining is known to have been conducted at the Yaoure site (previously
known as Angovia) since 1935. From 1946 to 1969, several exploration projects aimed
to assess the gold potential in quartz veins, and gold mineralization. Modern
exploration, in the form of regional soil and stream sediment geochemical sampling
programme, began in 1983 with the French Bureau de Recherches Geologiques et
Minires (BRGM), who defined two significant gold-in-soil anomalies. Subsequent work
through to 1991 consisted of geophysics, trenching and core drilling, with a focus on
the Angovia Prospect 1 which subsequently became the Compagnie Minire dAfrique
(CMA) mine.
An Exploitation Permit was granted to CMA in 1993, a feasibility study was completed
in 1994, and a heap leach oxide gold mining operation established in 1999. Production
continued until the mine closed towards the end of 2003. CMA reportedly extracted 1.9
million tonnes (Mt) of ore, with a mean plant feed grade of 3.9 g/t gold from three open
pits. Treatment of the oxidized ore reportedly achieved a mean recovery of
approximately 85%.
Amara acquired the exploration licence in 2004 and subsequently produced 54,382
ounces of gold from mining at Yaoure Central (formerly called Prospects 2 and 4) and
Blangan Hill from 2008 until January 2011.
The project then reverted to an exploration phase, focused on the underlying sulphide
resource. A large mineral resource was delineated in 2013 following a drill campaign
from 2011 to 2013.

1.2

Geology and Mineralization


The geology of the Yaoure deposit area is relatively simple. The majority of the Yaoure
Project area is underlain by mafic volcanics, which are predominantly massive and
pillowed basalts. The north part of the area is intruded by a massive granodiorite that
locally has a subtle porphyritic texture. Elsewhere, but mainly associated with the main
Yaoure Zone, there are numerous porphyry sills. A volcaniclastic unit, mainly of
epiclastic origin, is situated near the contact of the granodiorite to the north.
The mineralisation at Yaoure is contained within two shallow dipping (<30 Degrees)
gold bearing north-south trending packages controlled by a thick zone of brittle-ductile
shearing. The Yaoure Central package is a 200 metre thick, lower grade mineralised
zone with higher grade lenses and cross-cutting high grade sub-vertical quartz veins.
The CMA package is a more discrete, relatively continuous 20 metre thick zone
approximately 140 metres above the Yaoure Central body.
The PEA considers both the sulphide and oxide portions of the Yaoure deposit.

1.3

Exploration
Exploration on the licence has consisted of geological mapping, remote sensing,
satellite imagery and geophysics, and surface geochemistry sampling of streams,
outcrops, soils, trenches and pits. As targets were identified, drilling programmes were
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designed using, as required, rotary air blast (RAB), reverse circulation (RC) or diamond
core methods.
Between April 2009 and January 2011 and from June 2011 to October 2012, soil
sampling was carried out around several targets. Subsequently from November 2012
to August 2013 the regional soil sampling programme focused on the targets identified
by the airborne geophysical survey and the remote sensing interpretation. From
September 2013 to December 2013, further soil sampling was carried out within four
kilometres of the Yaoure deposit with the dual objectives of sterilising ground for future
mine planning purposes as well as delineating additional mineralized zones.
Drilling conducted by Amara between 2009 and 2013 has consisted of rotary air blast
(RAB), reverse circulation (RC), and diamond core drilling. Drilling was initiated in 2005
by testing the BRGM soil anomalies with reverse circulation (RC) drilling at the thennamed Prospects 2, 3 and 4, and Angovia 2. 53,056 m of RC drilling (775 holes) were
completed between 2005 and 2007; and in addition 6,484 m of diamond drilling (62
holes) were completed in 2007. As a consequence, resources were delineated at
Prospect 2 and Prospect 4 (now Yaoure Central pit) and Angovia 2.
In February 2009, a review of all available data identified the Blangan soil anomaly as a
target, subsequent RAB drilling of which was the basis of a resource definition, leading
to mining. The soil anomaly at Kongonza was tested with RC drilling in 2010, from
which a resource was delineated.
Exploration resumed in June 2011, including RAB drilling at the Zone North soil
anomaly from which a lateritic resource was defined. RAB drilling of soil anomalies
continued through the remainder of 2011 and up to October 2012, while RC drilling
resumed from October 2011 to October 2012.
In August 2011, the Yaoure sulphide diamond drilling project started. Diamond drilling
at the Yaoure gold project was carried out in four campaigns, testing an area of up to
2.1 km in an N-S direction and up to 1.4 km in an E-W direction. By June 2013, 152
holes comprising 47,300 m had been drilledtesting an area of up to about 2.1 km in
an N-S direction and up to about 1.4 km in an E-W direction. This drilling is the basis
for the Yaoure oxide and sulphide mineral resource estimates. Six diamond drill holes
(1,101 m) were also drilled at Kongonza in October 2011.
Phase 1 of the diamond drilling project, consisted of 23 drill holes, all collared within the
existing Yaoure Central pit to confirm results from 2005-2007 RC drilling, provide
structural information and to test cross-cutting steep veins. A further 24 holes drilled
during Phase 2 tested the continuity of north-south trending, shallow east-dipping
structures west of the Yaoure Central pit, on 100 m sections and at between 100 m and
340 m intervals. The Phase 3 outline drilling, of 59 holes, tested the extent of
potentially open pit minable sulphide mineralization around the Yaoure Central and
CMA pits. Phase 4 infill drilling, consisting of 46 holes, focused on CMA North-Central
and Yaoure Central South. Phase 4 infill diamond drilling started on 14 January 2013
and finished on 4 June 2013.

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1.4

Process Development
A number of options were evaluated at a high level based on preliminary test work
conducted by SGS for Amara. Whole ore cyanide leaching was found to be effective,
achieving gold extraction generally between 90 % and 96 % without excessive cyanide
consumption. Gold extraction was observed to be directly affected by the fineness of
grind down to a grind size of 80 % passing 106 m, below which there was minimal
benefit in grinding finer. Extraction was generally observed to peak after 24 hours
leaching and then reduce when leaching was continued to 48 hours. Leach tests in the
presence of activated carbon did not achieve higher leach extractions and hence
AMEC has recommended that direct cyanide leaching followed by carbon in pulp (CIP)
can be used. Aerated bottle roll tests yielded higher extractions than non-aerated tests.
Gravity concentration was able to recover approximately 30 % of the gold into a
concentrate. Leaching of the gravity tail was tested but the combined recovery from
concentrate and tailing was no greater than whole ore leaching and the overall cyanide
consumption was higher. Similarly, flotation achieved good recovery on some samples
but the combined flotation and leach recovery was lower than that achieved by whole
ore leaching. Flotation response between samples was variable.
The Bond ball mill Work Index was found to be 13.9 kWh/t, close to the median value
of the tests performed by SGS. The Bond rod mill Work Index was measured for one
composite sample and a value of 26.3 kWh/t was obtained. This ranks the Yaoure
material tested as among the hardest of all rocks tested by SGS.
Since the very limited testing to measure comminution parameters showed the rod mill
Work Index to be much higher than the ball mill Work Index, SAG milling has not been
considered for this study and staged crushing and ball milling has been costed.
Single stage ball milling is capable of creating a product of the size required for
effective leaching of the Yaoure material (80 % passing 106 m). For the purpose of
this study, a single mill has been selected as this option incurs the lowest capital
expenditure.
High level comparison of gravity concentration and flotation with whole ore treatment
has shown that neither concentration method has economic returns better than whole
ore cyanidation, therefore the PEA has been based on whole ore treatment.
Since high extraction was achieved by direct cyanidation this process (whole ore
processing via tank leach followed by CIP) has been used for the PEA. Leach
retention time of 24 hours and oxygen addition is predicted to realize a gold extraction
of 95 %.
No recent laboratory testing has been performed on the oxide rock type which lies
between the two existing open pit mines worked previously. For this study, it has been
assumed that the rocks in this zone are amenable to the tank and heap leaching under
the same conditions as used during the previous operational phases.
Further metallurgical test work will be undertaken to ensure the recovery, reagent
consumption and comminution parameters are fully representative of the Yaoure
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deposit as the project advances through feasibility. Further work will be performed to
confirm the process route selection for the sulphide material.

1.5

Mineral Resource Estimates


The Mineral Resource estimate was completed by GeoSystems International, Inc and
reported in January 2014. All material within the 0.1 g/t gold grade envelope was
defined as available for resource declaration. A Resource Pit was developed from the
block model, using a USD 1,500/oz. gold price and different recoveries and pit slopes
for oxide and sulphide mineralization. Gold grades were estimated using a combination
of multiple indicator kriging (MIK) for the broader Yaoure Central mineralized zone and
Indicator-modified kriging (IMOK) for oxides and the CMA zone.
Most of the resource has been classified as Inferred, although there are small volumes
of material up-dip that has been classified as Indicated. All oxide resources are
classified as Inferred. The results from the optimized Resource Pit shell are used
solely for the purpose of reporting mineral resources that have reasonable prospects
for economic extraction. The Resource Pit optimization was based on the following
economic parameters:

USD1,500/oz gold price,


6Mt/a throughput, bulk mining model
90% recoveries, 85% oxide heap leach.
USD11.67/t processing cost, including G&A of $1.67/t,
Mining cost of USD2.25/t + USD0.03 per 10m depth > 250mRL,
35o oxide pit slopes, 46o fresh slopes.

The Yaoure total Indicated and Inferred Mineral Resources at cut-off grades of 0.5, 0.8,
and 1.0 g/t Au, are presented in Table 1.2.
Table 1.2: Yaoure Total Mineral Resource, as at 1 December 2013
Indicated

Inferred

Tonnes

Grade

Content

Tonnes

Grade

Content

(Mt)

(g/t)

(koz)

(Mt)

(g/t)

(koz)

0.5

20,286

1.20

778

133,030

1.29

5,518

0.8

13,340

1.48

637

85,731

1.65

4,554

1.0

10,043

1.68

541

65,575

1.89

3,974

Cut-off

1.

The effective date of the Yaoure Mineral Resource estimate is 1 December 2013.

2.

The gold price used in this estimate USD1,500/oz and assuming an open-pit mining scenario.
Oxides are being mined assuming Heap Leach economics, Sulphides assuming Flotation.

3.

Mineral resources which are not mineral reserves, do not have demonstrated economic viability.

4.

There are no known environmental, permitting, legal, title, taxation, socio-economic, marketing, and
political or other relevant issues that may materially affect the resource estimates.

5.

Totals and average grades are subject to rounding to the appropriate precision and some columns
or rows may not compute exactly as shown.

A subset of this resource was used for the scenarios studied in the PEA with updated
parameters as outlined in Section 16.

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1.6

Mining Methods

1.6.1

Mine Development and Operations


Optimised pits targeting the CMA and Yaoure Central zones, which are developed and
mined as a single open pit, were selected for detailed design and scheduling. Two pits
were optimised using a USD 800 and USD 950 per ounce Whittle pit shell. For the
purposes of the PEA, these pits generated a subset of the Mineral Resource, based on
the material that is contained within each detailed pit design, which was used for the
LOM plan. The material contained in each of these pits which were used for planning
and scheduling purposes are shown in Table 1.3.
Table 1.3: Material quantities contained in USD 800 & USD 950 Pit Designs
Total

Waste

Strip Ratio

Tonnes

Grade

Content

(Mt)

(Mt)

(t/t)

(Mt)

(g/t)

(koz)

USD 800 Pit Design

377.7

313.8

4.9

63.9

1.53

3,140

USD 950 Pit Design

586.6

492.0

5.2

94.6

1.39

4,239

LOM Material

Notes
1. Totals and average grades are subject to rounding to the appropriate precision and some columns or
rows may not compute exactly as shown.
2. Effective cut offs for each pit are 0.59g/t for USD 800 and 0.49 g/t for USD 950 per ounce

The conceptual mine plan assumes drill and blasting, and mining with trucks and
shovels on an owner-operated basis. This delivers both oxide and sulphide material
containing gold to the processing plant. The resulting overall strip ratio is around 5:1.
Both Indicated and Inferred resources were used in the LOM plan with Inferred
resources representing circa 80% of the material mined for processing. Mineral
Resources that are not mineral reserves do not have demonstrated economic viability.
There is no certainty that all or any part of the mineral resources would be converted
into mineral reserves. Mineral reserves can only be estimated as a result of an
economic evaluation as part of a preliminary feasibility study (PFS) or a feasibility study
(FS) of a mineral project. Accordingly, at the present level of development, there are no
mineral reserves at the Yaoure Project.
Note the estimated grades of the resources include some geologic dilution through the
use of sub-blocking (onto partial blocks measuring 6.25 x 6.25 x 5 metres (on a parent
block basis measuring 25 x 25 x 10 metres). Blocks at the outer edge of the 0.1 g/t gold
envelope were diluted with 0 g/t grade. The stated resources include dilution in the
block model that relates to the level of low selectivity envisioned in a bulk open pit
operation, assuming 10m bench heights. No additional operational or mining dilution or
ore loss has been incorporated.
A smaller oxide only case was also run based on the potential relocation of Amaras
Kalsaka plant, mining 5.6 million tonnes of oxide material.

1.7

Recovery Methods
Based on the results of test work, AMEC proposed whole ore processing via tank
leach, followed by CIP processing for the sulphide circuit, as outlined below.
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Sulphide Circuit (conventional leach)


Haul trucks tip run-of-mine material into a hopper which feeds onto a vibrating grizzly
feeder (VGF). Oversize feeds a primary jaw crusher and crusher discharge is collected
on a conveyor with VGF undersize for delivery to secondary crushing and screening.
Oversize from the secondary screen passes through a cone crusher operating in
closed circuit. Secondary screen undersize is collected on a conveyor which delivers
to tertiary crushing and screening.
There are two parallel circuits for tertiary crushing and screening. The tertiary screens
are double deck units. Oversize from both decks passes through a cone crusher and is
conveyed back to the tertiary screens. Tertiary screen undersize is collected on the
final crusher product conveyor which delivers to a storage silo.
Crusher product from the silo is delivered onto a mill feed conveyor which discharges
into a ball mill. The ball mill operates in closed circuit, mill discharge entering a pump
box and being pumped to a cluster of hydrocyclones. Cyclone underflow returns to the
ball mill and cyclone overflow passes through vibrating screens for removal of trash.
The product from the milling section has a P80 of 106 m.
Gold is leached by cyanidation in a series of open, mechanically agitated tanks. Flow
between tanks is by gravity.
The pH of the slurry in the leach tanks is maintained in the range 10 11 by addition of
lime to the mill feed conveyor. Cyanide is provided by a strong solution of sodium
cyanide. Oxygen in the first two tanks is obtained from an oxygen plant on site and is
added to the slurry in a high shear reactor. Oxygen in the other tanks is provided by
the supply of low pressure compressed air.
Leached gold is recovered from solution by adsorption onto activated carbon using the
carbon-in-pulp (CIP) process. Slurry from leaching flows through a series of open,
mechanically agitated tanks by gravity. Each tank contains activated carbon which is
retained by mechanically swept interstage screens.
Pump Cells will be used as adsorption vessels, facilitating operation of the adsorption
section in carousel mode. Discharge from the last tank is screened to recover any
carbon that may be contained.
Loaded carbon from adsorption is eluted using the AARL method in which elution is
performed in open circuit followed by electrowinning. Carbon slurry from the first
adsorption tank passes over a vibrating screen, the carbon being washed and collected
in a hopper and the screen undersize returning to adsorption.
Loaded carbon is treated with dilute hydrochloric acid in an acid washing column and
then transferred to the elution column. Carbon is soaked in hot caustic cyanide solution
and then eluted with softened water. Eluate passes through electrowinning cells for
recovery of contained gold.

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Eluted carbon is regenerated in an electrically heated rotary kiln before returning to the
adsorption circuit.
Gold sludge is washed from the electrowinning cells cathodes, filtered, dried and
smelted before being cast into dor bars.
Undersize from the carbon safety screen is pumped to the tailings dam.
In general, ultraviolet light destructs cyanide in tailings on the TMF. A facility to
detoxify tailing slurry using the SO2/air process is installed and operated should the
cyanide concentration in tailing slurry or TMF decant water be higher than acceptable
levels. This facility will consist of an open, mechanically agitated tank with associated
equipment to dose sodium metabisulphite, copper sulphate and lime.
Oxides Circuit (Heap Leach)
The crushing, agglomeration, stacking and ADR circuit is sourced from Amaras
existing Kalsaka operation in neighbouring Burkina Faso.
Crushed and agglomerated oxide material is transported by a series of conveyors to a
movable stacker for deposition on a new heap leach pad. Stacked material will be drip
irrigated with a dilute solution of sodium cyanide which percolates through the heap.
Solution is collected by a network of pipes at the base of the heap and flows by gravity
to storage ponds. The resulting higher grade solution is collected in a pregnant leach
solution (PLS) pond and pumped to the adsorption/desorption/regeneration (ADR)
plant for treatment and gold recovery.
The heap leach pad is designed as a permanent type pad with 2 lifts of 7 m each.

1.8

Project Infrastructure
The project location benefits from good regional infrastructure due to the close
proximity to the 150MW Kossou Dam, located 10 kilometres away, which offers cheap
and reliable hydro-electric power (HEP) and abundant water, housing and excellent
roads connecting to the capital Yamoussoukro and the port of Abidjan.
Power supply
Based on tariff proposals from the Compagnie Ivoirienne dElectricite (CIE), Amara has
estimated an average power cost of 9c/kWh. This power cost is very low relative to
diesel generation and is a distinct advantage for Yaoure in terms of project economics.
The power demand for the 6.5 million tonne scenario is approximately 40MW, with an
average draw of 36MW.

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Tailings Management Facility


Tailings will be pumped to the Tailings Management Facility (TMF) via a dedicated
pipeline, where it will be subaerially discharged onto the upstream beach.
TMF prescriptive design criteria include the following:

Tailings production: 6.5 Mt/a


Minimum storage capacity: approximately 80 Mt
Life of Mine: approximately 13 years.

A number of potential options for TMF sites were identified. Following the initial data
review, a staged selection procedure was implemented which comprised a site ranking
of each option to identify the most promising, socially, environmentally and technically
acceptable sites in relation to the process plant. A preliminary assessment for
subsequent potential expansion of capacity of the candidate TMFs has also been
addressed.
Two of the four potential TMF sites, TMF 1 and TMF 2 were selected by Amara due to
their proximity to the selected is plant site. The Study addressed the construction and
subsequent development of these two facilities.
The current arrangement exhibits a minimal land take, optimises embankment length
and volume of construction material needed while also taking advantage of the natural
topography. To ensure that sufficient freeboard is maintained and to accommodate
initial high rates of rise the embankment will initially be formed by the downstream
method of construction. In the unlikely event that floods greater than the Probable
Maximum Flood (PMF) occur an emergency spillway formed adjacent to the crest of
the main embankment will allow for emergency discharge. At closure, a permanent
spillway will be constructed within this western embankment section and the adjacent
natural ridge, to ensure that uncontaminated surface runoff freely discharges from the
rehabilitated facility.
Final crest elevation will be 63 m for TMF 1 and 68 m for TMF 2. However, the TMF
sequential and ultimate crest alignment and elevations will require to be confirmed
during the next stage of project development.
There is currently no information available on the hydraulic conductivity of the TMF
foundation soil at either TMF site. However, it has been assumed that the permeability
of the soil foundation is low and hence no HDPE liner has been allowed for to control
seepage. Should test work show a liner to be required, the cost of the TMFs will
increase by an estimated $18 million for the life of mine.
Material used for the embankment will need to meet certain requirements with respect
to strength, permeability and other physical characteristics.
In respect of its
geochemical characteristics the construction material should contain no pyrite/sulphide
and be non-acid-generating. For the purpose of this study, the use of approved mine
waste has been prioritised. Characterisation test work will be undertaken at the next
study stage to quantify and confirm availability of suitable stripped mine waste.

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1.9

Environmental
SGS Environmental Services was engaged by Amara, to undertake a preliminary
assessment of the environmental and social conditions of the project. From the initial
field visit and preliminary stakeholder engagements by SGS, the government of Cte
dIvoire has no objection to the development of the Yaoure Gold Project contingent on
Amara complying and fulfilling the requirements of the law.
The previous mining permit for oxide heap leaching operation reverted to an
exploration licence in 2014. Exploration Permits 168 and 397 now cover the proposed
project area. In August 2015, these permits expire thus requiring that Amara progress
economic and environmental studies to support future permitting requests.
In this permitting process, the next step in obtaining an environmental license is to
progress an Environmental and Social Impacts Assessment (ESIA). Prior to initiating
any environmental studies, The Environmental Protection Agency ANDE requires an
Environmental Audit of the current site.

1.10

Economic Analysis

1.10.1

Project capital costs


The major capital cost component for the project is the processing and associated
infrastructure facilities. The engineering design and cost estimate for the facilities have
been performed by AMEC, which has acted as an independent technical consultant to
Amara for the PEA.

Sulphide plant and associated capital


Capital costs have been estimated for the sulphides plant and site infrastructure
separately from the capital cost of the oxide heap leaching plant.
The sulphide plant cost estimate is for a plant with a nominal capacity of 6.5 Mt/a.
Costs for plants with notional capacities of 5 Mt/a and 8 Mt/a have been factored from
the cost of the 6.5 Mt/a plant. Infrastructure costs for these options have been factored
separately.
All costs are estimated in US dollars as at Q1 2014 and are judged to have an
accuracy of 35 %. The estimate covers the direct costs of constructing the plant and
infrastructure components of the Yaoure Project and the indirect costs associated with
the design, construction and commissioning of the new facilities. Owners costs,
contingencies and risk amounts are specifically excluded from this estimate.
The initial capital cost of the 6.5 Mt/a sulphides plant and infrastructure is estimated to
be USD 282 million. The factored cost of the plant and infrastructure for the 5 Mt/a
option is estimated to be USD 265 million and that for the 8 Mt/a option is
USD 317 million.

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Table 1.4: Pre-production Capital Cost Estimates - Process & Infrastructure
PROCESSING & INFRASTRUCTURE CAPEX

5 Mt/a

6.5 Mt/a

8 Mt/a

Process Plant (USD m)

111

124

143

Plant Infrastructure (inc. TMF) (USD m)

30

32

35

Other Infrastructure (USD m)

26

27

27

Miscellaneous (USD m)

16

18

20

EPCM & Indirect (USD m)

46

43

49

Contingency (15%, USD m)

35

37

42

Total Pre-production Capital (USD m)

265

282

317

Sustaining capital is required throughout the life of the sulphides plant, mainly for the
development of the TMF retaining wall. The total sustaining capital expenditure over a
12 year life of mine is estimated to be USD 61 million, which is limited or extended in
each case by the relative mine life.
Table 1.5: Sustaining Capital Cost Estimates - Process & Infrastructure
PROCESSING &
INFRASTRUCTURE CAPEX
(USD m)

5 Mt/a
USD 800/oz
Pit Design

6.5 Mt/a
USD 800/oz
Pit Design

6.5 Mt/a
USD 950/oz
Pit Design

8 Mt/a
USD 950/oz
Pit Design

Process Plant

27

22

30

26

Plant Infrastructure (inc. TMF)

31

32

36

35

Other Infrastructure

Total Sustaining Capital

61

57

69

63

Heap leach
Capital costs for the oxide plant have been estimated at one feed rate, 1.6 Mt/a. This
estimate assumes relocation of existing crushing and ADR facilities from Amaras
Kalsaka mine in Burkina Faso to Yaoure with provision for a new leach pad and ponds.
The initial capital cost, including equipment relocation, is estimated to be
USD 31.2 million.
Table 1.6: 1.6 Mt/a Oxide Circuit (Heap Leach) Capital Cost Estimates
Preproduction

Sustaining
(6 year life)

Sustaining
(4 year life)

Process Plant

14.1

1.6

0.4

Plant Infrastructure. (inc. Heap Leach Pads)

1.1

17.5

9.8

Other Infrastructure

1.4

0.1

0.0

Owner's Cost & Misc.

3.4

EPCM & Indirect

5.0

Contingency (15%)

6.2

Total Heap Leach Capital

31.2

19.2

10.2

OXIDE (HEAP LEACH) CAPEX (USD m)

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Sustaining capital totalling USD 19.2 million is required assuming a six-year life of the
oxides plant, being mainly incurred in phased construction of the leach pad.

Closure costs
Closure costs are estimated to be USD 18.4 million for the Sulphides Plant and
USD 2.6 million for the Oxides Plant.

Mining capital costs


The mining capital costs have been estimated by Amara internally based on an owner
operated fleet that has been sized to move the scheduled tonnages. The mining preproduction capital cost and sustaining capital cost over the LOM are shown in Table
1.7. As the project advances, a trade-off study will need to be completed between
owner-operated vs contractor mining, which would reduce the upfront capital, however
at this stage higher unit costs over the life of the project are uncompetitive when
compared against the capital estimate.
Table 1.7: Capital Cost Estimates - Mining
5 Mt/a
USD 800/oz
Pit Design

6.5 Mt/a
USD 800/oz
Pit Design

6.5 Mt/a
USD 950/oz
Pit Design

8 Mt/a
USD 950/oz
Pit Design

Pre-production

66

75

80

92

Sustaining

46

14

75

65

MINING CAPEX (USD m)

Total capital required


Therefore, the Projects total pre-production capital cost for the Base case is
USD 357 million representing the start-up capital for full 6.5 Mt/a plant, infrastructure
and mining equipment. The headline case is USD 408 million representing the start-up
capital for full 8 Mt/a plant, infrastructure and mining equipment.
Table 1.8: Total Capital Cost Estimates - Summary
5 Mt/a
USD 800/oz
Pit Design

6.5 Mt/a
USD 800/oz
Pit Design

6.5 Mt/a
USD 950/oz
Pit Design

8 Mt/a
USD 950/oz
Pit Design

1.6 Mt/a
Heap
Leach

Mining

112

89

155

156

16

Pre-production

66

75

80

92

15

TOTAL CAPEX (USD m)

Sustaining

46

14

75

65

Processing & Infrastructure

345

357

369

398

44

Pre-production

265

282

282

317

31

Sustaining

61

57

69

63

10

Closure

18

18

18

18

Total Pre-production Capital

331

357

362

408

46

Total Sustaining Capital

107

71

144

127

11

Total LOM Capital

456

446

524

554

60

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Over the LOM capital, the 6.5 Mt/a base case benefits from having a 10 year mine life,
significantly reducing sustaining costs for replacement mining capital relative to the
other cases.
For the oxide heap leach scenario due to the short mine life, a contractor operation
was assumed with mining capital charges of USD 3 million mobilisation and
USD 1 million demobilisation assumed. Also assumed is USD 2 million in owners
establishment costs and a USD 10 million intercompany transfer (purchase) payment
for the equipment.

1.10.2

Operating costs
Unit and total operating costs were estimated over the life of the project. Mining
operating costs include labour, materials, consumables and other services and are
based on the operating plans and schedules driven from the design mill capacity.
Processing and associated infrastructure operating costs were estimated by AMEC to a
target accuracy of 35% using a range of data sources and first principle estimates.
Table 1.9: Operating Cost Estimates
Units

5 Mt/a
USD 800/oz
Pit Design

6.5 Mt/a
USD 800/oz
Pit Design

6.5 Mt/a
USD 950/oz
Pit Design

8 Mt/a
USD 950/oz
Pit Design

t mined

2.49

2.41

2.47

2.42

Processing (USD/t)

t processed

10.52

10.13

10.13

9.90

Other G&A (USD/t)

t processed

1.22

1.03

0.99

0.85

Area
Mining (USD/t)

Note: Mining & Processing costs include a portion of associated G&A representing:

USD 1.51/t milled at 5 Mt/a


USD 1.16/t milled at 6.5 Mt/a
USD 0.94/t milled at 8 Mt/a.

Other primary cost drivers included diesel fuel (USD 1.10/litre) and sodium cyanide
(USD 3,500/tonne). Labour costs were modelled based on the companys existing
operating experience in Cte dIvoire with Yaoure operating on industry standard work
schedules. Camp costs are based on accommodating approximately 150 people,
largely expatriates, and with the remaining workforce of up to 450 people sourced at
the gate from surrounding villages and from the capital city Yamoussoukro, which is
located only 40km from site.
The project enjoys relatively low operating costs with Total Cash Costs over the LOM
estimated in the Base case of USD 594 per ounce (including royalties) with All-In
Sustaining Costs of USD 743 per ounce, at USD 1,250 per gold ounce. The Headline
case achieves Total Cash Costs of USD 655 per ounce with All-In Sustaining Costs of
USD 792 per ounce, at USD 1,250 per gold ounce.
Operating costs for the oxides plant are estimated to be USD 18.3 million per year
which is equivalent to USD 11.43/tonne crushed. An average mining contractor rate of
USD 3.45/tonne mined has been applied for the oxide only scenario.

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Table 1.10: Unit Cash Cost Estimates LOM
5 Mt/a
USD 800/oz
Pit Design

6.5 Mt/a
USD 800/oz
Pit Design

6.5 Mt/a
USD 950/oz
Pit Design

8 Mt/a
USD 950/oz
Pit Design

1.6 Mt/a
Heap
Leach

Mining

315

305

360

352

320

Processing

225

217

238

233

299

Area
(USD/oz)

Other G&A*

20

15

17

14

78

Operating Cash Costs

560

537

615

598

697

Royalty/Other

56.5

56.5

56.5

56.5

56.5

Total Cash Costs

617

594

671

655

754

Depreciation

168

168

140

150

453

Total Production Costs

785

762

811

805

1207

Total Capital

153

149

130

138

279

All-In Costs

770

743

801

792

1033

*Note: Mining & Processing costs include a portion of associated G&A (see Table 1.9)

Fiscal terms
The mine will operate under Cte dIvoire mining legislation. The Cte dIvoire
parliament voted the new mining code on 4 March 2014, however this new mining code
does not include tax provisions, which have been subject to prolonged public and
industry consultation. Amara has participated in consultations between the Government
and the mining industry for the fiscal terms. Once these aspects have been finalised, it
is planned that they will be issued by means of presidential decree. The PEA assumes
fiscal terms which have been drawn from a combination of these discussions,
published Government proposals and recent precedent mining agreements.
Table 1.11: Fiscal Assumptions
Item

Rate

Corporate Tax (%)

25

Community fund (% revenue)

0.5

Royalties (%)

Scale

<= USD 1000/oz

<= USD 1300/oz

3.5

<= USD 1600/oz

> USD 1600/oz

Tax Holiday (years)*

Government free carry provision (%)

10

*Note: Tax holiday not applied to oxides (heap leach) case.

1.10.3

Economic analysis results


The primary economic analysis utilises an average gold price of USD 1,250 per ounce
over the mine life. At an 8% discount rate, the post-tax net present value of the Project
for each case is shown in Table 1.12. These results strongly support continuing to
advance the project.

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Table 1.12: Key Financial parameters by case
5 Mt/a
USD 800/oz
Pit Design
464

6.5 Mt/a
USD 800/oz
Pit Design
613

6.5 Mt/a
USD 950/oz
Pit Design
554

8 Mt/a
USD 950/oz
Pit Design
688

1.6 Mt/a
Heap
Leach
28

IRR(%)

25

33

26

32

52

Payback (Yrs)

3.4

2.6

3.2

2.4

0.8

1,250

1,250

1,250

1,250

1,250

NPV(post-tax at 8%,USDm)

Gold Price (US$/oz)

The stronger performance of the 6.5 Mt/a base case is driven by the higher grade,
lower strip ratio and shorter mine life which brings forward net cash flows and
significantly reduces the replacement mining capital requirements that occur in the
options that extend beyond 10 years.
Also note that in viewing these results it must be considered that the preliminary
economic assessment is preliminary in nature, that it includes Inferred mineral
resources considered too speculative geologically to have the economic considerations
applied to them that would enable them to be categorises as mineral reserves, and
there is no certainty that the preliminary economic assessment will be realised.
Table 1.13: Base case NPV (USD m) & IRR sensitivity to discount rate and gold price
Discount

USD1,000

USD1,100

USD1,200

USD1,250

USD1,300

USD1,400

USD1,500

5%

366

535

713

802

891

1,056

1,234

8%

247

388

538

613

687

826

975

10%

183

310

444

511

578

702

835

IRR

19%

25%

30%

33%

36%

40%

45%

A sensitivity analysis shows the performance of the project at a range of gold prices
from USD 1,100 to USD 1,500. This demonstrates that Yaoure continues to deliver
strong returns at gold prices below USD 1,250 per ounce, making the project robust
despite the gold price fluctuations.
At a gold price of USD 1,100, Yaoures post-tax IRR remains above 20% in both the
Base and Headline case. Further stress testing shows the project remains resilient
down to a break even gold price of circa USD 850 per ounce for these two cases.

1.11

Conclusions and recommendations


This PEA is based on industry standard mining, processing and development practice
as well as standard economic evaluation methodology. The quality of geological and
other relevant data is adequate for the purpose of generating a PEA. Based on the
assumptions and methodology applied, the results of this study show that the Yaoure
project has positive economics (within the very preliminary parameters of a PEA) and
should be advanced to the next phase of studies by undertaking the work outlined in
the Recommendations section of this report.

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While a significant amount of information is still required for a complete assessment of


the project, at this point, there do not appear to be any fatal flaws in the project. The
study has achieved its original objective of providing a preliminary review of the
potential economic viability of the Yaoure Project and has highlighted that the project
contains a large amount of optionality that may be explored in further detail as the
project progresses.

1.11.1

Risks and opportunities


As with almost all mining ventures, there are a large number of risks and opportunities
that can affect the economic viability of the project. Subsequent higher level
engineering studies would be required to further understand the existing risks and
opportunities, identify new ones, and define strategies for risk mitigation or opportunity
implementation.
The main preliminary risks for the Yaoure Project have been identified as follows:

Reduced gold prices,


Geological interpretation and mineral resource classification (80% of the resources
used in the mine plan are Inferred), specifically with respect to overall Yaoure
deposit tonnage and grade,
Increased OPEX and/or CAPEX,
Geotechnical, geochemical and hydrogeological considerations,
Gold recovery and mineral processing assumptions,
Cte dIvoire mining convention and changes in fiscal terms, and
Community engagement, and unexpected changes in relocation and environmental
requirements

The following key opportunities may improve the project economics and need further
investigation:

Selective mining: The Mineral Resource and the PEA have assumed a bulk
approach to mining. The economics of the project may be optimised by selective
mining of the mineralised packages contained in the CMA zone combined with
further pit optimisation. Increased selectivity would allow for reduced blocks sizes in
the model, resulting in lower dilution and higher grades to supplement the lower
grades of the Yaoure Central zone.

Equipment optimisation: Given the bulk nature of the mining in Yaoure mine
plans and the relative proportion of mining operating costs, there is potential for
future optimisation of the size of the equipment fleet compared to what was
considered in the PEA. A trade-off on contract versus owner-operated equipment
will be evaluated as the project advances.

Process selection: With favourable metallurgy and the mineralisations


amenability to a number of conventional processing methods, such items as preconcentration via flotation and/or gravity need further testing and evaluation, to see
if capital and operating savings can be achieved. Also SAG milling has been
excluded on the basis of a single rod mill test result therefore further test work is
required to confirm this approach.
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1.11.2

Project layout: Depending on the processing route taken, there is further potential
to optimise the locations of site infrastructure such as the waste storage facility,
tailing storage facility and the mill site to take greater advantage of the project
topography, thus reducing total operating costs.

Staged development: The capital spending profile of Yaoure project may benefit
from staged development approach, particularly with regards to mill capacity,
process route and the mining and processing schedule of oxide and sulphide
material to reduce start-up capital requirements.

Heap leach plant relocation: An opportunity exists to develop oxides in short term
by the relocation to site of the 1.6Mtpa Kalsaka/Sega plant, which has an estimated
capital spend of USD 31.2 million to relocated and establish the plant and
infrastructure.

Recommendations
The results of the PEA indicate that the Project should be taken to the next level of
engineering study and economic assessment, which typically is a PFS, but can be a FS
in certain cases.
It is estimated that a PFS, along with all of the accompanying engineering and field
work would cost approximately USD 2.5 million, exclusive of the recommended
additional geology and drilling program which is estimated at USD 14.4 million.
To enable a comprehensive prefeasibility or feasibility study to be completed, the
Inferred Resource component in the current resource estimate requires upgrading to
Indicated or Measured Resource categories.
This PEA is preliminary in nature as it includes Inferred Mineral Resources that are
considered too speculative geologically to have the economic considerations applied to
them that would enable them to be categorized as mineral reserves and there is no
certainty that this PEA will be realized. Mineral resources that are not mineral reserves
do not have demonstrated economic viability.

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2.0

INTRODUCTION

2.1

Terms of Reference
The following Technical Report was prepared to provide a NI 43-101 compliant
Technical Report summarizing the findings of a Preliminary Economic Assessment of
the gold mineralization at Amara Minings 100% owned Yaoure gold project in Cte
dIvoire, West Africa.
The purpose of this study is to demonstrate the viability of the Yaoure gold project
through a technical and economic evaluation, at preliminary level, taking into account
the update resources and initial capital and operating costs.
The work covered in this report relates to exploration, drilling, metallurgical testwork,
process design and Mineral Resource estimation undertaken in the period of 2005,
through to January 2013. It relies on the resource estimate produced in the previous
Technical Report, Yaoure Gold Project, Cte DIvoire; Technical Report and Mineral
Resource Estimates, with an effective date 13 January, 2014, which is reproduced in
Sections 4 to 12, 14 and 23 of this report.
This report was prepared by Amara and the study was overseen by Bruce Van Brunt,
MEng of Amara Mining Plc. with contributions commissioned by Amara of the following
entities to review the following aspects of the project:

GeoSystems International, Inc. (GeoSystems) - Mineral Resources

AMEC Earth & Environmental UK Ltd (AMEC) Recovery Methods, Process Plant,
Infrastructure, Tailings Management Facility and related Capital and Operating
Costs.

SGS Environmental Services Ltd (SGS Environmental) Environmental, Permitting


and Social Impact

Amara Mining Plc is listed on the AIM market of the London Stock Exchange (LSE)
(symbol: AMA). The address of the corporate office is 4th Floor, 29-30 Cornhill, London
UK UC3V 3NF.
This report is considered current as of April 25, 2014.

2.2

Technical Report Preparation


The report was prepared, in conformance with the standards required by NI 43-101 and
Form 43-101F. The estimate of mineral resources contained in this report conforms to
the CIM Definition Standards For Mineral Resources and Mineral Reserves, prepared
by the CIM Standing Committee on Reserve Definitions and adopted by CIM council on
November 27, 2010 referred to in National Instrument (NI) 43-101, Standards of
Disclosure for Mineral Projects.
The contents of this report reflect various technical and economic conditions at the time
of writing. Given the nature of the mining business, these conditions can change
significantly over relatively short periods of time. Consequently, actual results may be
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significantly more or less favourable. This report may include technical information that
requires subsequent calculations to derive subtotals, totals, and weighted averages.
Such calculations inherently involve a degree of rounding and consequently introduce a
margin of error. Where these occur, Amara does not consider them to be material.
Abbreviations and acronyms are used throughout this report and are provided in the
Glossary and Abbreviation of Terms in Section 2.4 of this report.
The economic analysis described in this report provides only a preliminary overview of
the Project as insufficient detailed engineering and costing work has been done to
date. As per CIM guidelines, reserves can only be declared with a preliminary
feasibility-level study.
The mineral resources used in the LOM plan and economic analysis include Inferred
material. Inferred mineral resources are considered too speculative geologically to
have economic considerations applied to them to be categorized as mineral reserves,
and there is no certainty that the Inferred resources will be upgraded to a higher
resource category. Based on this, there is no certainty that the results of this
preliminary assessment will be realized.

2.2.1

Sources of Information
This report is based, in part, on internal company technical reports, and maps,
published government reports, company letters and memoranda, and public
information as listed in the References Section 27 at the conclusion of this Technical
Report.
Sections of the Technical Report result from reports and deliverables produced from
the both desktop and site-based investigation work by consultants engaged by the
company to review key areas as part of the Study. Several sections from reports
authored by other consultants have been directly quoted in this Technical Report, and
are so indicated in Section 3.

2.2.2

Site Visits
In compliance with the requirements for preparation of a 43-101 Report, Amaras key
competent person has visited the project and has drawn on information from site-based
personnel. In addition, the following external contributors have visited the project site
and region to gather first-hand information for the study:

Augustine Owusu-Asare, Senior Environmental Scientist, SGS Environmental


visited site and the region during the week 2-6 December 2013.

Mario E. Rossi, Principal Geostatistician, GeoSystems, visited site from September


12-14, 2013.

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2.3

Units and Currency


Unless otherwise stated all units used in this report are metric. Gold assay values are
reported in grams per metric tonne (g/t) unless some other unit is specifically stated.
US dollars (USD) is the currency.

2.4

Glossary and Abbreviation of Terms


In this document, in addition to the definitions contained heretofore and hereinafter,
unless the context otherwise requires, the following terms have the meanings set forth
below.
Table 2.1: Glossary and Abbreviation of Terms
AARL

Anglo American Research Laboratory

ADR

Adsorption, desorption and regeneration

ANDE

Ivorian National Environment Agency

ANFO

Ammonium Nitrate Fuel Oil

ARD

Acid Rock Drainage

ASTGM

Aster global digital elevation model

BRGM

Bureau de Recherches Gologiques et Minires

c/kWh

Cents per kilowatt hour

CAPEX

Capital expenditures

CCC

Community Consultative Committee

CCTV

Closed-circuit television

CIAPOL

Centre for Ivorian Anti-Pollution

CIE

Compagnie Ivorienne Electricit

CIL

Carbon-in-leach

CIP

Carbon-in-pulp

CLO

Community Liaison Officer

CMA

Compagnie Minire dAfrique

CSA

Canadian Securities Administrators

DD

Diamond drilling

DG

Director General

DWT

Deadweight tonne

EIS

Environmental Impact Study

EPA

Environmental Protection Agency

EPCM

Engineering, Procurement and Construction Management

ESIA

Environmental and Social Impacts Assessment

ESIS

Environmental and Social Impacts Study

ESMP

Environment and social management plan

FCFA

Franc of the Communaut Financire Africaine

FS

Feasibility Study

G&A

General and Administration

g/t

grams per tonne

ha

Hectare

HDPE

High Density Poly Ethylene

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HEP

Hydro-electric power

HL

Heap leach

HLP

Heap leach pad

hr

Hour

HSE

Health, Safety and Environment

ILS

Intermediate leach solution

IMOK

Indicator modified kriging

kg/t

Kilogrammes per tonne

km

Kilometres

koz

thousand troy ounces

kPa

Kilopascal

kV

Kilovolts

kWh

Kilo watt hour

kWh/t

Kilo watt hours per tonne

l/hr

Litres per hour

l/m2/h

litre per square metre per hour

LBMA

London Bullion Market Association

LOM

Life-of-mine

metres/million

Square metre

m3/h

cubic metres per hectare

MCAF

Mining cost adjustment factor

MIK

Multiple indicator kriging

mm

Millimetres

Moz

million troy ounces

Mt

million tonnes

Mt/a

million tonnes per annum

MW

Megawatts

NASA

National Aeronautics and Space Administration

NI

National Instrument

NPV

Net present value

/oz

per troy ounce of gold

OPEX

Operating expenditures

PAP

Project affected persons

PCM

Procurement & construction management

PEA

Preliminary Economic Assessment

PFD

Project feasibility document

PFS

Preliminary feasibility study

PLS

Pregnant leach solution

PMF

Probable Maximum Flood

ppm

Parts per million

RAB

Rotary air blast

RAP

Relocation action plan

RC

Reverse Circulation

RL

Relative level

ROM

Run of Mine
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RoW

Right of Way

SABC

Semi-autogenous ball crushing

SAG

Semi-autogenous grinding

SEDAR

System for Electronic Document Analysis and Retrieval

SG

Specific Gravity

Tonnes

t/d

Tonnes per day

t/hr

Tonnes per hour

t/m

Tonne per cubic metre

TMF

Tailings Management Facility

UCS

Unconfined compressive strength

US

United States

USD

United States dollars

VAT

Value added tax

VGF

Vibrating grizzly feeder

w:o

waste:ore, strip ratio on a waste to ore tonnage basis

WOL

Whole ore leach

YMSA

Yaoure Mining SA

Yr or Yrs

Year or Years

ZAR

Zuid-Afrikaanse Rand

microns

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3.0

RELIANCE ON OTHER EXPERTS

3.1

General Statement
The Author(s) has assumed and relied on the fact that all the information and existing
technical documents listed in the References section of this Report are accurate and
complete in all material aspects.
Although copies of the tenure documents, operating licenses, permits, and work
contracts were reviewed, an independent verification of land title and tenure was not
performed. Verification of the legality of any underlying agreement(s) that may exist
concerning the permits or other agreement(s) between third parties has not be
undertaken as part of this study.
Any statements and opinions expressed in this document are given in good faith and in
the belief that such statements and opinions are not false and misleading at the date of
this Report.

3.2

Sources of Information
Table 3.1 identifies the authors for each section of the Report. The References listed in
Section 27 provides further details.
Published information from several Sections of the previous NI 43-101 Report, Yaoure
Gold Project, Cte dIvoire: Technical Report and Mineral Resource Estimates with an
effective Report date of 13 January 2014, are reproduce fully or partially in this report.
Section 13: Mineral Processing and Metallurgical Testing (summary), Section 17:
Recovery; Section 18: Project Infrastructure and part of Section 21: Capital and
Operating Costs (Processing and Site Infrastructure) were reproduced fully from the
report Scoping Study - Processing Facilities and Site Infrastructure - Yaoure Gold
Project, Cte dIvoire dated 11 April 2014 by AMEC.
Section 20: Environmental Studies, Permitting and Social or Community Impact were
reproduced fully from or partially report Yaoure Gold Project - Preliminary
Environmental Assessment dated 13 March 2014 by SGS Environmental.
The remaining sections we prepared by and authored by Bruce Van Brunt, MEng of
Amara Mining Plc. The author considers the information to be of good quality and
accurate.

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Table 3.1: Report Authors
Sections

Author

1: Summary
2: Introduction
3: Reliance on Other Experts
15: Mineral Reserve Estimates
16: Mining Methods
19: Market Studies and Contracts
21: Capital and Operating Costs (Mining)
22: Economic Analysis
24: Other Relevant Data and Information
25: Interpretation and Conclusions
26: Recommendations
27: References

Bruce Van Brunt, Amara

4: Property Description and Location


5: Accessibility, Climate, Local Resources, Infrastructure
and Physiography
6: History
7: Geological Setting and Mineralization
8: Deposit Types
9: Exploration
10: Drilling
11: Sample Preparation, Analyses and Security
12: Data Verification
14: Mineral Resource Estimates
23: Adjacent Properties

Mario Rossi, GeoSystems

13: Mineral Processing and Metallurgical Testing


17: Recovery Methods
18: Project Infrastructure
21: Capital and Operating Costs (Processing and Site
Infrastructure)

Ian Jackson and Ciaran Molloy, AMEC

20: Environmental Studies, Permitting and Social or


Community Impact

Pietro Berno, SGS Environmental

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4.0

PROPERTY DESCRIPTION AND LOCATION

4.1

Location
The Yaoure gold project is located in central Cte dIvoire in West Africa, 40 km northwest of Yamoussoukro, the political capital, and 270 km north-west of Abidjan, the
economic capital of Cte dIvoire (Figure 4.1).
Figure 4.1: Location Map Yaoure Gold Project

4.2

Property Description
The Yaoure gold project comprises of two exploration licences (EXPL 168 and EXPL
397) granted to Amaras 100% directly-owned subsidiary, Cluff Gold (WA) Cte dIvoire
SARL (CG(WA)CDI).
The exploration licence (EXPL 168) covers an area of 122 square miles (317 km) and
the exploration licence (EXPL 397), which lies within EXPL 168, covers an area of 19
square miles (50 km). Details of the mineral tenure can be found in Table 4.1.

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Table 4.1: Mineral Tenure Information
Tenement Name

Cluff Gold WA Cte dIvoire


SARL

Cluff Gold WA Cte dIvoire


SARL

Licence Number

168

397

Tenement Type

Exploration Licence

Exploration Licence

8 October 2004
One year
534 sq. km

11 December 2013
Twenty months
50 sq.km

31 July 2005
Two years
534 sq. km

None

31 July 2007
Two years
367 sq. km (reduced to 317 sq km
on 18 September 2008)

None

Exceptional Renewal Date


Duration
Surface area

9 August 2012
Three years
317 sq. km

None

Expiry date

9 August 2015

9 August 2015

Grant Date
Duration
Surface area
First Renewal Date
Duration
Surface area
Second Renewal Date
Duration
Surface area

4.3

Ownership and Title


Exploration licence (EXPL 168):
The exploration licence (EXPL 168) was transferred from CMA (Compagnie Minire
dAfrique) to CG(WA)CDI on 8 October 2004. The area covered was 206 square miles
(534 km) and the duration of the exploration licence was one year. On 31 July 2005,
the exploration licence was renewed for the first time for two years. On 31 July 2007,
the exploration licence was renewed for the second time for two years and the area
covered was reduced to almost 142 square miles (367 km). The area was further
reduced to 122 square miles (317 km2) on 18 September 2008 when the mining permit
(ML 33) was granted. On 9 August 2012, the exploration licence was exceptionally
renewed for three years; the area covered remained 122 square miles (317 km). The
location of the coordinates for the exploration licence as set out in the permit are shown
in Figure 4.2 and listed in Table 4.2.

Exploration licence (EXPL 397):


Initially the area now covered by the new exploration licence (EXPL 397) was included
in the area of the exploration licence (EXPL 168). Further to exploration activities, a
mining licence (ML 33) covering the area now covered by the new exploration licence
(EXPL 397) was granted to CG(WA)CDI on 18 September 2008 for five years.
In compliance with the requirements of Cte dIvoire Mining Code, an exploitation
company was created to exploit the mining licence. This exploitation company was
Yaoure Mining SA (YMSA), an 89.7% subsidiary of Amara. (The State of Cte dIvoire
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owns 10% of YMSA and minority shareholders hold the remaining 0.3%). The mining
licence was transferred from CG(WA)CDI to the exploitation company YMSA by means
of a ministerial decree issued on 11 December 2008 with retroactive effect from 18
September 2008. This mining licence expired on 18 September 2013.
On 10 May 2013, with the prospect of this mining licence expiring, the Ministry of Mines
issued a commitment letter stating that a new exploration licence covering the same
area as the mining licence would be delivered to CG(WA)CDI in order to ensure the
continuity of the exploration activities of CG(WA)CDI.
On the 11th of December 2013, in compliance with the commitment made, the
government of Cte dIvoire adopted a decree granting the new exploration licence
(EXPL 397) to CG(WA)CDI. This new exploration licence covers the same area as the
previous mining permit, an area of 19 square miles (50 km), and expires on the 9th of
August 2015. The location of the coordinates for the new exploration licence as set out
in the permit are shown in Figure 4.2 and listed in Table 4.3.
Table 4.2: Coordinates of the Exploration Licence (EXPL 168)
EXPLORATION LICENCE (EXPL 168)
367 sq. km
POINT

LATITUDES (NORTH)

LONGITUDES (WEST)

70750

54000

70657

53914

70651

53539

70914

53220

70736

53016

70500

53306

70315

53124

70242

52841

65500

52841

65500

54000

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Figure 4.2: Yaoure Gold Project Land Tenure: Exploration Licences

Reproduced from Government permits

Table 4.3: Coordinates of the New Exploration Licence (EXPL 397)


EXPLORATION LICENCE (EXPL 397)
50 sq. km
POINT

LATITUDES (NORTH)

LONGITUDES (WEST)

70300

53346

70300

52955

65910

52955

65910

53346

Whilst the licence coordinates are specified in degrees latitude and longitude, the
regional exploration is based on the UTM coordinate system, specifically Zone 30 North
in WGS 84 datum on the EGM96 Geoid model. Drilling and mining activities by Amara
since 2005 at the Yaoure gold deposit have been based on a local grid. There is an
angular difference of 0.21 between the two systems, with the local grid north being
0.21 degrees to the east of UTM north.

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5.0

ACCESSIBILITY, CLIMATE, LOCAL RESOURCES,


INFRASTRUCTURE AND PHYSIOGRAPHY

5.1

Accessibility
The Yaoure gold project is located within a rural area 40 km north-west of
Yamoussoukro, 22 km east-north-east of the city of Bouafle and 5 km west of Kossou
dam and hydroelectric power station. Figure 5.1 is a satellite image showing the
location of the Yaoure gold project and deposit, with the outline of the exploration
licence shown in blue, and the mining permit in red. The nearest villages to the site, 1
km to the east are Angovia and Allahou-Bazi.
A 5 km gravel road leads from the Yaoure gold project site to the western end of the
Kossou dam, while a further 16 km of paved road connects the Kossou hydroelectric
power station to the main BouafleYamoussoukro road at Toumbokro. Yamoussoukro
lies a further 24 km to the south-east. The 5 km gravel road, west of the Kossou dam,
and the paved road to Toumbokro are both seasonally maintained by Amara. The
Yaoure gold project can also be accessed directly from the main road at Bozi, but that
gravel road is poorly maintained. Much of the 230 km road between Yamoussoukro
and Abidjan, the commercial capital, is dual carriageway, and the remaining singlecarriage section is being widened.
Figure 5.1: Location of the Yaoure Gold Project

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Figure 5.2: Yaoure Exploration Licence: Topography and Drainage

On 11 December 2013, the Mining Licence was converted to an exploration licence (EXPL 397).

5.2

Physiography
The terrain of the Yaoure exploration licence area is dominated by the Mount Yaoure
hills (Figure 5.2) in the centre of the southern half of the licenced area, away from
which the terrain is mostly flat to undulating plains, which in turn give way to the north
to the man-made Kossou Lake (Figure 5.3). In addition to the primary river, the
Bandama, which flows southwards from the Kossou hydroelectric power station, there
is a radial pattern of rivers and streams which drain the Mount Yaoure hills.

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Ecologically, the area is classified as a forest-savannah mosaic, consisting of forest,


interlaced with savannah and grassland habitats, with areas cleared for settlement and
agriculture. Figure 5.3 shows a view from west of the CMA South pit, looking north,
showing typical vegetation and terrain surrounding the Yaoure gold deposit. Angovia
village, with Lake Kossou behind, can be seen in the distance.
Figure 5.3: Yaoure Gold Project - Typical Vegetation and Terrain: Looking North

5.3

Climate
The tropical climate of the central region of Cte dIvoire, in which the Yaoure gold
deposit is located, consists of four seasons; with a long dry season from December to
May, a short wet season from May to July, a short dry season from July to October,
and a short rainy season from October to November. Annual average rainfall is 1,000
mm. Prevailing winds are the south-west monsoon and the north-east Harmattan.
Average temperatures range from 22C to 32C throughout the year.

5.4

Infrastructure
Electrical power to the site is supplied by the local grid, via a 33 kV feeder line from the
nearby 150 MW Kossou hydroelectric power station (Figure 5.4). A 455 kVA standby
generator has been installed on-site to be used in the event of power failures.

Yaoure Gold Deposit


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Figure 5.4: CIE Hydroelectric Power Station, Kossou

The entire area is serviced by reliable mobile phone networks and internet
communications on-site are provided by means of satellite. The internet system was
upgraded in early 2013 by using cable fibre-optics.
Site infrastructure consists of an office complex, change room, messing facilities,
logistic stores, laboratory, guard room, workshop, and core shed. Diesel storage
capacity at site is currently 25,000 litres. Senior personnel are currently accommodated
at Kossou village, on the eastern side of Kossou dam.
The population immediately surrounding the Yaoure gold project is estimated to
comprise about 5,000 local people from the villages of Angovia/Allahou-Bazi, Kouakou
Gnanou, Akakro and Nda Koffi-Yobouekro. The Bouafle district population is
represented by three main ethnic groups: the Yaours, the Ayaous, and the Gouros.
The Yaoures, who are the principal inhabitants of the region, are separated into the
Yaoures North and the Yaoures South. Most of the inhabitants in the area surrounding
the project are from the Yaoures North group. Land is held in common by the Yaoures
North. A large proportion of the population follow traditional tribal beliefs, while the
remainder are either Christian or Muslim. Each village is directed by a council of heads
of the more influential families, led by the village Chief who is traditionally descended
from the founding family of the village. The village council reports to the local
Sous Prefet, who reports to the regional Prefet, nominated by the government.

5.5

Local Resources
The main economic activities in the area are pastoral and cultivated agriculture,
forestry, artisanal mining, and fishing.

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6.0

HISTORY

6.1

Exploration and Mining


Artisanal gold mining is known to have been conducted at Yaoure (name changed from
Angovia to Yaoure in January 2012) since 1935. It is estimated that between one and
two tonnes of gold were extracted at Yaoure up to 1945. From 1946 to 1969, several
exploration projects aimed to assess the gold potential in quartz veins, and gold
mineralization with values from 1.9 g/t to 4 g/t at Angovia were reported.
Modern exploration began in 1983 with the French Bureau de Recherches Geologiques
et Minires (BRGM), who conducted a regional soil and stream sediment geochemical
sampling programme over the entire Exploration Permit (PRA No. 36). This survey
defined two significant gold-in-soil anomalies; at Angovia, and near the village of
Kouako Gnanou (the Kongonza prospect). Subsequent work through to 1991 consisted
of geophysics, trenching, and core drilling to evaluate these main anomalies, with a
focus on the Angovia Prospect 1 which subsequently became the Compagnie Minire
dAfrique (CMA) mine.
Figure 6.1 shows original BRGM gold-in-soil anomalies in the area of the Yaoure gold
deposit, with contours at +200 ppb and +400 ppb. Also shown are structural trends
from the 2009 reinterpretation, and satellite deposits (mainly oxide).
On 25 March 1993, an Exploitation Permit was granted to CMA (Permit Number 30 by
Order Number 048/MME/DM), who carried out further drilling, leading to a feasibility
study in 1994. A heap leach oxide gold mining operation was established in 1999, and
production continued until the mine closed towards the end of 2003.
CMA reportedly extracted 1.9 million tonnes (Mt) of ore, with a mean plant feed grade
of 3.9 g/t gold from three open pits; CMA North, CMA Central, and CMA South. The
CMA North pit and Central pit eventually merged into one pit, reaching a maximum
depth of 40 m below-surface. Treatment of the oxidized ore in a heap leach facility
reportedly achieved a mean recovery of approximately 85%.
CMA was also granted a 485 km2 exploration permit in July 2002 with the aim of
delineating further near-surface oxidized material near to the existing process plant.
However, following the closure of the mine in late 2003, the permits were relinquished
in 2004, and subsequently transferred to Cluff Gold (West Africa) Cte dIvoire SARL
on 8 October 2004.

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Figure 6.1: BRGM Gold-in-Soil Anomalies and Structural Trends

6.2

Historical Mineral Resource Estimates


Amara understands that CMA produced a preliminary estimate for the oxidized
mineralization in satellite bodies to the main mineralization. However, as no
documentation has been obtained to support this, there are no historical estimates to
disclose.

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7.0

GEOLOGICAL SETTING AND MINERALIZATION

7.1

Regional Geology
The geology of Cte dIvoire mainly consists of Archaean and Palaeoproterozoic
terranes (Figure 7.1). The coastal part of the country is largely covered by a MesozoicCenozoic sedimentary basin.
Figure 7.1: Geological Map of Cte dIvoire and surrounding countries

The Archaean rocks which form the Pre-Birimian basement occur essentially in the
western part of the country. The Archaean terranes are generally composed of
hypersthene-bearing rocks (termed charnockitic suite or granulitic suite). Ferruginous
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quartzite, basic and ultrabasic rocks (pyroxenite and amphibole pyroxenite), gneiss,
migmatite, and granite are also found. The metamorphism varies between granulite
and amphibolite facies.
Palaeo-Proterozoic terranes (Birimian) cover more than two-thirds of the country
(Lompo 2010, Vidal et al 2009). They consist predominantly of granitoid zones with
volcano-sedimentary greenstone belts. The predominant strike is NNESSW, with a
typical subvertical dip. The dominant regional metamorphism is greenschist facies.

7.2

Local Geology
The Yaoure project area lies on the eastern half of the main central Birimian-aged
greenstone belt. The belt is a NNE-trending assemblage of Palaeo-Proterozoic
volcanic, sedimentary and intrusive rocks located in central Cte dIvoire. The rock
types found in the Yaoure district are, for the most part, mafic volcanic rocks with minor
cherts, turbiditic metasediments and a fluviodeltaic formation (Figure 7.2). The flyschlike turbiditic metasediments consist of sandstone to argillite with graphitic and
conglomeratic horizons. The fluviodeltaic formation consists of sandstone,
conglomerate, and argillite. The volcano-sedimentary rocks were intruded by tonalitetrondhjemite-granodiorite (TTG) type plutonic rocks and undifferentiated granitoids.
Mafic to ultramafic complexes are also found in the Yaoure district.

7.3

Project Geology
The Yaoure gold deposit is hosted by Early Proterozoic (Birimian) mafic volcanics
(basalts), with granodiorite and mafic porphyry intrusions. A provisional geological map
of the Yaoure central area is shown in Figure 7.3.

7.3.1

Stratigraphy
South of 7,300 mN (local grid), 777480 N (UTM), the geology is dominated by mafic
volcanics, much of which is pillow basalts, with lesser mafic porphyry bodies. Some of
the massive basalt is possibly intrusive as sills into the pillow basalts.
Volcaniclastic and mafic lapilli tuff layers occur within the basalts; the most continuous
and thickest volcaniclastic unit occurs immediately below the granodiorite body in the
north of Yaoure central (Figure 7.3). As a subaerial volcanic deposit within the
subaqueous basaltic lavas, a lapilli tuff would be expected to show some stratigraphic
correlation between drillholes; however, this is not the case. There is some suggestion
of a correlation, albeit offset by possible faults, in drillholes YDD0033, YDD0044 and
YDD0046, on section 7,300 mN.

7.3.2

Intrusions
There are two main intrusive lithologies granodiorite and porphyry. Granodiorite
bodies can be clearly seen in the airborne radiometric data (Figure 7.11).

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Figure 7.2: Simplified Geological Map of the Yaoure Area

Granodiorite intrusives are important in the northern half of the Yaoure Central
deposit. There appear to be two separate bodies (Figure 7.3), although they may be
linked. The largest body is to the north of the Yaoure Central deposit and has been
intersected in drill holes on local sections: 7,500, 7600, 7700 and 7800 mN. Based on
the symmetry of the contact pattern, the tabular or sheet-like intrusion trends roughly EW and plunges directly north at up to 40 degrees. It appears to be spreading out in both
NW and NE directions, i.e. it is growing in a plunging sub-circular manner to the north.
In the NE direction the circular expansion trend is about N45E and the CMA longsection plunge is following that trend down. This granodiorite body is not mineralised.

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The smaller granodiorite occurs in the northern half of the Yaoure Central pit. It is subvertical and extends for 900 metres with an N-S trend up to the larger flatter-lying
granodiorite body. This granodiorite body is well mineralised with a relatively high
proportion of cross-cutting mineralised quartz veins.
The relationship of the two bodies is not clear. They could be separate bodies with the
sub-vertical mineralised body being earlier. Alternatively, they could be a single body
with the southern sub-vertical part having been caught up in the shearing-fracturingalteration-mineralization processes.
A smaller granodiorite body occurs within the Yaoure Central pit (Figure 7.4). For
example, in the eastern half of section 7,300 mN (Figure 7.4), there is a separate
sheared and recrystallized sill-like granodiorite body about 10 m thick, the orientation of
which varies between horizontal and dipping at 10 to the east.
Porphyry bodies occur throughout the drilled volcanic sequence; however, there is the
suggestion that more porphyry is associated with the Yaoure Central mineralisation
than with the CMA North-Central mineralisation. The orientation of the porphyry bodies
is difficult to determine in drill core; however, on sections adjacent porphyry
intersections can be correlated as sills which predominantly dip to the east at 30
degrees. In the Northern 7,500 mN to 7,600 mN sections, porphyry does not appear to
intrude the main granodiorite body or the underlying volcaniclastite unit. A hypothesis
that needs further evaluation by drilling is that sill-like porphyry bodies: (i) controlled
and compartmentalized the flow of fluids that resulted in both alteration and
mineralization and (ii) mark the base of the Yaoure Central deposit.
Figure 7.3: Geology Map of the Yaoure Gold Deposit

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Figure 7.4: Oxidation of possible Granodiorite, Yaoure Central North Pit

7.3.3

Description of Lithologies

Basalt
In terms of volume, basalt is the dominant lithology. It occurs in three main varieties:
pillow basalt, a fine to medium-grained massive basalt, and slightly coarser-grained
porphyritic basalt with black mafic phenocrysts. The last of these has a particularly
fresh appearance. During core logging, it was not possible to systematically distinguish
between the three types. Contacts between pillow basalt and massive basalt are
occasionally sharp, but often the possible contacts are deformed and altered
transitional zones. The massive basalt(s) may represent parts of a (sheeted?) dyke
complex intruding the pillow basalts. Figure 7.5 shows an example of pillow basalts,
with chert-filled voids that probably formed during crystallization and cooling of the
basalt.

Volcaniclastite
A distinct polymictic volcaniclastite unit occurs below the granodiorite, but only in the
northernmost-drilled area on sections 7,500 mN (Figure 7.13) to 7,800 mN. Angular
aligned clasts of various lithologies, up to pebble-size occasionally cobble-size, are the
characteristic feature. The matrix of the volcaniclastite commonly appears to be
sheared, but this could be due to igneous flow, and is typically pale, which suggests a
felsic composition.

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Figure 7.5: Oxidized Pillow Basalt, Yaoure Central South Pit

Figure 7.6 shows polymictic volcaniclastite with a felsic to intermediate matrix in the
upper part of the volcaniclastite unit from 87.0 m-119.7 m in drillhole, YDD0034.
However, the composition changes downhole to a mafic composition with a greater
number of autolithic clasts and a more breccia-like texture. This is illustrated in Figure
7.7 as basaltic autolithic volcaniclastite.

Mafic Lapilli Tuff


The recognition of the mafic lapilli tuff is difficult. The most convincing lapilli tuff displays
pale rims around dark, aligned, ellipsoid lapilli. See Figure 7.8, which shows mafic lapilli
tuff with thermal alteration rims around flattened aligned lapilli, at 181.5 m in drillhole
YDD0069. The rims probably represent thermal alteration.

Granodiorite
The lithology is an unremarkable medium-grained granodiorite, occasionally
approaching a porphyritic texture, with mafic xenoliths common throughout. Figure 7.9
shows exposed granodiorite in the Yaoure Central North pit.

Porphyry
A mid-grey, fine-grained porphyry with milky white feldspar phenocrysts and occasional
subhedral mafic (hornblende?) phenocrysts. Figure 7.10 presents typical fresh
porphyry, with large plagioclase phenocrysts and subordinate smaller mafic
(hornblende?) phenocrysts. In some cores, the porphyry alternates frequently with
basalt and occurs as very thin dykelets as well as thicker dykes/sheets. It is unaltered
and clearly intrudes the basalts, including the coarser-grained porphyritic basalt.
Alteration veins in pillow basalt in particular were seen to terminate at the porphyry
contact.
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Figure 7.5: Oxidized Pillow Basalt, Yaoure Central South Pit

Figure 7.6: Polymict Volcaniclastite with Felsic to Intermediate Matrix

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Figure 7.7: Basaltic Autolithic Volcaniclastite

Figure 7.8: Mafic Lapilli Tuff with Alteration Rims around Lapilli

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Figure 7.9: Granodiorite with Mafic Xenoliths

Figure 7.10: Fresh Porphyry with Plagioclase and Mafic Phenocrysts

7.3.4

Structure
The Yaoure greenstone belt was subjected to WNW/ESE-directed crustal shortening
during the Eburnean Orogeny, but has a lower aspect ratio than similar belts in West
Africa (i.e. it is short and wide) which is consistent with its comparatively undeformed
state. Large-scale, NNE-striking folds appear to be tight rather than isoclinal (which is

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more typical of other West-African greenstone belts), and a penetrative fabric is absent
at Yaoure.
An Eburnian structure of particular importance to the Yaoure gold deposit is an arcuate,
NE-trending regional fault (denoted as D in Figure 9.4) which Le Roux (2012) called a
deep trend but which Baker (2012) describes as a compressional fault which was
reactivated as a dextral strike-slip structure at a late stage in the Eburnian orogeny.
Dextral motion along the east-north-east-trending segment of Fault D has generated
two sets of north-to-north-east-trending sigmoidal lenses. East-dipping structures,
known from the Yaoure Central open pit, suggest that the NNESSW fault branch
passing through the Yaoure gold deposit (Figure 9.4) experienced transpressive
movement (Baker 2012). Gold mineralization at Yaoure was formed during Late
Eburnian transpression and is overprinted only by minor kinking and by late brittle
faulting (Kerr 2012). Kerr (2012) describes the east-dipping reverse/sinistral shear zone
that passes through the CMA North and Central pits as a master structure and
interprets it as a second-order splay off the regional Fault D.
Additional information on the structure in the vicinity of the Yaoure gold deposit has
come from detailed interpretation of the airborne magnetic and radiometric data. Figure
7.11 shows structures interpreted from the vertical derivative of the (pole-reduced) total
magnetic field, superimposed on potassium anomaly Steenkamp (2012). Figure 7.12
presents a recent reinterpretation of the same data by Ailleres (PGN, Geoscience
2013) with reference to the Yaoure diamond drillholes.
Figure 7.11: Interpreted Structures in the Vicinity of the Yaoure Gold Deposit

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Figure 7.12: PNG Reinterpretation of Magnetic and Radiometric Data

Key to PGN Lithologies in Figure 7.12


BV_KALT

Basalt with K alteration

FVC

Felsic volcaniclastics

GD

Granodiorite

MSedts

Metasediments

MVC

Mafic volcaniclastics Unit 1

MVC2

Mafic volcaniclastics Unit 2

mag

Magnetic

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7.3.5

Metamorphism
The metamorphic grade of the volcanic rocks at Yaoure is regarded as regional lower
greenschist facies. An initial petrological study of 27 thin sections of core samples
supports this. Original ferromagnesian minerals are variably replaced by chlorite and
leucoxene and rare actinolite and biotite. Plagioclase is typically sausiritized and
variably replaced by albite, sericite and minor calcite. The development of epidote in a
hornfels texture in some rocks suggests thermal metamorphism in the albite-epidote
hornfels facies.

7.3.6

Alteration
Alteration associated with gold mineralization includes silicification, carbonatization
(particularly in basalt), sericitization (particularly in granodiorite) and, less commonly,
tourmalinization (clusters of needles), biotitization and chloritization. Altered wallrocks
to veins typically contain up to 2% disseminated pyrite and locally up to 5%.

7.3.7

Deposits
The Angovia gold deposit was renamed Yaoure by the Amara in January 2012. The
Yaoure deposit consists of the Yaoure Central mineralization underlying the Amaras
Yaoure Central open pit (formerly Prospects 2 and 4) and the CMA mineralization
underlying CMAs North, Central and South pits. Smaller deposits are found at
Kongonza, Angovia 2, and Zone North. The mineral resource estimate documented in
this report relates only to the sulphide portion of the Yaoure Central deposit.

7.4

Mineralized Zones
At the Yaoure gold deposit there are two main targets:

The NS trending Yaoure Central body in the west: a 200 m thick low-grade body with
high-grade lenses, extending down to the east from the Yaoure Central pit at a dip of 30;

The NS trending CMA body in the east: a discrete relatively continuous 20 m thick body,
about 140 m above the Yaoure Central body, extending down to the east from the CMA
North and Central pits.
Additional targets include:

The SWNE trending CMA South pit mineralization.

Mineralization within later cross-cutting high-grade subvertical quartz veins with


visible gold. Although they have the potential to enhance the overall grade of the
deposit, these veins were not a primary target of the drilling programme.

Mineralization at porphyry-basalt contacts.

A new target CMA South East, a possible NWSE zone, which could extend
600 m towards the Angovia 2 and Kongonza NW prospects (Figure 9.1).

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7.4.1

Yaoure Central
The 20112012 diamond drilling demonstrated that the NS trending Yaoure Central
mineralization is a 200 m (150250 m) thick body, as defined by the 0.1 g/t threshold
envelope, about 140 m (70-220 m) below the CMA zone, dipping at approximately 30
to the east (Figure 7.15 and Figure 7.17). Within this thick low-grade body are multiple
higher-grade lenses with a typical width of about 15 m. Mineralization within these
higher-grade zones, mainly dipping at about 30 to the east, occurs as sulphides
associated with an array of quartz veins, ranging in thickness from metres to
millimetres, silicification and minor carbonate and variable degrees of shearing. The
boundaries of the higher grade zones are gradational. There appears to be a possible
SE plunge to the high-grade mineralization, as seen in modelling with Leapfrog
software (Abraham 2013). There is frequently a spike in gold at porphyry-basalt
contacts and there appears to be porphyry-gold association, best seen in hole
YDD0043.
The Yaoure Central pit extends from 6,200 mN to 7,600 mN (local grid). At the north
end of the pit, Phase 4 infill drilling has extended the mineralization to 7,800 mN,
although the strike has changed to NWSE, being deflected by the main granodiorite
intrusion. The Yaoure body appears to continue down-dip for at least 700 m to a
vertical depth in excess of 450 m as shown in some of the deepest holes; (YDD0056,
YDD0068, YDD0078, YDD0079, YDD0100 and YDD0101), but with reduced continuity
as it is not found in all deep holes, e.g. YDD0081.

7.4.2

CMA North-Central
Diamond drilling has established the northsouth trending CMA North-Central
mineralization (Zones 2 and 3 of Leapfrog modelling) as essentially a discrete
continuous body within a 20 m to 45 m wide brittle-ductile shear zone (as compared to
the more brittle nature of Yaoure Central), dipping between 24 and 30 to the east
(Figure 7.15 and Figure 7.17). Sulphide mineralization, quartz-carbonate veining,
silicification and, in particular, abundant distinctive carbonate alteration are associated
with a zone of strong reverse/sinistral ductile, locally mylonitic, shearing, hydrothermal
alteration and later brittle brecciation. The boundaries of the CMA mineralization are
more marked than the Yaoure Central mineralization. Importantly, but not yet fully
understood, is that the veins in the CMA mineralization dip towards a range between E
and N to NE/NNE at 30 in CMA North, and to N/NE in CMA Central at 15. The CMA
North-Central zone is regarded as the upper or main shear of the Yaoure deposit.
The body extends along a strike length of at least 1.1 km from 6,400 mN to 7,500 mN
which includes a newly discovered extension of at least 200 m northwards from the end
of the CMA North pit. The deepest intersections, at a vertical depth of approximately
300 m in YDD0094 on 7,300 mN, 280 m in YDD95 on 6,900 mN and 250 m in
YDD0100 on 7,100 mN, extend the body down-dip for a distance of approximately
500 m (from the presumed base of the CMA pit) at a dip of 24. The CMA North-Central
body was intersected in all the holes targeting it.

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7.4.3

CMA South
Results for the drillholes designed to test mineralization below the CMA South pit,
which trends SWNE have been disappointing. The mineralisation in the CMA South
pit is not the same as the distinctive high-grade CMA North-Central mineralisation and
is regarded as a later NE-SW trending cross-cutting structure. Consequently, the CMA
South zone was regarded as a low priority for Phase 4 infill drilling.

7.4.4

CMA South-East
A synthesis of structural information has indicated a new target CMA South East, a
SE-trending arm extending from the south end of the CMA Central pit towards the
Angovia 2 resource, i.e. the mirror image of the SW-trending CMA South pit
mineralization. Two holes have tested this target. Results have confirmed the validity of
the new target and returned intersections of multiple zones of low-grade mineralization.
It is thought that CMA South-East probably represents a continuation of the
mineralization that extends from Kongonza, 2.1 km to the SE, through Kongonza NW
and Angovia 2 South.

7.4.5

Cross-cutting Quartz Veins


Sub-vertical cross-cutting quartz veins, which typically trend NE/ENE (main) and WNW
(secondary), are an important subsidiary target which has not been systematically
tested in the drilling programmes.

7.4.6

Cross sections and Relogging Exercise


As indicated in the May 2013 NI43-101 Technical Report, relogging of all the diamond
drill core obtained since August 2011 was carried out by a consultant, W. Bond, with
Amara geologists, from April to July 2013 in order to gain a better understanding of the
deposit. This relogging resulted in the definition of 145 lithologic codes. Two examples
of cross sections, one kilometre apart (7500 mN and 6500 mN), after the relogging
campaign are presented as Figure 7.13 and Figure 7.16. A key for the major units from
the relogging exercise is included as Figure 7.18. For comparison, the original 7500
mN cross section is included as Figure 7.14. Whilst the continuity of the shearcontrolled, intensely altered CMA North-Central mineralisation from section to section
was confirmed, Yaoure Central alteration and mineralisation proved to be much more
irregular in distribution which suggests a much more haphazard discontinuous brittle
structure. It proved to be very difficult to connect up shearing, alteration and porphyry
bodies from section to section for Yaoure Central. In order to produce a 3D geologic
model, simplified cross sections were produced. The simplified sections for 7500 mN
and 6500 mN are presented as Figure 7.15 and Figure 7.17.

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VC
200mRL
YAOURE

D
11

4
D
14

D
14

D
83

200mRL

VC

VC

GRD

VC

VC

0mRL

D
63

D
47

D
49

D
69

D
34

YAOURE PIT

D
10

-27

Figure 7.13: Drill Section 777680 mN (7500 mN local) after relogging

D69
196.12m

D34
242.66m D49
263.47m

0mRL

D47
325.5m
D63
372.86m

YAOURE

-200mRL

221,000mN

-400mRL

220,800mN

220,600mN

metres

?
Suspected
Possible
Vein Trends
(No apparent
data taken)

D101
650.56m

Page 7-50

221,600mN

200

D110
530.5m

221,400mN

100

-27

CMA

221,200mN

D144
389.64m

D83
502m

SECTION 7500N

-200mRL

D147
359.76m

-400mRL

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Figure 7.14: Original Drill Section 777680 mN (7500 mN local) section from May 2013 NI 43-101 Technical Report

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Figure 7.15: Simplified Drill Section 777680 mN (7500 mN local)

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D
56

D
10
4

D
86

D
11
5

YAOURE PIT

D
11
7

D
80

D
12
8

-28

-28

D
74

Regional Trend
Approx -70 to -75E ?

D
76

-40

D
73

400mRL

D
12
0

Figure 7.16: Drill Section 776680 mN (6500 mN local) after relogging

CMA PIT

200mRL

200mRL
PILLOWED

PILLOWED

D128
176.75m

D76
202.05m
D73
261.03m

0mRL

D120
243.1m

0mRL
MASSIVE

PILLOWED

D80
335.28m

D74
405.72m
D117
329.56m

YAOURE

MOSTLY
PILLOWED

D86
473.26m

SECTION 6500N

-400mRL

metres

-200mRL
221,800mN

D56
601.02m

200

221,600mN

D71
EOH
(50m in
front of
section)

221,200mN

-40

100

221,400mN

D104
539.76m

221,000mN

220,600mN

220,800mN

D115
497.6m

-200mRL
220,400mN

PILLOWED

MASSIVE

PILLOWED

-400mRL

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Figure 7.17: Simplified Drill Section 776680 mN (6500 mN local)

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Figure 7.18: Key for Major Units from Relogging Exercise

GRANODIORITE

STRONGLY ALTERED
(Carb-dol-ank-silica-pk carb)

PORPHYRY

WEAK-MOD ALTERED
(Carb-dol-ank-silica-pk carb)

BASALT

STRONGLY ALTERED
(Carb-dol)

FRACTURED BASALT

WEAK-MODLY ALTERED
(Carb_dol)

INTERMED-MAFIC DIKE

YAOURE ZONE
CMA ZONE

7.5

Metallogeny and Paragenesis


SRK (2008) stated that the Yaoure gold deposit had been classified as an epithermal
gold, copper and molybdenum porphyry, a hypothesis apparently supported by the
presence of copper, molybdenum and the presence of potassic alteration zones
associated with a series of small porphyritic acid-intermediate intrusions ranging from
granodiorite to syenite. There is a close spatial association with small granodiorite
intrusions and a porphyry-gold association at porphyry contacts. However, it is not
thought that there is a porphyry-related or a reduced intrusion-related gold system
(IRGS) at Yaoure. The porphyry contact association is thought to be due to the
physical competency difference between the intrusive porphyry bodies and basalts,
rather than porphyry being the source or driving mechanism for the gold.
In a study of Early Proterozoic ore deposits of the Birimian in West Africa, Milesi et al
(1992) regarded the Yaoure gold deposit as a syn-orogenic deposit with disseminated
gold and sulphide. Amara believes that, although at a still relatively early stage of
knowledge, the Yaoure gold deposit can be best classified as a mesothermal
greenstone-hosted quartz-carbonate vein deposit (Robert et al 1997).
This is based on:

The geological setting of a greenstone belt and a spatial association with a major
fault (Fault D, Figure 9.5) a compressional fault which was reactivated as a
dextral strike-slip structure at a late stage in the Eburnian orogeny.
The association with carbonatization and sericitization, as well as silicification.
The association of gold with Ag, W, Mo, and As.
The form of mineralization as quartz-carbonate veins associated with brittle-ductile
shearing.
The lack of clear epithermal features such as vuggy silica sinters indicative of
boiling, chalcedonic quartz and alunite-adularia.

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Coulibaly et al (2008), in a fluid inclusion study, concluded that the mineralizing


process is likely to be the formation of gold-bearing immiscible CO2-rich fluids from
aqueous fluids. The immiscibility event was caused by the release of fluid pressure
after fracturing along the main shear zones.

7.6

Summary of Field Characteristics of the Mineralization


The mineralization is not usually exposed at surface; the only good exposures are in
the Yaoure Central pit. The key feature that is used in the current regional exploration
programme, based on soil sampling, is the presence of quartz veins. Therefore, all
occurrences of quartz vein, both float and rare outcrop, are sampled.

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8.0

DEPOSIT TYPES
There are four related gold deposit types at Yaoure:

Greenstone-hosted, mesothermal, brittle-ductile shear zone deposits, for example


Yaoure Central and CMA, but also smaller deposits such as Kongonza;
Oxidized deposits in saprolite overlying the primary sulphide deposits; the two
examples are the open pits at Yaoure Central and CMA North, Central and South;
Lateritic oxide deposits as ferricrete remnants on the top of hills, consisting of
transported and re-cemented iron-rich pisoliths and quartz fragments; the only
examples are Blangan and Zone North;
Small eluvial and alluvial deposits which have been mined by artisanal miners.

The Yaoure gold deposit occurs within the Palaeoproterozoic Birimian metallogenic
province that extends from Senegal and Mali through north-eastern Guinea, Cte
dIvoire, Ghana and Burkina Faso and as far as Niger. In Figure 8.1 the extent of the
Birimian is shown in pink, Birimian volcanic belts in green, and the Man Craton in
orange. Stars indicate gold deposits.
Figure 8.1: Geology Map of West Africa showing Gold Deposits

Gold deposits in the West African Birimian gold province, including the Yaoure gold
deposit, show many characteristics consistent with their classification as orogenic
mesothermal gold deposits. Similar deposits occur in the Abitibi Greenstone belt of
Canada and in the Yilgarn region of Australia. However, the apparent deformation at
Yaoure particularly that associated with Yaoure Central mineralization is relatively low
when compared to other Birimian deposits. In this sense, mineralization at Yaoure is
similar to other meso- or epithermal, low and medium sulphidization deposits such as
the CSH 217 deposit in Inner Mongolia, or the San Cristbal dilational jog, stockwork
deposit in Northern Chile.
The main characteristics of the Yaoure mineralization are:
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The geological setting of a greenstone belt and a spatial association with a major
fault.
The association with carbonatization and sericitization, as well as silicification.
The association of gold with Ag, W, Mo, and As.
The form of mineralization as quartz-carbonate veins associated with brittle-ductile
shearing.

Visitors to Yaoure have compared aspects of Yaoure mineralization, such as the


veining and alteration, with features at the Golouma deposits in the Sabodala area
(Bond 2013a) of Senegal, and Lefa in Guinea, albeit that Lefa gold mineralization is
hosted in sedimentary rocks, as compared to basaltic volcanics at Yaoure.

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9.0

EXPLORATION

9.1

Coordinates, Datum Grid Control and Topographic Surveys


Regional exploration in the exploration licence is based on the UTM coordinate system,
specifically Zone 30 North in WGS 84 datum on the EGM96 Geoid model. Positions,
for example soil samples, are located using hand-held GPS units.
Drilling at the Yaoure gold deposit site has been based on a local grid used by Amara
since 2005 for both its exploration and mining activities. There is an angular difference
of 0.21 between the two systems, with the local grid north being 0.21 degrees to the
east of UTM north. The local grid was transformed into the UTM system in 2007.
Topographic surveys at the Yaoure gold deposit are carried out by the former mine
surveyor using a total station, or by local contract surveyors using total stations.

9.2

Summary of Exploration Activity


Between April 2009 and January 2011, soil sampling was carried out at Kongonza,
between Kongonza and Blangan (Kongonza north-west), Zone North, Govisou and
Magazine (Figure 9.1).
Exploration resumed in June 2011, initially focusing on the search for more Blangantype lateritic deposits with soil sampling, and followed by RAB drilling at the Zone North
soil anomaly (Refer to Section 10 for drilling).
At a regional scale, an airborne geophysical survey was carried out over the whole
exploration licence area in MarchApril 2012. A remote sensing interpretation, which
also took into account the airborne magnetic and radiometric data, was completed in
June 2012. The geophysics and remote sensing interpretation defined a number of
regional exploration targets which have been tested by soil sampling. The remote
sensing interpretation also identified resistant ferricrete remnants (lateritic hill tops)
and refocused the final search for Blangan-type deposits by soil sampling. Soil
sampling, in the search for Blangan-type lateritic deposits, stopped in October 2012.
The regional soil sampling programme focused on the targets identified by the airborne
geophysical survey and the remote sensing interpretation was conducted from
November 2012 until August, following initial field checking and prioritization. From
September 2013 to December 2013, further soil sampling was carried out within four
kilometres of the Yaoure deposit with the dual objectives of sterilising ground for future
mine planning purposes as well as defining additional mineralised zones.

9.3

Geological Mapping
No systematic geological mapping has been carried on the exploration licence, as good
outcrop is generally poor, due to the thick vegetation and the processes of lateritization
and saprolitization. Rare surface outcrops found during regional soil geochemistry are
recorded. The best exposure is found in the Yaoure Central pit, and geological
mapping of each bench was carried out during mining (Figure 9.2).

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Figure 9.1: Map Showing Prospects near to the Yaoure Gold Deposit

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Figure 9.2: Geological Mapping - Yaoure Central North (Prospect 4) Pit. Level 215 mRL

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9.4

Remote Sensing and Satellite Imagery


A remote sensing study of the exploration licence area was carried out by consultant Dr
Michael Baker, and reported in July 2012 (Baker 2012). Structure and general lithology
were interpreted from Landsat imagery, combined with the recently acquired
aeromagnetic and radiometric data at a scale of 1:40,000. A mosaic of high-resolution
Ikonos and Quickbird satellite imagery was used to refine the interpretation locally and
to map ferricrete occurrences in detail. Figure 9.3 is a composite Ikonos/Quickbird
natural colour image over the Yaoure mine site.
The main products of the study were:

9.5

A new geology map of the area (Figure 9.4) showing major structures and
prospective areas for follow-up, and;

A map showing the distribution of ferricrete remnants (flat to gently-dipping


resistant lateritic cappings) which was used to refocus the search for Blangan-type
lateritic oxide gold deposits.

Geophysics
A high-resolution airborne magnetic and radiometric survey was flown by Xcalibur
Airborne Geophysics for Cluff Gold (WA) Cte dIvoire SARL in April 2012 over the
exploration licence (Figure 9.5). The main survey comprised 5,057 line-km over a
23 km by 22 km area. The survey was flown at a nominal ground clearance of 50 m
and line spacing of 100 m. Fill-in lines were flown to yield 50 m line spacing over the
north-eastern part of the exploration licence. The data was interpreted by Xcalibur (Le
Roux 2012, Steenkamp 2012), the main products being a geological interpretation of
the whole exploration licence area including follow-up targets and a detailed
interpretation for the vicinity of the Yaoure gold deposit (Figure 7.11). The data has
been reinterpreted by PGN Geoscience (Figure 7.12, Allieres 2012).

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Figure 9.3: Composite Natural Colour Image over the Yaoure Mine Site

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Figure 9.4: Remote Sensing Interpretation Simplified Geology of Exploration Licence Area

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Figure 9.5: Aeromagnetic Survey - Analytical Signal of the Total Magnetic Intensity

9.6

Surface Geochemistry

9.6.1

Stream Sediment Sampling


Trial stream sediment sampling over the whole exploration licence area was carried out
in December 2012. The 105 samples were analysed by the BLEG method with solvent
extraction (detection limit = 1 ppb Au) at Bureau Veritas laboratories in Abidjan, the
results of which are shown in Figure 9.6. The BLEG method was shown to be a useful
tool for the rapid preliminary evaluation of a large exploration licence, although not the
only tool that should be used.

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Figure 9.6: Results of Stream Sediment Sampling Showing Anomalous Catchment Areas

9.6.2

Outcrop Sampling
Little systematic outcrop sampling has been carried out. Rare outcrops found during
the current regional soil sampling programmes are sampled; however the key lithology

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that is sought is quartz vein. All occurrences of quartz vein, both float and rare outcrop,
are therefore sampled.

9.6.3

Soil Geochemistry
Soil sampling has proven to be an effective method of detecting oxide gold
mineralization (both in saprolite and laterite), and hence primary sulphide-associated
gold. The initial BRGM soil sampling in the 1980s detected the Yaoure Central, CMA,
Blangan, Kongonza and Zone North mineralization. The results of subsequent soil
sampling by Amara since 2009 are shown in Figure 9.7 and Figure 9.8.
Samples are taken along grid lines established using hand-held GPS units. At each
sample point the top humus layer is removed with a pick axe and shovel, and the top
30 cm of the soil regolith is cleared. The sample is taken at a depth of about 30 cm.
Sample details such as soil type; colour; moisture; rock fragments; and vegetation are
recorded. Care is taken to avoid contamination from the top soil layers. Large rock
fragments are removed and 1 kg2 kg of sample is collected into plastic pre-numbered
bags. All relevant information of the area around the sample position, such as
vegetation, farming, or nearby artisanal mining, is recorded.
Phase 1 regional sampling is carried out at a grid line spacing of 400 m and a sample
collection interval of 50 m. Earlier sampling by Amara, to follow-up BRGM soil
geochemical anomalies, was carried out at grid line spacing of 200 m and 100 m. Initial
soil sampling of the numerous ferricrete remnants identified in the remote sensing
interpretation was along single lines covering each lateritic hill top. If gold anomalism
above 200 ppb was detected, follow-up soil sampling was carried out; however, this
relatively high threshold has only been used for surficial Blangan-type targets.

9.6.4

Trenching and Pitting


Trenching and pitting has not formed a large part of the Amaras exploration
methodology. In 20092010, four old BRGM trenches were reopened at Blangan and
Kongonza, and 22 pits were excavated at Prospect 2. Following the restart of
exploration in June 2011, limited trenching has been conducted immediately south of
Angovia 2, and at Kadjabo, Wanu, Govisou and Benou in the extreme north of the
exploration licence area. Trenching at Benou failed to repeat the 42 m at 1.0 g/t Au
reported from BRGM trenching. Trenching is carried out under the supervision of an
Amara geologist or geotechnician, particularly with a view to safety and quality.
Trenches are excavated to a maximum depth of 3 m, with a width of between 0.8 m
and 1.0 m, using an excavator if near to the mine site, or by hand when further afield,
for example at Benou. Trenches are channel sampled just above the trench floor at 2 m
intervals.
Although trenching is occasionally used as an exploration tool for defining target areas
for further work, results from trenches are excluded from the database used for mineral
resource estimation. Amara plans to use a higher proportion of trenching as its tool for
initial investigation of soil anomalies or other targets.

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Figure 9.7: Results of Soil Sampling Throughout the Exploration Licence

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Figure 9.8: Soil Sampling Results in the Vicinity of the Yaoure Gold Deposit

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9.7

Geotechnical and Hydrology


No drilling solely for the purpose of geotechnical or hydrological investigations has
been conducted for the Yaoure sulphide project. Geotechnical logging of the diamond
drill core, prior to sampling, has been carried out for every diamond drillhole.

9.8

Petrology, Mineralogy and Other Research Studies


Petrological thin section descriptions were made in July 2012 by Microsearch CC for 27
core samples, to aid with core logging. The range of sample types covered all main
lithologies and sulphide mineralization types.
Twenty-six core samples, representing both mineralized and barren zones were
analysed for 48 elements by Actlabs in Canada. Au correlates well with Ag and Bi and
S and to a lesser extent with Mo, Pb and W. Various elements were also normalized
with the Upper Continental Crust (UCC) composition (Figure 9.9). Both barren and
particularly mineralized samples show enrichment of As, Ag, Sb, Bi, and Au compared
to the UCC, indicating that the effects of the hydrothermal alteration were quite
pervasive. Surprisingly, there is no correlation between Au and Cu; the highest Cu is
275 ppm.
Figure 9.9: UCC Normalized Plots Mineralized Samples

SRK (2008) stated that the Yaoure gold deposit had been classified as an epithermal
gold, copper and molybdenum porphyry, a hypothesis apparently supported by the
presence of copper, molybdenum and the presence of potassic alteration zones
associated with a series of small porphyritic acid-intermediate intrusions

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10.0

DRILLING

10.1

Summary of Drilling Activity


Amara started drilling in 2005 by testing the BRGM soil anomalies with reverse
circulation (RC) drilling, initially at Prospect 4 to the west of the CMA North pit, but also
Prospect 2, Prospect 3, and Angovia 2 (Figure 6.1 and Figure 9.1). 53,056 m of RC
drilling (775 holes) were completed between 2005 and 2007; in addition 6,484 m of
diamond drilling (62 holes) were completed in 2007. As well as delineating resources at
Prospect 2 and Prospect 4 (now the Yaoure Central pit), resources were delineated at
Angovia 2.
In February 2009, a review of all available data was carried out by Amara. This
identified the Blangan soil anomaly as a target, subsequent RAB drilling of which was
used to define a resource, leading to mining (refer to Section 17). The soil anomaly at
Kongonza was tested with RC drilling in 2010, from which a resource was delineated
(Section 16).
Exploration resumed in June 2011, including RAB drilling at the Zone North soil
anomaly. RAB drilling of soil anomalies continued through the remainder of 2011 and
up to October 2012 at Kongonza NW, K2, Office Zone, and Govisou.
RC drilling resumed in October 2011 and was carried out at Kongonza, Kongonza NW,
K2, Magazine, Govisou and Yaoure Central North.
In August 2011, the Yaoure sulphide diamond drilling project started, and by November
2012, 31,865 metres (106 holes) had been drilled, testing an area of up to about 2.1
km in an NS direction and up to about 1.4 km in an EW direction. This drilling is the
basis for the Mineral Resource Estimate in Section 14 of this report. Six diamond
drillholes (1,101 m) were also drilled at Kongonza in October 2011.
The quantities of the various types of drilling conducted by Amara between 2009 and
2013 rotary air blast (RAB), reverse circulation (RC) and diamond drilling are
summarized in Table 10.1.

10.2

Collar Coordinates
Throughout the Yaoure sulphide project drilling campaigns, all drill collars have been
initially pegged by an Amara surveyor, using total station equipment, or by Amara
Geologists using hand-held GPS units. After completion of drilling, collars were
secured with 12 m of metal casing and capped with a concrete plinth on which the
drillhole number, azimuth, inclination, and final drill depth are inscribed. Final collar
positions are surveyed by the Amara surveyor by total station.

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Table 10.1: Summary of Drilling from 2009 to 2013
Year

Drill Type

Prospect

Metres

No. of holes

2009

RAB

Blangan

716

70

Kongonza

984

118

Prospect 2

388

39

Prospect 4

276

16

Total

2364

243

Blangan

240

24

Kongonza

5351

82

Prospect 4

3406

78

Total

8997

184

Angovia 2 South

581

30

Kongonza NW

5339

248

Kongonza K2

1751

74

Zone North

5608

270

Magazine

1844

96

Total

15123

718

RC

Kongonza

1669

21

DD

Yaoure Central North


(Prospect
Kongonza 4)

1967

23

1101

Total

2068

29

Angovia 2 South

2690

130

Govisou

8285

362

Kongonza NW

4323

266

K2

2250

167

Office Zone

3871

239

Low-grade stock piles

372

51

Total

21791

1215

Angovia 2 South

7846

83

Govisou

400

Kongonza

2668

32

Kongonza NW

11594

157

Kongonza K2

3573

60

Magazine

5315

97

Yaoure Central North extension

1402

Total

32798

13
446

DD

Yaoure Central and CMA

29898

83

DD

Yaoure Central and CMA North-Central

15435

47

2010

2011

2012

RC

RAB

RAB

RC

2013

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10.3

Downhole Surveys
For diamond drilling, downhole surveys have been carried out by the drilling
contractors using either Proshot (GES) or Reflex EZ-Com II (E-Global) survey
instruments. Readings are taken at 30 m intervals. From early October 2012 an
additional reading at 6 m was introduced. The surveys are checked at the drill-site by a
Geotechnician.
Criteria for repeating the readings are:

Consecutive azimuth readings with a difference greater than 10.


Consecutive inclination readings have a difference greater than 6.

Readings that failed to meet these criteria were repeated immediately. If repeat
readings are still not satisfactory, then a note is made in the database and the reading
is excluded. An indication of the amount of deviation in the Yaoure diamond drillholes
is shown in Figure 10.3. An additional survey tool (EZ A2) was used from April 2013 to
June 2013 during Phase 4 sent to check and confirm the readings provided by the
Reflex kit. Reassuringly no significant differences were found.

10.3.1

Rotary Air Blast Drilling (RAB)


RAB drilling was carried out by Foraco, an Ivorian contractor, using a Montabert
Hydroforse rig with 85 mm drill hammers. The rig used a separate Atlas Copco
compressor with a maximum capacity of 350 psi. Holes were usually inclined at 60,
although for surface laterite prospects such as Blangan, holes were vertical. The depth
of RAB holes was 10 m20 m; holes were typically drilled to hammer refusal. Sampling
was carried out under the supervision of an Amara geotechnician.
Samples were captured in high-density plastic bags, from the head of the collar at
every 1 m drill interval, then weighed and split using a riffle splitter into 3 kg samples for
BLEG analysis at the Amaras Yaoure laboratory. The remainder of the split bulk
sample was taken to the exploration sample yard for storage for a period of one month.
The geotechnician constantly monitors sample recovery. The metre markings of the
driller are checked to ensure that the 1 m samples are consistently correct. The splitter
was cleaned out after every sample with a soft brush, and compressed air was used to
flush remnant sample material from the drill stem after every 1 m sample interval and
downhole at every rod change. After weighing 20 samples, the calibration of the scale
is checked with a standard weight.

10.4

Yaoure Sulphide Project Drill Programme


The mineral resource estimates documented in this report are based solely on the
diamond drilling that Amara has conducted from August 2011 to June 2013.
Three sets of drillholes, summarized in Table 10.2, have been excluded from the
sulphide resource modelling dataset. These are: an RC drilling programme, drilled in
September-October 2012, to test the northwestwards extension of Yaoure Central

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mineralization; an RC drilling conducted in 2005-2007; and diamond drilling conducted


in 2007-2008, mainly at Prospect 4.
Samples from the September-October 2012 RC drilling were assayed at Amaras
Yaoure site laboratory, using the bottle-roll analytical method. This assaying method is
applicable for mineralization expected to be processed by cyanide leaching, such as for
the Yaoure oxide resources, but the results are incompatible with fire assays obtained
for diamond drill core.
Table 10.2: Drilling Excluded from Resource Estimation

10.5

Period

Method

Holes

Metres

Reason for Exclusion

Sep-Oct 2012

RC

13

1,402

Incompatible assaying methods

2005-2007

RC

469

51,250

2007-2008

DDH

62

6,484

All data not available

RC Drilling
RC drilling at the Yaoure Gold deposit in 2011 and 2012 accounts for only 4% of the
total amount of RC drilling in those years. The RC focus has been on other prospects
which lie outside the Yaoure gold deposit resource area (Table 10.3). No RC drilling
has been included in the mineral resource estimates that are the subject of this report.
RC drilling since 2011 was carried out by GES, a Cte dIvoire-based company, using
either a Schramm 450 or and Hanjin Power 7000SD-RC rig, under the supervision of
an Amara geologist or geotechnician. Both rigs used SullAir compressors, with a
maximum capacity of 500 psi. Only 140 mm RC hammers were used, together with the
appropriate shrouds, which were dependent upon drilling conditions. Drilling under wet
conditions was continued infrequently with the assistance of a booster compressor. If
sample recovery became poor under wet conditions, the hole was abandoned.
Compressed air was used to flush remnant sample material from the drill stem after
every 1 m sample interval and downhole at every rod change.
RC samples were collected from the cyclone underflow at every 1 m drill interval into
high-density new plastic bags. The sample was dried, if necessary, then split at the drill
site using multistage riffle splitter to obtain 3 kg-3.5 kg sample, weighed using
electronic scales. Field duplicates were also collected at every 20th interval and given
unique identification number by numerical order rather than setting aside specific series
of numbers. The remainder of the split bulk sample was taken to the exploration
sample yard for storage for a period of one month.
The splitter and cyclone were cleaned out after every sample with a hand-held air hose
from the rig. The Amara geotechnician constantly monitored sample recovery. The
metre markings of the driller are checked to ensure that the 1 m samples are correct.
After weighing 20 samples the calibration of the scale was checked with a standard
weight.

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Every sample was sieved for rock chips, which are washed and placed on a table for
logging. Each RC sample has details of date, hole identification, geological description
of alteration, oxidation, sample quality and observed minerals recorded.

10.6

Diamond Core Drilling Programme Phases


Following a review of data in 2011, leading to recognition of potential for significant
sulphide gold mineralization at Yaoure, a phased diamond drilling programme was
initiated on 29 August 2011 and completed on 4 June 2013, with a total advance in
2011, 2012 and 2013 of 47,300 metres (Table 10.1). A typical diamond core drilling
set-up is shown in Figure 10.1.
Diamond drilling was carried out in four drilling campaigns (Figure 10.2), testing an
area of up to 2.1 km in a NS direction and up to 1.4 km in an EW direction.
Table 10.3: Yaoure Diamond Drill Programme Phases
Metres

Number of
Holes

Number of
Rigs

AugustDecember 2011

1,967

23

Phase 2

JanuaryApril 2012

6,442

24

1-2

Phase 3

MayNovember 2012

23,456

59

2-4

Phase 4

January-June 2013

15,435

46

1-3

47,300

153

Drilling Phase

Date

Phase 1

Total

Figure 10.1: Diamond Core Drilling Rig: CMA North (Infilled) Pit

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Figure 10.2: Yaoure Sulphide Drilling Phases and Locations

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Phase 1
The first phase of Yaoure sulphide project diamond drilling, conducted from August to
December 2011, totalled 1,967 m over 23 drillholes, all collared within the existing
Yaoure Central pit. Ten holes were orientated at an azimuth of 270 and inclined at 60
to the west. Eight holes were drilled to the north at an inclination of 60 and five holes
were drilled to the south at an inclination of 60. The objectives of the first phase were:

To confirm the mineralization and results of the historical RC drilling in 20052007.


To obtain structural information.
To test the cross-cutting steep veins, by aligning the holes to the north or south.

The results confirmed the widths and grades of the main mineralized zone reported
from historical RC results, and were reported by press releases on 19 January 2012
and 20 June 2012.
Hole YD0021 was drilled 15 m down-dip of RC hole ARC0024 (30 m at 3.64 g/t) with
the objective of confirming the RC intersection, and to determine whether the wet
conditions had affected the grades returned in the RC samples. The results of YD0021
were very positive; the width and grade of the main zone were confirmed, with an
aggregate composite intersection of 28.37 m at 3.24 g/t from 35.30 m (Table 10.5).
Drilling in an N-S alignment confirmed the presence of steep cross-cutting veins with
visible gold, for example YDD0003 (Table 10.5).

Phase 2
The second phase of diamond drilling, conducted in Q1-Q2 2012, totalled 6,442 m over
24 holes. This phase tested the continuity of the northsouth-trending structures at
Yaoure Central, which dip to the east at between 25 and 45, over a 900 m strike
length and up to 340 m across strike. These holes were all drilled to the west (270)
from the east of the current Yaoure Central pit, with a nominal spacing of 100 m and
stepping back between approximately 100 m and 340 m. The results from 18 of the 24
holes were reported on 19 June 2012; the remaining 6 holes were reported on
14 August 2012. The drilling confirmed the dip of the Yaoure Central mineralization to
the east.

Phase 3
Phase 3 outline drilling began in early May 2012; positive initial results led Amara to
expand the programme in August 2012. The objective of the expanded Phase 3 outline
programme was to outline the extent of the open pit minable sulphide mineralization
around Yaoure Central, at a nominal 200m grid spacing, extending over an area of 2.1
km in a NS direction by up to 1.1 km in an EW direction. This enlarged target area
included the backfilled CMA North and Central pits to the east and the CMA South pit
in the south.
At the end of Phase 3, on 8 November 2012, a total of 59 holes (including 6 structural
holes collared in the Yaoure Central pit and 4 abandoned holes) had been drilled, with
a total advance of 23,546 m. Results of the first 8 holes were reported on 14 August
2012; results for a further 30 holes, plus 4 deepened holes, were reported on
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3 December 2012. Results of the remaining 16 holes, plus a further 7 deepened holes
were reported on 4 February 2013.
Of the 55 completed Phase 3 holes:

16 deep holes tested both the mineralization below the CMA North and Central pits,
and the continuity from the west of the underlying Yaoure Central pit mineralization
at depth.
8 holes only tested the mineralization below the CMA North and Central pits.
6 holes tested the CMA South pit and possible Yaoure Central mineralization under
the CMA South pit.
17 holes tested only the Yaoure Central pit mineralization at depth and up to 200 m
to the north of the Yaoure Central pit.
2 holes tested a new target - CMA South East - the SE-trending arm extending
from the southern end of the CMA Central pit, trending towards the Angovia 2
mineralization.
6 holes were short structural holes, collared within the Yaoure Central pit.

The CMA North-Central area was mainly drilled at 200 m spacing during Phase 3. The
drill pattern comprised three rows of drillholes; the first row close to the estimated
position of the backfilled CMA pits, the second row stepped back 200 m, and the third
row stepped back a further 200 mwith a maximum vertical intersection depth of
approximately 300 m (a down-dip length of about 500 m from the presumed base of
CMA North pit).
Since August 2011, the only other location that has been tested by diamond drilling is
at Kongonza (5.5 km SE of Yaoure Central), where 6 diamond drillholes (1,101 m)
were completed in November 2011, testing down to a vertical depth of 300 m. The
results of the six Kongonza holes do not form part of the Mineral Resource Estimate
reported herein.

Phase 4
Phase 4 infill drilling, conducted from 14 January to 4 June 2013, totalled 15,435 m
over 47 holes. Of the 47 holes:

10.7

27 holes infilled the CMA North and Central deposit to 100 m.


10 holes infilled the Yaoure Central South drilling.
4 holes tested the extension of Yaoure Central to the northwest.
2 holes tested the underlying Prospect 3 mineralisation to the southwest.
2 holes tested the possible extension of mineralization to the northeast (towards the
Magazine area).
2 holes tested a cross-cutting quartz vein in the CMA North area.

Diamond Core Drilling Methods


The Yaoure diamond drilling has been carried out by two contractors:

GES mainly using a CoreTech YDX3L rig, but also a CoreTech CSG1300G rig.
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E-Global (a UK subsidiary of the Canadian Energold Group) using two Atlas Copco
CS1000 rigs (Figure 10.1) and a man-portable Energold HC616 Series 3 rig for
some of the shorter holes.

All drills used fluid circulation and wireline methods.


GES was the sole diamond drilling contractor from August 2011 to May 2012, up to
hole YDD0058. E-Global started drilling in June 2012. Holes YDD0059 to YDD0112
were drilled by both contractors. The Phase 4 drilling was carried out solely by EGlobal.
Drilling contractors and Amara staff follow a drilling protocol to ensure quality of data
collected and safety of personnel.
For a given drillhole in Phases 1 to 3, diamond drilling was initiated with HQ coring
through the oxide material, with a reduction to NQ once competent fresh rock is
intersected, at an average downhole depth of 60 m. In the case of the Energold HC616
Series 3 rig, holes were initiated using HQ and then NTW instead of NQ. For the Phase
4 infill drilling programme, HQ was maintained to a greater depth than for the previous
phases, to an average downhole depth of 170 m. The proportion of drill core sizes for
the Yaoure sulphide project is listed in Table 10.4.
Table 10.4: Proportion of Core Sizes in Diamond Drilling
Core Size

Diameter (mm)

Proportion (%)

HQ

63.5

27.5

NQ

47.6

63.2

NTW

56.0

9.3

Drill core orientation procedures are carried out at approximately 3 m intervals in


competent rock using Reflex ACT II RD equipment. The orientations are bottom
marked (Figure 10.4) and the procedure is checked by the geotechnician on site.
Geotechnical data such as solid core recovery (SCR), rock quality designation (RQD),
fracture frequency and the rock type are determined and recorded at the drill site
before transportation of the core to the core yard. The core is also washed clean of
surface mud or other drilling fluids at the drill site. The core processing procedure for
handling a run of core at the diamond drill rig site includes:

On retrieval of the inner tube after drilling a run, the orientation procedure is
checked by the Amara geotechnician as being performed correctly by the driller.

The core is carefully transferred to angle iron layout holder, ensuring that no core is
lost.

The geotechnician marks the bottom end of the core run with a vertical line from the
top-edge to centre-of-core (Figure 10.4).

The core is carefully reassembled in the angle-iron holder.

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If the core recovery is 100% and the core can be correctly reassembled, a
preliminary top orientation line is drawn up-hole along the core to the top of the run
in yellow wax pencil. Where core recovery is less than 100% and the core cannot
be continuously reassembled, then the yellow line is taken only as far as good
recovery allows.

The core orientation marks at the bottom of the previous run and at the top of the
new run are compared. If the two sets of orientation marks are in agreement, then a
black line is drawn for the new run overwriting the yellow line. If the orientation
marks do not match, then no black line is drawn and, pending a review at the core
yard, the core cannot be orientated with any certainty.

The total length of recovered core is recorded by the geotechnician, and metre
interval marks are drawn. The solid core recovery (SCR), rock quality designation
(RQD), fracture frequency, and rock type are determined and recorded.

The core is transferred into appropriately-labelled aluminium core boxes. Core


boxes are labelled with the drillhole number, box number and the starting and
ending depths of that core box. Wooden or plastic core blocks are placed between
runs, recording the run length and drillhole depth.

The core trays are then transported to the core yard, an average distance of less
than 1 km, for further logging.

Diamond drilling core recovery below weathering (more precisely at the base of W3
saprock) averages 98%. Specialized drilling mud (bentonite) and drilling polymers
are used to maximize core recovery.

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Figure 10.3: Yaoure Sulphide Project Diamond Drillhole Traces

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Figure 10.4: Marking the Bottom of a Run for Core Orientation

10.7.1

Significant Drill Intersections


Every hole of the Yaoure sulphide diamond core drilling programme intersected gold
mineralization. All holes have been reported in public announcements on 19 January
2012, 19 June 2012, 14 August 2012, 3 December 2012, 4 February 2013, 22 May
2013 and 16 July 2013, and in the Amara annual exploration reports for 2011 and
2012.
The reporting criteria for composite intersections are:

A minimum width of 2 m
A cut-off of 0.4 g/t gold
Internal dilution of up to 2 m, at less than 0.4 g/t allowed for continuity.

A number of composite intersections have been aggregated on the basis that the
mineralization forms a single geological zone with a minimum grade of 0.4 g/t. Internal
material below this grade, with a width greater than 2 m, is included in the calculation of
the weighted average grade of the aggregate intersection. Intersections that exceed a
value of 50 when intersection width (m) is multiplied by gold grade (g/t) are listed in
Table 10.5.

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Table 10.5: Yaoure Intersections (> 50 m g/t)
Hole ID

Location

From
(m)
42.00

To
(m)
45.55

Interval
(m)
3.55

Gold
(g/t)
97.60

YDD0003

Yaoure Central North in pit

YDD0008

Yaoure Central North in pit

55.45

76.50

21.05

2.62

31.90

45.15

13.25

9.22

YDD0014
YDD0021

Yaoure Central North in pit

36.80

68.40

31.60*

1.57

Yaoure Central North in pit

35.30

63.67

28.40*

3.24

Including

60.63

63.67

3.04

19.03

YDD0033

Yaoure Central North

31.44

53.50

22.06*

2.54

YDD0036

Yaoure Central North in pit

170.40

175.33

4.93

21.82

YDD0041

Yaoure Central North

186.97

207.22

20.35

3.55

YDD0047

Yaoure Central North

188.64

214.71

26.07

2.23

YDD0048

CMA North northern extension

57.77

67.90

10.13

7.15

YDD0051

Yaoure Central South

59.35

94.44

35.09*

1.51

YDD0054

Yaoure Central North deep

421.67

427.84

6.17

9.06

YDD0056

Yaoure Central South deep

542.75

553.09

10.34

5.58

YDD0059

Yaoure Central North in pit

40.92

47.43

6.51

9.39

YDD0060

Yaoure Central North in pit

111.88

129.68

17.80

4.44

YDD0062

Yaoure Central North in pit

188.65

233.37

44.72*

1.39

YDD0065

Yaoure Central South deep

348.00

393.00

45.00*

3.24

Including

348.00

366.00

18.00

4.71

CMA North

102.88

141.02

38.14*

3.67

Including

118.52

141.02

22.50

4.88

Yaoure Central South

69.00

77.00

8.00

9.47

144.85

188.00

43.15*

1.78

YDD0068
YDD0073

Including

161.00

174.00

13.00

4.94

YDD0079

CMA North

196.00

225.00

29.00

3.24

YDD0081

CMA North WNW-trending quartz


vein
Yaoure Central North deep

35.70

104.00

68.30*

1.52

YDD0083

322.00

375.00

53.00*

1.17

YDD0084

Yaoure Central South

21.00

25.20

4.2

12.44

75.00

83.00

8.00

8.46

YDD0090

Yaoure Central South

261.00

270.00

9.00

6.87

YDD0110

392.00

405.00

13.00

5.59

YDD0118

CMA North northern extension,


deep
Yaoure Central

23.00

44.00

21.00

7.83

YDD0130

Yaoure Central South

338.00

346.00

8.00

YDD0132

CMA North

155.70

167.00

11.30

5.53

YDD0133

CMA North

161.00

183.00

22.00

2.56

YDD0141

CMA North

157.00

196.00

19.00

4.37

YDD0142

CMA North

211.00

220.00

9.00

7.21

YDD0152

CMA North

203.00

217.00

14.00

3.91

YDD0153

CMA North

292.00

327.00

35.00*

8.28

2.03

Aggregate intersection in which a number of composite intersections have been aggregated on the basis that
the aggregate intersection forms a single geological zone with a minimum gold grade of 0.4 g/t. Internal waste
below this grade with a greater width than 2 m is included in the calculation of the weighted average grade of
the aggregate intersection.

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11.0

SAMPLE PREPARATION, ANALYSES AND SECURITY

11.1

Sampling Methods Approach

11.1.1

Bulk Density Measurements


For its 2006 mineral resource estimate, SRK excavated two metallurgical pits to a
maximum depth of 8 m and obtained an average density of 1.87 g/cm3 for oxide. For
the 2007 estimate by Auverdi, measurements from drill core were available, and a
constant density value for oxidized material of 1.87 g/cm3 and a value for sulphide
material of 2.75 g/cm3 were used.
Since August 2011, Amara has carried out systematic density determinations on
diamond drill core before splitting and sampling. Density measurement of the whole
range of lithologies at various depths and with different states of weathering are made
using the water immersion method. A digital balance is used to weigh plastic-sealed
samples in both air and water.
A total of 1,417 density determinations were done within both the mineralised and nonmineralised zones. All the bulk densities were completed using a film-coated water
immersion technique on dry drill core samples.
The samples were approximately 10-22 cm, half core and full core. The drill hole name
and down hole distances were recorded and each sample was used to determine the
spatial location. Density determination was carried out at the mine site laboratory and
quality control test on the density carried out by an external laboratory (Bureau Veritas
lab) in Abidjan. The summary of the density results is presented in Table 11.1 below.
Table 11.1: In situ bulk dry densities by lithology and weathering code

Bulk Density classification by rock types


Lithology
Code

W1

W2

W3

W4

W5

W6

fresh

slightly
weathered

moderately
weathered

highly
weathered

completely
weathered

lateritic

Basalt Volcanic

2.84

2.80

2.16

Other Mafic Rocks

2.90

Mafic Tuff

2.80

Volcaniclastic

2.72

2.04

Granodiorite

2.69

2.57

Porphyritic Granodiorite

2.72

Quartz veining

2.68

2.62

Porphyry

2.74

2.64

1.76

1.69

Saprock

2.53
2.20

Saprolite
laterite

2.14

Overburden

1.55

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An external check on 203 bulk density measurements on half core samples was carried
out at the Bureau Veritas laboratory in Abidjan.
Amara Mining staff analysed the 203 density values reported by Bureau Veritas (BV),
which were selected in different weathering and lithological units, with 74% in fresh
rock and in 52% in basalt. The check densities were determined on dry samples and on
half core using the same film-coated method used by Amara.
Descriptive statistics show an average relative difference of -3.38%, with the BV
density values being on average higher. The correlation coefficient between the two
sets of data is 84%, see Figure 11.1. Note that the checks compare less well in the
lower density range, which naturally is much less reliable information when taken from
core.
Figure 11.1: Check Densities, BV vs. Amara, Yaoure.

The Cumulative Relative Difference graph (HARD analysis) shows that the precision
of the density determination was good, with 95% of the data having less than 10% of
relative error (Figure 11.2).

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Figure 11.2: Cumulative Relative Difference Plot, Check Densities, BV vs. Amara, Yaoure.

The cumulative frequency curves are coherent with maximum 5% of percentage


difference. Notice that the portion of the plot where the differences most significant are
in the lower values (weathered profile, including saprolites, laterites, and generally
weathered rock). This is the portion of the density profile that is hardest to measure,
and is also highly variable compared to the density distribution of hard rock, see Figure
11.3.
Figure 11.3: Cumulative Frequency Plot, Check Densities, BV vs. Amara, Yaoure.

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11.1.2

Soil and Trenches


Field procedures for soil, trench and pit sample collection are described in Section 9.6.
Each sample is placed in a plastic bag and marked with sample number. The samples
are then sealed and transported to the in-house laboratory for sample preparation and
analysis.

11.1.3

RC Drillhole Sampling
Field procedures for RC drillhole sample collection are described in Section 10.5.

11.1.4

Diamond Drill Core Samples


On receipt of the diamond drill core at the core yard, the meter marking and orientation
line are checked, and then the core is photographed dry and wet with a digital camera
before logging. Core photos record the drillhole number, box number, top and bottom
depths.
Logging procedures continue with the completion of any geotechnical logging, followed
by geological logging. Lithology, alteration, veins, mineralization and weathering are
recorded on log sheets, and later entered into the database. In order to gain a better
understanding of the deposit, a relogging exercise was carried out from April to July
2013.
The orientations of geological structures are measured on the basis of alpha, beta and
gamma angles relative to the orientation line initially produced at the rig site. True and
apparent orientations are then obtained by calculation and are occasionally checked
with the home-made jig.
After core logging, the core is marked up for splitting and sampling. The core is split
along the orientation line with a diamond saw, ensuring that a sufficient amount of the
line and downhole arrow markings remain so that the remaining half core can be
correctly re-orientated at a later stage, and half of the core retained for quality control
and additional sampling if necessary. Primary samples are taken at regular 1 m
intervals, with adjustments to the sample interval being made to account for geological
contacts and significant core loss. Sample intervals are not usually less than 0.5 m nor
longer than 2.0 m. In the first 47 drillholes, sample lengths were frequently shorter than
0.5 m in order to sample individual veins. In the current Phase 4 infill drilling and
sampling, there is little sampling that is not at a standard 1 m interval. The split half
core is placed in a pre-labelled new plastic bag together with a sample tag, while the
remaining split core is replaced in the core box and stored at Amaras core yard at
Yaoure.
Blank material consisting of coarse granite with a mean grade of 0.01 g/t Gold was
inserted into the preparation sequence at a frequency of 1-in-20 samples. In Phases 1
to 3 quarter-core field duplicates are submitted into the preparation sequence at a
frequency of 1-in-20 samples In Phase 4, field duplicates were produced by taking an
additional split after crushing to 2 mm at a frequency of 1-in-20 samples. Certified
Reference Materials (standards) were inserted into the assay sequence at a frequency
of 1-in-20 samples.
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11.2

Sample Preparation and Analysis


Yaoure project soil, RAB and RC samples are prepared and analysed for gold at
Amaras in-house facility at Yaoure. Up to drillhole YDD0054, Yaoure project diamond
drill core samples were sent to the SGS sample preparation facility in Yamoussoukro,
Cte dIvoire, prior to fire assay at the SGS laboratory in Tarkwa. Ghana. From hole
YDD0055 onwards, drill core samples have been sent to the Intertek sample
preparation facility in Yamoussoukro, prior to fire assay at Intertek Minerals Ltd in
Accra, Ghana. In addition, two trial batches of samples (two holes) were sent to Bureau
Veritas in Abidjan, Cte dIvoire, for sample preparation and fire assay.

11.2.1

Soil Samples
All soil samples are analysed at the in-house laboratory at Yaoure. The entire 2 kg
sample is dried at a temperature of 105 C for a minimum of 12 hours, jaw crushed to a
nominal 75% passing 2 mm if required, then milled in a Keegor mill to a nominal 85%
passing 75 m. The pulverized sample is then re-bagged, ready for weighing. All the
preparatory equipment is flushed with compressed air between each sample. A 1,000 g
sub-sample of the pulp is weighed into a five-litre leach bottle and leached with onelitre cyanide solution (0.50% cyanide strength, pH 10.50 -11.5). Gold is determined
from the leached solution by atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS) with detection
limit of 5 ppb.

11.2.2

RC and RAB Hole Samples


All RC and RAB samples are analysed at the in-house laboratory at Yaoure. The
method is similar to that for soils. The entire sample, approximately 3.5 kg, is dried at a
temperature of 105 C for a minimum of 12 hours, jaw crushed to a nominal 75%
passing 2 mm, then milled in a Keegor mill to a nominal 85% passing 75m. A 500 g
sub-sample of the pulp is weighed into a five-litre leach bottle and leached with 1 L
cyanide solution (0.50% cyanide strength, pH 10.5011.5). Gold is determined from the
leached solution by AAS with a detection limit of 10 ppb.

11.2.3

Diamond Core Hole Samples (DDH)


Diamond drill core up to drillhole YDD0054 was prepared at the SGS sample
preparation facility in Yamoussoukro, Cte dIvoire. Core from YDD0055 to YDD0112
was prepared at the Intertek preparation facility in Yamoussoukro; Phase 4 core
(YDD0113 to YDD0158) was prepared at Amaras own preparation facility at Yaoure
using the same protocol. For Phases 1 to 3 up to drillhole YDD0112, the pulps were
then transported to either the SGS laboratory in Tarkwa, Ghana or to Intertek Minerals
Ltd in Accra, Ghana, for fire assay. For Phase 4 from YDD0113 to YDD0158, all fire
assays were carried out at Intertek. The sample preparation and assay protocols are
essentially the same for both companies:

The entire sample is oven dried at 105C


Crush <3.5 kg in a jaw crusher to 85% passing 2 mm
Riffle split with a Jones riffle splitter,
Pulverize 1.5 kg split in an LM2 pulveriser to 85% passing 75 m
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50 g fire assay with AAS finish, detection limit 0.01 ppm


All samples returning >10 g/t gold or with visible gold are re-assayed by 500 g
metallic screen fire assay.

Routine QC procedures for sample preparation by Intertek include a 1-in-15 re-split at


the sample preparation stage, 1 in 20 samples undergoing sieve analysis to monitor
grind size, and the use of a barren wash at the start of each crushing and pulverizing
procedure. In addition, Intertek includes two replicates, two reference standards, and
one blank per batch of 50 samples at the assay stage.
Routine QC procedures by SGS were similar: every 50th sample screened to confirm %
passing 2 mm and 75 m, and crusher and pulveriser cleaned with barren material at
the start of each batch. One reagent blank, one preparation blank, one weighed
replicate, one preparation duplicate, and two CRMs, are inserted per batch of 50
samples at the assay stage.
The SGS Tarkwa laboratory is not yet ISO 17025 accredited for the above technical
procedures. However, all services at SGS Tarkwa are provided with a quality
assurance protocol in line with ISO 17025, the quality accreditation system for
commercial laboratories. The Intertek Minerals Ltd laboratory in Accra operates under
the umbrella of its technical centre for geochemical services at Intertek/Genalysis
Services Pty Ltd in Australia (NATA Accreditation No: 3244), and its methods are
based on ISO 17025 accredited methods.
Umpire samples were submitted by Amara to ALS Geochemistry in Johannesburg,
South Africa. Prior to that, additional umpire samples of pulps originally submitted to
SGS had been submitted to Intertek.

11.3

Chain of Custody and Security


Samples are shipped and tracked in a manner to ensure that there will be no tampering
that could invalidate results. The custody system consists of the following:

Secure transportation of the core from the rig site to the core yard at Yaoure, an
average distance of less than 1 km;

Core is kept in a designated core logging and storage area;

Security guards are employed on rigs and at the Yaoure core yard on a 24-hourper-day basis;

Sample shipments to the preparation or assaying laboratories are in sealed boxes;

The transportation of samples to the preparation laboratories is by secure Amara


vehicles;

Shipments are accompanied by forms showing box contents, method of transport,


personnel sending and receiving the samples and date and time of departure;

Confirmation of receipt of the shipment by the laboratory is sent by email to Yaoure


noting date of receipt, nature of seals at the time of receipt, and whether all
samples were received;
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A chart showing shipping and assay turnaround time is maintained;

Coarse reject samples and unused pulp samples are returned to Yaoure and
securely stored.

11.4

Sample and Assay QA/QC

11.4.1

QA/QC Procedures and Submission - Drilling Phases 1-3.


Quality Control (QC) measures are in place to ensure the reliability and trustworthiness
of exploration data. The measures include verification of aspects such as drilling,
surveying, sampling, assaying, data management and data integrity. Exploration field
data are recorded on internally designed log sheets and transcribed into the computer
and stored in Microsoft Excel spread sheets. Core logging, surveying and sampling
data are verified routinely for consistency.
The collection and processing of all samples prior to dispatch to laboratory is
conducted by Yaoure geologists and field staff. Duplicates, standards (CRMs) and
blank material are inserted into the sample sequences before dispatch to laboratory.
Samples are submitted in batches with a unique batch number, using a standardized
laboratory submission form which lists the sample numbers, type of rock sample and
analysis required.

11.4.2

QA/QC Procedures - Drilling Phases 1-3


Laboratory audits of the Intertek and SGS preparation and assay facilities were carried
out by the Amara Senior Geologist responsible for QA/QC validation, accompanied by
the manager of the Amaras in-house laboratory at the Kalsaka mine in Burkina Faso.
Reports detailing any perceived issues were submitted to the respective laboratories
and remedial actions discussed and agreed.
Assay results are delivered by the laboratories electronically and examined for
consistency and completeness on a batch-by-batch basis. In addition, time plots of
reference and blank material assays are made to check for drift over time. A single
Amara Senior Geologist has the responsibility of reviewing all assay results and
detecting any assaying problems. Potential failures are recorded, investigated, and
corrective measures, such as re-assaying, carried out. For each batch of results,
before including in the database, a decision is made by the Senior Geologist
responsible as to whether the results are acceptable. This decision is based on a
statistical approach that takes into account how all the QA/QC samples (blanks,
duplicates and CRM standards) that were inserted into a particular batch have
performed and could result in a partial or complete batch failure.
The main rejection criteria are:

The CRM assay is outside three standard deviations from the stated CRM value.
Two consecutive reference material assays are greater than two standard
deviations (on the same side of the accepted mean) from the stated CRM value.

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11.4.3

Inter-Laboratory Checks Drilling Phases 1-3


Inter-laboratory checks were conducted between SGS and Intertek and between SGS
and Bureau Veritas. The more comprehensive of the two checks was between SGS
and Intertek. The check with Bureau Veritas was to determine how their 40 g fire assay
compared with the 50 g fire assay of SGS. No significant differences were observed in
the results.

11.4.4

SGS vs. Intertek Inter-Laboratory Check Drilling Phases 1-3


A total of 824 pulp samples collected from
pulp samples from Intertek despatched to
laboratory. A total of 51 ROCKLAB CRM
submission, out of which 20% failed 2
Table 11.2.

SGS were dispatched to Intertek, and 175


SGS, to check on the analyses by either
and 21 pulp blanks were inserted for the
standard deviation tolerance as shown in

Table 11.2: Intertek Inter-Laboratory Check of SGS CRMs


Failed
Samples
-2SD

+2SD

Assigned
Value
(g/t)

0.082

0.005

0.08

98%

Oxi81

1.807

0.033

1.75

97%

SE58

25

0.607

0.019

0.6

99%

SL61

5.931

0.177

5.94

100%

SN60

8.543

0.175

8.44

99%

SRM

No. of
Samples

OxA59

Standard
Deviation

Analytical
Average
(g/t)

Percentage
Variance

Number
of
Outliers

The summary statistics for the 999 samples for both laboratories are presented in
Table 11.3. The relative percentage difference between the means of SGS and that of
Intertek assays recorded 6.8% in favour of SGS. The highest grades recorded in both
datasets are 22.4 g/t and 16.9 g/t in the SGS and Intertek sample populations
respectively.
The correlation plot of the results (Figure 11.4) shows slight bias towards SGS assays,
though the values are relatively evenly spread around the parity line (y=x). A correlation
coefficient 0.95 was established between the two laboratories. The Q-Q plot
(Figure 11.5), generated with assay value greater than 0.1 g/t demonstrates good
correlation between the two laboratories. The HARD plot (Figure 11.6) was generated
using assay value greater than 0.1 g/t. The HARD plot shows only 61% of the total
dataset has an error less than 10%, which is not satisfactory as the statistical standard
expects 90% of the total assays to attain an error of less than 10% for pulp samples.

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Table 11.3: Summary Statistics of Check Assays - SGS vs. Intertek
SGS

INTERTEK

Mean

0.555

0.517

Standard Error

0.047

0.043

Median

0.120

0.080

Mode

0.010

0.005

Standard Deviation

1.486

1.350

Sample Variance

2.208

1.822

Kurtosis

69.354

49.419

Skewness

7.023

6.113

Range

22.390

16.905

Minimum

0.010

0.005

Maximum

22.400

16.910

Sum

554.800

516.875

999

999

Count

Figure 11.4: Correlation Plot - SGS vs. Intertek

YAOURE PROJECT
CORRELATION COEFFICIENT
SGS vs INTERTEK CHECK ASSAYS

16.0

INTERTEK ASSAYS (g/t)

14.0
12.0

y = 0.8561x + 0.1173
R = 0.91

10.0
8.0
6.0

4.0
2.0
0.0

0.0

2.0

4.0

6.0

8.0

10.0

12.0

14.0

SGS ASSAYS (g/t)


Assays

y=x

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Linear (Assays)

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Figure 11.5: QQ Plot - SGS vs. Intertek

YAOURE PROJECT
QUANTILE-QUANTILE PLOT
SGS vs INTERTEK PULP CHECK ASSAYS
8.00

7.00

y = 0.9616x + 0.0228
R = 0.9971

Intertek

6.00
5.00
4.00
3.00
2.00
1.00
0.00
0.00

1.00

2.00

3.00

Assays

4.00
SGS
y=x

5.00

6.00

7.00

8.00

Linear (Assays)

Figure 11.6: HARD Plot - SGS vs. Intertek


YAOURE PROJECT
HARD PULP ANALYSIS
SGS vs INTERTEK CHECK ASSAYS
September 2011 - December 2012

100%

90%
80%
Relative Error (%)

70%
60%
50%

40%
30%
20%
10%

100%

90%

80%

70%

60%

50%

40%

30%

20%

10%

0%

0%

Percentile Ranking
HARD

The histogram of relative percentage difference plot (Table 11.7Figure 11.7) shows a
positive bias towards SGS laboratory. The relative percentage difference versus pair
mean shows that most samples above 5.0 g/t returned a higher grade from the SGS
laboratory.

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Figure 11.7: Histogram of Relative Percentage Difference SGS vs. Intertek

Frequency

Yaoure Project
SGS vs Intertek
September 2011 - December 2012

-200

100
90
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0
-100
100
-10 0
Relative % difference

200

Frequency
The result of the inter-lab correlation analysis between the SGS and Intertek
laboratories is considered to be satisfactory. However, because the Intertek laboratory
in Yamoussoukro is not ISO accredited, but works under the umbrella of its parent
company in Australia, pulp samples from Intertek were submitted to an accredited ISO
laboratory ALS Geochemistry in Johannesburg, South Africa.

11.4.5

Intertek vs. ALS Inter-Lab check Drilling Phases 1-3


The summary results obtained from the descriptive statistics between Intertek and ALS
laboratory are presented in the Table 11.4. The scatter plot showing the results of the
two laboratories is presented in Figure 11.8. The quantile-quantile (QQ) plot is
presented in Figure 11.9 and indicates no significant bias. The half absolute relative
difference (HARD) plot, shown in Figure 11.10, reported that 64% of the data returned
error less than 10%, and after changing the threshold, 85% of the analysis returned
error less than 20%. This is considered satisfactory.

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Table 11.4: Summary of Inter-Laboratory Check Intertek and ALS
Description

INTERTEK

ALS

Mean

1.24

1.25

Standard Error

0.08

0.09

Median

0.54

0.50

Mode

0.30

0.06

Standard Deviation

1.70

1.81

Sample Variance

2.90

3.28

Kurtosis

5.43

6.71

Skewness

2.29

2.49

Range

9.85

11.24

Minimum

0.01

0.01

Maximum

9.85

11.25

505.57

508.22

407

407

Sum
Count

Figure 11.8: Scatter Plot - Intertek vs. ALS

YAOURE PROJECT
CORRELATION COEFFICIENT
INTERTEK vs ALS CHECK ASSAYS

12.0
11.0
10.0

y = 1.0338x - 0.0355
R = 0.9465

ALS JB ASSAYS (g/t)

9.0
8.0

7.0
6.0

5.0
4.0

3.0
2.0

1.0
0.0
0.0

1.0

2.0

3.0

4.0

5.0

6.0

7.0

8.0

9.0 10.0 11.0 12.0

INTERTEK ASSAYS (g/t)


Assays

y=x

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Figure 11.9: Quantile-Quantile (QQ) Plot - Intertek vs. ALS

YAOURE PROJECT
QUANTILE-QUANTILE PLOT
INTERTEK HEAD ASSAYS vs ALS CHECK ASSAYS
8.00
7.00

y = 1.0526x - 0.0563
R = 0.9967

ALS JB Assays

6.00
5.00
4.00
3.00
2.00
1.00
0.00
0.00

2.00

4.00
intertek

Assays

y=x

6.00

8.00

Linear (Assays)

Figure 11.10: HARD Plot - Intertek vs. ALS


YAOURE PROJECT
HARD PULP ANALYSIS
INTERTEK vs ALS CHECK ASSAYS
December 2012

100%

90%
80%

Relative Error (%)

70%
60%
50%

40%
30%
20%
10%

100%

90%

80%

70%

60%

50%

40%

30%

20%

10%

0%

0%

Percentile Ranking
HARD

The result of the inter-lab check between Intertek and ALS is considered to be
satisfactory.

11.4.6

Blanks Drilling Phases 1-3


Blank material used in the QA/QC procedure consists of coarse granite collected about
30 km from the mine operation. The majority of the coarse blank samples assayed
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during the drilling campaign reported within acceptable limits (less than three times the
laboratory detection limit of 0.01 g/t) and contamination was not an issue.
Statistical analysis of coarse blank samples returned a mean grade of 0.01 g/t gold for
a total of 775 samples. Figure 11.11: Results of Blank Control Samples shows blank
sample results from all the laboratories.
Figure 11.11: Results of Blank Control Samples

Yaoure Mine
Blank
Sep2011 - Dec 2012
0.10

Grade (g/t)

0.08
0.06
0.04
0.02

0.00
0

200

400

600

800

1000

samples
Blank_Au

11.4.7

3x detection limit

Certified Reference Materials (CRM / SRM) Drilling Phases 1-3


Twelve different CRM samples (Table 11.5: Analysis of Certified Reference Materials
at SGS and Intertek (All Rocklab Samples)) were inserted into the assay sequence.
The CRM samples vary in grade, ranging from low, through medium to high grade, and
include both sulphide and oxide standards. A total of 1,871 CRM samples were
inserted and submitted for analysis. The majority of the CRM samples reported within
acceptable limits of 3 standard deviations. Examples of the CRM assay plots for the
drilling campaigns 1 through 3 were shown in the previous NI 43-101 Report, , Yaoure
Gold Project, Cte dIvoire: Technical Report and Mineral Resource Estimates with an
effective Report date of 25 March 2013.

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Table 11.5: Analysis of Certified Reference Materials at SGS and Intertek (All Rocklab Samples)
SGS TARKWA

INTERTEK TARKWA
+3SD

Assigned Value
(g/t)

STANDARD
DEVIATION

Analytical
Average (g/t)

Percentage
Variance

Number of
Outliers

0.082

0.005

0.110

135%

13

0.084

0.008

0.070

84%

1.807

0.033

1.820

101%

60

1.802

0.039

1.840

102%

SE29

58

0.597

0.016

0.590

99%

SN26

14

8.543

0.175

8.630

101%

SL61

502

5.931

0.177

6.010

101%

SI64

361

1.780

0.042

1.800

101%

SL34

16

5.893

0.140

5.620

95%

SI25-3

20

1.801

0.044

1.780

99%

SN60

493

8.595

0.223

8.640

101%

16

SE58

169

0.607

0.019

0.610

100%

Number
Assayed

-3SD

+3SD

-3SD

OxA59

38

OxA89

96

OxI81

39

OxI96

SRM

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Field Duplicate Samples Drilling Phases 1 through 3


A total of 1,519 field duplicate samples were submitted. A correlation plot of the field
duplicate results shows a relatively skewed distribution towards the original assays.
The distribution of the data around the parity line (y=x) is significantly better in the lowgrade ranges than the high-grades (Figure 11.12).
A comparison of the mean grades between the two sample populations, including all
samples, shows a relative percentage difference of the order of 1.89% with the
duplicate samples reporting lower than the original samples. Summary statistics are
presented in Table 11.6.
Figure 11.12: Field Duplicate Correlation Analysis

Yaoure Field Duplicates


Correlation Analysis
Sept 2011 - 2012
20
18
16
14

Duplicate

11.4.8

12
10

y = 0.6441x + 0.502
R = 0.6713

8
6
4

2
0
0

10

12

14

16

18

20

Original
samples

x=y

Linear (samples)

Table 11.6: Summary Statistics of Original Assays vs. Field Duplicate Assays
Original

Duplicate

Mean

0.271

0.266

Standard Error

0.038

0.031

Median

0.020

0.020

Mode

0.005

0.005

Standard Deviation

1.486

1.208

Sample Variance

2.209

1.460

Range

31.975

22.595

Minimum

0.005

0.005

Maximum

31.980

22.600

Sum

411.085

403.410

Count

1519.000

1519.000

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The relative percentage difference versus mean grade plot (Figure 11.13) shows very
high error in the low-grade ranges; the general trend of the error is bias towards the
originals in both the low-grade and high-grade ranges. This could be attributed to
instrumental errors from the laboratories, possible instability at the lower (close to
detection) and upper limits of detection, but is most likely to be the natural variability
between the two samples.
Figure 11.13: Field Duplicate Analysis - Mean Pairs vs. Relative Difference

Yaoure Field Duplicate Analaysis


Sept 2011 - Nov 2012
100
Relative % diffrence

80
60
40
20
0
-20 0

10

15

20

25

-40
-60
-80
-100

Pair mean of Au(g/t)

The half absolute relative difference (HARD) plot is used to determine precision. The
field duplicate HARD analysis plot shows that only 38% of the total dataset (Au>0.25
g/t) had an error less than 20%. At the 90% percentile threshold, the data has a relative
error above 100% (Figure 11.14).
The reason for the poor HARD analysis could be the number of low-grade samples
with generally high relative percentage error, but is thought to be most likely due to the
natural variability between pairs of samples.

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% rel error

Figure 11.14: Field Duplicate HARD Analysis

Yaoure HARD Analysis


Field Duplicate
Sept 2011 - Nov 2012

120%
110%
100%
90%
80%
70%
60%
50%
40%
30%
20%
10%
0%
0%

20%

40%

60%

80%

100%

Percentile rank

Overall, the correlation between the original assays and the field duplicate assays is
regarded as being satisfactory.

11.4.9

Screen Metallic Fire Assays


All samples returning >10 g/t Au or with visible gold are routinely re-assayed by 500 g
Metallic Screen Fire Assay. Comparisons between the original 50 g fire assay and the
500 g Metallic Screen fire assay are presented in Figure 11.15 (all data) and Figure
11.16 (without three outliers).
Figure 11.15: Original Fire Assay vs. Metallic Screen Fire Assay (All Data)

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Figure 11.16: Original Fire Assay vs. Metallic Screen Fire Assay (with 3 Outliers Removed)

11.5

Independent Review of QA/QC Results Drilling Phases 1-3


In the previous Technical Report, Yaoure Gold Project, Cte dIvoire: Technical
Report and Mineral Resource Estimates, effective date of 25 March 2013, an
independent investigation on the QA/QC provided was reported.
The authors of that Technical Report concluded in their analysis that, while some
further investigations and checks were required, the QA/QC of the data showed that it
was appropriate for resource estimation. Full details of the discussion can be found in
the Report mentioned above.

11.6

QA/QC Results, Phase 4


A full QA/QC program was executed for Phase IV drilling that was completed at
Amaras Yaoure project, Cte dIvoire. The program included Blanks, Duplicates and
Commercial Standards, and took place during the first half of 2013.
Samples consisted of average 3kg of sawn half core. The entire sample was dried,
crushed to 75-80% passing 2mm. Unbiased riffle splitting of 1 to 1.5 kg is pulverized to
85-90% passing 75m with an LM2 pulveriser. Assaying was performed at the Intertek
laboratory, in Tarkwa, Ghana, using Fire Assay on 50g, AAS finish.
There were a total of 17,956 samples that were submitted to the laboratory, including
20% of QC samples, which consisted of 951 blanks, 895 commercial standards and
1,071 coarse and pulp duplicates. In addition, cross laboratory checks have been
conducted for 377 samples that were selected from mineralized intervals.

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11.6.1

QA/QC Submissions

Blanks
The material used as Blank was collected from barren granitic body located some 30
km from the mine site. The source material was not a proven 0 value but gold contents
were generally low, estimated at an average grade of 0.01g/t.
Blanks are routinely inserted at a rate of 1 every 20th sample; however the insertion
frequency is increased up to 1 every 5 samples in recognized mineralized intervals.
The accepted tolerance for blanks is three times the laboratory detection limit.

Certified Standards
Commercial standards were also inserted at a rate of about 1 every 20th sample. Six
types of Rocklabs standards were used: Three for insertion in Oxide samples (OXA89,
OXE106, and OXI96) and three for insertion in sulphide samples (SI64, SL61 and
SN60). Details of the standards are presented in Table 11.7. The accepted tolerance
was three times the certified Standard Deviation.
The use of OXA89 was subsequently suspended following consistent low bias trends
noticed in the assays of this material.
Table 11.7: Commercial Standards Characteristics
ROCKLABS (ppm)

Value (g/t)

Std. Dev.

Mean-3S

Mean+3S

OXA89

0.0836

0.008

0.0599

0.1073

OXE106

0.606

0.013

0.5670

0.6450

OXI96

1.802

0.039

1.685

1.919

SI64

1.780

0.042

1.654

1.906

SL61

5.931

0.177

5.400

6.462

SN60

8.595

0.223

7.926

9.264

Duplicates
Two types of duplicates were used to assess sub-sampling and assay precision:

Coarse duplicates: Every 20th sample is duplicated by splitting the crushed sample
and by duplicating the sampling procedure.
Pulp duplicates were staggered with coarse duplicates and were inserted every
20th sample.

Coarse duplicates and pulp duplicates were assigned numbers in the same series as
the original sample, and assayed in the same batch. This procedure is blind to the
analytical laboratory.

Cross laboratory checks


In order to assess assay reproducibility, pulp samples initially assayed at Intertek were
sent to ALS Johannesburg (South Africa), an accredited laboratory independent from
Amara. Samples were taken in mineralized intervals of at least one hole on every drill

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section. Pulp Duplicates, Blanks and Certified Reference Materials were inserted in the
consignments at the same frequency as for the batches submitted to Intertek.

QAQC Procedures
Assay results are delivered by the laboratories electronically and examined for
consistency and completeness on a batch-by-batch basis. In addition, time plots of
reference and blank material assays are made to check for drift over time. Potential
failures are recorded, investigated, and corrective measures, such as re-assaying,
carried out. For each batch of results, before including in the database, a decision is
made to whether the results are acceptable. This decision is based on a statistical
approach that takes into account how all the QA/QC samples (blanks, duplicates and
CRM standards) that were inserted into a particular batch have performed and could
result in a partial or complete batch failure.

11.6.2

Results

Standards
Figure 11.17 to Figure 11.21 show the results of the total 895 commercial standards
inserted within the Yaoure Phase 4 sample batches. The accepted threshold is +/- 3
Standard Deviations.
Apart from OXA89 which returned a percentage of relative error of -9%, all the other
types of standards show a non-significant positive bias of 1 to 2%, which is acceptable
(less than 5%). The use of OXA89 has been suspended, although a clear reason of
this anomaly has not been established.
Linear regressions display a lower accuracy for the initial sample batches and this has
triggered a laboratory audit by Amara Mining. This is particularly visible for the SL61.
Correction actions (mainly about instrument calibration and dispensers) were
suggested and subsequently implemented by Intertek. Assay quality has since
improved significantly. The plots show a fairly random distribution around the certified
mean with no significant decrease in dispersion and no consistent shift in sample
assays.
The overall fail rate is 1% and all the assays on the individual types of CRMs have
satisfied the Sketchley (1998) statistical condition. The accuracy of the assays is
therefore considered satisfactory.

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Figure 11.17: ROCKLABS OXA89 Plot

Figure 11.18: ROCKLABS 0XE106 Plot

Figure 11.19: ROCKLABS OXI96 Plot

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Figure 11.20: ROCKLABS SI64 Plot

Figure 11.21: ROCKLABS SL61 Plot

11.6.3

Coarse Duplicate
A total 893 coarse duplicates were inserted in the Yaoure Phase 4 sample batches.
Gold values in original versus duplicate samples are shown in Figure 11.22. The
correlation coefficient (Pearson square) for the full dataset is 98%, reflecting a good
repeatability of the assays. These coarse duplicates are blind to the laboratory.
Table 11.8 below shows the descriptive statistics of the duplicate pairs. Sample
variance is relatively high; however, the Relative Coefficient of Variation (3.99) is below
the 5% level. Parent and Duplicate populations are skewed to the right.

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Figure 11.22: Yaoure Phase 4 drilling - Scatter Plot of Coarse Duplicates

Table 11.8: Yaoure Phase 4 Diamond Drilling - Descriptive Statistics of Coarse Duplicates
PARENT

FDUP

Mean

0.29

0.30

Standard Error

0.06

0.07

Median

0.01

0.01

Mode

0.01

0.01

Standard Deviation

1.90

2.12

Sample Variance

3.61

4.49

Range

45.00

50.00

Minimum

0.01

0.01

Maximum

45.00

50.00

Sum

254.87

269.66

Count

893.00

893.00

Figure 11.23 and Figure 11.24 show respectively the quantile-quantile plot and the Half
Absolute Relative Difference (HARD) plot.
The QQ-plot displays a single and uniform population, which suggests that minimal
sampling error has occurred for low and high grades samples.
The HARD plot shows that 60% (expected 80% minimum) of the duplicate pairs had
less than 20% of relative error. This relatively low precision level is also seen on the
Mean vs. HARD plot with a wide but with symmetrical scatter. The sampling and
preparation protocol may not be adequate for this type of deposit. In order to help
define a sampling preparation protocol that would improve the level of precision, a
sampling heterogeneity test should be completed.

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Figure 11.23: Yaoure Phase 4 Diamond Drilling - QQ Plot of Coarse Duplicates

Figure 11.24: Yaoure Phase 4 Diamond Drilling HARD Plot of Coarse Duplicates

11.6.4

Pulp Duplicates
A total 178 pulp duplicates were inserted in the samples batches of nine holes of
Yaoure Phase 4 drilling. Gold values in original versus pulp duplicate samples are
shown in Figure 11.25. The correlation coefficient (Pearson square) for the full dataset
is 98%, reflecting a good repeatability of the assays, with a slight bias towards the
original assay values. These pulp duplicates are blind to the analytical laboratory.

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Figure 11.25: Yaoure Phase 4 Diamond Drilling - Scatter Plot of Pulp Duplicates

Table 11.9 below shows the descriptive statistics of the pulp duplicate pairs. Sample
variance is significantly lower than the coarse duplicates, as would be expected. The
Relative Coefficient of Variation is below 5%.
Table 11.9: Yaoure Phase 4 Diamond Drilling - Descriptive Statistics of Pulp Duplicates
PARENT

PDUP

Mean

0.18

0.17

Standard Error

0.07

0.06

Median

0.01

0.01

Mode

0.01

0.01

Standard Deviation

0.89

0.74

Sample Variance

0.79

0.54

Range

9.97

7.19

Minimum

0.01

0.01

Maximum

9.97

7.19

Sum

31.32

29.40

Count

178.00

178.00

This homogeneity is reflected on the HARD Plot which displays 88% of the data with
less than 20% of relative error (Long, 2002). About 60% of the samples have less than
10% of relative error.
Figures 11.26 and 11.27 show respectively the Quantile-Quantile plot and the Half
Absolute Relative Difference (HARD) plot. There is no significant bias.

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Figure 11.26: Yaoure Phase 4 Diamond Drilling Quantile-Quantile Plot of Pulp Duplicates

Figure 11.27: Yaoure Phase 4 Diamond Drilling HARD Analysis of Pulp Duplicates

11.6.5

Blanks
A total 951 blanks were inserted in the consignments during Yaoure Phase 4 diamond
drilling. All the blank sample (over 99%) but one, have returned assay values below the
accepted threshold of three times the laboratory low detection limit of 0.01 ppm. The
one anomalous blank sample has occurred inserted in a completely barren basalt
interval. No significant contamination has affected the samples during preparation and
during assaying.

11.6.6

Cross Laboratory Checks


Assay results were received for 376 umpire pulp samples sent to ALS Johannesburg.
The samples were assayed via same protocol as for Intertek, i.e. Fire Assay on 50g,
AAS finish. The precision and accuracy of this second lab were confirmed with the
insertion, in the check-sample batches, of Duplicates, Blanks and CRMs. These control
samples were satisfactory: Blanks and CRMs reported within accepted thresholds, and
duplicates repeatability was satisfactory.
The validated results from ALS were then compared with the results obtained from
Intertek for the same samples. Descriptive statistics are shown below in Table 11.10.
The data sets are both skewed to the right. The inter-laboratory coefficient correlation
was 96%, with a single outlier excluded (Figure 11.28).

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Table 11.10: Yaoure Phase 4 Diamond Drilling ALS vs. Intertek Descriptive Statistics
INTERTEK

ALS

Mean

1.66

1.60

Standard Error

0.16

0.15

Median

0.41

0.38

Mode

0.01

0.01

Standard Deviation

3.13

3.00

Sample Variance

9.83

9.00

Range

25.61

24.50

Minimum

0.01

0.01

Maximum

25.61

24.50

Count

376

376

The Q-Q Plot (Figure 11.29) and the HARD Plot (Figure 11.30) show a single
population with 82% of the samples having less than 20% of Relative Error. At a level
of confidence of 95%, the F-test (F-Calc=1.09; F-Critical=1.22) and the T-Test (TCalc=0.26; T-Critical=1.96) show that the two sets of data belong to the same
population with similar precisions, and that there are no systematic errors. The
reproducibility of the assays is therefore considered satisfactory.
Figure 11.28: Yaoure Phase 4 Diamond Drilling ALS vs. Intertek Assay Plot

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Figure 11.29: Yaoure Phase 4 Diamond Drilling ALS vs. Intertek QQ Plot

Figure 11.30: Yaoure Phase 4 Diamond Drilling ALS vs. Intertek HARD Plot

11.7

Conclusions
During the Yaoure Phase 4 Diamond Drilling program, the quality of the assay results
has been comprehensively controlled to industry standards. Control sample insertion
consisted of coarse duplicates, pulp duplicates, blanks and Certified Reference
Materials. Inter-laboratory check assays was also performed. Batch validation and, if
required, correction actions were taken in real time.
The main conclusions of the QA/QC program are:
1. The repeatability and the reproducibility of the assays were acceptable in the
context of a deposit involving the presence of coarse gold. However, the sampling
protocol can be adapted and optimized through a heterogeneity test.

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2. With 20% of QAQC samples inserted in Yaoure Phase 4 Diamond Drilling, the
control sample insertion rate is conforming to industry standards.
3. Precision, accuracy and contamination were monitored in real time and correction
actions were taken immediately when required, including laboratory audit and reassay requests.
4. Overall fail rate for the Certified Reference Materials was 1% with no significant
decrease in dispersion around the mean and no consistent shift in sample assays.
Analytical accuracy was satisfactory for all grade ranges tested, which are
representative of the grades encountered at Yaoure.
5. The analysis of the coarse duplicates and the pulp duplicates data indicate that
sub-sampling, pulverization, homogenization and assay repeatability are within
acceptable thresholds in terms of Relative Precision Error and Fisher Precision.
However, precision is lower for the coarse duplicates, probably due to the presence
of coarse gold mineralization.
6. Over 99% of the blank samples have assayed below the accepted tolerance of
three times the laboratory low detection limit. No significant contamination has
occurred during sample preparation and during the analytical process. No sample
mismatch is noticed.
7. Inter-laboratory checks were conducted and have confirmed assay reproducibility
with a Correlation Coefficient of 96% and similar F-Test precisions.
8. It is concluded that the Yaoure Phase 4 diamond drilling analytical data is adequate
for Resource Estimation.

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12.0

DATA VERIFICATION

12.1

Data verification by Amara


Digital data received from the lab are imported in the database by using the Excel
VLOOKUP function. Data validation is also undertaken using both Datamine and
MapInfo/Discover. The database has been validated in a variety of ways, including
digitally using Datamine and MapInfo functions and physically by plotting hard copies of
the data as maps and graphs.
The assay files from the labs are merged using the VLOOKUP function. Checks are
randomly done against the original certificates at about 1 in 10. The downhole
measurements are verified and readings are redone. Finally, the collars are plotted for
visual verification.

12.1.1

Site Visit
In accordance with National Instrument 43-101 guidelines, Mario Rossi, FAusIMM,
Member CIM, and Member SME, visited the Yaoure gold project site from 12
September to 14 September 2013. During the visit inspections of exploration activities,
records, and data and site management were completed. Ground inspections included
outcrops, exposures within the oxide mined pits, open trenches, and artisanal mining
works.
During the site visit, observations were made from different vantage points about the
general project setting; prior mining; the presence of waste dumps and a low grade
stock pile which could have interesting grades; visited a trench south of Yaoure
Central, observing in detail the quality of the trench and sampling; observed in the pit
examples of quartz veining, pillow basalts, and mineralized granodiorite.
It was observed that the waste dumps backfilling the older CMA pit and around the
Yaoure pit may have low grade mineralization, perhaps near but above the expected
oxide cut-off operation.

Core Shed
Core from several representative drill holes was inspected and compared with log
sheets and assay information. In particular, consideration was given to the
relationships of gold grades with lithologies, alteration, sulphide content, veining and
structure. The intervals looked at were from Yaoure Central holes (YDD031; YDD102;
YDD043; YDD073; YDD035; and YDD065), and the CMA zone (YDD065; YDD153;
YDD142; YDD157; YDD141; YDD061; and three other holes from CMA Central).
The main observations are that the CMA zone is quite traceable on the core, with a
significant width (consistently 10 to 20m) and average grades for the entire intercept. It
presents fairly consistent alteration, shearing, and distinctive colouring. It would be
expected that in an eventual pit or underground mine it would present visual markers to
aid in grade control.
Yaoure Central, on the other hand, is not as easy to view in the core. Predicting grade
from macro visual observations cannot be done. The grades are erratic, and although
there is correlation between some of the geologic indicators, such as quartz veining,

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alteration, and shearing, these correlations are not 1 to 1. Sometimes there are
intervals with unexpected high grades in unaltered basalt, or altered and sheared
zones with little or no grades. In GSIs experience, this implies that it is nearly
impossible to define and follow through high grade zones as would be required for a
highly selective, low tonnage-high grade operation. Therefore, bulk mining at a lower
grade appears to be a reasonable approach.

Sampling and Assaying


The sample preparation facility was also visited. Although not working at the time of the
visit, it appears to be well equipped to handle the task. The sample preparation
protocol was discussed in detail, as was the assaying protocol used.
GSI made a few minor observations regarding the sample preparation protocol. It is
important than no less than half a NQ or HQ core, 1m long interval, be crushed at the
first stage. Otherwise, lower lengths or core diameters would risk significant increases
in sampling errors from not having enough weight in the first material crushed.
In addition to GSIs direct observations, and also given the prior investigations by third
parties, it is the GSIs opinion that Yaoures analytical results delivered by the
laboratories are sufficiently reliable for the purpose of mineral resource estimation at
the current level of project evaluation. However, GSI observes that the review of gold
assay QA/QC data returned some results that were outside of acceptable parameters,
and therefore considers that there is scope for improvements in the reliability of data
from future evaluation of the Yaoure oxide and sulphide mineralization.

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13.0

MINERAL PROCESSING AND METALLURGICAL TESTING

13.1

Test Work Summary


Laboratory test work commissioned by Amara was conducted by SGS in four discrete
programmes:

In January 2012, pulverised rejects from 42 exploration samples were leached for
24 hours and 48 hours at 33 % solids and 5,000 ppm cyanide.

In April 2012, six samples were combined into two composites and a programme
comprised of the following tests was undertaken:
Metallics analysis

Bottle roll cyanidation

Diagnostic leaching

Gravity release analysis

Rougher flotation kinetic test

Bond ball mill Work Index

Bond Abrasion Index.

In December 2012, 11 samples were subjected to direct cyanidation and carbon-inleach tests under the same conditions to assess leach variability.

In May 2013, a Phase 2 scoping programme on the same samples used for the
previous tests comprised the following:

13.1.1

Coarse ore 14-day bottle roll tests

Fine ore 48-hour bottle roll tests

Heavy liquid separation

Size-by-size gravity recovery

Flotation scoping tests to evaluate effects of grind size, reagents and cleaning

Bond ball mill Work Index.

In November 2013, results of the following tests on four samples were reported:
o

Bond rod mill Work Index

Gravity release analysis

Flotation on fresh material and gravity concentration tailings, including kinetic


tests, cleaning tests and locked cycle tests

Leaching of gravity and flotation concentrates and gravity and flotation tailings

Leach variability

Flotation variability.

Phase 1 tests April 2012


The gold contents of the two samples were assayed at 2.42 g/t and 4.77 g/t
respectively which are significantly higher than the average resource estimate grade.
Diagnostic leaching showed that 96.6 % of the gold is amenable to direct cyanidation
and a further 1.08 % could be recovered by cyanidation after treatment of the sulphides
with sulphuric acid.

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The Bond ball mill Work Index was measured to be 14.8 kWh/t at a closing size of
106 m. This value is close to the median of the population of samples tested by SGS.
The Abrasion Index was 0.1816 lb/kWh.
Gravity release analysis showed that liberation of free gold began to occur below
250 m and the best gravity recovery was obtained between 45 m and 125 m.
Concentrate grades of approximately 200 g/t Au were measured.
Flotation testing recovered 87 % of the gold into a concentrate containing 4.1 % of the
solids by weight after 6 minutes of flotation. Beyond this time gold recovery increased
with mass pull and a recovery of 88 % into 19 % of the solids was obtained after 15
minutes of flotation.
Bottle roll cyanidation tests yielded gold extractions of 94.2 % from the lower grade
sample and 96.9 % from the higher grade sample after 24 hours of leaching.
Corresponding recoveries in CIL tests were 95.6 % and 97.1 %, representing marginal
increases likely to be within experimental and analytical tolerance.
Figure 13.1: Phase 1 Test Bottle Roll Kinetic Extraction Curve

13.1.2

Leach variability tests December 2012


Eleven samples were stage-ground through 106 m and leached at 40 % solids by
weight with the pH maintained at 10.5 by lime addition and cyanide concentration
maintained at 0.5 g/l. Bottle roll leach tests were performed over 48 hours with and
without activated carbon present. Samples were taken during the tests with no added
carbon and only at the end of the tests with added carbon. Results are summarized in
Table 13.1.
The average of the head grades of the samples used for standard leach tests was
2.49 g/t and 2.21 g/t for the samples used for CIL tests. This difference could be
expected to be within acceptable experimental and analytical variance (11 % of the
standard test average head grade) but there are significantly greater differences
between head grades measured on individual tests. For example, Test 5 has a relative
difference of 28.7 % and Test 9 has a relative difference of 32.7 %. This may be
indicative of coarse gold (nugget effect) or of procedural or analytical inconsistency in
the laboratory.
Table 13.1: Cyanidation Variability Test Results
Test

No carbon added

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CIL

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1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
Average

Head
grade
g/t
1.77
1.70
2.68
2.12
3.07
1.04
1.54
3.07
2.78
1.53
6.05
2.49

Extn
24 h

Extn
48 h

CN
kg/t

Lime
kg/t

97.63
94.37
94.71
91.08
96.07
98.69
97.22
96.34
98.63
90.77
91.20
95.2

97.74
94.40
94.20
90.57
96.91
97.57
97.07
94.09
98.19
89.51
91.32
94.7

0.21
0.04
0.17
0.19
0.12
0.79
0.07
0.04
0.12
0.08
0.21
0.19

1.17
0.57
0.57
0.50
0.42
0.40
0.86
1.72
0.56
0.60
1.15
0.77

Head
grade
g/t
1.16
1.37
2.78
1.34
2.19
0.85
1.77
3.20
1.87
1.47
6.35
2.21

Extn
48 h

CN
kg/t

Lime
kg/t

95.22
92.66
93.32
86.91
95.39
95.82
85.53
89.43
96.51
88.07
91.65
91.9

0.36
0.31
0.22
0.25
0.88
0.96
0.21
0.32
0.32
0.22
0.29
0.39

0.76
0.51
0.66
0.70
0.52
0.42
0.75
0.85
0.47
0.50
1.15
0.66

The average recovery after 24 hours of standard leaching was 95.2 % which reduced
to 94.7 % after 48 hours. This is thought to be within experimental tolerances. The
average extraction after 48 hours of CIL was 91.9 %. Only Sample 11 returned a CIL
recovery higher than the standard leach test, other samples generally reporting much
lower extraction during CIL tests than standard tests. This observation is against what
is normally expected; if preg-robbing were occurring then the CIL test extraction would
be higher than during standard leaching and if there was no preg-robbing then either
the two test methods would yield the same result or CIL would give a higher extraction.
The laboratory report of this work suggested that cyanide-soluble copper may have
been present in the samples and this reduced the efficiency of gold adsorption by
carbon. Analyses required to support or refute this argument were not performed and it
is not possible for AMEC to offer an opinion as to the likely cause.

13.1.3

Phase 2 scoping tests May 2013

Grind versus cyanidation extraction


The eleven samples tested in the previous programme were composited and bottle roll
tests were performed at a range of grind sizes. The extractions after 24 and 48 hours
of leaching are listed in Table 13.2. As is to be expected, leach extraction increases
with fineness of grind. At coarse grinds, the extraction was higher after 48 hours than
after 24 hours but at P80 75 m and 38 m the extraction peaked at 24 hours.
Table 13.2: Cyanidation Grind/Extraction Test Results
P80
(m)
634
400
250
180
125
75
38

24 h extraction
(%)
68.33
73.89
82.59
84.33
89.55
90.96
95.98

48 h extraction
(%)
69.86
75.36
84.02
84.83
89.79
90.61
95.04

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Gravity concentration
Heavy liquid analysis was performed on two size fractions, -6.3 mm +3.35 mm and 3.35 mm +1 mm. In order for gravity concentration to recover a similar amount of gold
to direct cyanidation, the mass pull to concentrate would have to be greater than 76 %.
Gravity concentration tests at sizes below 1 mm showed that maximum recovery was
achieved between 75 m and 250 m. Gravity concentration tests at 75 m were
followed by leaching of both the gravity concentrate and tailing. The results are
presented in Table 13.3. Gravity concentration recovered 54.9 % of the gold into
0.59 % of the weight and leaching of the products realised an overall extraction of
approximately 89 %.
Table 13.3: Gravity Product Leaching Test Results

Concentrate
Tailing
Total

Mass split
(%)
0.59
99.41
100.00

Au recovery
(%)
54.94
45.06
100.00

Leach extraction
(%)
91.62
85.71

Overall recovery
(%)
50.34
38.62
88.96

Flotation
Flotation tests using potassium amyl xanthate (PAX) as a collector were performed at
grind sizes ranging from 250 m to 75 m. The best flotation rate and recovery were
achieved at a grind of 75 m. Gold recovery was 93 % into a concentrate containing
4.25 % of the weight and grading 66 g/t Au.
Subsequent tests improved the reagent suite, after which open circuit cleaning tests
were performed. Gold recovery of 85.55 % into a concentrate grading 191 g/t was
achieved. Gravity concentration prior to flotation resulted in a decrease in combined
recovery.

Ball mill Work Index


The Bond ball mill Work Index to 106 m was measured at 13.9 kWh/t, characterising
the rocks as moderately hard.

13.1.4

Phase 3 tests November 2013


Four samples from across the sulphide deposit were tested.

Rod mill Work Index


The Bond rod mill Work Index was measured to be 26.3 kWh/t to 1180 m. This places
the material in the very hard category.

Gravity concentration
Gravity Release Analysis again showed that the optimum size for gravity concentration
was 75 m 106 m, approximately 85 % of the gold being recoverable to a
concentrate containing 15 % of the weight.

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A larger scale test on 10 kg of material milled to 80 % -75 m which was then passed
through a Falcon concentrator, cleaned on a Mozley table and the products leached
yielded the results shown in Table 13.4. The cyanide consumption during leaching of
the gravity concentrate was 70.557 kg/t concentrate.
Table 13.4: Falcon/Mozley Product Leaching Test Results
Sample
Concentrate
Tailing
Total

Weight
(%)
0.26
99.74
100.00

Au recovery
(%)
14.75
85.25

Leach extraction
(%)
98.66
87.12

Overall recovery
(%)
33.22
57.79
91.01

Flotation

Flotation tests continued from the previous programme, reducing the reagent addition
while maintaining gold recovery. The best gold recovery achieved was 91.8 % at a
concentrate mass pull of 5.7 % using Aero 7249 as an auxiliary collector or promoter.
Batch rougher tests were performed at the same conditions on a portion of each
sample. A summary of results is given in Table 13.5.
Table 13.5: Flotation Variability Test Results
Sample
Head grade
Mass pull to concentrate
Au recovery
S recovery

Unit
g/t
%
%
%

12
0.52
6.6
92.9
95.1

13
0.50
5.4
80.9
86.6

14
0.99
3.8
93.2
98.2

15
0.57
4.7
75.1
91.5

Average
0.65
5.1
85.5
92.9

A locked cycle test was conducted on whole feed. Final concentrate at 36.5 g/t was
1.48 % of the feed weight and contained 85.9 % of the gold. Insufficient concentrate
was produced to allow a leach test to be performed.
Leaching

Single leach tests were performed on composites to compare standard (unaerated)


conditions with aerated and CIL. The results are summarized in Table 13.6.
Table 13.6: Leach Type Test Results
Sample
Head grade
Extraction at 24 h
Extraction at 48 h

Unit
g/t
%
%

Standard
0.60
93.21
89.86

Aerated
0.54
96.23
86.81

CIL
0.77
90.75

Aeration had a clear benefit to kinetics and recovery after 24 hours. The recovery is
observed to reduce during the latter half of the tests. Extraction using CIL was similar
to that achieved under standard conditions.
Tests to investigate the effect of cyanide concentration on leach efficiency appeared to
show that higher concentration did not increase gold extraction although analytical
errors acknowledged by the laboratory made interpretation of the results difficult.
Each of the four samples was milled to 106 m and leached for 48 hours at 0.5 g/l
cyanide. Results are summarised in Table 13.7.

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Table 13.7: Leach Variability Test Results
Sample
Head grade
Extraction at 24 h
Extraction at 48 h

13.1.5

Unit
g/t
%
%

12
0.48
88.3
92.7

13
0.38
91.9
97.3

14
1.27
97.5
99.1

15
0.47
93.2
97.9

Average
0.65
92.7
96.8

Summary
Whole ore cyanide leaching was found to be effective, gold extraction generally
exceeding 90 % without incurring excessive cyanide consumption. Gold extraction was
observed to be directly affected by the fineness of grind down to a grind size of 80 %
passing 106 m, below which there was minimal benefit in grinding finer.
Leach extraction was generally observed to peak at 24 hours leaching and then reduce
when leaching was continued to 48 hours. Although this trend is typical of pregrobbing there is no evidence of typical preg-robbing minerals such as graphite or
carbonates being present. Leach tests in the presence of activated carbon did not
achieve higher leach extractions which would be expected if preg-robbing was
occurring, suggesting that another mechanism, such as testing error, is causing this
trend. Aerated bottle roll tests yielded higher extractions than non-aerated tests.
Gravity concentration was able to recover approximately 30 % of the gold into a
concentrate. Intensive cyanidation of this concentrate required very high cyanide
addition. Leaching of the gravity tail was tested but the combined recovery from
concentrate and tailing was no greater than whole ore leaching and the overall cyanide
addition was higher.
Similarly, flotation achieved good recovery on some samples but the combined flotation
and leach recovery was lower than that achieved by whole ore leaching. Flotation
response between samples was variable.
The Bond rod mill Work Index was measured for one composite sample and a value of
26.3 kWh/t was obtained. This ranks the Yaoure material tested as among the hardest
of all rocks tested by SGS. The Bond ball mill Work Index was found to be 13.9 kWh/t,
close to the median value of the tests performed by SGS.

13.2

Process Options
A number of process options have been investigated for each circuit. These options
are presented in this section.

13.2.1

Comminution
It is generally accepted that SAG milling of rocks which exhibit a rod mill Work Index
which is significantly higher than the ball mill Work Index will be expected to
accumulate a critical size. Although in-circuit pebble crushing (SABC) can overcome
this problem, extreme hardness in the critical size range can lead to excessive
circulation of pebbles rendering SABC impractical. Since the samples from Yaoure
showed this trend, SAG milling has not been selected for this study and staged
crushing and ball milling is preferred. Given the extreme value of rod mill Work Index
that was reported it is recommended that further testing be performed to confirm this
value and validate the process selection.

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SAG milling can potentially offer benefits such as reduced complexity of operation and
lower capital and operating costs and should therefore not be permanently discounted
as a viable option on the basis of a small number of tests which have returned extreme
results. Further testing of SAG milling should be considered during any further stages
of test work.
Single stage ball milling is capable of creating a product of the size required for
effective leaching of the Yaoure material (80 % passing 106 m). Ball mill feed,
typically with d80 between 10 mm and 15 mm, can be prepared with staged crushing
and screening.
Although the throughput of the sulphides plant is quite high it is within the capacity
range of jaw crushers. This type of crusher has been selected for the 6.5 Mt/a option as
the total installed cost should be lower than that for a gyratory crusher as a result of the
lesser extent of civil works required by this type of unit. Jaw crushing will also be
suitable for 5 Mt/a feed rate but will require verification for 8 Mt/a.
Three stages of crushing and screening are commonly used to prepare ball mill feed
and this process has been used for the Study. Large units have been selected in order
reduce operational and maintenance complexity and gain the benefits of scale by
reducing capital cost.
AMEC considered alternative configurations of the milling circuit:

Two stages of ball milling in series


Single stage ball milling in two parallel mills with single pinion drives
Single stage milling in a single unit with a dual pinion drive.

The required grind can be achieved by single stage ball milling. Two-stage milling could
potentially achieve slight increases in power efficiency and would require smaller units
but this would be at the expense of higher capital and operating cost and lower plant
availability. Parallel single stage milling circuits will provide more operational flexibility
and result in higher availability but will incur higher capital and operating costs than a
single unit. For the purpose of this Study, one single-stage milling unit has been
selected as this option incurs the lowest capital cost.

13.2.2

Pre-concentration
Laboratory test work to date has included preliminary investigations of gravity
concentration and froth flotation to generate gold-bearing concentrates with the
objectives of reducing the amount of material to be leached and/or increasing the
overall recovery. Both processes were reasonably successful in concentrating gold but
recovery was no greater than with whole ore cyanidation.
High cyanide addition was required to extract gold from the gravity concentrate.
Leaching of flotation concentrate was not tested but SGS have stated an opinion that
the mineralogical composition of the flotation concentrate should be very similar to the
gravity concentrate and therefore the leachability and extraction rate should also be
similar. Cyanidation of flotation concentrate would also be expected to require high
cyanide addition rate.

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Early in the Study, AMEC performed a high level comparison of gravity concentration
and flotation with whole ore treatment. The comparative relative costs of various
process options and at a notional plant feed rate of 5 Mt/a are shown in Table 13.8.
Note that this table does not reflect actual costs. The estimated cost of the main
sections of a standard whole ore leaching plant has been assigned an index of 100 and
the estimated costs of the other process options considered are shown relative to this
index.
The expected capital cost reduction achievable through pre-concentration was not
realised because the pre-concentration concentrate and tailing both had to be leached
for the gold recovery to be acceptable. The comparison shows that neither
concentration methods has economic returns better than whole ore cyanidation, mainly
because of the high cyanide consumption in concentrate leaching measured during
laboratory test work, and the Study has therefore been based on whole ore treatment.
The mass pull to concentrates was low and there is potential to increase gold recovery
to concentrate by increasing the mass pull, with a potential outcome of being able to
eliminate tailing leaching. Further test work to improve the understanding of the mass
pull/recovery relationship, reduce the cyanide consumption during leaching of gravity
concentrate and evaluate the leachability of flotation concentrate should be done
before pre-concentration options are finally discounted.
Table 13.8: Relative costs of process options (at 5 Mt/a)

Plant Area
Crushing
Milling
Flotation
WOL
Gravity concentration
Regrind
Concentrate leach
CIP
Tailing leach
Tailings
TOTAL

13.2.3

Whole ore
standard
leach
11.8
31.1

Whole ore
aerated
leach
11.8
31.1

5.4

5.4

Option
Gravity +
Whole
gravity
ore CIL
tail leach
11.8
11.8
31.1
31.1
10.8

8.7

8.7

8.7

43.1
100.0

43.1
100.0

43.1
105.5

5.4
1.1
3.1
0.1
4.4
4.5
43.1
104.6

Float +
conc
leach
11.8
31.1
6.5

Gravity + float
+ combined
conc leach
11.8
31.1
6.5

8.8
0.4
4.4

1.1
9.7
0.4
4.4

43.1
106.1

43.1
108.1

Leaching, adsorption and elution


A number of the leach kinetic profiles generated from laboratory testing show gold
extraction peaking at 24 hours of leaching and reducing when the leach test is
continued to 48 hours, as discussed in Section 13.1. The laboratorys interpretation of
these results is that preg-robbing occurs. Amara has advised that there are no likely
preg-robbing components such as graphite or other carbonaceous minerals present in
the deposit, suggesting that another mechanism is responsible for the apparent loss of
extracted gold between 24 hours and 48 hours. This is supported by carbon-in-leach
tests not achieving a higher extraction of gold than standard leaching.
Since high extraction was achieved by direct cyanidation this process has been
selected for the Study. The leach retention time has been limited to 24 hours in line
with the peak extraction. Aerated bottle roll tests resulted in increased leach extraction,

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as is expected from consideration of the Elsner equation which describes the chemical
formation of the gold cyanide complex. Since aerated leach tests gave higher
extraction in the same suite of tests as non-aerated tests and CIL tests this type of
process should be adopted. The recovery from this test has been applied during the
Study and costs for oxygen addition have been provided for in the Study. The need for
oxygen addition (as opposed to low pressure air) and the leach extraction achievable
should be investigated in more detail during the next phase of testing.
Modelling of leaching followed by carbon-in-pulp (CIP) at typical conditions has shown
that approximately 18 t of loaded carbon would have to be eluted daily in order to
recover the gold from solution. Process models using pump cells in place of standard
CIP tanks shows that the quantity of loaded carbon could be reduced by half with
resulting reductions in capital and operating costs. This type of adsorption system has
therefore been selected for the study.

13.2.4

Heap leaching
No laboratory testing has been performed on the oxide rock type which lies between
the two existing open pit mines worked previously. For this study, it has been assumed
that the rocks in this zone contain gold that is amenable to heap leaching under the
same conditions as used during the previous operational phases. This assumption
should be proven through laboratory column leach tests should heap leaching of this
material be pursued.

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14.0

MINERAL RESOURCE ESTIMATES

14.1

Background
The estimation of mineral resources for the Yaoure oxide and sulphide gold deposits
has been based on geological logging and interpretations, as well as grade and other
information recorded from drill holes. Datamine Studio 3 was used as the basic
modelling tool, with most of the statistical analysis and geostatistical estimation
completed using modified GSLib routines (Deutsch and Journel, 1997). Variography
was completed using SAGE 2001 (Isaaks, 1999).
There was multiple estimation domains defined within Yaoure Central, which were
based on simplified lithology codes defined by Yaoures geologists, as explained
below. The estimation methods chosen were driven by the statistical characteristics of
the available sample information and the spatial distribution of gold mineralization,
which was variable depending on the domain considered. For oxides and CMA, an
Indicator-Modified Ordinary Kriging method was used, while for the units with more
samples, a full Multiple Indicator Kriging (MIK) was implemented. MIK is considered an
appropriate estimation method for the typical short-scale grade continuity of the
mineralization, even though grade estimation is constrained by geological domains,
because within those domains the mineralization is still highly variable, with a relatively
broadly-spaced dataset.
The deposits have been evaluated with reference to the Universal Transverse Mercator
(UTM) grid (Zone 30 North in WGS 84 datum), and all directional references in the
mineral resource estimates portions of this report are according to this grid.

14.2

Drill Hole Data


Amara provided the diamond drill hole data in MS Excel spread sheets, as well as a
collection of data and analytical files relating to Amara QA/QC protocols in July, 2013.
Other information, such as topography, in situ density, geologic codes and models,
etc., was also provided through the month of July. Drill holes are mostly on 100m
sections, although there are minor exceptions to this.
The data was imported into Datamine Studio. All validation on the data was completed
within Datamine, with a few minor errors that were cleared with Yaoure geologists
including gold grades equal to 0. Table 14.1 summarizes the available drill hole data
used in for estimating the resources.
Table 14.1: List of Available Drill holes, Survey, Assay and Lithology Intervals
Drill Hole IDs
YDD0001 through
YDD0158

Number of
Collars

Number of
Downhole Surveys

Number of
Assays

Number of
Lithology Codes

153

1,842

48,651

9,593

Gold is currently the only assay field considered to be economically significant and was
therefore the sole assay field selected for the estimation of grades.
RC drilling was excluded from grade estimation on the basis that the bottle roll method
of gold assaying used for the RC samples is incompatible with the diamond core

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assays which were determined using the fire assay method. Pit and trench samples
also were not used in grade estimation.
The same modelling boundary used in previous resource estimates was considered in
the resource update. This was defined by Amara using a polygon which extends
around the Yaoure Central and CMA pit areas. Figure 14.1 shows the modelling
boundary.
Figure 14.1: Modelling Boundary and Constrained Drilling Data

14.2.1

Assay Data
The Yaoure assay database was prepared in Datamine using the desurveying process
which assigns to each drill hole interval with gold grades an X/Y/Z coordinate. Also, the
simplified lithologic code is assigned to that interval. The intervals in this database are
thus the same assayed intervals, mostly 1m, but variable between a 9 centimetres and
over 4m in some cases.

14.2.2

Mineralization Envelope
Gold mineralization has been observed throughout the drilled area. The grade appears
to occur within broad mineralized domains, with boundaries that can appear either
gradational or sharp. Although there are clear associations between gold grade and
certain geologic features, such as the presence of quartz or sulphides, there are no
obvious boundaries to the mineralized zone.
The use of some type of mineralization boundary at Yaoure to constraint grade
estimation is important, because it is difficult to predict the presence of gold, and
extrapolation needs to be avoided. This is even more important given the broad drill
hole spacing.
Factors that influenced the interpretation of a grade envelope for Yaoure Central
included prior experience, gold grade distribution, potential economic cut-offs, and
visual analysis. It was decided that a grade envelope at 0.1 g/t gold provides a suitable
constraint for grade estimation, since it provides a broad mineralization envelope,

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within which mineralization can occur (but not necessarily), and outside which no
resource estimate can be obtained.
The interpretation of the 0.1 g/t envelope was completed on E-W cross sections, and
encompassed both Yaoure Central and the CMA zones, with approximately -30 dip to
the east. The basic criteria used for interpretation include:
1. The envelope is snapped to the last interval down-the-hole at or above 0.1 g/t gold;
2. If the last interval in the hole is mineralized ( 0.1 g/t gold), snap the envelope 10m
down the hole;
3. Laterally, carry the envelope at most 50m from the last mineralized drill hole;
4. If there are no drill holes within 200m radii, enclose the un-informed volume as if it
were an un-mineralized island.
There are volumes within the envelope that have little or no information, and are
currently considered un-mineralized, although it is quite possible that with additional
drilling, they would show the same type of mineralization within the envelope.
Figure 14.2 shows a perspective view of the grade envelope, while Figure 14.3 shows
cross section 776,880N with drill holes and gold grades.
Figure 14.2: Perspective view of 0.1 g/t Gold Grade Envelope and Drill holes, looking from SW

Figure 14.3: E-W Section: Initial Grade Shell and Final Mineralized Shells, Section 776,880

The statistics of gold grades inside the grade shell is shown in Table 14.2. For resource
estimation, only those samples in Table 14.2 are used. Note that the statistics are

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length-weighted, as the assay intervals are of uneven length. Note that the nonweighted mean is 0.441 g/t, while the average length-weighted mean is 0.3455 g/t. This
suggests that shorter intervals tend to be higher grades. For bulk minable deposits
such as this, it is important to sample at regular intervals, as Amara has been doing for
the past several drilling campaigns.
Table 14.2: Assay Intervals Inside 0.1 g/t grade shell; Statistics are length-weighted
Statistics

Gold g/t

Num Samples

31,040

Min

0.005

Max

94

Mean

0.441

Weighted mean

0.3455

First quartile

0.0059

Median

0.0196

Third quartile

0.1291

Weighted SD

1.9512

Weighted variance

3.8071

Weighted CV

5.6475

1.1 Geologic Data and Geologic Model


Previous geologic work by William Bond (Final Summation Report for the Yaoure
Project, new logging system and interpretations, dated 4 May, 2013) resulted in the
definition of 145 lithologic codes (Table 14.3). This number of codes and level of detail,
while perhaps appropriate for exploration campaigns, is incompatible and impractical
for resource estimation.
Amaras geologists filtered and rationalized the coding system, resulting in 11
simplified codes from the original 145 codes. The simplified codes are major
groupings and classes derived from the original code. GSI discussed with Amaras
team the geology of the deposit and the criteria for the simplification and interpretation
of the 11 codes.
These 11 simplified codes are the basis for the initial analysis of the correlation
between the codes and gold grade, and are shown in Table 14.3. The Table shows
which original codes were lumped into each Simplified Code.

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Table 14.3: Original and Simplified Geologic Codes. The second row shows the 11 Simplified Codes. For a complete explanation of the Original codes,
see W. Bonds report (2013b).
1

QV
OBQV
LTQV
SPQV
SRSQ
SRQV
OFQV
BVSHQ
BVFRQ
BVQV
BVQVW
BPQV
MTQV
GDQV
PGDQ
POQV
QV
QCSV
QCV
QSV
QTV
QVVG
QCTV
BVSV
VCQV

CV
CV
CQV
SRCQ
OFCQ
BVCQ

SH
SPSH
SRSH
OFSH
BVSH
BPSH
MTSH
VCSH
POSH
PGDS
GDSH

FR
BVFR
BPFR
MTFR
VCFR
GDFR
PGDFR
POFR
FLT
INBX
QBX

AL
SPAL
SRAL
OFAL
BVAL
BVALW
BPAL
MTAL
VCAL
GDAL
PGDAL
POAL
INAL
SPAQ
SRAQ
OFAQ
BVAQ
BPAQ
MTAQ
VCAQ
GDAQ
PGDAQ
POAQ
BVALT
BVAP

ALSH
SPAS
SRAS
OFAS
BVAS
BPAS
MTAS
VCAS
GDAS
PGDAS
SRASQ
OFASQ
BVASQ
BPASQ
MTASQ
VCASQ
GDASQ
PGDASQ

Page 14-129

ALFR
BVAFR
GDAFR
POAFR
BVAFRQ

AC
BVAC
BVACW
BVACQ
BVACS
BVACB
BVACT

10

EXT

INT

SPBV
SRBV
OFBV
BV
BVMG
BVMD
BVFMD
BPLD
BP
BBX
MT
VC
OFVT
SRVT
SPVC
BVT
SRVC
VCFM

GD
PGD
SPPO
SRPO
OFPO
PO
HBPO
SPIN
SRIN
OFIN
ININ
INFL
VCF

11

OTH
SPMN
SPRU
SR
SROF
SRMN
OF
OB
OBBF
OBLT
CAV
LT
LTMO
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Amara also developed computerized models (solids) representing some of the


lithologies and zones in three dimensions.
Table 14.4 shows a brief description of each simplified codes, which were used as
elements (variables) of the geologic model in support of the resource model. From
these codes, estimation domains were been defined.
Table 14.4: Eleven Simplified Geologic Codes and their description

Numeric Code
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11

14.2.3

Character Code
QV
CV
SH
FR
AL
ALSH
ALFR
AC
EXT
INT
OTH

Description
QUARTZ VEIN
CARBONATE VEIN
SHEARED
FRACTURED
ALTERED
ALTERED AND SHEARED
ALTERED AND FRACTURED
CARBONATE ALTERATION
EXTRUSIVES
INTRUSIVES
OTHERS

Oxidation
The mineralization at Yaoure is present in both the weathered and non-weathered
material. It is important to define the limits of oxidation for geologic, resource estimation
and inventory, and metallurgical reasons. Amara has defined and modelled 6 different
weathering levels, which again must be simplified in order to be able to use them.
The interpretation of the weathered horizon was based on geological logging codes
from near-surface intersections in drillholes. The logged oxidation codes record a
progressive decrease in oxidation, from completely oxidized nearer to surface, down to
fresh rock, as shown in Table 14.5.
Similar to what was done in prior models the weathering codes were rationalized into
oxide and sulphide domains, using the interface between the W2 and W3 as the base
of oxidation. After a minor adjustment that Amara agreed to, the final weathering
surface (Base of W3) was obtained, and is shown in Figure 14.4 as a smooth line. An
appreciation for the relative depth of the oxidized zone can be gained from the Cross
Section shown.

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Table 14.5: Rationalization of Weathering Codes into Oxide-Sulphide Domains
Description

Code

Laterite

W6

Upper SAP

W5

Lower SAP

W4

Saprock

W3

Transition

W2

Fresh

W1

Domain

OXIDE

SULPHIDE

Figure 14.4: Cross Sectional view (Sec. 776,880N) of Base of W3 surface (in brown),
oxides/sulphides interface, in relation to drill holes and 0.1 g/t grade shell

14.2.4

Final Estimation Domains


The final estimation domains resulted from statistical correlations between gold grade
and each of the simplified lithologies. Further grouping was possible, but based more
on grade distribution, rather than pure geology. Another criterion used was the
abundance of assay intervals within each simplified unit, which, if sparse, can
significantly limit the effectiveness of the estimation methods used.
One of the statistical tools used to observe the similarity of gold grade distributions
among the different is the Quantile-Quantile (Q-Q) plot. Figure 14.5 shows as an
example a comparison of gold grades in Altered and Altered-Sheared rock, compared
to gold grades in intervals coded as quartz veins or veinlets. The example shows that
the grade distributions are similar; comparing to Figure 14.6, where a Q-Q plot of gold
grades coded as Altered and Altered-Sheared intervals is compared to gold grades in
Fractured and with Carbonate Alteration. In this latter case, the two grade distributions
are clearly different, with the altered/altered-sheared having the better grades.

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Figure 14.5: Quantile-Quantile plot, gold grades, Altered and Altered-Sheared vs. Quartz Veins

Figure 14.6: Quantile-Quantile plot, gold grades, Altered and Altered-Sheared vs. Quartz Veins

The Estimation Domains were obtained comparing systematically gold grade


distributions in different lithologies, which are a combination of simplified lithologic units
with similar gold grade distribution. Table 14.6 shows the basic combinations.

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Table 14.6: Final Geologic Codes that define Gold Estimation Domains
Numeric Code
1
2

Character Code
QV
AL-ALSH

SH-ALFR

FR-AC

CV+EXT+INT+OTH

Description
QUARTZ VEIN
ALTERED PLUS ALTERED AND SHEARED
SHEARED, PLUS ALTERED AND
FRACTURED
FRACTURED PLUS CARBONATE
ALTERATION
CARBONATE VEIN + EXTRUSIVES +
INTRUSIVES + OTHERS

In addition to analysing the assay intervals coded with different lithologies, there were
other considerations that defined the estimation domains. There are two types of
domains defined in this geologic model, based on the possibility of interpreting from
sections and plans the different units. Some zones can be interpreted and modelled
continuously in cross sections over 200 or more meters. These zones are represented
in the Resource Model with three-dimensional volumes (solids).
Other geologic variables cannot be interpreted and modelled across cross sections
with any confidence. However, they are deemed important controls of gold
mineralization present at Yaoure, as indicated by geologic knowledge, and statistical
analysis of the correlations between gold grade and lithologic codes. These were
estimated into the block model using a form of multiple indicator kriging specific for
geologic variables.
Therefore, the final geologic model is a combination of interpreted, deterministic solids,
and a probabilistic estimation for those variables that are not continuous enough to be
modelled.
The summary of the units that support and condition the Resource Model is:
1. A 0.1 g/t grade envelope was interpreted on sections from all available drill hole
data. The corresponding three-dimensional solid represents the volume where gold
mineralization may exist, and outside of which, it does not. It also is likely to
represent the resource reporting volume, as there is a reasonable expectation that
all material above cut-off within this envelope can be economically mined in the
future. The envelope was projected at most 50m down-dip, and 10m beyond the
last interval of a drill hole, if the hole finished in a mineralized interval. In all other
cases, the envelope was snapped to the bottom of the last 0.1 g/t in the hole. All
other Estimation Domains described below exist within this envelope.
2. A three-dimensional solid representing the CMA zone. This zone has been
interpreted by Amaras geologists, and is thinner than was interpreted and
estimated in the March 2013 Resource Model. It is very consistent across many
sections, and has been subdivided into a CMA North and a CMA Central.
3. A three-dimensional solid representing the CMA Cross Cutting (CCC, previously
known as CMA South). Also interpreted by Amaras geologists, this zone has few
DDH intercepts, very low grade, and is not likely to be a part of the declared
Resources. However, it is a volume distinct from Yaoure Central, and therefore is
useful to consider the volume as a separate zone.

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4. Some of the larger quartz veins have been modelled as three-dimensional solids.
However, there are a significant number of intervals outside these veins also coded
as quartz veins; but they do not show any continuity, or are too narrow to be able to
model them explicitly with any confidence. Therefore, the Quartz Vein estimation
domain has a deterministic volume (provided by the three-dimensional solids), and
a probabilistic component, estimated from the intercepts that are not included in the
solids. The Quartz Vein unit has generally good grades, although it is very narrow.
5. The Altered plus Altered and Sheared intervals (AL-ALSH) could not be modelled
explicitly, as they do not correlate well from one section to the next. This implies
that the only option for coding the block model with this unit is to estimate it using a
probabilistic model. This is generally better grade mineralization than the other
units, and contains significant proportion of the total gold in Yaoure.
6. The Sheared plus Altered and Fractured intervals (SH-ALFR) also could not be
modelled explicitly. This unit also was estimated using a probabilistic model. Again,
it would be preferable to interpret this unit on section, and it should be attempted
after the Phase V infill drilling. Also can have good grades, although generally not
as good as the Al-ALSH unit.
7. The Fractured and Carbonate Alteration unit (FR-AC) also was estimated
probabilistically. Medium to low grades, still of interest because it can present
intervals with good grades.
8. The remaining unit, a grouping of Carbonate Vein, Extrusives, Intrusives, and
Other (CV+EXT+INT+OTH) is the unit considered as background, by default in
the model, and was not be modelled, as a three-dimensional solid, nor
probabilistically. It is generally lower grade or barren, although it can occasionally
have high grades.
In addition to the above, weathering will also be taken into account. Amara has defined
six weathered profiles which have been modelled as surfaces from drill hole intercepts
and trenching. The basic separation was the Base of W3, with oxidized material above,
fresh or sulphide mineralization below. This may be appropriate at this stage of project
development, but future metallurgical testing and model updates may need to consider
that there is a transitional profile, with a gradational decrease in oxidation from top to
bottom.
The estimation domains discussed above are applicable to below the Base of W3
(Fresh and Transition), dominated by sulphide mineralization; above the Base of W3,
all oxidized material will be estimated as a single volume, under the assumption that
weathering obliterates many of the geologic characteristics of the rock, such that there
is less confidence in the descriptions of the Simplified Units.
The summary statistics of the main units defined is shown in the box plots of Figure
14.7. Note that CMA, AL-ALSH, and QV (both interpreted, unit 1, and outside the
interpreted intervals, unit 6) have the highest grades.

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Figure 14.7: Box plot, gold assays, 8 main units, below Base of W3 (sulphides) only

Table 14.7: Length-weighted statistics, gold assays, 8 main units, below Base of W3
(sulphides) only
AL-ALSH SH-ALFR

FR-AC

CV, EXT,
Prob. QV
INT, OTH

QV

CMA

CCC

No. of Samples

2,875

2,098

70

4,500

2,232

9,790

24,261

1,732

Minimum

0.005

0.005

0.005

0.005

0.005

0.005

0.005

0.005

Maximum

91.6

69.7

3.86

94

32.7

58.5

50.3

72

Mean

0.668

1.177

0.346

0.805

0.352

0.219

0.144

0.806

Weighted mean

0.505

1.0671

0.28

0.718

0.319

0.176

0.101

0.736

First quartile

0.0059

0.0059

0.0106

0.0106

0.0059

0.0059

0.0059

0.0106

Median

0.0299

0.0901

0.0402

0.0703

0.0299

0.0196

0.0102

0.0496

Third quartile

0.1592

0.9196

0.0999

0.4195

0.1592

0.0793

0.0398

0.3095

Weighted SD

3.072

3.0009

0.7332

2.8795

1.2956

1.2691

0.8529

3.2286

Weighted CV

6.0884

2.8121

2.6221

4.0106

4.0599

7.2034

8.4414

4.3895

14.3

Compositing and Exploratory Data Analysis


In recent years, sampling procedures at Yaoure were modified to almost always
retrieve a sample consistently 1 m long. The objective of sample compositing for
statistical analysis and grade estimation is primarily to reduce the variability of gold
grades in the samples, and to maintain or achieve mostly uniform support.
GSI completed a detailed analysis on alternative composite length, from 2 to 5m down
the hole. A 2m composite is better suited for Yaoure because of the characteristics of
the mineralization, and is also necessary to maximize the number of data available for
the estimation method chosen (Multiple Indicator Kriging). The down-the-hole dilution
obtained for varying composites lengths was compared using statistics and gradetonnage curves, and was concluded that too much mixing occurs at 5m composites.

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On the basis of the analysis completed, the original assay intervals were composited to
2m long, retaining all samples greater than 1m long (50% of the nominal interval).
Table 14.8: Length-weighted statistics, 2m gold Composites, 8 main units, below Base of W3
(sulphides) only

No. of Samples

QV

CMA

CCC

AL-ALSH SH-ALFR

304

814

29

1,373

1,377

FR-AC
4,770

CV, EXT,
QV (Prob.)
INT, OTH
9,703

1,163

Minimum

0.005

0.005

0.0063

0.005

0.005

0.005

0.005

0.005

Maximum

17.167

27.5369

2.41087

25.14

22.3748

27.4094

25.5128

53.95

Mean
Weighted mean

0.632

1.051

0.271

0.627

0.458

0.197

0.098

0.493

0.632

1.051

0.285

0.627

0.458

0.196

0.098

0.479

First quartile

0.013

0.013

0.020

0.023

0.015

0.007

0.006

0.010

Median

0.063

0.163

0.035

0.108

0.063

0.028

0.012

0.048

Third quartile

0.333

1.027

0.170

0.530

0.307

0.110

0.044

0.213

Weighted SD

1.667

2.196

0.529

1.726

1.484

0.907

0.568

2.109

Weighted variance

2.780

4.823

0.279

2.978

2.203

0.822

0.322

4.448

Weighted CV

2.637

2.090

1.856

2.750

3.241

4.616

5.795

4.401

The exploratory data analysis included other statistics and plots, such as histograms,
probability plots, and quantile-quantile plots used to compare distributions. Among the
plots of interest, probability plots such as those shown in Figure 14.8 and Figure 14.9
for the CMA 2m composites (below Base of W3), and Oxides 2m composites (above
Base of W3), were used to help define capping grades, see below.
Figure 14.8: Probability plot, gold 2m composites, CMA, below Base of W3 (sulphides)

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Figure 14.9: Probability plot, gold 2m composites, Oxides, above Base of W3

14.3.1

Topography
The topographic surface was obtained from Amara in a Datamine-format file. The
topography data used by Amara are based on surveys described in Section 9.1 of this
report. Figure 14.10 shows a color-coded contour map of the topography used.
There are mined-out areas within the project that need to be discounted or treated
differently in the resource estimate. These features are a) the old Yaoure pit, which has
been incorporated in the current topography, and is shown in purple colours in the
North-Central area of Figure 14.10; and b) the old CMA pit (now backfilled with Yaoure
Centrals waste, and some of the CMA stripped material (waste or low grade, that was
piled to the East of the pit.
There are no final pit surveys representing the mined-out and now backfilled CMA pit,
or the original topography prior to CMA mining. The available data is limited to the last
CMA pit design surface, and this was supplied to GSI as a Datamine wireframe, which
was used with no modifications. Figure 14.11 shows Cross Section N776,980 with
current topography in black, and the old CMA pit in green, including an estimate of the
stockpiled material.

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Figure 14.10: Topography Plan View, Yaoure Project

Figure 14.11: CMA Pit Surface Cross Section N776,980

14.4

Block Model
The block model for resource estimation was constructed with sub-cells and according
to the geometry and model extents shown in Table 14.9. The parent block geometry
was selected on the basis of the overall drill spacing (approximately 100 m 100 m) in
the nearer-surface area. Sub-blocking was allowed along bounding surfaces down to
the minimum sub-block dimensions shown.

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The parent block size in the model is 25 x 25 x 10m; sub-celling (partial blocks) down
to 6.25 x 6.25 x 5m was allowed, for better resolution in the coding of the estimation
domains and other geology. Any geologic feature of smaller volume will be absorbed
into the surrounding volume and lost.
Table 14.9: Model Dimensions and Cell Sizes
Orientation

Origin

No. of Blocks

Parent Block

Sub-blocks

Easting

219,900

84

25m

6.25m

Northing

775,500

108

25m

6.25m

-520

92

10m

5m

RL

The surfaces and solids with boundaries that created sub-blocks included topography,
Base of W3 (oxide/sulphide interface), CMA solid, CCC solid, and QV solids. Table
14.10 shows the main fields and codes used in the block model.
Figure 14.12 shows, as an example, the block model coded with some of the
lithological units, showing both parent blocks and sub-blocks. The CMA zone is most
easily seen. In addition to the lithology surfaces, the W3, topography, and the grade
shell all also cause the definition of sub-blocks.
Table 14.10: Model Fields and Codes
BLOCK MODEL CODES
DOMAIN/SOLID

MODEL TYPE

VARIABLE NAME IN BM

CODE

0.1GPT GRADE SHELL


QV
CMA
CCC
AL_ALSH
SH_ALFR
FR_AC
CV, EXT, INT, OTH
QV
WEATHERING 1, FRESH
WEATHERING 2, OXIDE FRACTURED
WEATHERING 3, SAPROCK
WEATHERING 4, LOWER SAPROLITE
WEATHERING 5, UPPER SAPROLITE
WEATHERING 6, LATERITE

WIREFRAME
PROBABILISTIC
WIREFRAME
WIREFRAME
PROBABILISTIC
PROBABILISTIC
PROBABILISTIC
BACKGROUND
WIREFRAME
SURFACE
SURFACE
SURFACE
SURFACE
SURFACE
SURFACE

GRSHELL
LITHO
LITHO
LITHO
LITHO
LITHO
LITHO
LITHO
LITHO
WEATH
WEATH
WEATH
WEATH
WEATH
WEATH

1 (INSIDE)
6
10
20
2
3
4
5
1
1
2
3
4
4
6

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COMMENTS

RECODED TO 1
RECODED TO 3
RECODED TO 3
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Figure 14.12: Cross Section (776980N), Lithological Units

14.5

Resource Estimation Strategy and Parameters


GSI defined an estimation strategy for updating the Yaoure Resource model, along
with other resource model parameters, such as block sizes, composite lengths to be
analysed, and estimation methodology.
A Multiple Indicator Kriging (MIK) method was used to estimate gold grades in the
domains within Yaoure Central, using what is known as an e-type estimate, with the
exception of the Oxides and the CMA units. The definition of the indicators used varied
by estimation domains. The possibility of applying additional change of support
corrections was looked at during model validations, and decided they were not
required.
The Oxides (above Base of W3) and CMA domains were estimated using an Indicatormodified Indicator Kriging (IMOK). There are four steps in this method: a) estimate an
indicator at a suitable grade threshold, in this case 0.2g/t gold for both domains; this
indicator estimates the proportion within each block of material above and below 0.2 g/t
gold; b) estimate with ordinary kriging (OK) the gold grade of portion of the block below
0.2 g/t, using nearby 2m composites that are below 0.2 g/t; c) estimate with OK the
gold grade of portion of the block above 0.2 g/t, using nearby 2m composites that are
above 0.2 g/t; and d) calculate the overall block gold grade by weighted average of the
two OK estimates, and using the proportion estimated in a) as weights.
The intent of this model is to achieve a level of control over smoothing and smearing by
introducing one indicator at a critical mineralized/un-mineralized grade boundary. This
allows estimating dilution into the block, not easily achieved with OK alone. It is used
when there are insufficient composites in the domain for a reliable, robust
implementation of MIK.
All other estimation-specific parameters, such as search neighbourhood, number of
data to be used in the estimation, use of hard or soft contacts among domains, etc.,
were decided based on the statistical analysis of the 2m composites by domain.

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14.6

Bulk Density Evaluation


Since there are a significant number of bulk density measurements available from drill
hole core, GSI decided that the variable could be directly estimated in the blocks. An
Inverse Distance Squared method was used on two domains, the Oxidized and the
Fresh material. They were estimated separately using density data from above and
below Base of W3, respectively, as a hard boundary.
The average value for above Base of W3 densities is 1.97 (179 values), no change
compared to the dataset used in the previous resource model. For fresh rock, the
average
Bulk density is 2.82 (1,438 values), slightly higher than the average value assigned in
the previous model.
Histograms and probability plots of bulk density for both oxidized and fresh material
suggest multiple populations; see Figure 14.13 and Figure 14.14, respectively. The
implication is that it is likely that there is some mixing of densities in both domains, an
issue that will have to be analysed in more detail in future resource updates.
Figure 14.13: Histogram and basic statistics, Above Base of W3

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Figure 14.14: Histogram and basic statistics, Above Base of W3

14.7

Grade Capping and Indicator Statistics


Different domains were estimated using different methods. For those domains with less
data, a simplified version of MIK, called Indicator-modified Ordinary Kriging (IMOK),
was used. These included CMA and Above Base of W3 (oxide) domains. The main
Yaoure Central domains, domains 1 through 6, were estimated with MIK. And the low
grade or mostly barren CCC zone, which is not part of the declared resource, was
nonetheless estimated using Inverse Distance Cubed.
The method to control outlier gold grades at the time of estimation depends on the
method used. In the case of MIK, grade capping is done by manipulating the average
grades of the last classes used in each domain. In the case of the IMOK method, grade
capping is done at the time of estimating the higher grade population.
For the CMA and Oxide units, capping was decided on the basis of the probability plots
shown in Figure 14.9 and Figure 14.10 above and the locations of high grades relative
to local averages. Capping was set at 15.0 g/t for both CMA and Oxides. In the case of
CMA, the grade represents a higher percentile of the gold grades in CMA, because
grades are more continuous, and the distribution within CMA seems to be less erratic.
CMA mineralization demonstrated more clustering, thereby reducing risks to estimated
grades. In the case of Oxides, capping was more strict (although at the same gold
grade value), representing a lower percentile in the oxide gold grade distribution.
GSI elected to apply grade capping to the composites, because the composites are
comparable in length to the majority of the original assayed interval.

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14.7.1

Indicator Statistics
Indicators were generated for each of the domains to be estimated using MIK. These
included domains 1 through 6: QV (solids); AL+ALSH; SH_ALFR; FR+AC;
CV+EXT+INT+OTH; and QV (probabilistic). When determining the corresponding
indicator thresholds, declustered average grades for each class, and indicator
variography, it was decided to pool together the units into two major groups, a high
grade and a low grade group. Units 1, 2, 3, and 6 are the higher grade units, and 4
and 5 the low grade units.
A total of 4 indicator thresholds were selected for domains 4 and 5 (low grade), and 6
indicators were selected for the higher grade units, as these were considered sufficient
to discretize both the sample and metal values at this level of study. The selected
indicators and declustered class means are shown in Table 14.11 and Table 14.12.
In both Tables, the highlighted cells indicate the original declustered class mean and
the contribution of that class to the total Quantity of Metal (QM and QM %) in 2m
composites. The last 3 rows of both Tables show the modified last class average and
the impact of that lower average on total Quantity of Metal. Note that in both cases the
last classes, although they contain fewer data, are responsible for most of the metal
content in the deposit. This form of grade capping reduces metal content by 10% in
the lower grade units, and about 12% in the higher grade units.
Table 14.11: Indicator Thresholds and Statistics, Domains FR+AC; and CV+EXT+INT+OTH

Cutoff
Count
Sum_Lgth
Class_Mean
QM
QM%
Mod. Last Class Ave.
Mod. QM
Mod. QM%

0.00
12888
785.28
0.031
24.0
0.25
0.031
24.3
0.26

0.20
919
582.72
0.318
185.1
1.96
0.318
185.3
1.97

0.50
333
463.61
0.697
323.0
3.43
0.697
323.1
3.43

1.00
244
771.88
1.586
1224.1
12.98
1.586
1224.2
12.98

3.00
89
1165.84
6.582
7673.0
81.37
5.800
6761.9
71.71

Table 14.12: Indicator Thresholds and Statistics, Domains QV; AL+ALSH; and SH+ALFR
Indicator Cutoff
No. of Composites
Sum_Lgth
Class_Mean
QM
QM%
Mod. Last Class Ave.
Mod. QM
Mod. QM%

14.8

0.0
2843
269.30
0.048
12.80
0.05
0.048
12.93
0.05

0.2
541
355.10
0.329
116.80
0.49
0.329
116.83
0.49

0.5
319
457.95
0.720
329.90
1.37
0.720
329.72
1.37

1.0
255
709.32
1.398
991.40
4.13
1.398
991.62
4.13

2.0
100
497.98
2.470
1229.80
5.12
2.470
1230.01
5.12

3.0
8.0
121
38
1077.63 1097.79
4.453
15.059
4799.00 16531.10
19.99
68.85
4.453
12.000
4798.69 13173.46
19.99
54.86

Variography
All variogram models required for estimating gold grades at Yaoure for the different
domains and methods used were obtained using the software SAGE2001 (Isaaks,
1999). In all cases, the variograms are based on 2m gold composites. The required
variograms to complete the resource estimation are:

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1. Four indicator variograms for each threshold chosen for the lower grade domains
(MIK);
2. Six indicator variograms for each threshold chosen for the lower grade domains
(MIK);
3. One 0.2 g/t gold indicator variogram for Oxides; two gold grade variograms, one for
2m composites less than 0.2 g/t, the other using the composites above or equal 0.2
g/t gold (IMOK, Oxides);
4. One 0.2 g/t gold indicator variogram for CMA; two Gold grade variograms, one for
2m composites less than 0.2 g/t, the other using the composites above or equal 0.2
g/t Gold (IMOK, CMA).
Figure 14.15 through Figure 14.17 show three views of the continuity ellipsoid for the
0.2 g/t Gold Indicator Variogram, higher grade domains; Figure 14.18 through Figure
14.20 show the corresponding ellipsoids for the 2.0 g/t Gold indicator. Note how, for the
same domain, the continuity changes according to grade changes, which can be
correlated to different geologic controls for different grades.
Figure 14.15: Indicator Variogram Model, 0.2 g/t gold; Domains QV; AL; ALSH; SH; ALFR;
horizontal slices through ellipsoid of continuity; note the N40W azimuth

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Figure 14.16: Indicator Variogram Model, 0.2 g/t gold; Domains QV; AL; ALSH; SH; ALFR; E-W
cross sectional slices through ellipsoid of continuity; note the 25-30 dip to the
East

Figure 14.17: Indicator Variogram Model, 0.2 g/t gold; Domains QV; AL; ALSH; SH; ALFR;
Longitudinal slices through ellipsoid of continuity

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Figure 14.18: Indicator Variogram Model, 2.0 g/t gold; Domains QV; AL; ALSH; SH; ALFR;
horizontal slices through ellipsoid of continuity; note the almost NNW azimuth

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Figure 14.19: Indicator Variogram Model, 2.0 g/t gold; Domains QV; AL; ALSH; SH; ALFR; E-W
cross sectional slices through ellipsoid of continuity; note the 50 dip to the East
(steeper for higher grades)

Figure 14.20: Indicator Variogram Model, 2.0 g/t gold; Domains QV; AL; ALSH; SH; ALFR;
Longitudinal slices through ellipsoid of continuity

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14.8.1

Gold Variograms
Directional gold variograms were calculated in multiple directions, and within the plane
of the mineralized zones. Correlograms and pairwise relative variograms were used to
obtain the models for gold grade 0.2 g/t in Oxides and CMA; gold grade < 0.2 g/t in
Oxides and CMA; and overall to assess the degree of dilution in the final model.
Figure 14.21 through 14.23 show as an example the anisotropy of the pairwise relative
variogram model for the Oxides, all 2m composites.

Figure 14.21: Correlogram Model, Sulphides; horizontal slices through ellipsoid of continuity;
observe how the main anisotropy is in the expected NNW direction, but there is a
structure with a NE continuity, interpreted to correspond to higher grades

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Figure 14.22: Correlogram Model, Sulphides; E-W cross sectional slices through ellipsoid of
continuity; note the dip at about -30 to East

Figure 14.23: Correlogram Model, Oxides; Longitudinal slices through ellipsoid of continuity

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14.9

Grade Estimation
The block model was estimated based only on DDH 2m composites constrained within
the interpreted 0.1 g/t grade shell, and within it, according to the different estimation
domains defined.
Gold grades were estimated using a combination of multiple indicator kriging (MIK),
which was considered a particularly appropriate estimation method for the typical shortscale grade continuity of the mineralization observed at Yaoure. Two estimation
domains, Oxides (above the base of the Weathering 3 surface) and CMA, were
estimated using indicator-modified ordinary kriging (IMOK).

14.9.1

Estimation Procedures
The kriging parameters for both the MIK and the IMOK runs were determined based on
the respective variograms, as well as data density. Grades were estimated onto the
partial blocks (on a parent block basis), and then the overall block grade was obtained
as a weighted average of the different estimated grades for each domain. Blocks at the
outer edge of the 0.1 g/t gold envelope were diluted with 0 g/t grade, except for those
on the topographic surface, for which only the partial tonnage was accounted for.
There were three estimation passes for each domain, using different search ellipses
and minimum and maximum composite constraints (Table 14.13). The search ellipsoid
orientations for all estimation runs were set to the approximate dip and dip direction of
the mineralization, -30 to the east. Octant search was used, as well as a requirement
on a minimum number of drill holes for the 2 first passes. In Table 14.13, the higher
grade domains QV, AL, ALSH, SH,; and ALFR have numeric codes 1-3 plus 6; the
lower grade domains FR+AC, and CV+EXT+INT+OTH have been coded as 4 and 5.
Table 14.13: Search Parameters used for Gold and Indicator Estimates
Domain Au Pass
1+2+3+6 (MIK) 1
2
3
4+5 (MIK)
1
2
3
CMA (IMOK) 1
2
3
Oxides (IMOK) 1
2
3

14.9.2

Search
Ellipsoid
Search Rotation
y x z r_alpha r_beta r_zeta
100 20 40
-15
0
30
150 30 50
-15
0
30
200 40 60
-15
0
30
100 20 40
-15
0
30
150 30 50
-15
0
30
200 40 60
-15
0
30
100 20 80
-15
0
30
150 30 120 -15
0
30
200 40 160 -15
0
30
100 20 80
-15
0
30
150 30 120 -15
0
30
200 40 160 -15
0
30

Num. of Composites
Octants
DH limit
Min Comps
Max Comps Max N M/Oct
5
10
3
2
4
10
3
2
3
12
3
1
5
10
3
2
4
10
3
2
3
12
3
1
5
8
2
2
4
10
2
2
2
12
3
1
5
8
3
2
4
10
3
2
2
12
3
1

Post-processing MIK and IMOK estimates


The MIK method results in an estimate of the proportions of each block to be within
each grade classes defined by the indicators chosen. The final block grade in this case
was obtained using an e-type estimate, which is using the estimated proportions of
each class to weigh the average grade of each class.

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Au* p1 * c1 p2 * c2 ... pn * cn
Where Au* is the final estimated gold grade; pi are the proportions of the block of each
grade class estimated with MIK; and ci are the declustered class mean grades from the
2m composites discussed above. For the higher grade units there are 7 classes, 6
indicators (i=6); for the lower grade units, there are 5 classes, 4 indicators (i=4).
The post-processing just described only applies to MIK; the IMOK estimates of the
Oxides and CMA units are based on estimated grades above and below a single
indicator, in this case 0.2 g/t gold. In this case, the estimated indicator is the proportion
of the block above 0.2 g/t gold. The final grade is again a weighted average of the two
OK-estimated grades, above and below 0.2 g/t gold:

Au* Ind0.2 * Au*0.2 (1 Ind0.2 ) * Au*0.2


Cross-sections of the model with estimated gold values are provided in Figure 14.24
and Figure 14.25.
Figure 14.24: Block with Gold Grade Estimates, Section 776,980N

Figure 14.25: Block with Gold Grades Estimates, Section 776,720N

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14.9.3

Model Validation
Several validations of the estimated values were completed, including visual and
statistical reviews of the model against the input composite data. Checks for the final
estimated gold grades included:

A comparison of the mean grades of the declustered composites against model


mean grades by estimation domain 0.0 g/t gold grade cut-off (global check);
Swath plots of declustered composites and model grades by main coordinate axes.
Grade and tonnage curves for theoretical Selective Mining Unit obtained using a
change-of-support Discrete Gaussian Model, and the 25 x 25 x 10 block model.

Figure 14.26 and Figure 14.27 show two examples of swath plots (CMA, Northings;
and higher grade units, Eastings) comparing the average gold grades of the block
model with the grades of declustered 2m composites, which in this case is a NearestNeighbour model. Notice how the estimated block model is fairly smooth with respect
to the declustered composites, which is an indication of the relatively wide data
spacing.
Figure 14.26: Swath plot, Gold, CMA, Northings

Figure 14.27: Swath plot, Gold; Domains QV, AL, ALSH, SH, ALFR; Eastings

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14.10

Resource Classification
The Yaoure gold project Mineral Resources have been estimated using the Canadian
Institute of Mining, Metallurgy and Petroleum (CIM) Standards on Mineral Resources
and Reserves, Definitions and Guidelines prepared by the CIM Standing Committee on
Reserve Definitions and adopted by CIM Council, and procedures for classifying the
reported Mineral Resources were undertaken within the context of the Canadian
Securities Administrators National Instrument 43-101 (NI 43-101).
Resource classification for this updated Yaoure resource model was developed in two
stages:
1. The conditions for measured, indicated, and Inferred categories were defined
based on the data spacing, the geologic model, and the amount of information used
to estimate each block. These criteria were expressed in simple terms, such as the
number of holes and composites required to exist within specific distances and
orientations for each category.
2. The classification was implemented either through the estimation passes, or other
algorithm applied on the block model that will reflect the criteria defined in the
previous step.
3. Additional constraints are imposed to define what is potentially recoverable from
the resource, in this case a Resource Pit based on economic parameters described
below.
The basic criteria used to define the conditions for each resource category to exist
were:
1. The quality of the data gathering, data management, assays and geologic
information, which is considered high, notwithstanding some comments made
about laboratory QA/QC in Section 11;
2. Confidence in the geological conceptual model, mapping and interpretation.
Limitations of the computerized geological model, related to drill hole spacing and
width of units modelled.
3. Drill hole spacing and orientation for the different mineralized zones.
4. Gold grade spatial distribution and continuity, as observed from statistical and
geostatistical analyses.
GSIs experience with similar deposits indicate that a drill hole spacing between 25 and
30m are required for measured resources; about 50m for indicated; and rarely Inferred
is informed if the spacing is more than 100m to 120m. This was used a as general
guideline; detailed analysis specific to the data, geology, and other factors is always
required.
The observed gold grade spatial distribution at Yaoure, its variability, and quantified
continuity through correlograms and indicator variograms leads to conclude that most
of the mineralization within the 0.1 g/t envelope can be categorized as Inferred.
According to the CIM Definition Standards for Mineral Resources and Mineral

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Reserves, prepared by the CIM Standing Committee on Reserve Definitions and


adopted by the CIM Council on November 27, 2010, an Inferred Mineral Resource is:
that part of a Mineral Resource for which quantity and grade or quality can be
estimated on the basis of geological evidence and limited sampling and
reasonably assumed, but not verified, geological and grade continuity. The
estimate is based on limited information and sampling gathered through
appropriate techniques from locations such as outcrops, trenches, pits,
workings and drill holes.
Further, the Definition adds:
Due to the uncertainty that may be attached to Inferred Mineral Resources, it cannot
be assumed that all or any part of an Inferred Mineral Resource will be upgraded to an
Indicated or Measured Mineral Resource as a result of continued exploration.
Confidence in the estimate is insufficient to allow the meaningful application of
technical and economic parameters or to enable an evaluation of economic viability
worthy of public disclosure. Inferred Mineral Resources must be excluded from
estimates forming the basis of feasibility or other economic studies.
GSI considers that the Yaoure estimated resource within the 0.1 g/t grade envelope is
an Inferred Resource. Within the envelope, and to the edges and in some cases more
central, there are volumes of material that have no drill holes within 200 meters. These
areas do not have an estimated grade or a classification code. On the other hand,
certain limited volumes with denser drilling qualify as Indicated Resources (from the
same reference):
An Indicated Mineral Resource is that part of a Mineral Resource for which
quantity, grade or quality, densities, shape and physical characteristics, can be
estimated with a level of confidence sufficient to allow the appropriate
application of technical and economic parameters, to support mine planning and
evaluation of the economic viability of the deposit. The estimate is based on
detailed and reliable exploration and testing information gathered through
appropriate techniques from locations such as outcrops, trenches, pits,
workings and drill holes.
GSI interpreted a three-dimensional shape to enclose those portions of the model that
are considered Indicated resources. This was done by visual observation in plan view.
All the material within the 0.1 g/t gold grade envelope is defined as the reporting
volume.
Figure 14.28 shows a cross section of the resource classification for Yaoure. In blue
Inferred, green indicated. Blocks coloured brown are blocks without grade and
classification code, and therefore not part of the resource.

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Figure 14.28: Resource Classification, Cross Section 776,880N

14.11

Mineral Resource and Grade-Tonnage


The resource estimate was completed by Mr Mario E. Rossi, Qualified Person
according to the definition set out in NI 43-101 by reason of education, affiliation with a
professional association (as defined in NI 43-101) and past relevant work experience.
Also, Mr Rossi is independent of Amara Mining Plc. applying all of the tests in Section
1.5 of NI 43-101.
The Yaoure total Indicated and Inferred Mineral Resources, at cut-off grades of 0.5,
0.8, and 1.0 g/t gold, are presented in Table 14.14.
Table 14.14: Yaoure Total Mineral Resource
Indicated

Inferred

Tonnes

Grade

Content

Tonnes

Grade

Content

(Mt)

(g/t)

(koz)

(Mt)

(g/t)

(koz)

0.5

20,286

1.20

778

133,030

1.29

5,518

0.8

13,340

1.48

637

85,731

1.65

4,554

1.0

10,043

1.68

541

65,575

1.89

3,974

Cut-off

USD1500/oz Resource Pit; uses Heap Leach and Flotation Economics; 35 oxide pit slopes, 46o fresh
slopes, 90% recoveries, bulk model.
1.

The effective date of the Yaoure Mineral Resource estimate is 1 December 2013.

2.

The gold price used in this estimate USD1,500/oz and assuming an open-pit mining scenario.
Oxides are being mined assuming Heap Leach economics, Sulphides assuming Flotation.

3.

Mineral resources which are not mineral reserves, do not have demonstrated economic viability.

4.

There are no known environmental, permitting, legal, title, taxation, socio-economic, marketing, and
political or other relevant issues that may materially affect the resource estimates.

5.

Totals and average grades are subject to rounding to the appropriate precision and some columns
or rows may not compute exactly as shown.

Some additional observations are:

There has been a significant increase in Inferred resources at Yaoure compared to


the previous model. This is in part due to additional drilling, but also the use of a 0.1

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g/t gold grade envelope that encompasses most of the mineralized volume within
Yaoure.

The estimated grades of the resources include some geologic dilution through the
use of sub-blocking; also, the stated resources include dilution that relates to the
level of low selectivity envisioned in an open pit operation, assuming 10m bench
heights. No additional operational or mining dilution or ore loss has been
incorporated. The model can only be considered fully diluted (except for mining
dilution) if the assumed SMU is actually achieved at the time of mining.

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15.0

MINERAL RESERVE ESTIMATES


No mineral reserves were calculated for this study.

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16.0

MINING METHODS
The mineable portion of the deposit has been assessed using open pit mine planning
scenarios based on detailed designs of selected Whittle optimized pit shells. The
material extracted in these shells use the Mineral Resource block model developed by
GeoSystems (as reported in Section 14 and constrained within an open pit shell
derived using a long term gold price of USD 1,500 per ounce).

16.1

Pit Optimization
The approach used to identify the optimal mining scenarios started with running Whittle
software to generate an incremental range of pit shell scenarios, each representing a
subset of the Mineral Resource. From this range, optimal shells were then selected for
a detailed design phase in order to produce production statistics for LOM schedules
that were run as 5, 6.5 and 8 Mt/a cases.

16.1.1

Whittle model
The Whittle model contains quantity of metal, oxidation type and tonnage information
exported from the mineral resource model in Vulcan. The coordinate limits of the
Whittle model and the block size are listed in Table 16.1 and are identical to the
dimensions of the estimated gold grade model constructed in Vulcan. All work has
been performed in the UTM Grid.
Table 16.1: Coordinate limits and block size of the Whittle model
Direction
Northing
Easting
Elevation

Minimum
meters
775500
219900
-520

Maximum
meters
778200
222000
400

Block Size
meters
25
25
10

Number of
Blocks
108
84
92

The Whittle positional mining cost adjustment factor (MCAF) is modelled in Vulcan to
represent the total unit mining cost per block considering the fleet equipment costs and
then exported to Whittle.

16.1.2

Input parameters
The Whittle pit optimizer is driven by the revenue created from processing a block
minus the costs of mining, processing and overheads, combined with other modifying
factors such as the defined pit slope constraints, process recoveries and range of gold
prices. For the initial pit optimization work on the Yaoure deposit, completed in 2013,
the following parameters where used to constrain the optimization runs:

Gold price range from USD 500 to USD 2,000 per ounce in USD 50 increments;
6 Mt/a processing throughput;
Bulk mining scenario;
Ore processing cost of USD11.67 per tonne processed inclusive of overheads;
Process recovery of 90%;
8% discount rate;
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Mining cost of USD2.00 per tonne mined in oxide and USD2.25 per tonne mined in
fresh rock, plus
A haulage component add-on to the mining cost of USD0.03 per 10m bench below
the 250mRL; and the
Whittle shell slope parameters (see Section 16.2.2).

The pit optimizations were run on Indicated and Inferred Resources with ore selection
by cut-off mode.

16.1.3

Optimization Results
Maximum value shells were generated for all of the gold prices across the range. The
results of the pit optimisation evaluation for the varying gold price values are displayed
in Table 16.2 showing containing total tonnes mined, ore tonnes, waste:ore strip ratio,
contained gold ounces and gold grade.
Table 16.2: Whittle optimization results

Optimization Pit Summary


Bulk Mining Scenario
Pit
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31

Gold Price
USD / tr. oz.
500
550
600
650
700
750
800
850
900
950
1000
1050
1100
1150
1200
1250
1300
1350
1400
1450
1500
1550
1600
1650
1700
1750
1800
1850
1900
1950
2000

Total
Tonnes

Ore
Tonnes

113,648,489
152,562,341
176,354,232
220,221,700
336,596,002
347,014,888
362,592,036
377,059,978
520,863,706
537,131,493
563,594,306
654,284,509
763,754,384
783,732,755
867,381,338
897,364,279
947,205,046
990,545,449
1,060,413,778
1,098,442,726
1,115,932,525
1,125,169,170
1,141,580,992
1,153,182,086
1,169,746,570
1,194,861,058
1,205,774,831
1,218,701,394
1,228,207,537
1,232,265,832
1,251,294,377

22,593,264
31,603,961
38,297,229
48,588,009
64,625,852
70,186,238
76,408,986
81,868,595
98,408,834
103,503,136
113,342,900
129,196,499
152,456,862
161,207,267
174,591,656
185,535,645
196,716,200
210,057,698
226,107,507
236,854,470
244,893,120
252,725,395
262,109,200
264,522,480
273,904,791
284,860,078
287,821,264
296,048,140
305,467,224
307,500,520
317,632,372
Page 16-159

Strip
Ratio

GOLD
tr. oz.

4.0
3.8
3.6
3.5
4.2
3.9
3.8
3.6
4.3
4.2
4.0
4.1
4.0
3.9
4.0
3.8
3.8
3.7
3.7
3.6
3.6
3.5
3.4
3.4
3.3
3.2
3.2
3.1
3.0
3.0
2.9

1,428,034
1,845,651
2,111,052
2,516,585
3,336,807
3,479,840
3,640,976
3,776,502
4,487,566
4,613,854
4,817,811
5,273,488
5,878,789
6,033,664
6,404,705
6,593,059
6,818,650
7,053,684
7,353,947
7,528,330
7,635,824
7,724,656
7,835,585
7,875,762
7,981,978
8,110,524
8,152,688
8,232,126
8,315,241
8,338,428
8,434,215

GOLD
gpt
1.97
1.82
1.71
1.61
1.61
1.54
1.48
1.43
1.42
1.39
1.32
1.27
1.20
1.16
1.14
1.11
1.08
1.04
1.01
0.99
0.97
0.95
0.93
0.93
0.91
0.89
0.88
0.86
0.85
0.84
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Figure 16.1: Whittle optimization results - pit by pit graph

Note that the NPV in the above optimization graph is used as only a guide in shell selection. The actual NPV
of the Project scenarios are summarized in the Economic Analysis Section of this report.

The results of the Whittle optimizer run is displayed in the pit-by-pit graph above which
shows the impact of scheduling on pit shells across the gold price range from USD 500
to USD 1500 per ounce. Two series of NPVs are calculated and plotted. In the Best
Case scenario, each pit shell contained within the specified gold price shell is mined
out incrementally and in the Worst Case scenario each bench is mined in total from
the specified gold price shell. The difference between the two scenarios indicates the
potential value outcomes from mine scheduling.
Based on analysis of the results above, two of the optimized pit shells, the USD 800
and USD 950 cases (Pit 7 and 10 in Table 16.2) were selected for detailed pit designs
for further mine scheduling and analysis purposes. These gold price points were
selected as these shells occur prior to large step downs in NPV and prior to step ups
in tonnage. Detailed designs included updated PEA slope parameters, cost estimates
and modifying factors

16.2

Mine Design
The two selected pits from the Whittle optimisation run were used as a basis to design
two pits in detail for the mine scheduling and economic analysis scenarios. These pits
were named:

USD 800 Pit Design


USD 950 Pit Design

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The design process incorporated more detailed consideration of the slope angles,
bench heights and berm widths, as well as the design and location of in-pit access
ramps. The pit designs targeted the extraction of the resource blocks identified in the
previous optimised shells.

16.2.1

Lithology
The mineralisation at Yaoure is contained within two shallow dipping (<30 Degrees)
gold bearing north-south trending packages controlled by a thick zone of brittle-ductile
shearing. The Yaoure Central package is a 200 metre thick, lower grade mineralised
zone with higher grade lenses and cross-cutting high grade sub-vertical quartz veins.
The CMA package is a more discrete, relatively continuous 20 metre thick zone
approximately 140 metres above the Yaoure Central body. The zones are contained
within predominantly massive basalts. The strike is generally north/south, and the dip is
to the East. Weathering occurs to an average depth of 60 meters.

16.2.2

Geotechnical Evaluation
No drilling solely for the purpose of geotechnical or hydrological investigations has
been conducted for the Yaoure sulphide project at this stage. Geotechnical logging of
the diamond drill core, prior to sampling, has been carried out for every diamond
drillhole. Geotechnical drilling is planned as part of the 2014 drill program.
For the PEA open pit slope design, consideration was given to operating experience
and the rock mass conditions in the existing pit and as observed in the boreholes.
Dr. Peter Gash, geotechnical mining advisor visited the property in February of 2014 to
have a first review of the deposit geology and drilling data, review the PEA pit designs.

Whittle shell slope parameters


The initial Whittle optimizations used to form the basis for pit designs used the following
slope constraints:

35o average slope in oxide rock


46o average slope in fresh rock

Pit design slope parameters


These were updated in the detailed pit designs which applied slope angles that were
further refined based on consideration and consultation with Dr Gash.
The average (inter-ramp) slope angles that had been used for economic shell
projection and in constructing the bench-berm-ramp design were updated as follows.

44o in oxides (mostly Saprolites) and


53o in the lower fresh rocks.

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Both these angles are considered customary for slopes in these materials in this region
and are reasonable parameters to use for preliminary purposes. Dr Gash made the
following observations/provisions for any future related exercise:

The angle of 44 degrees in Saprolite will apply over reasonable heights for
depressurised slopes, and will required control of the groundwater, particularly to
the north where the water table is high. Borehole dewatering capability is
considered to be required to assume these slopes in practice.

The fresh rock (i.e. below the weathered Saprolite at surface) hosting the ore zones
consists primarily of basalts which are strong and competent, reflecting the relative
lack of deformation in the Yaoure belt and the absence of a dominant fabric,
foliation or shearing. The strong rock mass conditions can be expected to be
favourable for the stability of the planned open pit walls.

The angle of 53 degrees in the fresh material is expected to be achievable due to


the observations of the hard rock types (predominantly basalt). There may be some
room to optimise the hanging wall slopes by a few degrees pending further test
work and characterisation. The footwall-side slopes angles will depend upon details
of any discontinuity controls which are not determinate at this stage. The footwallside is in any case substantially controlled by the shape of the mineralised zone
dip, so the dividend from steeping is much less than for the hanging wall.
Achieving slopes in rock of >50degs is likely to require wall control blasting, and in
this case this will be pre-splitting plus buffer.

Figure 16.2: The USD 950 pit design showing the location of oxide (brown) and fresh (green)
rock in the pit wall and the measured slope angles in various sectors.

Both sets of pit designs include two internal mining phases that minimize the amount of
waste rock mined early in the mine life while maintaining ore feed to the mill.
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Hydrological
The pit design assumes groundwater will be controlled by dewatering boreholes. This
is expected to be required particularly to the north where the water table is high.
Borehole dewatering capability is considered to be required to assume the assumed
slopes in practice. Further measurement and study of the hydrological parameters is
required in the next phase of study.

Benches
The Lerchs-Grossmann phase bench outlines have been smoothed to:

Maintain a minimum mining width


Conform to the geotechnical design parameters
Minimize the mining of additional waste

All mining phases have been completed using a 10m bench height. The nominal
reference crest elevation is the 225m RL which is the crest elevation (RL) near to the
Phase 3 ramp exit point.
Dual ramp access has been designed whenever practical as the pit shells of a certain
gold price are generally divided into two lobes, one centred over the Yaoure Central
deposit and the other over the CMA deposit. Pit ramps have been designed at 26m
width and 10% grade to accommodate 90-tonne, 6.8m wide haul trucks and to optimize
haul fleet productivity.
Pit designs utilized slope batter angles (between benches) of 45 degrees in oxide and
60 degrees in fresh rock and 5m berms spaced 20m vertically, resulting in average
slopes of 44 degrees in oxides/saprolite and 53 degrees in the underlying hard (fresh)
rocks. 20 metre berms are spaced every 80m down the pit wall.
16.2.3

Final Pit Designs


The final smoothed and access phase designs are illustrated in Figure 16.3 and Figure.
The primary difference in the two pit designs is the depth to which the CMA portion of
the pit to the east is mined, with the USD950 pit mining the zone 80m deeper than the
USD800 pit design.

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Figure 16.3: Pit design based on the USD 800 gold price

USD 800
Pit Design

Figure 16.4: Pit design based on the USD 950 gold price

USD 950
Pit Design

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Figure 16.5: Cross section at 7100 N of Block model and USD 950 vs USD 1500 pits

Table 16.3: Resource quantities contained in USD800 & USD950 Pit Designs, at 0.5g/t cut-off
Indicated

Inferred

Tonnes

Grade

Content

Tonnes

Grade

Content

(Mt)

(g/t)

(koz)

(Mt)

(g/t)

(koz)

USD 800 Pit Design

15.7

1.26

632

56.3

1.46

2,648

USD 950 Pit Design

18.5

1.22

723

75.3

1.45

3,505

Notes
1.

The effective date of the Yaoure Mineral Resource estimate is 1 December 2013, prepared by Mario E.
Rossi, GeoSystems International, Inc.

2.

Mineral Resources which are not Mineral Reserves do not have demonstrated economic viability

3.

There are no known environmental, permitting, legal, title, taxation, socio-economic, marketing, and
political or other relevant issues that may materially affect the resource estimates.

4.

Totals and average grades are subject to rounding to the appropriate precision and some columns or
rows may not compute exactly as shown.

Mineral resources that are not mineral reserves do not have demonstrated economic
viability. There is no certainty that all or any part of the mineral resources would be
converted into mineral reserves. Mineral reserves can only be estimated as a result of
an economic evaluation as part of a preliminary feasibility study (PFS) or a feasibility
study (FS) of a mineral project. Accordingly, at the present level of development, there
are no mineral reserves at the Yaoure Project.
Table 16.4 summarizes the tonnages and grades contained within the designed pit
limits (using the incremental gold price / cut-off values) which provide the material
estimates and gold grades for the LOM plan and schedule.
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Table 16.4: Material quantities contained in USD 800 & USD 950 Pit Designs
Total

Waste

Strip Ratio

Tonnes

Grade

Content

(Mt)

(Mt)

(t/t)

(Mt)

(g/t)

(koz)

USD 800 Pit Design

377.7

313.8

4.9

63.9

1.53

3,140

USD 950 Pit Design

586.6

492.0

5.2

94.6

1.39

4,239

LOM Material

Notes
1. Totals and average grades are subject to rounding to the appropriate precision and some columns or
rows may not compute exactly as shown.
2. Effective cut offs for each pit are 0.59g/t for USD 800 and 0.49 g/t for USD 950

The USD 800 pit design contains 36% less total tonnes, 6% lower strip ratio and 10%
higher grades than the USD 950 pit design. This is a result of the targeted mineralised
zone in each case being constrained by the different revenue assumptions which
results in an effective gold grade cut-off of 0.59g/t for the USD 800 pit and 0.49g/t for
the larger USD 950 pit.
Both Indicated and Inferred resources were used in the LOM plans with Inferred
resources representing approximately 80% of the material mined for processing in
each case (See Table 16.3).

Dilution
Note the estimated grades of the resources include some geologic dilution through the
use of sub-blocking (onto partial blocks measuring 6.25 x 6.25 x 5 metres (on a parent
block basis measuring 25 x 25 x 10 metres). Blocks at the outer edge of the 0.1 g/t gold
envelope were diluted with 0 g/t grade. The stated resources include dilution in the
block model that relates to the level of low selectivity envisioned in an open pit
operation, assuming 10m bench heights. No additional operational or mining dilution or
ore loss has been incorporated.

Strip Ratio
Both pits deliver relative attractive strip ratios of around 5:1. Based on the gold price
induced cut-offs, the ore to waste ratio in the USD 950 Pit Design is 5.2:1. In the higher
grade and smaller USD 800 Pit Design, the stripping ratio reduces to 4.9.

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Figure 16.6: Cross section at 6900 N of USD 950 Pit Design, showing Yaoure and CMA zones

Figure 16.7: Cross section at 6900 N of Block Model & USD 950 Pit Design

In addition to the material that is mined for processing, within the pit there remains
lower grade material that is either stockpiled (for future processing) or mined as waste,
which is not included in the strip ratio but which could be proved to be economic at
higher gold price scenarios.

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Sections
Cross sections at 100 metre intervals showing the USD 1500 Resource Pit shell and
USD 950 Pit Design showing the CMA and Yaoure Zones, boreholes and the Resource
Block Model are provided in Appendix I. Examples at 6900 N are provided above in
Figure 16.6 and Figure 16.7.

16.2.4

Oxide (heap leach) pit designs


The heap leach only scenario assumes contract mining due to the short 3.5 year
duration of mine life. Mining costs are based upon Amara Minings current experience
with mining contractors in its operations elsewhere in West Africa.
Figure 16.8: Heap Leach (oxides) pit designs

Production rates for the mine average 5.7 million tonnes per annum for all the years of
full operation. Five pits are included in the mine plan where a total of 19.9 million
tonnes of rock is mined to release 5.6 million tonnes of oxide material for heap leaching

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at an average grade of 1.49 g/t at a 2.5:1 strip ratio. Oxide material is sourced from
Yaoure Central, the CMA and a zone hanging wall to the CMA.
Pit depths are mostly shallow, with 20 to 40 metre depths to the pit bottoms from the
ramp crests, with the exception of the pit furthest to the south-east that is 70 metres
deep due to the topographic changes in that area.
Ramps have been designed at 26m width for 90-tonne class haul trucks operating with
two lanes of traffic and average inter ramp slopes are less than 45 degrees. Designs
are based on USD 900/oz gold price Whittle pit optimization shells.
Ore processing assumes the 1.6 Mt/a plant presently in operation at the Kalsaka Mine
in Burkina Faso is relocated after the closure of that operation. The plant includes a
sizer for soft ores and a 3 stage crushing circuit designed to achieve a 12.5mm
product. Gold recovery for Yaoure oxide is assumed to be 80%.
Oxide ore resources included in this mine plan do not include the potential resources
from Zone North, Angovia 2 or Kongonza.

16.3

Mine Schedule
Mine scheduling was completed using Vulcans Chronos scheduler. The scheduling
logic applied was to meet the annual mill feed production target with ore (+0.5 g/t gold
grade) while minimizing waste mined.

16.3.1

Schedule Cases
Fort the purposes of identifying the optimal scale and pit to focus on in future study, the
following cases for the CIP processing method where individually scheduled and
mining costs estimated.

The USD 800 pit design assuming a 6.5 Mt/a processing rate was selected as the
Base Case for scheduling and analysis;
A lower capital cost sensitivity to the Base Case utilizing a 5.0 Mt/a processing rate
was run on the USD 800 pit design;
A higher capital cost sensitivity to the Base Case utilizing an 8.0 Mt/a processing
rate was run against the larger USD 950 pit design was selected as the Headline
Case; and
For comparison, a 6.5 Mt/a processing rate was also run on the USD 950 pit
design.

Table 16.5: Primary CIP Scenarios scheduled


Processing Rate

Pit Design

Material

5.0 Mt/a

USD 800/oz

Oxide & sulphide

6.5 Mt/a

USD 800/oz

Oxide & sulphide

6.5 Mt/a

USD 950/oz

Oxide & sulphide

8.0 Mt/a

USD 950/oz

Oxide & sulphide

Page 16-169

Nomenclature

base case

headline case

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APRIL 2014

16.3.2

Base case - USD 800 Pit Design, 6.5 Mt/a scenario


The production schedule for the base case (USD 800 Pit Design / 6.5Mtpa CIP milling
scenario) has a mine life of just over 10 years and requires an average mining rate of
37.3 Mt/a over the first 10 years, starting at 43Mt/a then tapering through the mine life.
Note that for the purposes of the PEA schedule any low grade ore stockpiled and not
processed has been classed as waste. Key aspects of the mining schedule are
summarized in Table 16.6 and Figure 16.9.
Table 16.6: Base case 6.5 Mt/a CIP mining schedule

PRODUCTION

units

Total/

Yr 1

Yr 2

Yr 3

Yr 4

Yr 5

Yr 6

Yr 7

Yr 8

Yr 9

Yr 10

Yr 11

Total Ore Mined

kt

63,897

3,320

6,500

6,500

6,500

6,500

6,500

6,430

6,500

6,500

6,500

2,147

Total Ore Grade

g/t

1.53

1.59

1.52

1.46

1.50

1.20

1.22

1.50

1.56

1.45

1.84

2.96

Contained Au

koz

3,140

169

317

306

314

252

254

310

326

303

384

204

Waste Mined

kt

313,848

39,680

36,500

36,500

36,500

36,500

34,673

26,570

23,241

23,500

18,018

2,166

Total Material

kt

377,745

43,000

43,000

43,000

43,000

43,000

41,173

33,000

29,741

30,000

24,518

4,313

t w:o

4.9

12.0

5.6

5.6

5.6

5.6

5.3

4.1

3.5

3.6

2.8

1.0

Plant Feed

kt

63,897

3,320

6,500

6,500

6,500

6,500

6,500

6,430

6,500

6,500

6,500

2,147

Grade

g/t

1.53

1.59

1.52

1.46

1.50

1.20

1.22

1.50

1.56

1.45

1.84

2.96

Contained Gold

koz

3,140

169

317

306

314

252

254

310

326

303

384

204

95.0%

95.0%

95.0%

95.0%

95.0%

95.0%

95.0%

95.0%

95.0%

95.0%

95.0%

95.0%

koz

2,983

161

301

290

298

239

241

295

310

288

365

194

Mining

Strip Ratio

Ave.

Processing

Recovery
Gold Produced

The schedule shows that the pit finishes in higher grade material, with a kick up in
grade seen in the final tonnage in part-year 11. This suggests that larger pits may
continue to be economic, which was tested in the cases involving the larger USD 950
pit design. The highest strip is in year 1 as ore production ramps up, and then also
tapers over the mine life to average 4.9:1 in the base case. Average annual gold
production at 95% recovery over years 1 to 10 is 279,000 ounces.

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Figure 16.9: Base case 6.5 Mt/a CIP mining schedule

16.3.3

Other whole ore leach cases


The scheduling parameters of the other cases for the CIP processing method are
displayed in Table 16.7.
Table 16.7: Summary of CIP Cases scheduled tonnages
Unit

5 Mt/a
USD 800/oz
Pit Design

6.5 Mt/a
USD 800/oz
Pit Design

6.5 Mt/a
USD 950/oz
Pit Design

8 Mt/a
USD 950/oz
Pit Design

Years

13

10

15

12

Average Mining Rate

Mt/a

28.8

37.3

38.9

48.4

Maximum Mining Rate

Mt/a

34.0

43.0

48.5

56.5

Minimum Mining Rate

Mt/a

17.3

24.5

21.1

27.2

g/t

1.53

1.53

1.39

1.39

t w:o

4.9

4.9

5.2

5.2

Item
Mine Life

Grade
Strip ratio
Notes:
1.

Mine life rounded to full years of processing

2.

Tonnages are total material moved, includes waste and ore

The detailed schedules and results for the 5 Mt/a, 6.5 Mt/a and 8 Mt/a scenarios are
provided in Appendix N.

16.3.4

Oxide case
For the heap leach (oxides) case, the ROM production was designed to match the
processing rate of 1.6 million tonnes of ore to the plant each full year of production,
based on the rated capacity of the companys existing facilities at Kalsaka/Sega.

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16.4

Open Pit Mine Operation

16.4.1

Equipment
The mining rate for the base case starts at 43 Mt/a combined ore and waste in Year 1
and maintains this production rate through to Year 5 before the mining rate decreases
towards closure. Inferred material will be handled as is appropriate for the grade of this
material. During the mine life, all mill-grade material is assumed to be rehandled on the
ROM pad.

16.4.2

Drill & Blast


The drilling program at Yaoure was designed based on assumed drilling and blasting
practices. These criteria serve as a baseline, and will likely be modified based on the
results obtained at Yaoure. The drilling criteria area as follows:
1. All mining will take place on 10m benches.
2. In the bulk waste material, drilling and blasting will be comprised of 165mmdiameter blastholes spaced 4.0m x 5.0m, with 1.2m of sub-drilling.
3. In the main ore zones, buffer zones and ramps, drilling and blasting will be
comprised of 115mm-diameter blastholes spaced 3.0m x 3.5m, with 1.2m of subdrilling in buffer zones and no sub-drilling on ramps.
4. Pre-split drilling and blasting will be comprised of one row of 92mm-diameter
blastholes spaced 1.0m apart, with 0.0m of sub-drilling.
5. Waste that immediately surrounds the ore will be mined as ore.
In order to address these requirements, two classes of drill units will be required. Bulk
waste will be drilled by a CAT MD6240 or equivalent. This is a 62 tonne rotary
blasthole drill.
Ore, buffer zones, ramps and pre-splits will be drilled by several Sandvik DP1500i units
or equivalent. This unit is a 22 tonne top-hammer blasthole drill.

16.4.3

Loading
The mine plan must balance between minimizing the cost of loading waste and
minimizing the dilution added when loading ore. Because of the waste:ore strip ratio
(4.9:1 in base case) and total tonnes that will be mined, the size the primary digging
unit(s) should be maximized. To a certain extent, Yaoure is a waste moving operation
where waste mining amounts to 83% (in base case) of the total mining cost and
warrants being the major focus of cost control for the mining department. On average,
not including the time value of money, a waste mining investment of USD 11.83 (in
base case) per tonne of ore mined has been made.
To achieve the foregoing objectives a 250 tonne face shovel of the Komatsu PC3000
type has been selected as the primary waste-loading unit with a nominal life of 60,000
operating hours. A smaller 200 tonne face shovel, equivalent to a Komatsu PC2000, is
envisaged as the ore-loading unit with a nominal life of 50,000 operating hours.
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16.4.4

Haulage
Weather conditions are highly variable at the project location. Ground water, muddy
conditions and seasonally heavy rains will be encountered throughout the mine life in
the pit and on haul roads, especially when dealing with the upper oxidized materials.
The fresh rock is hard and competent and should not be prone to washboarding on the
production floors. The main ramp gradient is designed at less than 10%.
90 tonne haul trucks are planned for transporting ore and waste with nominal life of
60,000 operating hours.
Shovel and truck fleet numbers have been estimated on first principles, based on the
operating hours required to achieve the production schedule, calculated by cycle times
and estimates of the equipments rated capacities and productivities.

16.4.5

Ancillary Equipment
Ancillary equipment will consist of a combination of new and used units to develop and
service the roads, dumps, pit floors and drilling patterns. The specifications, purchasing
conditions and number of machines required are listed below.

16.5

Dozers Komatsu D375A 70 tonne class


RTD Komatsu WD600
Road Graders Komatsu GD825
Backhoe CAT 385
Service Trucks
Tire Handler CAT IT28
Water Carts Komatsu HD465WT
Pit Lighting

Manpower
Manpower estimates are based on the equipment fleet required to achieve the
production schedule at the productivity and performance levels discussed in Section
21.0. In addition, a roster has been selected to optimise the economics of the
evaluation. The open pit will operate seven days per week, 365 days per year. The
manning levels include the construction and mine training requirements. Table 16.8:
Project Manning lists the manning conditions as evaluated for this study.
Table 16.8: Project Manning Base Case
Year
Mine Supervision
Technical Support
Mine Operations
Maintenance Supervision
Maintenance Operations
Total

1
15
21
212
3
0
251

2
16
20
232
5
15
288

3
19
32
249
5
47
352

4
19
37
261
5
47
369

5
19
37
252
5
47
360

6
19
37
245
5
47
353

Manning for the remaining cases are provided in Appendix M.


Page 16-173

7
19
36
213
5
47
320

8
19
36
196
5
47
303

9
19
36
166
5
33
259

10
16
36
145
5
17
219

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16.5.1

Staff
Staffing for the mining process has been divided into the following categories:
1.
2.
3.
4.

Supervision
Technical
Operations
Maintenance

Excluding front-line supervision, which will follow the same shift rotation as the hourly
workforce, national staff will work a 7-day week composed of a 10-hour day on a 3
week on 1 week off basis.

Supervision
Overall supervision for the mining operation will be the responsibility of a Mine
Superintendent with support from a Mine General Foreman and two assistants. Three
Shift Foreman and three Shift Supervisors will manage the production activities. Two
Drill and Blast Foreman and three D&B Supervisors will manage the drilling fleet. A
small contingent of Earthworks and Maintenance staff will be required for small jobs
around the mine, monitoring the major equipment maintenance contractors and
performing maintenance on support fleet not covered under the maintenance contract.

Technical
Staff numbers in the engineering / geology group reflect the need to be self-sufficient
and multi-skilled in geological modelling, open pit mine design, scheduling and
application of computers for engineering purposes.
At start up, a total of 21 staff technical staff members will be required. All staff will have
to be multi-skilled and able to relieve others to ensure coverage for annual leave.

Operations
Pit operators will be scheduled 24 hours per day, 7 days per week, and 365 days per
year. Four crews will work a rotating schedule. The roster will be working 12-hour shifts
on a 4 days on / 4 days off schedule.
The number of operators will start at 212 and peak in Year 4 with 261.

Maintenance
Major mine equipment maintenance is assumed to be contracted out. Non-mining
equipment maintenance personnel will maintained at 47 from Year 3.

16.6

Mine Layout
The mine layout of Yaoure as designed for the PEA is provided in Figure 16.10.

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Figure 16.10: Mine layout

The 1.5km long by 1.4 km wide USD 950 design pit is displayed with the waste rock
dump designed to the west, with the ROM pad and plant sites to the east. The location
of potential heap leach pads is to the north.
Site locations were based primarily on making most use of the topography while
minimising haul distances and disturbance of local settlements.

Layout optimisation
There is potential to reconfigure these locations to optimise waste haulage and the final
TMF design. If heap leaching is not pursued, and if the strike of mineralisation allows,
an alternative location for the waste rock is to the north, which may see the plant site
moved to the east of the pit and a larger single TMF 3 site utilized. Combining this with
a detailed review of the haul routes and cycle times may further allow optimisation of
the fleet size and waste movement costs.

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17.0

RECOVERY METHODS
Amara engaged AMEC to complete a scoping study (the Study) on the processing
facility and associated infrastructure as input into the PEA. The Study investigated the
oxide and sulphide ore treatments.

17.1

Sulphides Tank Leach


The proposed flowsheet to achieve direct cyanide leaching followed by carbon in pulp
(CIP) is summarised in Figure 17.1 and described below.

17.1.1

Crushing
Haul trucks tip run-of-mine material into a hopper which feeds onto a vibrating grizzly
feeder (VGF). Oversize feeds a primary jaw crusher with an open side setting of
175 mm. Crusher discharge is collected on a conveyor with VGF undersize for delivery
to secondary crushing and screening.
The secondary screen cuts at 60 mm. Oversize passes through a cone crusher
operating at a closed side setting of 50 mm. Secondary crusher discharge is conveyed
back to the secondary screen feed conveyor. Secondary screen undersize is collected
on a conveyor which delivers to tertiary crushing and screening.
There are two parallel circuits for tertiary crushing and screening. The tertiary screens
are double deck units screening at 25 mm and 15 mm. Oversize from both decks
passes through a cone crusher operating at a closed side setting of 13 mm and is
conveyed back to the tertiary screens. Tertiary screen undersize is collected on the
final crusher product conveyor which delivers to a storage silo.

17.1.2

Milling
Crusher product from the silo is delivered onto a mill feed conveyor which discharges
into a ball mill.
The ball mill operates in closed circuit. Mill discharge enters a pump box and is
pumped to a cluster of hydrocyclones. Cyclone underflow returns to the ball mill and
cyclone overflow passes through vibrating screens for removal of trash.
The product from the milling section has a P80 of 106 m.

17.1.3

Leaching
Gold is leached by cyanidation in a series of open, mechanically agitated tanks. Flow
between tanks is by gravity.
The pH of the slurry in the leach tanks is maintained in the range 10 11 by addition of
lime to the mill feed conveyor. Cyanide is provided by a strong solution of sodium
cyanide. Oxygen in the first two tanks is obtained from an oxygen plant on site and is
added to the slurry in a high shear reactor. Oxygen in the other tanks is provided by
the supply of low pressure compressed air.
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17.1.4

Adsorption
Leached gold is recovered from solution by adsorption onto activated carbon using the
carbon-in-pulp (CIP) process. Slurry from leaching flows through a series of open
mechanically agitated tanks by gravity. Each tank contains activated carbon which is
retained by mechanically swept interstage screens.
Pump Cells will be used as adsorption vessels, facilitating operation of the adsorption
section in carousel mode in which counter-current flow of carbon is achieved by
changing the tank which receives leached slurry. Carbon from the previous first tank is
pumped to the loaded carbon screen in the elution plant. When all of the loaded
carbon has been recovered that pump cell is brought back into service as the last
adsorption vessel in the series with a fresh stock of regenerated carbon.
Discharge from the last tank is screened to recover any carbon that may be contained.

17.1.5

Elution and Regeneration


Loaded carbon from adsorption is eluted using the AARL method in which elution is
performed in open circuit followed by electrowinning. Carbon slurry from the first
adsorption tank passes over a vibrating screen, the carbon being washed and collected
in a hopper and the screen undersize returning to adsorption.
Loaded carbon is treated with dilute hydrochloric acid in an acid washing column and
then transferred to the elution column. Carbon is soaked in hot caustic cyanide
solution and then eluted with softened water. Eluate passes through electrowinning
cells for recovery of contained gold.
Eluted carbon is transferred from the elution column by pressurised water, dewatered
and collected in a hopper which feeds an electrically heated rotary kiln. Regenerated
carbon discharges from the kiln into a quench tank where it is cooled and screened to
remove fine carbon before being returned to the last adsorption tank.

17.1.6

Electrowinning and Smelting


Eluate is pumped through electrowinning cells for a fixed period before being discarded
to the leach tanks. Gold sludge is washed from the cathodes, filtered, dried and
smelted with fluxes before being cast into bars.

17.1.7

Tailings Management
Undersize from the carbon safety screen is collected in an agitated tank and pumped to
the tailings management facilities (TMFs). In general, ultraviolet light will be used to
destruct cyanide in tailings on the TMF. A facility to detoxify tailing slurry using the
SO2/air process will be installed and operated should the cyanide concentration in
tailing slurry or TMF decant water be higher than acceptable levels. This facility will
consist of an open, mechanically agitated tank with associated equipment to dose
sodium metabisulphite, copper sulphate and lime.

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A system to allow dosage of hydrogen peroxide is provided at the TMF decant ponds
should it be necessary to destruct cyanide in TMF decant solution.

17.1.8

Reagents

Lime
Lime is delivered to the mine site in bulk tankers and stored in a silo.
discharged from the silo onto the ball mill feed conveyor.

Lime is

Sodium cyanide
Sodium cyanide is delivered in the form of briquettes. Solution of the required strength
is made up on site and distributed to the points of use:

Barren solution pond


Leach tanks
Heap leach ADR plant
Sulphide elution plant.

Hydrochloric acid
Concentrated hydrochloric acid delivered to site by road tankers is stored in tanks and
pumped to the sulphides elution plant as required.

Sodium hydroxide
Solid sodium hydroxide delivered to site by road is mixed to the required concentration
and stored in a tank. Solution is pumped to each of the elution plants as required per
batch and the oxides heap leach barren solution pond as required to regulate the pH of
the solution

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Figure 17.1: Block Flow Diagram Sulphides Treatment Plant

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17.2

Oxides - Heap Leach


Oxide material from the Yaoure site was historically mined from two open pits, crushed
and heap leached. Gold was recovered from solution by adsorption onto activated
carbon, elution of the carbon, electrowinning and smelting into dor bars.
Amara believes that near-surface material between the two existing pits, which has to
be mined to access the lower sulphides, will also be amenable to heap leaching. The
processing plant used previously is reported to be unserviceable and a complete new
system is to be provided, assumed to be sourced from Amaras Kalsaka/Sega
operation. The flowsheet is as shown in Figure 17.2.

17.2.1

Crushing and Agglomeration


Amara operates other mines and a crushing plant of nominal 1.6 Mt/a capacity
currently used for production at the Kalsaka/Sega mine in Burkina Faso is expected to
be redundant before the Yaoure project is ready for development. It is proposed that
this crushing and agglomeration plant will be relocated from Kalsaka to Yaoure.
Haul trucks tip run-of-mine material through a 600 mm static grizzly into a hopper. A
vibrating grizzly feeder (VGF) removes material from the hopper and scalps at 75 mm.
Grizzly oversize passes through a jaw crusher with a closed side setting of 100 mm
and is then conveyed to a second primary VGF and jaw crusher unit.
The second primary VGF scalps at 75 mm. VGF oversize passes through a second
primary jaw crusher with a closed side setting of 50 mm. The undersize from both
VGFs and the discharge from the second primary jaw crusher are collected on a
conveyor which delivers to the secondary crushing and screening system.
The first secondary screen is a double deck unit screening at 30 mm and 13 mm.
Oversize from both decks passes through a Nordberg 4 standard cone crusher
operating at a closed side setting of 19 mm. First secondary screen undersize is
collected on the final crusher product conveyor.
Discharge from the first secondary crusher is conveyed to another secondary crushing
and screening system. The screen is a double deck unit screening at 20 mm and
13 mm. Oversize from both decks passes through a Nordberg 5 shorthead cone
crusher operating at a closed side setting of 12 mm and is conveyed back to the
second secondary screen. Undersize from this screen is collected on the final crusher
product conveyor with the first secondary screen undersize and the combined streams
are delivered to agglomeration.
Crusher product is fed into an inclined agglomeration drum and mixed with cement and
water.

17.2.2

Heap Leaching
Agglomerated material is transported by a series of conveyors to a movable stacker for
deposition on a new heap leach pad.

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Stacked material is drip irrigated with a dilute solution of sodium cyanide which
percolates through the heap. Solution is collected by a network of pipes at the base of
the heap and flows by gravity to storage ponds. Low grade solution is collected in an
intermediate leach solution (ILS) pond and is used to irrigate newly stacked areas of
the heap. The resulting higher grade solution is collected in a pregnant leach solution
(PLS) pond.
The pH and cyanide concentration of the leaching solution is controlled by periodic
addition of sodium hydroxide and sodium cyanide solution respectively.

17.2.3

Solution Recovery
Agglomerated oxide material will be transported by a series of conveyors to a movable
stacker for deposition on a new heap leach pad. Stacked material is drip irrigated with
a dilute solution of sodium cyanide which percolates through the heap. Solution is
collected by a network of pipes at the base of the heap and flows by gravity to storage
ponds. The resulting higher grade solution is collected in a pregnant leach solution
(PLS) pond and pumped to the adsorption/desorption/regeneration (ADR) plant for
treatment and gold recovery.
Primary and secondary solution applied to the heap will flow downstream along the
length of the respective cells through the solution collection system. Solution collection
will comprise high-density polyethylene (HDPE) perforated and solid pipes which
discharge solution from under the heap to the splitter box.
To facilitate efficient grade control and to enable solution to be discharged to the
respective solution retention ponds, the splitter box is divided into two segments.
Each segment typically comprises one feed pipe, an impact plate (to dissipate solution
discharge energy), a baffle plate (to develop uniform flow), a 90 degree weir (for
volume measurement) and a side channel which directs pregnant, intermediate and
excess solution to the discharge control valves.
If the solution grade falls below the respective concentration level target, the valve
reporting to the secondary pipe will be opened. The valve to the pregnant pipe will be
opened when the solution grade is equal to or above the concentration level target. If
the solution is barren, the excess solution will be discharged to the excess solution
launder.
In the event that the combined primary discharge from the cells will be less than the
required flow for the process plant absorption circuit, pregnant solution from the
adjacent cell will be bled off to the pregnant pipe. Should additional pregnant solution
not be available, solution from the intermediate stream will be directed to the pregnant
pipe.

17.2.4

Adsorption
The adsorption/desorption/regeneration (ADR) plant currently used for production at
Kalsaka will be relocated to Yaoure.

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PLS is pumped to the first in a series of adsorption tanks. Solution flows between
tanks by gravity. Barren solution leaving the last tank in the series returns to the barren
solution pond for reuse as leaching solution irrigating the leach heap.
Loaded carbon from the first tank is transferred to the elution (desorption) plant for
recovery of the adsorbed gold.

17.2.5

Desorption
Loaded carbon is eluted by the Zadra method in which carbon is eluted with hot caustic
cyanide solution and electrowinning of gold is in closed circuit with elution.
Eluted carbon is transferred from the elution column to a hopper which feeds a rotary
kiln. Regenerated carbon discharges from the kiln into a quench tank where it is
cooled and screened to remove fine carbon before being returned to the last adsorption
column.

17.2.6

Electrowinning and Smelting


Gold sludge is periodically washed from the cathodes, filtered, dried and smelted
before being cast into dor bars.

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Figure 17.2: Block Flow Diagram Oxides Treatment Plant.

AGGLOMERATION
2520

LEACH PAD & PONDS


2540

Run of Mine
Oxides
Primary crushing

Agglomeration

Leaching

Stockpile
Adsorption
Secondary crushing
& screening

Tertiary crushing
& screening

Elution

Conveying
& stacking
Regeneration
CONVEYING & STACKING
2530

ADR
2550

HL CRUSHING
2510

Page 17-183

Electrowinning

Smelting

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18.0

PROJECT INFRASTRUCTURE

18.1

Tailings Management Facility


Based on yearly tailings production of 6.5 Mt/a over a 13 year period, a Tailings
Management Facility (TMF) with a minimum capacity of approximately 80 Mt is
required.

18.1.1

Site options study


Four potential TMF sites were identified and assessed at concept level with respect to
social, environmental and technical characteristics. Siting of the TMF is intimately
related to the location of the process plant site. Two potential locations were
consequently considered for the process plant as illustrated in Figure 18.1:

Option 1, northeast of the open pit


Option 2, southwest of the Yaoure deposit.

Figure 18.1: Tailing Management Site Options

Plant Option 1

Plant Option 2

Following the initial data review, a staged selection procedure was implemented which
comprised ranking of each option to identify the most likely socially, environmentally
and technically acceptable sites, by considering:

Volume requirements
Topography
Distance from plant site location
Accessibility
Impact on the natural environment
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Impact on local communities.


Impact on local community development (land take in villages)
Significant visual effect
Significant loss of amenity, farming land, hunting grounds, etc
Technical assessment of each TMF site.

A preliminary assessment for potential expansion of capacity of the candidate TMF has
also been addressed.

Environmental Ranking
A preliminary Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) was performed in 2007 for the
Yaoure (former Angovia) Project. The 2007 Angovia EIA report and baseline study
provided background to this study and enabled the base data for each site to be
established as summarised in Table 18.1.

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Table 18.1: TMF Site Options Environmental Base Data

Site
Option

Distance
from
Villages
(km)

Catchmen
t Area
(ha)

Stream
System

Drainage
Direction

Mineral
Rights

Land
Owner

Observed
Land use

Visibility

Impact on
Potential
Water
Supply

Impact on Culture and


Property (Sacred Forest
and Cemeteries)

TMF 1

1.5

231

TBC

EW

Amara

TBA

Forest/
Agricultural

High

Mid

High

TMF 2

1.2

477

TBC

NE

Amara

TBA

Degraded
Forest/
Agricultural

Mid High

Mid

High

TMF 3

1.7

456

TBC

NW

Amara

TBA

Forest/
Agricultural

Low

Mid

High

TMF 4

0.8

200

TBC

NE

Amara

TBA

Forest/
Agricultural

Mid High

Mid

High

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To consider the relative environmental effects of the screened sites and to establish
potential mitigation requirements, each site was ranked in relation to social and
economic factors, in accordance with perceived risks as summarised in Table 18.2.
Table 18.2: TMF Environmental Ranking Scoring Criteria
Score

Level of Objection

Resources and Risk

None or Minor objection expected

Minor resources required to counter objection

Objection expected

Major resources required to counter objection


and provide mitigation measures

Significant objection expected

Risk of onerous mitigation measures, requires


mitigation to be incorporated into technical design

The ranking analysis requires the following factors to be considered:

The quality, detail and extent of available data


Experience of similar tailings disposal impacts and effects
A judgement on the relative significance of the impacts in the context of the social
and environmental setting.

The assessment establishes a qualitative score for each site in respect of the
environmental factors considered. It is recognised that individual factors have a
different level of significance and the scores reflect the likelihood of objections to the
development based on each. The resources necessary to counter each objection and
the extent of the appropriate mitigation measures are reflected in the scores.
Therefore, a score of 1 is given to perceived minor objections to reflect minimal
environmental effect, whereas a score of 2 or 3 is used to highlight differences between
a minimal effect and situations of unfavourable environmental responses.
The results of the assessment are summarised in Table 18.3 and each potential effect
is discussed below.

Location/Village: A score of 1 was given to TMF options that are not close to
villages. A score of 3 was given to sites that are within the environs of villages.

Catchment: The surface water catchments of each site were identified according to
available mapping. TMF catchment areas have been scored as 1 where any fresh
water reporting from the TMF will have a minimal impact on the local population. A
score of 2 has been applied to TMF sites where some impact is envisaged and a
score of 3 for sites which could cause a significant impact on fresh water availability
to the population.

Vegetation: Where primary forest is evident and significant environmental


disturbance will be evident, a score of 3 has been awarded. A score of 1 has been
awarded where the majority of the area consists of degraded forest or agricultural
(set-aside) lands.

Land Use/Ownership: Details of land use and ownership should be confirmed at


the pre-feasibility stage. Where sites are adjacent to local communities the site has
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been given a rating of 3. Where a site is adjacent to a small village it has been
scored as 2 and where only minor subsistence farming is evident it has been
scored as 1.

Mineral Rights: Where a TMF site is outside the mine perimeter it has been given a
rating of 3. Where the site is partly inside it has been scored as 2 and where only
minor areas of the main footprint are outside the perimeter it has been scored a 1.
However details of use of land for TMF sites outside the mine perimeter should be
confirmed at the next stage study.

Visual Impact: Where possible, the assessment of visibility was based on


approximate TMF facility dimensions and local topography. A score of 1 to 3 was
allocated depending upon the perceived visibility, moderated by whether mitigation
incorporated into the design could overcome any potential objections.

Impact on Water Supply: As little information about existing village abstraction


points and water supply is available, where sites are up-gradient of a village they
are scored as 3 to reflect groundwater vulnerability.

Presence of Local Ecology: All sites were scored 2 to reflect vulnerability for
potential impact on areas of forests with diverse ecology.

Impact on Culture and Property: Based on information provided by Amara there


are sacred forests (related to traditional religious ceremonies) and graveyard sites
located within the concession area. Some of those sites could be compelled to
disappearance or displacement. TMF sites 1 and 3 show the highest impact on
those areas and were consequently scored 3 to reflect that objection is expected.

The results of site ranking in relation to social and environmental factors are
summarised in Table 18.3.

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Table 18.3: TMF Site Option Environmental Ranking

Land use

Mineral
Right

Visual
Impact

Potential
Impact on
Water
Supply

Presence
of Local
Ecology

Impact on
Culture
and
Property

Total
Score

Rank

21

22

16

23

Site

Village
Impact

Catchmen
ts

Vegetatio
n

TMF 1

TMF 2

TMF 3
TMF 4

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The preliminary ranking study suggests that TMF 3 is the preferred solution with
respect to minimal environmental impact, with TMF 4 the least favoured site.

Technical Ranking

Capacity Evaluation:
The TMF embankment alignments have been optimised to take full advantage of
the natural contours, topographical features and hills, as well as minimising
catchment areas and the interception of major rivers and streams. Preliminary
depth capacity curves have been developed based on topographical plans
available for each identified potential TMF location. In the development of each
depth capacity curve, AMEC has initially assumed a vertical upstream embankment
face, horizontal beach and tailings stored within the retention volume at an
estimated 1.3 t/m average density.
Preliminary screening was undertaken to appraise the potential for each site to
accommodate the predicted project tailings storage requirements. The engineering
implications for each TMF site option and its potential for expansion have
consequently been appraised.
The analysis suggests that, based on the assumed embankment alignments, the
TMF 1 and TMF 4 sites will not be suitable for the storage of 80 Mt of tailings within
a single facility. If TMF 1 or TMF 4 is adopted a second facility will be needed to
meet the design requirement.
The technical characteristics for each site option with respect to its maximum
capacity are summarised in Table 18.4 and Table 18.5.

Geotechnical/Geological Conditions:
The available topographic data and geological information indicate that the
topography and bedrock in the project area will, subject to geotechnical evaluation
and confirmation, provide suitable ground conditions for tailings dam construction.
Foundation conditions are expected to comprise alluvial deposits, residual soils and
weathered rock overlying bedrock. Prior to embankment construction, all organic
topsoil materials will be stripped. Further investigation should, however, be
undertaken during the prefeasibility stage to confirm the geotechnical
characteristics of the foundation soils and rock.

Hydrology:
Significant additional catchment area outside the TMF perimeter is noted for TMF 2
and TMF 3, which require diversion structures. The need of diversion structures
will have to be investigated further at the prefeasibility stage.

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Table 18.4: TMF Site Option Technical Ranking Base Data Plant Option 1
Tailings Delivery
Distance
Static Head
to Plant
from Plant
Site (km)
Site (m)

Main Embankment - Final

Bush
Clear
Area
(ha)

Catchment
Area
(ha)

Length
(km)

Height
(m)

Volume
3
(Mm )

38

231

0.9

63

3.3

2.6

65

54

477

0.9

63

2.8

367

5.0

147

46

456

0.8

74

2.7

317

1.6

97

49

200

1.9

87

11.0

Site
Option

Crest
Elevation
(masl)

TMF 1

228

2.4

TMF 2

285

TMF 3
TMF 4

Expansion
Capacity

Table 18.5: TMF Site Option Technical Ranking Base Data Plant Option 2
Tailings Delivery
Distance
Static Head
to Plant
from Plant
Site (km)
Site (m)

Main Embankment - Final

Bush
Clear
Area
(ha)

Catchment
Area
(ha)

Length
(km)

Height
(m)

Volume
3
(Mm )

-72

38

231

0.9

63

3.3

0.6

-15

54

477

0.9

63

2.8

367

2.3

67

46

456

0.8

74

2.7

317

1.7

17

49

200

1.9

87

11.0

Site
Option

Crest
Elevation
(masl)

TMF 1

228

5.0

TMF 2

285

TMF 3
TMF 4

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Topography:
The ultimate TMF elevation has been considered in addressing the transport of
tailings from the proposed plant site and return water pipeline alignment from the
supernatant pond. Where possible, AMEC has consequently ranked as preferred
those options where the static head is low and the preferential pipe alignments are
minimised.
The technical assessment of each TMF site option has been appraised by scoring
each site with respect to its engineering and estimated site conditions assuming a
common capacity of 40 Mt. The scores and rankings are summarised in Table 18.6
for Plant Site Option 1 and in Table 18.7 for Plant Site Option 2. A low score has
been equated to options exhibiting minimum static head between the crest and the
process plant, minimum clearing, catchment, embankment works, etc.
The scoring suggests that the most suitable TMF site with respect to civil works,
potential impacts, construction and operation is TMF 1 for Plant Site Option 1 and
both TMF 2 and TMF 3 for Plant Site Option 2.

Table 18.6: TMF Site Option Technical Ranking Process Plant Option 1
Site

Distance
to Plant

Embankment
Length

Static
Head

Bush
Clearance

Catchment
Area

Embankment
Volume

Total
Score

Ranking

TMF 1

11

TMF 2

14

TMF 3

14

TMF 4

15

Table 18.7: TMF Site Option Technical Ranking Process Plant Option 2
Site

Distance
to Plant

Embankment
Length

Static
Head

Bush
Clearance

Catchment
Area

Embankment
Volume

Total
Score

Ranking

TMF 1

16

TMF 2

12

TMF 3

12

TMF 4

14

Site Options Study Conclusions


Four TMF site options have been scored and ranked based on their suitability for use
from both environmental and technical viewpoints. The results for the environmental
analysis suggest that TMF 3 site exhibits the least potential for environmental impact.
When addressed with respect to their engineering technical conditions to safely store a
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common 40 Mt, TMF 1 is the most favourable for Process Plant Option 1 and both
TMF 2 and TMF 3 for Process Plant Option 2. However, TMF 1 and TMF 4 cannot
store more than 45 Mt.
The TMF 1 depth capacity curve indicates that a second facility will be required to
provide sufficient volume for the minimum design capacity of 80 Mt.
Review of the 45 Mt footprint of TMF2 shows that the impoundment area could
intersect the USD 1500 pit. Accepted good practice is to keep tailing management
facilities at least 500 m from the open pits to prevent seepage from entering the pit.
The combined ranking suggests that TMF 1 and TMF 3 are the most favoured site
options for plant Option 1 with respect to environmental impact and technical
characteristics (Table 18.8).
Table 18.8: TMF Site Option Overall Ranking Process Plant Option 1
Site
Option

Environmental
Ranking

Engineering
Ranking

Total

Combined
Ranking

TMF 1

TMF 2

TMF 3

TMF 4

TMF 3 is the most preferred site should Process Plant Option 2 be developed (Table
18.9). Besides, TMF 3 site option exhibits the greatest potential for ease of expansion
and this option should be considered if Plant Option 2 is adopted.
Table 18.9: TMF Site Option Overall Ranking Process Plant Option 2
Site
Option

Environmental
Ranking

Engineering
Ranking

Total

Combined
Ranking

TMF 1

TMF 2

TMF 3

TMF 4

Amara has confirmed that AMEC should adopt Process Plant Option 1 with TMF 1 and
TMF 2 for this study.

18.1.2

Design criteria
The main design criteria are summarised below:

Yearly tonnage: 6.5 Mt


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18.1.3

Minimum capacity: 80 Mt
Embankment construction method: downstream and upstream rise.
Tailings delivery system: Slurry transport.

General layout
The TMF sites take full cognisance of the local topography and will initially be
developed in two stages: TMF 1 for 7 years and TMF 2 for the remainder of the mine
life, located as shown in Figure 18.2.
Figure 18.2: TMF General Layout

Both TMF 1 and TMF 2 will be initially developed by the downstream method as the
rate of rise will be high and the beach drainage and consolidation characteristics may
not have developed sufficient strength for upstream construction. Following Year 3 of
TMF 1 and Year 7 of TMF 2, the rate of rise will have reduced sufficiently to allow
upstream construction. The ultimate final crest elevation will be 63 m for TMF 1 and 68
m for TMF 2 as illustrated in Figure 18.3.

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Figure 18.3: TMF Embankment Typical Sections

The stable upstream and downstream slope will be a function of the strength
characteristics of the fill material used and will need to be validated at the prefeasibility
study stage.
The TMF supernatant pond will be maintained remote from the embankment upstream
face as follows:

Initially, during deposition from the main embankment, the resultant supernatant
pond will be drawn down by localised pumping using a dedicated floating pump
decant system and water discharged to an impoundment upstream of a sacrificial
internal water retention berm from where it will be recovered by a dedicated side
slope pumped decant system back to the process plant.

As tailings are sequentially discharged with time, the supernatant pond will be
directed and confined within the environs of the eastern side slope pumped decant
system, finally inundating the internal water retention berm.

The TMF 1 will then be sequentially raised over a period of six years. Deposition
will then commence within TMF 2.

In year 6, pre-deposition civil earthworks will be undertaken to form the main starter
embankments within the TMF 2 area, to ensure that the facility is ready to receive
tailings.

As with TMF 1 the initial supernatant pond forming upstream of the main
embankment will be locally drawn down and discharged towards the side slope
decant.

The supernatant pond will be maintained within the vicinity of the side slope
decants by sequential deposition of tailings from the full periphery of the facility.

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Excess water remaining within the supernatant pond will discharge by gravity
through the decant system to the sediment control structures located downstream
of the main embankment.

The general arrangement and sequential development plan of the proposed TMF
scheme is presented on Figure 18.2 and the appended drawings.

18.1.4

Embankment fill material


Material used for the embankment will require to be suitable with respect to material
parameters (strength, permeability, physical characteristics) and geochemical
characteristics (contain no pyrite/sulphide) and as such be non-acid-generating. For
the purpose of this scoping level report, Amara has required that the use of approved
mine waste is prioritised. Where possible, embankment construction will comprise
won, hauled, placed, graded and compacted selected approved stripped mine waste
deriving originally from the upper (oxide) horizon of the open pit development works.
Additional characterisation works will need to be undertaken at the next study stage to
fully quantify and confirm availability of suitable stripped mine waste that can be used
for TMF embankment construction without being detrimental to the integrity of the
facility.

18.1.5

Depth Capacity Evaluation and Staged Construction


The TMFs have been designed to accommodate the predicted mine life tailings
production of 80 Mt. The respective arrangements exhibit a minimal land take,
optimise embankment length and volume of construction material needed, while also
taking advantage of the natural topography to provide 45 Mt storage in TMF 1 and
35 Mt in TMF 2.
The TMF sequential and ultimate crest alignment and elevations will require to be
confirmed during the next stage of studies once validation of the following design
information has been completed:

Embankment construction material criteria


Foundation characteristics
Tailings characteristics
Stability analysis
Projected beach profile
Project mass balance
Seismic risk.

In the interim, for the purposes of this study, a conservative 1.3 t/m average tailings
dry density has been assumed for placed tailings and the depth/capacity curve
developed accordingly for TMF 1 and TMF 2, as illustrated in Figure 18.4.

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Figure 18.4: TMF Depth Capacity Curves

To ensure that sufficient freeboard is maintained, and to accommodate initial high rates
of rise, the embankment will initially be formed by the downstream method of
construction. Thereafter the rate of rise is sufficient to allow for upstream construction
to commence. It must be recognised that the development of the TMF main
embankment cross section will be regularly monitored and redesigned (if required) on
an annual basis to ensure that the main embankment cross section remains robust.
The rate of rise could be reduced by operating both TMFs together. However, as
duplication of tailings delivery lines, water return systems, associated infrastructure and
starter could be required; this parallel option has not been addressed by AMEC. TMF
1 will consequently be operated first followed by TMF 2.
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18.1.6

Tailings deposition
Tailings will be pumped to the respective TMF via a dedicated pipeline, where it will be
sequentially sub-aerially discharged onto the upstream beach. Deposition from the
embankment will be via a series of spigots to ensure that a wide, drained beach is
formed. Tailings will also be discharged from dedicated locations along the depository
periphery, typically at the upstream end of small valleys, from valved open end
discharge points of the same diameter as the delivery line. This tailings disposal
strategy will ensure effective material deposition patterns within the TMF and that the
supernatant pond will be confined adjacent to the decant water system, away from the
main embankments.
Sufficient freeboard will be provided at all times to accommodate the Probable
Maximum Flood (PMF) event. In the unlikely event that floods greater than the PMF
occur, an emergency spillway formed adjacent to the crest of the main embankments
will allow for emergency discharge.
At closure, a permanent spillway will then be constructed within this western
embankment section and the adjacent natural ridge, to ensure that uncontaminated
surface runoff discharges freely from the surface of the rehabilitated facilities.

18.1.7

Seepage collection
When initially formed by the downstream method of construction, the phreatic surface
within the main embankments will be controlled by dedicated internal longitudinal filter
drains reporting to a series of transverse drains, manholes and a downstream lined
seepage collection pond.
The tailings beach directly upstream of the main
embankment will also be drained via an upstream under-drainage system, positively
connected transverse drains, sumps and collection pipes, which in turn discharge by
gravity to the same downstream seepage collection pond. All seepage reporting to this
pond will then be pumped back to the operating TMF.
Throughout the mine life, the internal drainage system will be extended to each new
section of the embankment to ensure continued drainage.

18.1.8

Drainage Management
Uncontaminated run-off from rainfall occurring over the downstream face of the main
embankments will be allowed to pass over the revegetated surface and be captured via
a series of surface open channel drains reporting to a dedicated downstream open
channel toe drain. The latter drain will safely direct natural (uncontaminated) flows past
the seepage collection ponds to the environment.
The design will include a cut-off trench below the starter embankments extended to
bedrock to minimise the risk of seepage under the respective embankments through
the shallow foundation layers. An under-drainage system will be developed to reduce
the hydraulic head below the tailings. The under-drainage will comprise a gravel filter
drained by HDPE perforated pipes. A drainage system comprising a series of sand
drains containing prefabricated drain strips wrapped in geotextile will also be
constructed upstream of the embankment to provide phreatic surface control. Seepage
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from the drain strips will report to perforated pipes wrapped in geotextile, aligned along
the embankments upstream toes and via solid pipes to the downstream seepage
collection pond.

18.1.9

Basal Liner
There is currently no geotechnical information available on the hydraulic conductivity of
the TMF foundation soils at either of the TMF sites. It has consequently been assumed
that the permeability of the upper horizon of the basin foundation is sufficiently low and
suitable basin drains will be developed, that no HDPE liner is necessary to control
basin seepage. This assumption will require to be validated at the next design stage.
Depending on the geophysical and geochemical characterisation of the stripped mine
waste ultimately proposed for embankment construction, the use of a low permeability
upstream face liner will require to be addressed.
It is recommended that all materials proposed for construction of the TMF and the
associated foundation soils are geotechnically (and geochemically) investigated to
validate their structural and physical characteristics. Should the natural foundation
soils be identified as unsuitable for lining, an HDPE geomembrane basal liner will need
to be installed within the TMF embankment upstream slope and basin area. A
geosynthetic liner (1.5 mm thick geomembrane) placed onto a grubbed, ripped and
smooth-rolled subgrade will be a suitable solution for both TMFs.
If this is necessary, the total life of mine cost of the TMFs will increase by an estimated
amount of USD 23.76 million, of which USD 5.64 million is incurred on TMF 1 as
preproduction capital and USD 18.12 million is sustaining capital on TMF 1 and TMF 2.

18.1.10 Closure
At closure the TMFs will be rehabilitated. The surface of the TMF will be capped with
topsoil recovered during initial construction. The topsoil may need improving with
additional organic content and/or fertiliser. Diversion ditches and roads will be
removed and precipitation will be allowed to run into the TMF. A permanent spillway
will be constructed to drain the TMF. No permanent water pond will be maintained on
the TMF surface.

18.1.11 Recommendations
A detailed topographical survey will be required to validate the respective TMF
embankment alignments and storage capacity. A detailed comprehensive geotechnical
laboratory and site investigation will need to be undertaken on tailings, foundation soil
and potential fill materials to:

Confirm earthworks volume.


Determine geotechnical characteristics of foundation soil and rock.
Investigate potential borrow areas and determine characteristics of engineering fill
materials.

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Geochemical and geotechnical characterisation of stripped mine waste to


investigate suitability as embankment fill material and availability at time of
construction.

Typical TMF embankment sections and staged construction have been based on a
series of assumptions pertaining to geotechnical and geochemical properties for
stripped mine waste fill and tailings materials, as at the time of study this information
was not available. Upstream and downstream embankment slopes depend on fill
material geotechnical properties. Amara has required that the use of approved mine
waste is prioritised. Comprehensive geotechnical and geochemical work are required
for this to be fully validated prior to detailed design.

18.2

Water Supply
Water is consumed in the heap leaching and tank leaching processes.
Recommendations to reduce the water consumption made in the preliminary design
developed for this study include:

Use of drip irrigation rather than sprinklers


Use of the Zadra elution plant from Kalsaka
Thickening of CIP tailing prior to deposition on the TMFs.

Optimisation of the design of the TMFs may lead to use of higher density tailing slurry
which would allow greater recovery of water in the plant and therefore reduced losses
at the TMFs.
Water for all applications on site will be drawn from Lake Kossou approximately 5 km
from the mine site. A new pumping station will be provided close to the barrage for the
hydroelectric power scheme and an overland pipe will deliver the water to a raw water
pond at the mine.

18.3

Heap Leach Design

18.3.1

Site optimization
The identification of a potential location for the heap leach facility focused on Amaras
concession area, at sites adjacent to the deposit (Figure 18.5). To minimise cut/fill
volumes, alignment of pad and solution ponds has been selected based on the
available topographical map generated from ASTGTM2-NASA 30 m (1 arc second)
satellite digital elevation model, corresponding to approximately 1:60,000 contour map
scale. Further site optimisation is required at the next stage of design.

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Figure 18.5: Heap Leach Facility General Layout

18.3.2

Design criteria
Prescriptive design criteria for the leach pad facility include the following:

Rate of stacking:1.6 Mt/a


Number of lifts: 2
Lift thickness: 7 m
Solution application rate: 12 l/m2/h
Ore placement method: stacker/conveyor.

The proposed heap leach pad liner system will consist of the following:

A prepared subgrade below the proposed site of the heap consisting of natural
material which has been ripped and compacted to a minimum 300 mm thickness
A 1.5 mm thick smooth HDPE geomembrane liner
A minimum of 600 mm of crushed gravel (cushion layer).

To increase the stability of the edge of the stacked heap a textured HDPE liner will be
installed, replacing the smooth HDPE within the heap toe area.
Five cells will initially be constructed to allow approximately 1.5 years of stacking. A
total of 16 cells have been designed to for the current total defined oxide resource, 6
years.

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18.3.3

Solution management
The solution management of the Yaoure heap leach facility is summarised as follows:

18.3.4

Closed system with zero tenor release to the environment. Solution will only be
released following neutralisation by the detoxification facility.
Solution ponds managed to provide a continuous operational flow.
Solution volumes monitored at the splitter box.

Solution control
To provide uniform solution coverage of the agglomerated ore and minimise potential
evaporation losses, a drip irrigation application system will be operated.
The drip irrigation system will deliver a maximum primary and secondary solution
volume at an average application rate of 12 l/m2/h. Considering cell size and estimated
irrigation area under normal operating conditions the average application rate will be
325 m3/h.
The primary irrigation stage is the application of intermediate solution to the freshly
stacked ore. As stacking progresses, the area under active leach will be maintained
constant by sequentially closing the drip lines along the retreating front and installing
new lines on the crest of the advancing front. When the recovered solution grade falls
below the target concentration or the maximum irrigation area is reached, the primary
application drip lines will be closed and the secondary irrigation stage initiated.
Use of a drip irrigation system is cost effective even when considering that drip
ribbons are effectively used only once.

18.3.5

Solution Collection
Solution collection pipes include transverse 100 mm diameter HDPE perforated pipes
aligned at 6 m centres. The 100 mm diameter pipes will be installed within the 600 mm
gravel layer above the liner. The horizontal alignment of the pipes will be maintained at
1 in 100 or at 45 degrees to the pad slope. Each 100 mm diameter collection pipe will
discharge to a 350 mm diameter (typical) longitudinal primary collection pipe which in
turn reports to the downstream splitter box.

18.3.6

Solution Corridor
The solution corridor comprises an HDPE lined bench and adjacent excess solution
launder.
The solution delivery pipes aligned along the bench comprise:

Pregnant solution pipe


Intermediate solution pipe
Primary solution application pipe
Secondary solution application pipe
Heap flushing application line (future application)
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Heap flushing return line (future application).

All pipes installed will require to be anchored to minimise thermal movements.


In the event that a pipe leaks, the solution will be contained in the excess solution
launder and discharge to the excess solution pond.

18.3.7

Emergency discharge
In the event of an extreme storm event occurring over the heap, the excess volume will
be attenuated within each cell until the solution level rises to the elevation of the
peripheral berm concrete weir. Excess solution will then overflow to the excess
solution launder and thence the excess pond where it will be captured.
All solution applied to the heap reports to the bottom of each cell and, due to the
presence of the liner and collector drains, is gravity discharged to the splitter box. One
splitter box is provided for each cell. All valves will be manually operated from the
access walkway. In the event that all the valves are closed and the splitter box
overflows, solution will report to the excess solution launder.

18.3.8

Process ponds
The process ponds volumes are individually optimised to store the fluctuating water
volumes in the system derived from operational variations, average rainfall events,
extreme precipitation events, dead storage and heap drain-down.
To maintain a sufficient storage volume for attenuation of the extreme storm event, the
normal storage in the excess solution pond must not exceed the seasonal elevation.
Should the seasonal volume be exceeded, excess solution will be pumped to the
neutralisation plant.
The process plant operators will be required to monitor all pond levels and discharge
from the heap (at the respective splitter box and flumes), to effectively manage the
pond elevations and maintain the required solution flow to the adsorption circuit.

18.3.9

Closure
Upon decommissioning the heap leach material will be rinsed with water after which it
is assumed that the cyanide concentrations will be acceptably low. The slopes of the
heap leach pads will be graded to achieve a maximum slope angle of around 1V:3H.
Soil characterisation, an ecological study and field trials are needed to investigate the
potential growth conditions on the bare heap, which may possibly avoid the cost of
spreading inert waste rock material on the heap. Should it be found that local species
can thrive on the bare heap leach material, no waste rock cover may be needed and
silt erosion fences made of coarse waste rock material may be sufficient. The
establishment and viability of vegetation on the heap will need to be tested. Full
cognisance will be taken of how the existing heaps are naturally revegetated. At this
time it is assumed that a 100 mm thick layer of top soil is spread on the heap before
seeding, to support the vegetation.
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18.4

Power Supply
Electrical power is supplied by the interconnected national grid via an access point at
the hydroelectric scheme at Lake Kossou, 10 km from the mine site. The hydroelectric
dam and generating plant exploits the Bandama River. It was built in 1972 and has a
rated capacity of 175 MW.
The Study has been based upon an operating load currently estimated at 40 MW.
AMEC has not investigated the requirements for supplying 40 MW to the mine in detail
and has not inspected the existing generating or transmission equipment at Kossou, a
preliminary assessment being sufficient for this study.
AMEC has reviewed a budget quotation submitted to Amara by Compagnie Ivorienne
Electricite (CIE) and dated 22 March 2012 for upgrade of the high voltage equipment
and installation of a new transmission system to the mine for a 10 MW subscription.
AMEC is generally in agreement with the costs from CIE for transformers and overhead
lines. The quotation also includes other significant costs for equipment (most likely
switchgear and network strengthening) which implies the work at the Kossou dam is
more than a basic tie-in. If the study progresses to the next phase then this is a key
area for further investigation.
The requirements for transmission of the power supply at two voltages have been
considered, using the following assumptions:

Sufficient generating capacity is available. This requires investigation and


verification during any further stages of study.

New 90 kV switchgear and 90 kV/33 kV transformers are required, based on the


submission by CIE.

New overhead lines and poles are required due to the significant increase in
electrical load over the existing system.

Dual (premium) 33 kV overhead lines are required. The option of a single supply
should be investigated.

The existing overhead line servitude can be reused for new overhead lines and is
wide enough.

The existing route of the overhead lines is relatively flat and accessible.

No section of the bulk supply main route is underground except possibly near the
start and end points.

No large electrical loads shall tap off the new 33 kV overhead lines.

On-site emergency generation shall be provided for critical loads, for example tank
agitators and thickener rakes.

On- site power factor correction will be installed (0.98 or better).

Preliminary quotes for 50 MVA 33 kV/125 kV transformers were obtained and four units
are required. The 125 kV lines would typically be Mink type (British standard)
supported on steel poles (not lattice towers). Line and transformer losses at full load
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are 600 kW. A disadvantage of a high voltage line is that it is expensive to tap off at a
later date.
If 33 kV is already available at Kossou then no transformers are required. The 33 kV
lines would typically be Sheep type (British standard) supported on wooden or steel
poles. Line losses at full load are 1.1 MW with 3 % voltage drop which is within normal
tolerance. It is much easier to tap off a medium voltage line and installation and
maintenance of a 33 kV line is fairly straightforward, requiring no highly specialist
knowledge or experience.
The overall cost for a medium voltage system was significantly less than that for a high
voltage system and transmission at 33 kV is therefore recommended.
Cte dIvoire is usually a net exporter of power, having 1350 MW of gas and
hydroelectric power generation installed. The hydro schemes have in recent years run
short of water in two years. At this time the government has installed extra thermal
power systems, being gas turbines. It is a reasonable assumption that, generally,
adequate power will be available for the Yaoure project, either from hydroelectric
generation or from thermal power from the grid.
The expected load comprises about 3.3 % of the nations generation capacity and
about 24 % of the generating capacity of the Kossou hydroelectric scheme.

18.4.1

Consultations between Amara and CIE


Aside from review by AMEC, further detail below is provided on the cost and availability
of power supplied from CIE.
Following a series of consultations and site visits between Amara and the local utility,
CIE, Amara has estimated and average cost of power for the Yaoure gold project
based on assessments and proposals by CIE to connect the Yaoure gold project site to
the national power grid (through the substation of the Kossou hydro electric power
plant).
The tariff assumed for the PEA was based initially on an offer received on 22 March
2012, which assumed a 10MW subscription by the mine - a scenario being considered
at that time. This proposal was then updated on 17 March 2014, following a new
request from Amara given the higher estimated capacity requirements of 40MW, as
identified by AMEC during the development of this PEA.

Fixed and variable charges


The tariff rates provided by CIE comprise of fixed and variable charges depending on
the connection voltage and hours of demand. These schedules of rates have been
used to calculate annual average power costs.
With regards to the variable rates, there is a precedent in the countrys mining industry
for a company to receive a special tariff which based on the preferential tariff applied in
textile industry. This preferential tariff accounts for:

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30% discount on energy tariff during Peak hours


7% discount on energy tariff during Rush hours
30% discount on energy tariff during Off Peak hours

For the PEA we have considered two options: both with and without the special tariff
discount, as shown in Table 18.10 and Table 18.11. It is noted however that the actual
power tariff can be subject to negotiation as part of a mining convention to be agreed
between the company and the State of Cte d'Ivoire at time of development permitting.
It is understood that such a Tariff can only be subject to negotiation on an exceptional
basis.
Further assumptions made to convert the proposed rates to an average annual power
cost were as follows:

No penalties for exceeding subscribed power


No penalties for poor power factor (from reactive energy consumption)
24 hour operation with no account for peak, off peak and rush hours in the start and
stop of processing.

Capital investment Assessment


In March 2014, CIE provided updated assessments and cost estimates for connecting
Yaoure to the Kossou hydro electric power plant substation. The capital investment
estimates, provided in Table 18.11 are composed of:

Study and engineering


Environmental & social impact Assessment; Environment and Social Management
Plan (ESMP)
Connection and/or reinforcement work at Kossou substation
Power transmission line Kossou- Angovia
Building of substation at Angovia
Project management costs

Based on a conversion rate of US $ 1 = FCFA 500, the CIE offers for operating and
capital costs for power are represented in Table 18.10 and Table 18.11.

Table 18.10: CIE proposed power costs as of 22 March 2012


Connection
Option

Annual
Subscribed

Power Cost
(Exc. Discount)

Power Cost
(Inc. Discount)

kW

USD/kWh

USD/kWh

15 KV and 33 KV

40,000

0.11

0.08

90 KV and 125 KV

40,000

0.09

0.07

22 March 2012 tariff rates based 10MW subscription, but calculated for 40MW draw
Total estimated investment in March 2012 for a 33KV line was USD5.68m
Power costs exclude initial capital investment and VAT
Power costs include fixed and variable costs

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Table 18.11: CIE proposed power costs as of 17 March 2014
Connection
Option

Annual
Subscribed

Capital
Investment

Power Cost
(Exc. Discount)

Power Cost
(Inc. Discount)

kW

USD m

USD/kWh

USD/kWh

33 KV

40,000

12.0

0.11

0.09

90 KV

40,000

11.4

0.09

0.07

225 KV

40,000

12.8

0.09

0.07

Power costs exclude initial capital investment and VAT


Power costs include fixed and variable costs

Based on the range of power costs calculated from CIEs tariff, Amara has assumed an
average power cost of 9c/kWh for the purposes of this PEA. This is representative of
the tariffs, considering the potential to negotiate a discount and the ability to optimise
the tariff verses the capital investment. Compared to diesel generation, this energy cost
is low and represents is a distinct advantage for Yaoure in terms of project economics.

Power connection options


As part of the March 2014 analysis by CIE, the connection options of the line capacity
for the potential subscribed 40MW were evaluated technically. A summary of these
evaluations is provided in Table 18.12.
Table 18.12: Power connection Options
Connection Option

Technical assessment

33KV

Requires important reinforcement at Kossou substation. This is not easy


considering the size of this substation. Furthermore, this option requires
building four 33KV power transmission lines, a second transformation from
33KV to 11KV at the mines substation. This succession of transformation
modules increases the probability of occurrence of a fault along the
connection line. On the other hand this option requires building at least
eight 11KV power transmission lines between the mine and Kossou
substation.

90KV

This connection enables to supply the gold mine in good conditions but it
is subject to strengthening of 225/90 kV transformation substation at
KOSSOU.

225KV

While ensuring optimal power supply conditions for the mine, this
connection requires no prior reinforcement at KOSSOU 225 KV
substation. This option enables to meet the requirement of any increase
in demand without additional investment.

CIE recommended a connection of 225 KV as it requires a comparable initial


investment, lower energy cost, better reliability and stability, and has capacity to meet
any demand increase with no extra investment. However, for the purposes of the
project a 33KV connection was assumed prior to this assessment being available.
Therefore it is recommended that the higher connection scenarios and potentially lower
tariff be further investigated in future studies as the power requirements are further
refined.

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18.5

Access
The Yaoure project is located in close proximity to Yamoussoukro, the capital of
Cte dIvoire. There are three access roads that connect the site to national highways.
The main road from the port of Abidjan to Yamoussoukro is the A1 and is considered to
be in fair condition, subject to heavy cargo traffic and regular road maintenance. The
A6 from Yamoussoukro to the Bandama river crossing is also known to need regular
maintenance but is able to carry heavy loads of the size expected for the project.
Police guidance and an escort will be required for some large items which will be the
mill sections, crushers and power transformers. No single component of more than
60 tonnes is expected.
Of the three access routes from Yamoussoukro to site, two traverse the Kossou Dam
embankment, shown in Figure 18.6. The other accesses the site from the West from
the A6 highway.
Figure 18.6: Kossou Dam

The most reliable route is expected to be the A6 road from Yamoussoukro to the
Bandama river crossing and then follows the Bandama river east bank to the Kossou
hydroelectric scheme, crosses the Bandama River at the hydroelectric installation and
follows the main embankment and then the final few kilometres on existing laterite
roads to the plant site. The utility will be contacted to confirm weight and width
limitations over the river and along the embankment and to obtain permission to use
the route.
The final 6.2 km of laterite road will require some grading and filling of sections but is
expected to be easily adequate for the purposes of construction.
Operations are likely to be unable to use this route on a daily basis as the hydroelectric
scheme is likely to wish to maintain the high level of security that exists for this
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important piece of infrastructure at present and so will restrict everything but occasional
large loads. For operations, the A6 from Yamoussoukro, over the Bandama River and
further West then turning off the tarmac road and approaching the project site from the
West is likely to be the chosen option. Should permission not be granted for heavy
loads to cross the Bandama River at the hydroelectric installation, this route will have to
be considered for construction loads as well as routine access.
Abidjan is the major industrial port for Cte dIvoire. It is accessed from the sea by a
tidal canal which provides reliable, safe passage to the protected port berths. The port
is known to be able to receive and dispatch vessels at its general cargo berths of
20 000 deadweight tonnes (DWT) with a channel draft at low water of 13.5 m. Along
the channel are tanker, fertilizer and mineral berths with maximum deadweight
limitations of 15 000 DWT to 95 000 DWT.
There are 134 000 m of bonded warehouses and 250 000 m of general cargo storage
area.
Cranage is available as follows:

Rubber tyred gantry cranes


Gantry cranes
Gottwald harbour cranes
Superstackers

16 x 40 t
4 x 40 t
3 x 100 t
13 x 45 t.

The general cargo berths provide more than 2 km of quay side with draught restrictions
of 9.45 m.
Port delays are occasionally experienced but recently, since the period of civil unrest in
the country, have been few. Demurrage is unlikely to be a significant issue.
The largest loads are likely to be the ball mill (bulk) and the cone crushers (weight).
Loads of 8 m diameter and 4 m length can be expected, as well as components of
smaller size but weighing up to 60 tonnes.
The port facilities and roads should be adequate for any large components required for
the project subject to police escort and availability of specialized road transport such as
low loaders. A bridge and gauge survey undertaken with the department of roads will
highlight any issues and procedures that will be needed to deliver these pieces of
critical equipment to site.
The crushing and ADR equipment to be relocated from Kalsaka would use a generally
south-westerly route through Burkina Faso via Bobo-Dioulasso and Banfora, crossing
the border into Cte dIvoire and continuing to Yaoure. Should the condition of the
roads or size of the loads prevent this route being followed, an alternative may be to
enter Ghana to the south of Burkina Faso, travel south to Tamali and then west into
Cte dIvoire. This route is considerably longer and import/export administration in
Ghana would likely be more onerous.
AMEC recommends that a transport survey be conducted. This could be developed
from historical surveys for the Angovia Project.
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19.0

MARKET STUDIES AND CONTRACTS

19.1

Market Study
The gold market is defined as being one which does not require extensive marketing of
the product at the Company level. Marketing here is instead focused upon enhancing
the position of the Company and its strategy in the eyes of shareholders and thereby
the market rather than the commodity gold itself. There is already a ready market for
gold. The gold bullion bars, typically no greater than 30 kg each, produced at Yaoure
are sent to any of the active gold refiners in the world for toll refining. There are a
number of refiners in the world whose bars are accepted as good delivery such as for
example, the following associations:

London Bullion Market Association (LBMA)


Istanbul Gold Exchange (IGE)
Shanghai Gold Exchange (SGE)
The Chinese Gold & Silver Exchange Society. Hong Kong (CG &SES)

Amara has used and is using Metalor Technologies in Switzerland for refining gold
produced at their Kalsaka gold mine in Burkina Faso, and previously Angovia in Cte
dIvoire. Initial discussions have already been held with Metalor regarding the Yaoure
project and they will be requested to tender for the project in due course.

19.1.1

Refining Charges, Gold Pricing & Revenue


The refining process is usually completed within 2 weeks after receipt of bullion. The
refiner will charge refining costs to cover for melting, assaying, refining and the
provision of bars accredited to LBMA. The charges will be negotiated between Amara
and the selected refinery but for purposes of this study rates aligned to those currently
incurred from Metalor were used.
Generally 99.8% to 99.95% of the gold contained in the bullion will be added to the
bullion account held with the refiner in the name of Amara may then sell the bullion on
a date and to a customer of its choosing. The sale price will be fixed on the day of
contracted sale with a settlement usually within 2 business days.

19.2

Contracts
There is no Yaoure contract at this stage; however Amara already has a contract in
place for its operation in Burkina Faso with regard to refining with Metalor, whose rates
were used for estimating purposes.

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20.0

ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES, PERMMITTING AND SOCIAL OR


COMMUNITY IMPACT

20.1

Introduction
SGS Environment of SGS Laboratory Services Limited (SGS) was engaged by Amara
Mining Plc, to undertake preliminary assessment of the environmental and social
conditions of the project.
This preliminary environmental assessment study aimed to presenting an overview of
the current environmental and social issues that need to be considered should a
decision be made in favour of a full ESIA pursuant to obtaining authorisation for mining.
The report followed field visits, desk top reviews of documents provided by Amara and
focussed meetings with relevant local and government stakeholders. The analysis was
based primarily on the plan of the project shown in Figure 20.1.

20.2

Critical Discussion and analysis


Based on the documents reviewed, field visit and interactions with various
stakeholders; both government and local communities, the critical issues regarding the
Yaoure Gold Project and the way forward are provided below.

20.2.1

Licences and Authorisations


The proposed project area is under 2 licenses both of which expire in 2015. The
government has indicated as part of the permit condition of EXPL 168, Art 8, the need
for Amara to submit a request for permit at the end of the validity period (2015). This
should be accompanied by a feasibility and ESIS. The EXPL 397 also highlights the
activities that must be conducted and for which the permit is issued. This includes
geological studies and determination or estimate the resource, topographic studies and
geotechnical and hydrogeological surveys. Should Amara comply with these clauses,
baseline and pertinent project information will be available and will be co-opted into the
ESIS.

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Figure 20.1: Site Map used for Field Tour

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A new mining code was voted in by the National Parliament on the 24th of March 2014,
(Law Number 2014-138 dated 24th of March 2014), with the details still being
assessed. However the following are the some main permits required by current Ivorian
legislation for the development of similar projects:

ESIA approved ordinance to be delivered by ANDE;


Exploitation mining permit to be delivered by the Ministry of Industry and Mines;
Authorization ordinance to be delivered by CIAPOL;
Authorization for collecting and use of groundwater and/or surface water;
Authorization to store/stock and exploit explosives;

The present list is not exhaustive; however it will be updated at the Assessment stage,
when a detail description of the project is provided.
On the whole any ESIS and RAP will do with guidance from the Ivorian constitution and
listed laws.

20.2.2

Water Resources/Water use


The project footprint is drained by the Bandaman River, which is dammed upstream
and downstream for hydroelectric power generation. Apart from its hydro power
potential, the river is used for irrigation of both crops and animal further downstream.
Its importance can therefore not be underestimated.
Data on water quality was provided by Amara and has been reviewed and incorporated
into this report. The data is useful in providing historic information of the water quality
both surface and ground water.
According to data collected by Yaoure between 2006 and 2012 upstream from the
project site, the Bandaman River was of a good quality based on the physico-chemical
tests performed. Preliminary observations made during visit showed that no activity
likely to affect the quantity and quality of the water was performed, with the exclusion of
illegal mining operations that could potentially affect the river.
The topography of the proposed site for TMF-1, lends itself to the development of a
TMF, however, the following should be considered in the feasibility:

The national importance of the Bandaman river as a contributor to the nations


power supply;
Use of its water for domestic work and irrigation by communities further
downstream;
The aesthetic benefits of the lake so created by the impoundment;
The site as host for sacred forest;
Relocation of main access road to Angovia village and the mine site to make way
for the project.

In the light of the above, the proposition for TMF-1 location should be thoroughly
assessed as a suitable site for TMF development.

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Within the mine, there are some four ponds that were used as receptacles for leachate
and process water reservoir (see Figure 20.2).
The ponds have HDPE lining, but have been colonized by algae and Typha spp.
Previous monitoring data do not support any underground water contamination though
some data gaps exist for water samples collected from the piezometers installed
around the ponds.
Figure 20.2: Photos of Algae colonized ponds & Typha and algae colonized pond

Algae colonized ponds (SGS)

Typha and algae colonized pond (SGS)

Granted that there is no seepage from the ponds, it is critical that the quality of water in
the ponds be determined prior to discharge. The water quality will be verified at the
ESIS phase. Should Yaoure Gold Project decide to proceed with TMF development, a
hydrogeological survey including groundwater flow modeling will be necessary.

20.2.3

ARD Issues
ARD issues characterize mining of sulphide ore resources. Amara has indicated its
intention to proceed to mine the sulphide in addition to the oxides, should authorization
be granted. Previous ARD results do not support ARD problem within the mine,
however, periodic sampling and monitoring of pH of surface and especially
groundwater within the mining area and pits will alert the mine of any ARD
development.

20.2.4

Flora and Fauna


The wide spread small illegal gold mining operations within the Yaoure Gold Project
concession and beyond have contributed to degrading large tracts of land. Except
where vegetation is preserved as sacred forest, degraded areas are left with grass and
scattered trees. This scenario makes the presence of forests valuable to maintaining a
balance in the ecosystem. A critical view of the project map shows that all the available
sacred forest occurs at sites proposed to accommodate mine infrastructure. This
includes the TMF-1 and 2 locations, the ROM pad, and to a lesser extent the mill and
waste dump areas.
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The illegal mining operations have affected the population of fauna and diversity of
flora within the area. A detailed zoological assessment will be required to establish a
baseline prior to commencement of mining. The assessment will consider the location
of any endangered species and will advise the mine on the location of these plants and
how mitigate the potentially adverse effects.
The ESIS will detail the management of any new plant species discovered within the
project area and will make reference to previous biodiversity studies conducted by the
University Cocody in 2008, especially with respect to the presence and distribution of
Nuxia spp within the project catchment.

20.2.5

Air Quality
The mine has not been operating for the past 2 years, so that all the activities that
could impact air quality are none existent. Sources of particulate matter and emission
are from fugitive sources such as vehicular movement on untarred access roads within
the mines environs. The villages use fuel wood as source of fuel for domestic chores
and for commercial cookery.
When the mine becomes operational, air quality will likely be affected as increased
vehicular movement on the unsealed access roads will increase particulate levels
along the route. Excavations and possibly blasting will also increase particulates and
affect the local air quality. Ore processing in the Plant and refinery will likely generate
emissions.
An inventory of all machinery and their emission factors should be noted from the
onset. The design of plants and infrastructure should also have inputs from
meteorology, especially wind direction and speed. This way emission control or quality
interventions can be implemented as the mine development commences and not as an
afterthought. Air pollution modelling will be considered at the ESIS phase. SGS will
calculate ambient air pollutant concentrations using the United States Environmental
Protection Agency (US EPA) BREEZE AERMOD atmospheric dispersion modelling
suite. AERMOD is a Gaussian plume model best used for near-field applications where
the steady-state meteorology assumption is most likely to apply and is able of handling
complex terrain. AERMOD is a dispersion modelling system with three components,
namely: AERMOD (AERMIC Dispersion Model), AERMAP (AERMOD terrain preprocessor), and AERMET (AERMOD meteorological pre-processor).

20.2.6

Noise
Noise levels will likely increase from current ambient conditions, which reflect a nonoperating mine. The use of excavators, drilling rigs, and blasting will contribute to
increased noise levels. The receptors will be communities such as Angovia,
KouakouGnanou, Allahou-Bazi and Akakro.
Map provided by the mine showed noise sampling locations at Angovia and AllahouBazi and other points within the mine site area. Should the mine decide to proceed with
mining, all potential receptors must be clearly identified and monitored and noise
scenarios modelled to guide noise impact mitigation and interventions. For noise
impact prediction modelling, SGS intends to use IMMI model, which is an international
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recognized modelling prediction tool. IMMI has been designed to account for ISO 9613
and European MPB-XPS31-133 requirement regarding noise modelling.

20.2.7

Land acquisition and compensation issues


A major issue that requires considerable attention regarding the intended pursuit of the
environmental permit and mine development is compensation. At a meeting on
December 4, 2013 with opinion leaders in Angovia, compensation was raised as an
issue of concern by the leaders. However, by the scope and nature of the meeting, this
issue was not explored by follow up questions to ascertain the various view points from
the PAPs. At the ESIS phase, however, some focused group and individual meetings
will be organized to unearth all the different shades of reaction and opinion on the issue
of compensation. The final output is expected to resolve any past issues and enhance
co-existence of the mine and the community.
Other ownership issues that have given rise to upheavals in the communities in July
2013, will be fully interrogated in the ESIS. Measures to mitigate or forestall any future
upheavals will be provided as part of the ESIS.

20.2.8

Resettlement
The mine site and spatial distribution of the proposed infrastructure may require
resettlement of project affected persons (PAP) depending on the final positioning of the
pit and infrastructure. While SGS is presently, unable to give estimates of the
population in each potentially affected village, the infrastructure for TMF-2 will affect the
Kouakougnanou village and its road accesses to Angovia village. The development of
TMF-1 will also affect the road access to Angovia village, from Kossou. Furthermore, it
is close to the Kossou dam lake and covers a tributary of Bandaman river.
Amara should ensure that any waste heaps do not visually intrude on the surrounding
communities. Given that the residences in these communities have almost merged with
their commercial centres, such as markets, resettlement goes beyond just resettling the
affected residences or huts, but affects also their infrastructure such as roads, schools
and power lines. These therefore make resettlement a major issue that requires
managements attention at the project feasibility and design stage.
Resettlement in this context will require significant financial outlay. Amara should
therefore assess all scenarios and consider possibilities to reduce resettlement, by
design modification or change in location altogether.

20.2.9

Power and Energy


The sources of power in the communities visited include electricity, fuel lamps and
firewood. A trip to the proposed location for TMF-2 showed that some 161 kVpower
lines that convey power from the Kossou Hydroelectric units to the national grid
traverse the site. In siting these pylons (towers) care was taken to avoid areas that are
water logged. Communities, schools and most infrastructures are not permitted within
the Right of Way (RoW) or easement of the power lines due to health and safety
reasons. In considering the location for TMF-2 therefore the following should be noted:

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Presence of the high-tension power line and towers that convey power to the
national grid (see photo 5.3);
Presence of the Kouakougnanou village, together with its commercial places and
schools;
The site as host for cemeteries and sacred forests;
Access to and from Kouakougnanou village passes through the intended site;
Currently the site has a number of small scale illegal gold miners.

Figure 20.3: Photos of Electrical Pylons

Pylons located within site proposed for TMF-2 (SGS)

It is important to discuss with electricity company (CIE) before making any decision
regarding the power line. Cost benefit analysis will be required among environmental
and social considerations in changing or maintaining the proposed location for TMF-2.

20.2.10 Road Accesses and diversions


The road network east and south of the project concession is key to accessing the
mine. The proposed infrastructure especially the proposed locations of TMF-1 and 2,
will mean diversion of the access route to another location. Should these sites be
adopted, significant interaction and inputs from the communities and government
agency responsible for roads is imperative. Amara will be diverting over 20 km of road
to allow the proposed location to be safe from public interference.

20.2.11 Abandoned equipment


There are a number of abandoned equipment and vehicles within the mine, which was
used by Cluff Gold when the mine was operational. SGS understands that, an
inventory of the equipment and scrap vehicles has been made in the past and these
would be sold in due course.

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20.2.12 Illegal small scale mining operations


A sizeable number of the population (judged from the throngs of people leaving for
illegal mining in the mornings and same returning at evening) are involved in illegal
mining. This has both socio-economic and security implications for the Yaoure Gold
Project. The origins of these persons will be ascertained at the ESIS phase as the
scope of this current study did not allow for one-on-one interactions. The profiles of
communities and persons will be provided as part of the social study in ESIS.
A detailed assessment of their impact will be conducted at the ESIS phase.

20.2.13 Social Investments


There is very little communities can do for mines in their locality without specific
training. Review of previous audit report e.g. audit report of 2011 state a number of
social investments that have been completed and other currently being developed.
SGS team during the field visit, observed schools and Youth centers that had been
constructed by Cluff Gold and are still in use. A detailed list of inexpensive social
intervention programme would be discussed when a detailed ESIS is commissioned.

20.2.14 Cultural heritage

Destruction, Relocation and compensation for cemeteries burial and sacred sites
Per the map provided for the field tour and field observations, the mine site and areas
proposed for development have several scattered cemeteries. Areas proposed for
TMF-1 and 2 all have cemeteries. Should the existing pit be developed to USD 1,500
pit size, some more cemeteries will have to be removed. At least 12 small and medium,
old and current cemeteries may have to be located to make room for mine
infrastructure development depending on the infrastructures final positioning.
SGS will explore previous interactions between Amara and the communities regarding
the removal or otherwise of the burial sites. The agreements reached with the
community by Amara, will form part of the ESIS.

20.3

Conclusion and Recommendations


From the initial field visit and preliminary stakeholder engagements, the government of
Cte dIvoire has no objection to the development of the Yaoure Gold Project
contingent on Amara complying and fulfilling the requirements of the law.
The various documents are relevant to the proposed project going forward. They either
provide historic information which will guide the environmental assessment process or
current information that will need to be customized and adopted for the Yaoure Gold
Project.
Exploration Permits 168 and 397, cover the proposed project area. In 2015, these
permits expire. Amara is therefore to take actions including requesting for permit to

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mine. This request should be accompanied by a feasibility report of the project and an
ESIS.
ANDE requires an Environmental Audit of the Yaoure Gold Project prior to initiating any
environmental studies pursuant to obtaining an environmental license. A request is
required to be made to ANDE who will develop the Terms of Reference to guide the
audit.
CIAPOL requires inspection on the mines site on bi-annual basis and also requires
Amara to comply with national anti-pollution laws.
The Ministry of Mines requires that the new law adopted by the national assembly on
24th March 2014 should be considered in the development of the ESIS and also priority
should be given to Ivorian nationals in recruitment to fill employment vacancies.
There remains an issue regarding compensation under the old and expired permit No
33. While continuous community engagement could assist in resolving the issue, the
ESIS phase will provide an opportunity to permanently close this matter.
Some villages leaders indicate during the site visit that the preponderance of Illegal
mining is underpinned by the absence of alternative livelihood schemes and absence
of other gainful economic activities.

20.3.1

Recommendations

The provision of Article 8 of EXPL 168 that requires bankable feasibility and ESIS
by the third and final year of the validity period of the permit should as much as
possible be complied with. This means an ESIS should be commissioned sooner
than later for Amara to meet the 2015 set date;

Resettlement issues should be considered upfront and alternative analysis done in


selecting locations of mine infrastructure and communities;

Address early artisanal mining and illegal mining issues with recourse to a
consultation framework, the law of the land and the Ministry of mine and CCC;

Amara should undertake a statutory environmental audit of the previous mine


operations as required by ANDE prior to the ESIS;

Amara should develop a grievance procedure and early warning systems for the
community that could serve to identify social tensions at an early stage and preempt same. This should not replace current regular community meetings held with
the PAPs, by Amara Community Liaison Officers.

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21.0

CAPITAL AND OPERATING COSTS


AMEC prepared cost estimates for the process plant and associated infrastructure.
Amara prepared the cost estimates for the mining and central costs. These estimates
are outlined below.

21.1

Processing and Infrastructure Capital Estimates


The AMEC Study presented
options/configurations:

capex

and

opex

values

for

the

following

Sulphides: A conventional circuit for treating predominately sulphide materials and


associated infrastructure.
o

6.5 Mt/a throughput is the base estimate.

8 Mt/a throughput is factored from the 6.5 Mt/a base estimate.

5 Mt/a throughput is factored from the 6.5 Mt/a base estimate.

Oxides: A 1.6 Mt/a heap leach facility for the oxide material.

Capital costs have been estimated for the sulphides plant and site infrastructure
separately from the capital cost of the oxide heap leaching plant.
All costs are estimated in US dollars as at first quarter 2014 (1Q14) and are judged to
have an accuracy of 35 %. The estimate covers the direct field costs of constructing
the plant and infrastructure components of the Yaoure Project and the indirect costs
associated with the design, construction and commissioning of the new
facilities. Owners costs, contingencies and risk amounts are specifically excluded from
this estimate.
The estimate was compiled in South African Rand (ZAR) and US dollars.
amounts have been converted to US dollars at the rate of USD 1 = ZAR 11.

21.1.1

Rand

Estimate Structure
The capital cost estimates have been structured into the following major categories.
Direct Costs
Direct costs are those expenditures that include supply of equipment and materials,
freight to site and construction labour at site.
Indirect Costs
Indirect costs are those expenditures covering temporary construction facilities and
engineering, procurement and construction management (EPCM) services, together
with the supervision of and commissioning of the works.

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Accuracy Provision (Growth Allowances)


Accuracy provisions have been assigned to each discipline item on the basis of the
perceived magnitude of the risks given that the study has been executed to order of
magnitude level. AMEC has applied provisions to the estimate to make allowance for
the following risks:

21.1.2

Minimal design input as suitable for estimates of this accuracy


Preliminary scope definition
Quantity survey errors and omissions
Rework
Gross versus net quantities
Material and labour rate accuracy
Equipment budget costing
Incorrect bulks factor applications.

Estimate Basis
All costs have been estimated using a cost structure developed for labour and
materials as at 1Q14 and are presented in US dollars. The following summarises the
estimation derivation and basis adopted for the study. This scope narrative has been
written mainly around the 6.5 Mt/a scenario, however the 5 Mt/a and 8 Mt/a scenarios
are based on similar scopes of work with the capital cost estimates factored
accordingly from the estimate for 6.5 Mt/a.
Bulk Material Rates
Unit rates for bulk materials - earthworks, concrete, steelwork, plate work, etc - have
been developed from in-house data for similar projects within West Africa, with the
exception of the cost for the supply of approved strip mine waste within the TMF
embankments which has been provided by Amara.
Process Plant Equipment Costs
Equipment costs are based on budget prices obtained from suppliers, AMECs inhouse database or allowances derived from quotations for similar equipment, modified
and escalated as appropriate.
Short form enquiries were issued for most major items of process equipment including:

Crushers
Screens
Conveyors
Ball mill
Leach tanks agitators
Pump cells (CIP)
Elution plant (sulphides plant).

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Equipment costs have been obtained for the 6.5 Mt/a case and factored for the 5 Mt/a
and 8 Mt/a options.
Plant Bulk Earthworks, Drainage and Roads
In the main, work at the plant site has been factored or allowances included. All civil
costs (preparation of foundations, concrete materials & associated labour) have been
factored from the mechanical equipment costs. In the absence of detailed geotechnical
data at this stage, the following assumptions were made and factored accordingly:

A flat site requiring minor removal of vegetation/deforestation, overburden and top


soil not exceeding 150 mm

No soil stabilisation

Simple pad foundations with bearing capacity of 200 kPa


No piling or blasting of rock

No consideration has been given to potential ground water.

Plant and Mine Buildings


The costs for buildings have been factored or allowances have been provided.
Substation Buildings and Transformer Compounds
Cost allowances have been made for substation buildings and transformer compound.
Fire Protection and Detection
The costs for fire protection systems have been factored or allowances have been
made.
Sewage Treatment and Disposal (Plant)
An allowance has been made for a sewage treatment plant. This allowance is the
same for each of the throughput options considered.
Plant Mobile Equipment
A stand-alone mobile equipment fleet has been included to support the plant and
support services operations. The fleet comprises the vehicles listed in Table 21.1. The
fleet provided is the same for each of the throughput options considered.

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Table 21.1: Process Plant Mobile Equipment Fleet
Vehicle type

Quantity

Dual cab utilities


Mobile crane
Flat top truck w/Hiab
Light flat top truck
Elevated work platform
Mobile diesel welding machine
Mobile welding unit
Mobile compressor
Mobile lighting tower
Conveyor belt reel
Conveyor belt vulcanising equipment
Backhoe
Skid steer loader
Wheel loader
Fork lift
Pedestrian fork lift
Wheel grader
Water truck
Fire tender
Ambulance
4WD sedan
Bus

14
2
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
4
3

Bulk Fuel Storage and Distribution


No bulk fuel storage and distribution has been allowed for. It has been assumed that
this will be provided by the fuel supplier as part of the fuel supply service.
Mine Area Facilities and Services
No mining area facilities have been included in this estimate.
Tailings Disposal, Storage and Decant
For tailings disposal, a 10 m diameter x 10 m high surge tank for CIP tailing and an
overland pump and pipe set have been allowed for in the process plant. The surge
tank has been sized to provide approximately 1 hour retention time which is the typical
requirement for cyanide detoxification. This obviates the need for a smaller surge tank
used in normal operation and a detoxification tank of this size which is used
occasionally.
As described in Section 18.1, two tailings management facilities (TMFs) are required to
accommodate the tailings which will arise during the life of mine. These TMFs will be
constructed and operated sequentially, TMF1 being constructed at the start of the
project and TMF2 being constructed during Year 6 to be ready to receive tailings in
Year 7 when TMF1 has reached its design capacity. Further, each of the TMFs has
been designed using a combination of downstream and upstream construction
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methods and regular lifts of the retaining walls are required throughout the life of each
TMF.
This capital cost estimate includes only the costs associated with the predeposition
works on TMF1, excluding HDPE basal liners. A schedule of sustaining capital
expenditure over the remaining life of mine has also been compiled and is shown in
Table 21.4.
A pump and pipeline has been provided for return of TMF decant water to the plant.
Heap Leach Crushers
The crushing plant for the oxides heap leach system is assumed to be an existing
crushing plant relocated from Amaras Kalsaka operation in neighbouring Burkina
Faso. This estimate assumes that there is no cost to the Yaoure Project to purchase
the crushing plant. AMEC has estimated the cost to dismantle the crushing plant at
Kalsaka, transport it by road and reconstruct the plant at Yaoure.
Heap Leach Pads and Ponds
Heap leaching of oxides was previously practiced at Yaoure and the pad and ponds
still exist. More detailed review of the current condition of the Yaoure site and
equipment and assessment of potential suitability of existing heap leach equipment for
the new heap leach duty is required before it can be known whether any of the existing
equipment can be reused. A new heap leach pad and pods have therefore being
included in the estimate.
The heap leach pad consists of 16 cells developed over the life of the heap leach
operation. This estimate includes the costs to establish the first five cells which will
provide space to stack for the first 18 months of production. The schedule of on-going
capital expenditure required to expand the leach pad is shown in Table 21.5.
Main HV Supply
The total electrical demand for the site has been estimated at 40 MW and a high level
investigation of the requirements for transmission of this load to the Yaoure mine site
from the nearby Kossou hydroelectric scheme was conducted. Costs for the additional
equipment and system upgrades have been estimated using AMECs knowledge of
unit rates for such work and taking guidance from the quotation previously submitted to
Amara by CIE for a smaller (10 MW) upgrade.
Communications
No allowance has been made for regional communications. An allowance has been
made for plant and area communications systems. This allowance is the same for each
of the throughput options considered.
Emergency Power
Emergency power generation by diesel generator sets has been allowed for.
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Security
An allowance has been made for plant security. This consists of security fencing
around the perimeter of the plants, CCTV monitoring and entry control for both
employees and visitors. This allowance is the same for each of the throughput options
considered.
Refuse/Waste Disposal and Storage Facility
The estimate includes costs for a secure refuse and waste disposal area.
allowance is the same for each of the throughput options considered.

This

Permanent Accommodation
The permanent accommodation village cost is based on construction of 50 rooms in
three bedroom houses.
Water Supply and Distribution
A cost provision has been made for a pump station and a nominal length of 4 km of
400 NB unlined steel pipe to deliver water to the plant from the Kossou dam, close to
the hydroelectric scheme.
Electrical Power Distribution
An allowance has been made for LV power distribution within the plant and other areas
within the scope of this study.
Regional and Area Roads
Sealed roads pass close to the mine site and have been assumed to be adequate for
transporting loads for construction and operation. The last part of the road access to
the mine site is a 6 km sand road. A cost provision has been made for widening this
road and repairs where required.
Storm water Protection and Diversion
The requirement for protection from storm water egress has not been quantified due to
the preliminary nature of the study. However, allowances have been included in the
estimate for this.

21.1.3

Estimation Method
The capital cost estimate has been assembled on an electronic spreadsheet using the
following general methods of calculation.
Equipment Costs
A detailed equipment list has been prepared and imported into the estimate. Costs
have been entered to each item of equipment as per the basis outlined above.

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Bulk Quantities
Costs for earthworks, concrete, steelwork, plate work, piping, electrical and
instrumentation have been factorized from the equipment cost using in-house factors
for each of these components from similar installations.
The factored instrumentation cost does not include a distributed control system for the
plant and a separate cost allowance has been made for this.
Construction Labour
The cost of construction labour each item on the mechanical equipment list has been
factorized from the equipment cost using in-house factors for similar installations.
Plant and Other Project Buildings
The costs for buildings have been developed from in-house data for similar facilities.
Costs have been included for the following buildings:

Plant workshops
Administration and management offices
Laboratory
Warehouse.

Freight
An allowance of 5 % road of the relevant direct field supply costs has been made for
transport costs. Ocean freight costs for equipment and materials have been factorized
as 10 % of the equipment cost.
Preliminaries (Mobilisation/Demobilisation, Temporary Facilities, etc.)
Preliminaries are those items that must be included to the estimate but cannot be
included in specific WBS areas because they are applicable across a number of areas.
They typically consist of:

Mobilisation and demobilisation of contractors


Contractors site ablutions
Construction site temporary power
Construction site temporary communications
Site temporary power to service contractors huts, etc.
Site temporary fuel storage
Construction water stand pipe and storage
Contractors laydown area
Cost of vendors representatives to be present when commissioning equipment
Assistance by contractors when carrying out commissioning the plant.

Mobilisation and demobilisation and commissioning assistance costs are included at a


rate of 15 % of the plant construction direct labour cost.
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First Fill of Reagents and Consumables


A cost allowance has been made for the first fill of reagents and consumables based
on projects of similar size.
Capital Spares
Included is an amount equal to 5 % of the installed equipment cost to cover capital and
start up spares.
Indirect Costs Temporary Facilities and EPCM
For the purpose of the study it is assumed that an Engineering, Procurement and
Construction Management (EPCM) model is adapted for project delivery.
Indirect EPCM costs have been calculated as 15 % of the Direct Costs.
The cost of temporary facilities such as the establishment of construction management
temporary facilities, temporary infrastructure and accommodation has been allowed at
4 % of the Direct Costs.
Accuracy Provision (Growth Allowances)
An accuracy provision has been applied at a rate of 20 % of the total Direct Cost and
Indirect Cost to allow for the present immaturity in the design. However, it does not
consider allowances for such subjective risks as:

21.1.4

Currency exchange rate fluctuations


Construction market forces
Environmental considerations
Community input considerations
Unusual weather conditions
Labour availability
Difficult ground conditions
Change to statutory regulations, charges and taxes
Scope changes.

Qualifications and Clarifications


Specific exclusions/inclusions are below:

GST, VAT or any like tax has not been included.


If import duty or foreign taxation is applicable to any imported equipment it has not
been included.
No escalation costs have been included from base date of estimate.
Foreign exchange variations from estimate base rates are excluded.
Minimum allowance has been made for rock excavation, dewatering or sub strata
improvement. It has been presumed that the site is generally clear and ground
conditions are suitable for the construction of the proposed works.
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21.1.5

It is assumed that suitable borrow pits for building materials are in close proximity
and, where there is a requirement for select fill, it can be produced with a minimum
of screening and water conditioning.
Mining fleet and mine pit development is excluded.
Owners project execution costs are excluded.
Owners contingencies or risk amounts are specifically excluded.
River and/or public road diversions have not been allowed for.
All costs not specifically stated
Package Plant not identified in the Mechanical Equipment List
Bulk fuel storage.

Processing and Infrastructure Capital Cost Summary

Sulphides Plant and Infrastructure


The cost breakdowns by WBS area for the three plant capacity options are given in
Table 21.2.
Table 21.2: Sulphides Plant and Infrastructure Capital Cost Estimate
6.5 Mt/a
Estimated
Cost
USD'000

Area Description

5.0 Mt/a
Factored
Cost
USD'000

8.0 Mt/a
Factored
Cost
USD'000

Crushing

48 409

43 393

57 157

Milling

27 595

24 735

31 256

Leaching

19 562

17 535

22 158

CIP

15 731

14 101

17 818

Elution and Gold Room

5 175

4 639

5 862

Tailings Disposal

4 042

3 623

4 578

Cyanide Detox

443

397

502

Reagents

327

293

370

Air Compression and Distribution

511

458

579

Water Distribution

772

692

875

1 471

1 318

1 666

124 039

111 185

142 821

2 575
In power
distribution

2 308
In power
distribution

2 916
In power
distribution

Plant Buildings

5 091

5 091

5 091

Fire Protection

500

448

566

Main Pipe Racks


Process Plant Total
Site Preparation and Improvements
Substation Buildings and Transformer Compounds

Sewage Disposal and Treatment (Plant)

100

100

100

5 045

5 045

5 045

By vendor

By vendor

By vendor

Tailings Line

2 961

2 654

3 354

Tailings Storage Facility

9 800

8 785

11 100

Decant Line

1 486

1 332

1 683

Not required

Not required

Not required

Mobile Equipment
Bulk Fuel Storage and Distribution

Storage Ponds

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Area Description

Main HV Switch-yard
Control Systems
Communications (allowance)
Emergency Power
Security
Refuse/Waste Disposal & Storage Facility

6.5 Mt/a
Estimated
Cost
USD'000
In power
distribution

5.0 Mt/a
Factored
Cost
USD'000
In power
distribution

8.0 Mt/a
Factored
Cost
USD'000
In power
distribution

2 427

2 175

2 749

500

448

566

1 000

896

1 133

500

500

500

500

500

500

32 485

30 283

35 304

Permanent Accommodation

7 950

7 950

7 950

Water Supply and Distribution

2 986

2 677

3 383

Electrical Power Distribution

3 185

2 855

3 608

N/A

N/A

N/A

Plant Infrastructure Total

Air Strip
Area Roads

3 000

3 000

3 000

Included

Included

Included

500

500

500

17 622

16 982

18 441

N/A

N/A

N/A

9 000

9 000

9 000

Included

Included

Included

N/A

N/A

N/A

Regional Infrastructure Total

9 000

9 000

9 000

First Fill Reagents and Consumables

4 591

4 115

5 200

Ocean Freight

1 302

1 167

1 475

Capital/Strategic Spares

3 032

2 717

3 434

Vendor's Representative

Storm water Protection and Diversion


Area Communications
Area Infrastructure Total
Regional Roads
Electrical Power Feeder
Water Transmission Line
Regional Communications

Included

Included

Included

Contractors' mobilisation and demob

6 499

5 826

7 361

Commissioning assistance

2 575

2 575

2 575

Miscellaneous
Total Direct Cost
Construction Facilities, Services & Equipment
Construction Accommodation & Infrastructure
EPCM
PCM for Turnkey Packages
Total Indirect Cost

17 999

16 401

20 045

201 144

183 851

225 611

4 023

3 677

4 512

6 034

9 193

11 281

30 787

30 787

30 787

2 318

2 318

2 318

43 162

45 974

48 898

244 306

229 826

274 508

Accuracy Provision

37 406

35 189

42 030

Total Initial Capital

281 712

265 015

316 539

Total Bare Cost

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Oxides Plant
Table 21.3: Oxides Plant Capital Cost Estimate 1.6 Mt/a
Estimated Cost
USD'000

Area Description
HL equipment dismantling and reassembling

1 666

HL Crushing

HL Agglomeration

HL - Conveying and Stacking

HL - Pad and Ponds

12,473

HL ADR

Process Facility Total

14 140

Site Preparation & Improvements

664

Substation Buildings & Transformer Compounds

Existing

Plant Buildings

390

Fire Protection

Existing

Sewage Disposal and Treatment (Plant)

Existing

Mobile Equipment

Existing

Bulk Fuel Storage and Distribution

Existing

Storage Ponds

Existing

Main HV Switch-yard

Existing

Control Systems

Existing

Communications (allowance)

Existing

Power

Existing

Security

33

Refuse/Waste Disposal & Storage Facility

Existing

TOTAL - Plant Infrastructure

1 087

Permanent Accommodation

1 365

Water Supply Distribution

Existing

Electrical Power Distribution

Existing

Air Strip

N/A

Area Roads

Existing

Storm water Protection and Diversion

Included

Area Communications

Existing

TOTAL - Area Infrastructure

1 365

Regional Roads

N/A

Electrical Power Feeder

Existing

Water Transmission Line

Existing

Regional Communications

N/A

TOTAL - Regional & Remote Infrastructure


First Fill Reagents & Consumables

0
Nil

Transport of plant

1 303

Capital/Strategic Spares

Existing

Vendor's Representative

N/A

Contractors' mobilisation and demob

2 121
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Estimated Cost
USD'000

Area Description
Commissioning assistance

N/A

TOTAL - Miscellaneous

3 424

TOTAL Direct Cost

20 015

Construction Facilities, Services & Equipment

801

Construction Accommodation & Infrastructure

1 001

EPCM

2 773

PCM for Turnkey Packages

384

TOTAL Indirect Cost

4 958

TOTAL BARE COST

24 973

Accuracy Provision

6 243

TOTAL Initial Capital

31 217

Sustaining Capital for Sulphides Plant


Construction of the main embankment at TMF1 requires on-going capital expenditure
from Years 2 to 5 of the project. During Year 6 the starter embankment of TMF 2 is
built and the base is prepared. Thereafter, on-going expenditure is required to
sequentially increase the height of TMF2. The schedule of this expenditure is shown in
Table 21.4. Also shown is the sustaining capital requirement for the sulphides plant
and infrastructure.
The costs to develop the TMFs have been estimated from quantities of materials
required at stage. Plant maintenance cost has been calculated as 2 % of the cost of
the direct cost of the plant. The costs for plant and area infrastructure have each been
calculated as 1.5 % of the direct cost in that area.
Table 21.4: Schedule of Sustaining Capital Expenditure - Sulphides Plant 6.5Mt/a
SUSTAINING CAPITAL (USD'million)
Area

Y2

Y3

Y4

Y5

Y6

Y7

Y8

Y9

Y10

Y11

Y12

TMF
Plant
Plant Infrastructure
(excl. TMF)
Area Infrastructure

1.13

1.35
2.48

0.92
2.48

0.43
2.48

11.84
2.48

0.71
2.48

5.75
2.48

4.49
2.48

1.46
2.48

0.97
2.48

1.00
2.48

0.34
0.26

0.34
0.26

0.34
0.26

0.34
0.26

0.34
0.26

0.34
0.26

0.34
0.26

0.34
0.26

0.34
0.26

0.34
0.26

Total

1.13

4.44

4.01

3.52

14.93

3.80

8.84

7.57

4.54

4.05

4.09

Note that the base case schedule applies only to Y11 of the above estimate due to the shorter mine life.

Sustaining Capital for Oxides Plant


Initial capital expenditure for the oxides plant provides for preparation of sufficient pad
area for 18 months of stacking. On-going expenditure is then required to create further
pad area to accommodate more crushed material. The schedule of this expenditure is
shown in Table 21.5. Costs have been derived from estimates of the quantities of
materials required at each stage of expansion of the pad.

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Table 21.5: Schedule of Sustaining Capital Expenditure - Oxides Plant
SUSTAINING CAPITAL (USD'million)
Area

Year 2

Year 3

Year 4

Year 5

Year 6

HLP
Plant
Plant Infrastructure
Area Infrastructure

8.73

0.00
0.40
0.02
0.02

8.73
0.40
0.02
0.02

0.00
0.40
0.02
0.02

0.00
0.40
0.02
0.02

Total

8.73

0.43

9.17

0.43

0.43

An estimate for 6 Mt of ore (4 years) has also been completed and included in
Appendix K.

Closure Costs for Sulphides Plant and Infrastructure


Closure of the Sulphides Plant includes rehabilitation of the TMFs, dismantling and
removal of the processing plant and infrastructure equipment and rehabilitation of these
areas. The estimated cost of closure is shown in Table 21.6. Note that the closure and
rehabilitation of TMF 1 can be affected during the later years of operation, when TMF 2
is operating.
Table 21.6: Sulphides Plant Closure Cost
Cost
(USDmillion)
1.8
2.2
14.4
18.4

Area
TMF 1
TMF 2
Plant and infrastructure
Total closure cost

Closure Costs for Oxides Plant and Infrastructure


Closure of the Oxides Plant includes rehabilitation of the leached heaps and solution
ponds, dismantling and removal of the processing plant and infrastructure equipment
and rehabilitation of these areas. The estimated cost of closure is shown in Table 21.7.
Table 21.7: Oxides Plant Closure Cost
Area
Leach pad and ponds
Plant and infrastructure
Total closure cost

Cost
(USDmillion)
0.8
1.8
2.6

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21.2

Mining Capital Estimates

21.2.1

Estimate Basis
The mining capital costs have been estimated by Amara internally based on an owner
operated fleet that has been sized to fit the annual tonnage required to achieve the
production schedule.
As the project advances, a trade-off study will need to be completed between owneroperator versus contractor mining, which would reduce the upfront capital.
The capital cost of the mobile equipment has been estimated based upon data
supplied by the various equipment dealers.

21.2.2

Mining Equipment Fleet


The pre-production mining capital costs of USD 75.0 million (base case) covers the
cost of the new mobile equipment required to meet the Year 1 production schedule.
The equipment prices include the estimated transport and assembly costs at the mine
site. Table 21.8 lists the pre-production fleet numbers and total capital costs.
Table 21.8: Pre-production capital Mining Fleet

Function

Make

Model

Cost

5 Mt/a

6.5 Mt/a

6.5 Mt/a

8 Mt/a

(USD)

USD 800/oz
Pit Design

USD 800/oz
Pit Design

USD 950/oz
Pit Design

USD 950/oz
Pit Design

Primary Shovel

Komatsu

PC3000

4,691,517

Primary Haul Truck

Komatsu

HD785

1,127,450

18

21

21

27

Secondary Shovel

Komatsu

PC2000

2,936,704

Secondary Loader

Komatsu

WA900

1,661,641

Primary Drill Rig

Reedrill

SKF12

1,500,000

10

10

Secondary Drill Rig

Tamrock

Pantera 1500

510,368

Primary Dozer

Komatsu

D375AX

984,786

Primary Grader

Komatsu

GD825

682,792

Rubber Tired Dozer

Komatsu

WD600

780,242

Primary Water Truck

Komatsu

HD465-7WT

966,708

75,000

300,000

300,000

100,000

150,000

75,000

Light Vehicles

25,000

Dewatering Pumps

130,000

(USD)

65,677,280

74,980,917

79,895,445

91,768,858

RT Backhoe

CAT

Service Truck
Fuel Truck

General

Personnel Carrier

General

Tire Handler
Lighting Plants

Total Mining Capital

CAT
Allight

IT28B

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21.2.3

Sustaining capital
The sustaining capital of USD 14 million (base case) will cover the costs of:

Additional mining equipment to increase or maintain capacity (trucks)


Replacement mining equipment to sustain capacity (drills)

Table 21.9: Sustaining capital Mining Fleet (LOM)


Function

Make

Model

Cost

5 Mt/a

6.5 Mt/a

6.5 Mt/a

8 Mt/a

(USD)

USD 800/oz
Pit Design

USD 800/oz
Pit Design

USD 950/oz
Pit Design

USD 950/oz
Pit Design

Primary Shovel

Komatsu

PC3000

4,691,517

Primary Haul Truck

Komatsu

HD785

1,127,450

16

30

30

Secondary Shovel

Komatsu

PC2000

2,936,704

Secondary Loader

Komatsu

WA900

1,661,641

Primary Drill Rig

Reedrill

SKF12

1,500,000

Secondary Drill Rig

Tamrock

Pantera 1500

510,368

Primary Dozer

Komatsu

D375AX

984,786

Primary Grader

Komatsu

GD825

682,792

Rubber Tired Dozer

Komatsu

WD600

780,242

Primary Water Truck

Komatsu

HD465-7 WT

966,708

RT Backhoe
Service Truck

300,000

Fuel Truck
Personnel Carrier

General

Tire Handler
Lighting Plants

CAT

4
4

75,000

CAT

General

300,000
100,000
IT28B

Allight

150,000
75,000

Light Vehicles

25,000

14

14

35

35

Dewatering Pumps

130,000

(USD)

46,033,161

13,943,407

75,143,590

64,560,892

Total Mining Capital

The results of Table 21.9 show the impact of the production rate / equipment hours / pit
size trade off as the different pit sizes and production rates have a large impact on the
timing of equipment replacement expenditures. The shorter mine life (10.3 years) in the
base case has significantly reduced replacement capital requirements compared to the
other cases which all extend beyond 10 years. The other cases generally require
replacements to the mining fleets in years 9-11 based on the assumed circa 60,000
hour equipment life which the base case avoids. This is a key driver of the relative
economic performance of the base case.

21.2.4

Mining capital costs summary


Table 21.10 summarises the mining fleet capital requirements.

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Table 21.10: Mining Capital Cost Estimates Summary
5 Mt/a
USD 800/oz
Pit Design

6.5 Mt/a
USD 800/oz
Pit Design

6.5 Mt/a
USD 950/oz
Pit Design

8 Mt/a
USD 950/oz
Pit Design

Pre-production

65.7

75.0

79.9

91.8

Sustaining

46.0

13.9

75.1

64.6

MINING CAPEX (USD m)

21.2.5

Oxide (heap leach) capital estimates


For the oxide heap leach scenarios it has been assumed that it will be contractor
operation with mining capital costs of USD 3 million mobilisation and USD 1 million
demobilisation assumed.
An intercompany transfer cost (or purchase price) for the heap leaching equipment has
been estimated at USD 10 million and owners charges of USD 2 million have been
included in the pre-production capital for the heap leach case.

21.3

Capital cost summary


The pre-production and sustaining capital expenditure for mining, processing and
infrastructure in combined in Table 21.11 for each case covered in the PEA. In the base
case, the total LOM capital is USD 446 million, of which the preproduction capital is
USD 357 m.
Table 21.11: Total LOM Capital Cost Estimates - Summary
5 Mt/a
USD 800/oz
Pit Design

6.5 Mt/a
USD 800/oz
Pit Design

6.5 Mt/a
USD 950/oz
Pit Design

8 Mt/a
USD 950/oz
Pit Design

1.6 Mt/a
Heap
Leach

Mining

112

89

155

156

16

Pre-production

66

75

80

92

15

Sustaining

46

14

75

65

Processing & Infrastructure

345

357

369

398

44

Pre-production

265

282

282

317

31

Sustaining

61

57

69

63

10

Closure

18

18

18

18

Total Pre-production Capital

331

357

362

408

46

Total Sustaining Capital

107

71

144

127

11

Total LOM Capital

456

446

524

554

60

TOTAL CAPEX (USD m)

Except for the Heap Leach scenario, these figures assume owner-operated mining. If
contractor fleet was applied this could reduce the upfront capital by removing the
mining capital and replace it with higher mining operating costs.

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21.4

Processing Operating Costs Estimate

21.4.1

Estimate Basis
Operating costs for the plants and infrastructure have been estimated to an accuracy of
35 % using data from a number of sources. Individual operating cost estimates have
been compiled for both the sulphides plant/infrastructure components of the project and
the oxides heap leach operation.

21.4.2

Reagents and Consumables


Reagents are consumed during the leaching, elution and smelting processes. Where
reagent consumption was measured during laboratory testing, for example bottle roll
leach tests, figures from tests at similar conditions to those assumed for the process
design in this study have been applied. Where processes were not tested, such as
elution, typical conditions have been assumed and reagent consumption calculated
accordingly.
Costs have been estimated for the following reagents:

Lime sulphide leach pH control.


Cyanide sulphide leaching, sulphide elution plant, oxides leaching, oxide elution
plant.
Oxygen required for sulphide leaching, cost for rental of a 10 t/d VPSA plant.
Hydrochloric acid - sulphide elution plant, oxide elution plant.
Sodium hydroxide - sulphide elution plant, oxide elution plant, oxide heap leach
solution pH control.
Flocculant for operation of the tailing thickener.

Other consumables estimated include grinding media and activated carbon. Steel ball
consumption has been calculated from the Abrasion Index measured during the
laboratory programme. A typical rate of carbon consumption has been assumed. No
cost provision has been made for cyanide detoxification reagents as this process will
only be operated occasionally should cyanide concentrations exceed prescribed limits.
Cost allowances have been made for other consumables and services:

Crusher liners
Mill liners
Screen decks
Diesel for vehicles and mobile equipment
Sample analysis
Equipment hire.

Costs of reagents and consumables have been obtained from AMECs database and
these have been checked with Amaras knowledge of current rates of supply elsewhere
in West Africa.

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Reagent and consumable costs have been estimated for the oxides heap leach and
ADR plant separately to those for the sulphides plant to allow for better evaluation of
the economics of treating oxide material separately.

Maintenance
Maintenance costs have been estimated per area as a percentage of the direct costs in
that area.

Power
AMEC has estimated the electrical load from the Mechanical Equipment List. The cost
per unit has been taken as 0.09 USD/kWh on the advice of Amara.

Labour
AMEC has defined a manning structure for the plant and infrastructure areas of the
Yaoure Project. Local labour rates have been provided by Amara.

General costs
Cost allowances have been made for:

21.4.3

Safety equipment
General freight
Accommodation
Consultants.

Processing Operating Costs Estimate Summary


The operating costs of the sulphide plant at the base throughput of 6.5 Mt/a are shown
in Table 21.12. The estimated operating costs of the sulphides plant at 5 Mt/a and
8 Mt/a are shown in

Table 21.13 and Table 21.14 respectively. Details are included in Appendix J.
Table 21.12: Operating Cost Summary 6.5 Mt/a Sulphide Plant

Labour

% of total
cost
4

Annual Cost
USD000
2 910

Power

33

21 561

3.32

68.74

Reagents

49

32 412

4.99

103.34

Consumables

2 004

0.31

6.39

Maintenance materials

10

6 506

1.00

20.74

General and Administration

Cost element

TOTAL

Page 21-237

Unit Cost
USD/t milled
0.45

Unit Cost
USD/oz Au
9.28

483

0.07

1.54

65 876

10.13

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PRELIMINARY ECONOMIC ASSESSMENT


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Table 21.13: Operating Cost Summary 5 Mt/a Sulphide Plant

Labour

% of total
cost
6

Annual Cost
USD000
2 910

Unit Cost
USD/t milled
0.58

Unit Cost
USD/oz Au
12.06

Power

32

16 652

3.32

68.77

Reagents

48

25 023

5.00

103.71

Consumables

1 725

0.34

7.15

Maintenance materials

11

5 852

1.17

24.25

General and Administration

483

0.10

2.00

52 586

10.52

217.95

Unit Cost
USD/t milled
0.36

Unit Cost
USD/oz Au
7.54

Cost element

TOTAL

Table 21.14: Operating Cost Summary 8 Mt/a Sulphide Plant

Labour

% of total
cost
4

Annual Cost
USD000
2 910

Power

33

26 523

3.32

68.71

Reagents

50

48 488

4.94

102.29

Consumables

2 283

0.29

5.92

Maintenance materials

7 494

0.94

19.41

General and Administration

483

0.06

1.25

79 183

9.90

205.12

Cost element

TOTAL
Table 21.15: Operating Cost Summary Oxide Plant
Cost element

% of total
cost

Annual Cost
USD000

Unit Cost
USD/t milled

Unit Cost
USD/oz Au

Labour

599

0.37

9.22

Power

83

15 249

9.53

234.54

Reagents

616

0.38

9.47

Consumables

850

0.53

13.08

Maintenance materials

906

0.57

13.94

General and Administration

<1

60

0.04

0.92

18 281

11.43

281.17

Total

21.5

Mining Operating Costs Estimates

21.5.1

Estimate Basis
The open pit mine operating costs have been estimated on an annual basis by
determining the requirements for mobile equipment, manpower levels, pumping,
engineering, general services, and supplies.
Equipment operating costs have been established in detail on the basis of data
gathered from other operations and information provided by the manufacturers.
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The operating costs reflect component replacement and consumable costs. Such
details used in the estimates are sourced from data gathered from other operations and
information provided by the manufacturers Supplies for general services, assaying
and secondary drilling and blasting are included in General Services.
Fuel has been considered at a fixed rate in this study at USD 1.10/litre. Power has also
been considered at a fixed rate, remaining at USD 0.09/kWh.
Efficiency
For the major equipment, certain assumptions are made in order to establish the
operating hours required.
The base assumptions are:

365 Operating days per year


2 Operating shifts per day
10.5 Hours operated per shift
50 Minutes operated per hour
90% Availability
85% Utilisation

The Hours operated per shift are based on a 12-hour shift schedule. A typical 12-hour
shift will include 2 30-minute lunch breaks and 2 other 15-minute breaks over the
course of the shift. This equates to 1.5 hours of break time, or 10.5 usable hours per
shift. Over and above this, availability and utilization factors are applied to determine
the number of hours per day actually spent carrying out a particular function at peak
efficiency, where:
Efficiency = Availability x Utilisation
Labour
Labour costs have been developed based upon prior West African operations
experience with pay scales for hourly and salaried employees plus a benefits burden.
Manning levels were established from production schedules and were calculated on an
annual basis. The labor charges include all supervisor and technical management of
the mining process. The average labour cost over the life of the mine is displayed in
Table 21.20. The labor costs include a charge for the proportion of labor that will utilise
the camp accommodation. Manning numbers are displayed in Appendix M.
Drilling
The drill productivity and hence drill cost per tonne will be driven mostly by type of
material mined. Material within the Yaoure mining area varies from very soft (heavily
oxidized volcanics and granodiorite) to hard (fresh volcanic). Systematic measurement
of compressive strengths by rocktype and oxidation state has not yet been completed.
Large diameter drills have been assumed to operate with 20m per hour penetration
rates and the small diameter drills 35 m per hour.

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As discussed in Section (Open Pit Mine Operation Drilling), bulk waste patterns will
be drilled by a CAT MD6240 (or equivalent) with nominal life of 60,000 operating hours.
A Sandvik DP1500i (or equivalent) will drill the ore zones, buffer zones, ramps and presplit patterns, and will be used to supplement the CAT MD6240s as required with
nominal life of 26,000 operating hours.
The operational parameters used to establish the drilling costs are:

Drill hours per shift 8.8


Availability 90%
Utilisation 85%
Penetration rate 20m (CAT MD6240) and 35m (Sandvik DP1500i) per hour
Average drill operating cost per hour* USD 142.59/hr
Fuel consumption per hour 61 litres (CAT MD6240) and 57 litres (Sandvik
DP1500i)
*Excludes: all labour and hourly maintenance captured in maintenance contract and Manpower.

Drill requirements vary considerably over the mine life and are dependent on the
number of active phases and the relative proportion of ore and waste mined. The
number of drills required is shown in Table 21.8 and Table. The total number of smalldiameter drills required is the sum of the drills required for both pre-split and smalldiameter drilling.

In Year 1, eleven drills (8 large and 3 small) are needed because of high tonnage
required at start-up.
In Year 5, four small replacement drills are required.

The average drilling cost over the life of the mine is displayed in Table 21.20.
Blasting
The blasting cost varies and is primarily dependent on whether large- or small-diameter
blastholes are blasted. The expanded drill pattern for the large-diameter blastholes
potentially reduces the powder factor, and hence the blasting cost. Also, the cost may
increase with depth, as more wet-hole explosives are required due to groundwater. In
addition, as depth increases, the proportion of material that must be mined as buffer
zones will increase. If this material is drilled on the small-diameter pattern, it will result
in a further increase in blasting cost with depth. This is an issue that will be addressed
on an operational basis.
Blasting costs have been estimated based on the following parameters:

Initiating and bulk explosives will be supplied under a down-the-hole contract.


The supply contract will include a total on-bench blasting service.
Blasting crew will be supplied by the contractor.
Where possible, blastholes will use a waterproof emulsion rather than be
dewatered and lined.
Stemming plugs will be used to increase blasting efficiency, if operating costs justify
the use.
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Wet conditions are expected to occur with approximately 75% of material blasted.
ANFO is available at USD 650 per tonne
Emulsion is available at USD 1000 per tonne
Powder factor of 0.70 kg/m3 or 0.25 kg/t when SG = 2.83
Initiation costs of USD 20.91 per hole

The average blasting cost over the life of the mine is displayed in Table 21.20 and is
inclusive of the blasting contractor management fee.
Loading
The majority of waste will be handled by the PC3000 shovels. The PC2000 shovels will
handle the majority of ore loading as well as up to 10% of the bulk waste in a given
period. In addition, WA900 rubber tired loading units will be purchased to feed the
crusher and act as back up to the primary units. Parameters used to establish the
loading costs are given in the following table.
Table 21.16: Loading Equipment Parameters
Hours per shift
Availability
Utilization
Bucket capacity
Swell factor
Bucket fill factor
Moisture content
Shovel cycle time
First dump time
Spot time
Truck capacity
Loading time
Passes to load
Maximum output
Fuel consumption
Operating cost*

hr
%
%
3
m
%
%
%
s
s
s
3
m
s
#
t/hr
l/hr
USD/hr

PC3000
8.8
90
85
15
30
85
5
35
15
30
51
185
5
1685
196
215

PC2000
8.8
90
85
11
30
85
5
35
15
30
51
220
6
1366
151
167

WA900
9.2
90
85
9
30
85
5
40
15
30
51
325
8
1032
114
125

*Operating cost is displayed excluding labor.

The figures given for production rates are for fresh material. The actual rates are varied
throughout the life of the project, as the average SG of the rock moved varies slightly
from year to year. Production rate estimates for the PC3000 vary from 1366 t/h to 1685
t/h, for the PC2000 from 1149 t/h to 1366 t/h, and for the WA900 from 778 t/h to 1032
t/h over the schedule. The mine design calls for dual-lane access ramps to the bottom
of each phase.
Haulage
Haul distances, by period, have been determined for the waste, ore and stockpile
haulage requirements for each bench. The haul distances along with the road
conditions, the truck and shovel performance capabilities and the material propertied of

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the rocks are used to estimate the number of trucks required in each fleet and the fuel
consumption.
The haulage fleet is assumed to be based on 90-tonne class (Komatsu HD785 or CAT
777) haulage units. It is anticipated that 21 new haulage trucks will be required initially
in the base case.
Table 21.17: Haulage parameters
Ramp Grade
Cut-off

Speed
(Uphill)

Speed
(Downhill)

Fuel
(Uphill)

Fuel
(Downhill)

km/hr

km/hr

litres/hr

litres/hr

40

40

65

65

30

30

60

50

25

25

70

50

15

15

90

50

50

50

55

55

35

35

45

40

28

28

55

40

18

18

65

40

Loaded

Empty

The parameters used to establish haulage costs are listed below in Table 21.18.
Projected operating costs are USD 83 per operating hour in the base case.
Table 21.18: Truck Cycle Parameters
Item
Hours per shift
Availability
Utilization
Volume capacity
Truck fill factor
Truck carry back
Tire cost
Tire life
Fuel consumption
Operating cost

Unit
hr
%
%
3
m
%
%
$
hr
l/hr
$/hr

HD785
8.8
90
85
51
95
3
15000
4000
126
82.94

Table 21.19 details the year-by-year haulage fleet requirements. After an initial rampup to full production in Year 1, the haulage fleet requirements remain steady at
approximately 22 trucks until Year 4, when additional capacity is required. The
cumulative hours per tuck to the end of Year 10 is 62,668, showing a 4% stretch over
the equipment average life in the base case.
Table 21.19: Annual haulage requirements Base case
Year
Truck
Hours
Number
of trucks
Hours per
truck

10

142,536

127,302

138,439

159,422

150,752

154,473

127,321

122,930

132,614

122,950

21

22

22

25

24

25

20

20

21

20

6,197

6,365

6,293

6,377

6,281

6,179

6,366

6,147

6,315

6,148

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The average ore and waste load and hauling costs are shown in Table 21.20 including
maintenance and parts and excluding labour.
Roads and Dumps
This section encompasses the cost of all ancillary equipment required for operation of
the Yaoure open pit. This includes all equipment necessary for maintenance of the
bench floors, ramps, roads, waste dumps and stockpiles.
General Services
General services includes the following components:

Pit dewatering
Secondary drilling and blasting
Light vehicle supply and maintenance
General supplies
Supply and install of rock sheeting on ramps and bench floors.

Mine Engineering
Mine engineering costs consist of engineering and surveying supplies, assaying,
computing accessories and maintenance. Assaying is based upon costs established
from current West African mine assay rates and assuming each blasthole requiring one
assay.
Maintenance
Maintenance costs not covered by the maintenance and repair contract total USD 0.01
per total tonne or less than 1% of the total and include workshop and power
distribution.

21.5.2

Mining operating cost estimate summary


Table 21.20 provides the unit mining costs for the cases presented in this report.
Table 21.20: Mining operating cost estimates summary
5 Mt/a
USD 800/oz
Pit Design

6.5 Mt/a
USD 800/oz
Pit Design

6.5 Mt/a
USD 950/oz
Pit Design

8 Mt/a
USD 950/oz
Pit Design

Manpower

0.29

0.25

0.24

0.21

Drilling

0.22

0.22

0.22

0.23

Explosives & Blasting

0.37

0.36

0.37

0.37

Loading - Shovels

0.13

0.12

0.13

0.12

Loading - Rehandle - FEL

0.03

0.03

0.03

0.03

Ore & Waste Haulage - Trucks

0.33

0.31

0.37

0.36

Roads & Dumps - Other

0.21

0.21

0.18

0.18

MINING OPEX (USD/t mined)

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General Services

0.04

0.04

0.06

0.05

Mine Engineering

0.05

0.05

0.05

0.05

Maintenance

0.83

0.82

0.82

0.82

Total Costs

2.49

2.41

2.47

2.42

The average mining cost over the life of the project in the base case is
USD 2.41 per tonne mined.

21.5.3

Oxide (heap leach) mining operating cost estimate


The oxide (heap leaching) scenario assumes a contractor operation due to the short
mine life. A mining cost of USD 3.45 per tonne was assumed, which includes
contractor charges based on the companys experience in operations currently using
contract mining in Burkina Faso.

21.5.4

Other General and Administration costs


A portion of the general and administration (G&A) costs are partially included in the
mining and processing operating cost estimates outlined above. The breakdown of the
G&A included in the mining and processing costs are summarised in Table 21.21. As
these do not cover all central charges, other G&A costs have been estimated and
provided in Table 21.22.
Table 21.21: G&A charges included in Mining & Processing costs
Item

USDm/a

Processing plant management staff

1.96

Mining operations management and technical staff

4.66

Accommodation camp & HSE

0.94

Total G&A included in Mining & Processing costs

7.55

Note this annual cost is common to the 5,6.5 and 8 Mt/a tonnage scenarios

Note that camp costs are based on accommodating approximately 150 people, largely
expatriates, with the remaining workforce of up to 450 people sourced at the gate from
surrounding villages and from the capital city Yamoussoukro, which is located only
40km from site.
Table 21.22: Other G&A charges
Item
Central management & administration staff
Accommodation camp
Security
Insurance
Legal / audit / tax / other advisory
Contingency
Other G&A costs (excluding Table 21.21above)

USDm/a
1.80
0.14
0.54
0.73
0.80
0.20
4.20

Note this annual cost is common to the 5,6.5 and 8 Mt/a tonnage scenarios

Therefore the annual combined G&A charge across each case is USD 11.8 million.

Page 21-244

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APRIL 2014

Refining charges
In all cases a refining and freight charge of USD 6.50 per ounce of gold produced has
been applied in all cases.

Page 21-245

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YAOURE GOLD PROJECT CTE DIVOIRE
APRIL 2014

22.0

ECONOMIC ANALYSIS
The Yaoure Gold Project economic evaluation has been prepared by combining the
mining schedule and cost estimates from Amara with the process and infrastructure
cost estimates from AMEC, as outlined in Sections 16, 17, 18 and 21. The financial
model and its outputs has been prepared Amara.

22.1

Evaluation Method
The Yaoure Project economics has been evaluated using the discounted cash flow
method, applying the annual schedule of tonnes mined and processed, grade profile
and recovery to the gold revenue and cost assumptions. The discount cash flow has
been used to generate the net present value (NPV) of the project. The project has been
evaluated on a 100% equity basis with no debt financing.
A discounted cash flow model was prepared on the same basis for each case
analysed, as listed in Table 22.1 below:
Table 22.1: Scenarios included in economic analysis
Capacity

Process Circuit

Pit Shell

Material

Nomenclature

5.0 Mt/a

Whole ore leach

USD800/oz

Oxide & sulphide

6.5 Mt/a

Whole ore leach

USD800/oz

Oxide & sulphide

6.5 Mt/a

Whole ore leach

USD950/oz

Oxide & sulphide

8.0 Mt/a

Whole ore leach

USD950/oz

Oxide & sulphide

headline case

1.6 Mt/a

Heap leach

Oxide

oxide case

base case

The effects of a 10% government free carry was also assessed and provided in the
detailed cash flow models provided in Appendix N.

22.1.1

Model Assumptions
The key assumptions used in the financial analysis are summarised in Table 22.2 and
commented on below. Fiscal assumptions for the project are in Table 22.3.
Table 22.2: Key assumptions in the economic evaluation
Item
Gold Price

Units

Rate

USD/oz

1,250

Discount Rate

Depreciation - CIP

10

Depreciation - Heap leach

25

Diesel Price

USD/l

1.10

Sodium Cyanide

USD/t

3,500

USD/kWh

0.09

Power

Gold price: Models were run at USD1,250 per ounce and sensitivities were un at $100
increments from USD1,000 to $1,500 gold.
Page 22-246

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APRIL 2014

Fiscal terms: The mine will operate under Cte dIvoire mining legislation. The Cte
dIvoire parliament voted the new mining code on 4 March 2014, however this new
mining code does not include tax provisions, which remain subject to public and
industry consultation. Amara has participated in consultations between the Government
and the mining industry for the fiscal terms. Once these aspects have been finalised, it
is planned that they will be issued by means of presidential decree. The PEA assumes
fiscal terms which have been drawn from a combination of these discussions,
published Government proposals and recent precedent mining agreements. Not VAT,
duties or levies have been assumed.
Table 22.3: Fiscal Assumptions
Item

Rate

Corporate Tax (%)


Community fund (% revenue)
Royalties (%)

25
0.5
Scale

<= USD 1000/oz

<= USD 1300/oz

3.5

<= USD 1600/oz

> USD 1600/oz

Tax Holiday (years)

Government free carry provision (%)

10

No tax holiday was applied to Heap leach (oxides) case

Depreciation: A straight line method was applied over 10years for the whole ore plant
and reduced to 4 years for the heap leach (oxide) case in line with the shorter mine
life. It has been calculated from the time that production commences from each year
capital is expensed.
Construction capital: A two-year construction period and initial capital program has
been assumed (pre-production) with a 40:60 split, with the first year of construction
representing the first period of the NPV calculation.
Sunk capital: Expected project expenditures prior to the first year of the NPV
calculation have been estimated and included as sunk capital, which is carried forward
as losses and applied in the amortisation and depreciation charge.
Table 22.4: Sunk capital assumptions
Sunk Capital

USD m

Capital expenditure to date

32.4

Further estimate for CIP

25.0

Further estimate for oxides / HL

5.0

CIP or HL cases assume to stand-alone

Working capital: Working capital calculations are based on creditor and debtor period
assumptions typical for a gold mining operation based in West Africa in Amaras
experience. Due to the relatively high throughput rates and timing of the production and
limited prestrip in the first year of production, working capital associated with ramping
up has been applied.
Page 22-247

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APRIL 2014

Inflation: In line with standard practice in the gold industry, no inflation was applied to
the cash flow analysis.
Currency: The inputs and financial modelling were all in United States Dollars.
Termination value: no termination value has been assumed in any case.

22.1.2

Evaluation Results
The main inputs and outputs of the financial model for each of the cases analysed are
summarised in Table 22.5 below:
Table 22.5: Summary results by Project case
5 Mt/a
USD 800/oz
Pit Design

6.5 Mt/a
USD 800/oz
Pit Design

6.5 Mt/a
USD 950/oz
Pit Design

8 Mt/a
USD 950/oz
Pit Design

5.0

6.5

6.5

8.0

1.6 Mt/a
Heap Leach

Mining
Annual Production (Mt)

1.6

Mine Life (Yrs)

13

10

15

12

Ore Mined (Mt)

63.9

63.9

94.6

94.6

5.6

Average Grade (g/t)

1.53

1.53

1.39

1.39

1.49

Waste Mined (Mt)

314

314

492

492

14

Total Material (Mt)

378

378

587

587

20

Strip Ratio (t w:o)

4.9

4.9

5.2

5.2

2.5

Processing
Contained gold (Moz)
CIP Recovery (%)

3.1

3.1

4.2

4.2

0.3

95.0

95.0

95.0

95.0

80.0

Gold Produced (Moz)

3.0

3.0

4.0

4.0

0.2

Annual Average Output (koz)

216

279

265

325

54

464

613

554

688

28

Results
NPV (post-tax at 8%, USDm)
IRR (%)

25

33

26

32

52

Payback (Yrs)

3.4

2.6

3.2

2.4

0.8

1,250

1,250

1,250

1,250

1,250

Gold Price (USD/oz)

All cases show strong economics at USD 1250 gold, with the prime options displayed
as the 6.5 Mt/a (USD 800/oz Pit Design) base case and the 8.0Mt/a (USD 800/oz Pit
Design) headline case. Furthermore, the two 6.5 Mt/a scenarios show the impact of
constraining the pit size to increase the grade, bringing forward production into a 10
year window and reducing the capital replacement exposure.
Note in viewing these results that the preliminary economic assessment is preliminary
in nature, that it includes Inferred mineral resources considered too speculative
geologically to have the economic considerations applied to them that would enable
them to be categorises as mineral reserves, and that there is no certainty that the
preliminary economic assessment will be realised.

Page 22-248

PRELIMINARY ECONOMIC ASSESSMENT


YAOURE GOLD PROJECT CTE DIVOIRE
APRIL 2014

Cash costs
The LOM unit cash costs were also calculated. A breakdown of the life of mine
operating costs per ounce for each scenario are provided in Table 22.6
Table 22.6: Cash cost breakdown by Project case
5 Mt/a
USD 800/oz
Pit Design

6.5 Mt/a
USD 800/oz
Pit Design

6.5 Mt/a
USD 950/oz
Pit Design

8 Mt/a
USD 950/oz
Pit Design

1.6 Mt/a
Heap
Leach

Mining

315

305

360

352

320

Processing

225

217

238

233

299

Other G&A

Area (USD/oz)

20

15

17

14

78

Operating Cash Costs

560

537

615

598

697

Royalty/Other

56.5

56.5

56.5

56.5

56.5

Total Cash Costs

617

594

671

655

754

Depreciation

168

168

140

150

453

Total Production Costs

785

762

811

805

1207

Total Capital

153

149

130

138

279

All-In Costs

770

743

801

792

1033

The base case LOM discounted cash flow model is provided as Table 22.7. The
remaining scenarios are provided in Appendix N.

Key results

The project has been shown to be robust across a range of production capacities

The cases offering the most attractive NPV and IRR are the:

Base case the 6.5 Mt/a (USD 800 pit) operation delivers a post-tax NPV of
USD 613 million at a gold price of USD 1,250 per ounce and 8% discount rate, with
an IRR of 33% and operating cost (excluding royalties) of USD 537/oz.

Headline case - the 8 Mt/a (USD 950 pit) operation delivers a post-tax NPV of
USD 688 million at a gold price of USD 1,250 per ounce and 8% discount rate, with
an IRR of 32% and operating cost (excluding royalties) of USD 598/oz ounce.

Across the cases the payback period ranging from 0.8 (heap leach) to 3.4 (5 Mt/a)
years at a gold price of USD 1,250 per ounce.

Project economics are assisted by low energy cost, estimated at 9c/KWh, and a
high gold recovery of 95%.

The economic analysis supports the continued study and development of the
project with the base and headline cases showing large scale single pit operations
with gold production of circa 300,000 ounces per annum (average).

The oxide (heap leach) option provides an attractive IRR but is a lower value option
available to the group, pending the availability of capital.

Page 22-249

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YAOURE GOLD PROJECT CTE DIVOIRE
APRIL 2014
Table 22.7: Base case (6.5 Mt/a, USD 800 Pit Design) discounted cash flow model
Year

-2

-1

10

11

Total/ Ave.
PRODUCTION
Mining
Total Ore Mined
Total Ore Grade
Contained Au
Waste Mined
Total Material
Strip Ratio

kt
g/t
koz
kt
kt
t:waste:ore

63,897
1.53
3,140
313,848
377,745
4.9

0
0.00
0
0
0
0.00

0
0.00
0
0
0
0.00

3,320
1.59
169
39,680
43,000
11.95

6,500
1.52
317
36,500
43,000
5.62

6,500
1.46
306
36,500
43,000
5.62

6,500
1.50
314
36,500
43,000
5.62

6,500
1.20
252
36,500
43,000
5.62

6,500
1.22
254
34,673
41,173
5.33

6,430
1.50
310
26,570
33,000
4.13

6,500
1.56
326
23,241
29,741
3.58

6,500
1.45
303
23,500
30,000
3.62

6,500
1.84
384
18,018
24,518
2.77

2,147
2.96
204
2,166
4,313
1.01

Processing
Plant Feed
Grade
Contained Gold
Overall Recovery
Gold Produced

kt
g/t
koz
%
koz

63,897
1.53
3,140
95.0%
2,982.81
279

0
0.00
0
0.0%
0

0
0.00
0
0.0%
0

3,320
1.59
169
95.0%
161

6,500
1.52
317
95.0%
301

6,500
1.46
306
95.0%
290

6,500
1.50
314
95.0%
298

6,500
1.20
252
95.0%
239

6,500
1.22
254
95.0%
241

6,430
1.50
310
95.0%
295

6,500
1.56
326
95.0%
310

6,500
1.45
303
95.0%
288

6,500
1.84
384
95.0%
365

2,147
2.96
204
95.0%
194

USD/oz
USDk
USDk
USDk
USDk
USDk

1,250
3,728,509
(130,498)
(18,643)
(19,388)
3,559,980

0
-

0
-

1,250
201,061
(7,037)
(1,005)
(1,046)
191,973

1,250
376,374
(13,173)
(1,882)
(1,957)
359,362

1,250
363,010
(12,705)
(1,815)
(1,888)
346,602

1,250
373,106
(13,059)
(1,866)
(1,940)
356,241

1,250
298,869
(10,460)
(1,494)
(1,554)
285,360

1,250
301,706
(10,560)
(1,509)
(1,569)
288,069

1,250
368,457
(12,896)
(1,842)
(1,916)
351,803

1,250
387,404
(13,559)
(1,937)
(2,015)
369,893

1,250
360,249
(12,609)
(1,801)
(1,873)
343,966

1,250
455,949
(15,958)
(2,280)
(2,371)
435,340

1,250
242,323
(8,481)
(1,212)
(1,260)
231,370

OPERATING COSTS
Mining
Processing
G&A
Total Opex

USDk
USDk
USDk
USDk

(909,502)
(647,275)
(46,200)
(1,602,977)

(78,651)
(33,632)
(4,200)
(116,483)

(96,332)
(65,845)
(4,200)
(166,377)

(112,119)
(65,845)
(4,200)
(182,164)

(104,654)
(65,845)
(4,200)
(174,699)

(95,059)
(65,845)
(4,200)
(165,104)

(104,303)
(65,845)
(4,200)
(174,348)

(80,804)
(65,131)
(4,200)
(150,135)

(80,557)
(65,845)
(4,200)
(150,602)

(87,737)
(65,845)
(4,200)
(157,782)

(55,257)
(65,845)
(4,200)
(125,302)

(14,030)
(21,752)
(4,200)
(39,982)

OPERATING CASHFLOW

USDk

1,957,003

75,490

192,986

164,439

181,543

120,256

113,721

201,668

219,292

186,183

310,038

191,388

REVENUE
Gold Price
Gross Revenue
Royalty
Community Development Fund
Freight and Refining Charges
Net Revenue

Page 22-250

PRELIMINARY ECONOMIC ASSESSMENT


YAOURE GOLD PROJECT CTE DIVOIRE
APRIL 2014
Year
CAPITAL COSTS
Mining Pre-production
Mining Equipment
Process Plant
Plant Infrastructure
Area Infrastructure
Regional Infrastructure
Miscellaneous
Indirects
Contingency
Total Initial Capex

-2

-1

USDk
USDk
USDk
USDk
USDk
USDk
USDk
USDk
USDk
USDk

(74,981)
(124,039)
(32,485)
(17,622)
(9,000)
(17,999)
(43,162)
(37,406)
(356,694)

(49,616)
(12,994)
(7,049)
(3,600)
(7,200)
(17,265)
(14,962)
(112,685)

(74,981)
(74,423)
(19,491)
(10,573)
(5,400)
(10,799)
(25,897)
(22,444)
(244,009)

Mining
Other Sustaining
Closure
Total Sustaining & Closure Capex

USDk
USDk
USDk
USDk

(13,943)
(56,830)
(18,400)
(89,173)

Total Capex

USDk

(445,867)

(112,685)

PRE-TAX CASHFLOW

USDk

1,511,136

CORPORATE TAX
Depreciation
Cashflow less Depreciation

USDk
USDk

(501,022)
1,455,981

Tax allowance o/b


Tax allowance addition
Tax allowance used
Tax allowance c/b

USDk
USDk
USDk
USDk

Taxable income
Tax Payable

USDk
USDk

WORKING CAPITAL
Debtors - o/b
c/b
net change

10

11

(7,003)
(7,003)

(25)
(1,130)
(1,155)

(3,382)
(4,440)
(7,822)

(305)
(4,010)
(4,315)

(1,567)
(3,520)
(5,087)

(1,531)
(14,930)
(16,461)

(130)
(3,800)
(3,930)

(8,840)
(8,840)

(7,570)
(7,570)

(4,540)
(4,540)

(4,050)
(18,400)
(22,450)

(244,009)

(7,003)

(1,155)

(7,822)

(4,315)

(5,087)

(16,461)

(3,930)

(8,840)

(7,570)

(4,540)

(22,450)

(112,685)

(244,009)

68,487

191,831

156,616

177,228

115,169

97,260

197,738

210,452

178,613

305,498

168,938

(5,740)
(5,740)

(17,009)
(17,009)

(41,409)
34,080

(42,110)
150,876

(42,225)
122,213

(43,007)
138,535

(43,439)
76,817

(43,948)
69,773

(45,594)
156,074

(45,987)
173,305

(41,131)
145,053

(30,619)
279,419

(6,672)
184,716

5,740
5,740

5,740
17,009
22,749

22,749
(22,749)
-

11,332
-

150,876
-

122,213
-

138,535
-

76,817
-

69,773
(17,443)

156,074
(39,019)

173,305
(43,326)

145,053
(36,263)

279,419
(69,855)

184,716
(46,179)

USDk
USDk
USDk

5,260
(5,260)

5,260
9,846
(4,586)

9,846
9,496
350

9,496
9,760
(264)

9,760
7,818
1,942

7,818
7,892
(74)

7,892
9,638
(1,746)

9,638
10,134
(496)

10,134
9,424
710

9,424
11,927
(2,503)

11,927
11,927

Creditors - o/b
c/b
net change

USDk
USDk
USDk

(7,180)
7,180

(7,180)
(10,256)
3,076

(10,256)
(11,229)
973

(11,229)
(10,769)
(460)

(10,769)
(10,178)
(591)

(10,178)
(10,747)
570

(10,747)
(9,255)
(1,493)

(9,255)
(9,284)
29

(9,284)
(9,726)
443

(9,726)
(7,724)
(2,002)

(7,724)
(7,724)

Overall Net Change

USDk

1,921

(1,510)

1,323

(724)

1,351

496

(3,239)

(467)

1,153

(4,506)

4,203

PROJECT FREE CASHFLOW

USDk

1,259,051

70,408
(286,286)

190,320
(95,966)

176,504
238,477

116,520
354,996

80,312
435,308

155,481
590,789

166,659
757,448

143,503
900,951

231,138
1,132,088

126,962
1,259,051

Payback
Discount Rate
NPV
IRR

Years
%
USDk
%

2.6
8.00%
612,721
33.1%

157,939
61,973
2.6

1,508,113
(252,085)

(112,685)
(112,685)

(244,009)
(356,694)

Page 22-251

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22.1.3

Sensitivity
A sensitivity analysis of the base case NPV is provided below. The remaining scenarios
are provided in Appendix O.
Figure 22.1: Project NPV sensitivity Base case

The project is most sensitive to gold production, followed by gold price. Impacts to gold
production can be driven by changes to the modelled grade or recovery, or other
impacts to the level of production (such as ramp up issues). The project is almost
equally sensitive to the gold price assumption. The project is also more sensitive to
changes in operating costs than capital costs.
The sensitivity analysis also shows the performance of the project at a range of gold
prices from USD 1,100 to USD 1,500 (Table 22.8). This demonstrates that Yaoure
continues to deliver strong returns at gold prices below USD 1250 per ounce, making
the project more robust to gold price fluctuations. Importantly the base case and
headline case post IRRs of above 20% in the USD 1,100 per ounce gold price
scenario. Stress testing beyond this range shows the project remains resilient down to
a break even gold price of circa USD 850 per ounce.
Table 22.8: Base case NPV (USD m) & IRR sensitivity to discount rate and gold price
Discount

USD1,000

USD1,100

USD1,200

USD1,250

USD1,300

USD1,400

USD1,500

5%

366

535

713

802

891

1,056

1,234

8%

247

388

538

613

687

826

975

10%

183

310

444

511

578

702

835

IRR

19%

25%

30%

33%

36%

40%

45%

Page 22-252

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Table 22.9: Base case NPV (USD m) & IRR sensitivity to CAPEX
Discount

-20%

-10%

0%

10%

20%

5%

877

839

802

765

727

8%

685

649

613

576

540

10%

582

547

511

475

440

IRR

41%

37%

33%

30%

27%

Table 22.10: Base case NPV (USD m) & IRR sensitivity to OPEX
Discount

-20%

-10%

0%

10%

20%

5%

1,010

906

802

698

594

8%

790

701

613

524

436

10%

671

591

511

431

352

IRR

40%

36%

33%

30%

26%

Table 22.11: Base case NPV (USD m) & IRR sensitivity to gold production*
Discount

-20%

-10%

0%

10%

20%

5%

359

581

802

1,024

1,245

8%

241

427

613

799

984

10%

178

345

511

678

844

IRR

19%

26%

33%

39%

46%

*Reflects impacts on gold output such as changes in productivity/grade/recovery

22.1.4

Summary and discussion of scenarios


The economic evaluation shows that the project produces robust cash flows across all
cases, with the 6.5 Mt/a base case and the 8 Mt/a headline case generating the highest
combined post tax NPV and IRR at USD 1,250 per ounce gold. While the project is
sensitive to the level of revenues driven by gold output and gold price, these two cases
maintain +20% IRR at a gold price of USD 1,100 per ounce. The 5 Mt/a case also run
on the USD 800 per ounce pit design also returned positive economics at
USD 1,250 per ounce gold, highlighting the potential for a staged development strategy
Clearly the low energy cost and access to a relatively established site are key in
maintaining the operating margins of the project.
The small scale heap leach case highlights the potential project option to enter
production on a reduced scale, pending the availability of capital. However, while the
potential returns on capital are high, the project generates a significantly lower NPV,
and is less robust at lower gold prices, with a breakeven of circa USD 1,075 per ounce.
The positive economics on the various production scales analysed suggest that
significant optionality exists in the project. This includes potential for staged
development scenarios. With further study and optimisation of the key aspects of the
project, such as the resource, recovery or mining methods, are therefore likely to
generate further beneficial results and could continue to alter the optimal project
parameters.

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23.0

ADJACENT PROPERTIES
Smaller reports or technical reports are prepared as one document. For larger reports,
sections are separated into sub-documents and later merged to create a master
document.
The situation with adjacent properties is unchanged since May 2013. Cominor CI has
an exploration licence to the north-east of Amaras Yaoure licence area, across Kossou
Lake (Figure 23.1). LGL Resources (Newcrest Mining Limited) has applied for two
exploration licences to the north-west part of the Yaoure licence area, which are in the
final stages of being granted. TD Continental, GIV Minerals, and D&K Mining CI have
applied for exploration licences to the south-west, south and south-east of the Yaoure
licence area.
Figure 23.1: Adjacent Properties to Amaras Yaoure Licence Area

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24.0

OTHER RELEVANT DATA AND INFORMATION

24.1

Project development and implementation


A high level, simplified timeline to development has been formulated for the purposes
of preparing the financial analysis in the PEA. This is shown graphically in Figure 24.1.
The study steps include:

Preliminary Feasibility Study 8 months


Definitive Feasibility Study 10-12 months
Front End Engineering and Project Execution 3 months to first construction

The durations of the next phases can be influenced by external factors such as
environmental permitting and consent of various government agencies. Given the
brownfield nature of Yaoure, the risks associated with these external factors are viewed
to be substantially less than for an equivalent greenfields project.
Figure 24.1: Project Implementation Schedule Sulphides Plant

24.1.1

Preliminary Feasibility Study (PFS)


The aim of a PFS is to produce a cost estimate of 20 % to 25 % accuracy. This will
generally involve work covering:

Defining measured and indicated resource


Conceptual mine design
Bench-scale metallurgical tests
Preliminary process flow diagrams (PFDs)
Preliminary material balances
Preliminary equipment list
Preliminary infrastructure and services
Basic mechanical drawings
Single source equipment pricing (major items).

There has been little test work done for either processing option. It is recommended
that more detailed test work is carried out covering comminution (including assessment
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of ore variability), leaching and other design aspects as discussed in Section 26.2. The
duration of a PFS would be eight months based on:

Four months for test work, pending laboratory availability


Four months of engineering and estimating work.

During the PFS, all options should be investigated with trade off studies conducted to
ensure that the optimum base case is selected by the end of the study in preparation
for more accurate cost definition in the subsequent phase.

24.1.2

Definitive Feasibility Study (DFS)


The aim of a DFS is to produce a cost estimate of 10 % to 15 % accuracy. This will
generally involve work covering:

Defining resource
Optimising plant capacity
Detailed mine design
Further bench-scale metallurgical tests or pilot plant
Finalisation of PFDs
Optimisation and detailing of material balances
Detailed equipment list
Detailed infrastructure and services
Preliminary mechanical drawings
Multiple source equipment pricing (major items).

Further test work is to be carried out on the selected process option to finalise the
process design criteria and ensure further accuracy of process and equipment
selection. The duration of a DFS would be 10 to 12 months based on:

24.1.3

Six months for test work pending laboratory availability


Four to six months of engineering and estimating work.

Front End Engineering and Project Execution


The execution phase includes detailed engineering, procurement, construction, initial
wet commissioning and the associated project management. The execution phase
itself is not judged to be unduly complex. Long lead items will determine the duration
of the project. The lead time for mills is up to 55 weeks (one year) in the current
market.
The ramp-up time to achieve design gold output is important. Given the development
of a sound engineering design basis, it is likely that the sulphides leach option would
achieve design throughput rapidly. It is expected that the ramp up period to full gold
output will be 3 months. It is important to note that these estimates will need to be
reviewed in the next phase of work.

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25.0

INTERPRETATION AND CONCLUSIONS


The Yaoure Project exhibits strong economics, exhibiting largely positive outcomes
over a wide variation in project scales and gold prices. In summary, using the base
case gold price of USD 1,250 per ounce and a discount rate of 8%, the following can
be asserted:

Base Case 6.5 Mt/a (USD 800 Pit design):

NPV: The Project is expected to generate a post-tax NPV of USD 613 million.

IRR: The financial model exhibits a post-tax IRR of 33%.

Total Cash Costs: LOM total cash costs (inc. royalties) of USD 594 per ounce.

Large scale production: 6.5 Mt/a single open pit operation at a strip ratio of 4.9,
producing 279,000 ounce per annum (average) over 10 years.

Headline case 8 Mt/a (USD 950 Pit design):

NPV: The Project is expected to generate a post-tax NPV of USD 688 million.

IRR: The financial model exhibits a post-tax IRR of 32%.

Total Cash Costs: LOM total cash costs (inc. royalties) of USD 594 per ounce.

Large scale production: 8 Mt/a single open pit operation, at a strip ratio of 5.2,
producing 325,000 ounce per annum (average) over 12 years.

Other key points

High Conventional Recoveries capacity: Processing through a conventional tank


leach / CIP plant achieves an expected gold recovery of 95%.

Optionality: Supports project configurations from heap leaching to whole ore


processing from 5 Mt/a to 8 Mta scale. This allows for further optimisation or staged
development, or if limited by capital, the ability to develop a much smaller scale
heap leaching operation.

Robust to lower price: the Base and Headline cases post an IRR of +20% at
USD 1,100 per ounce gold

Note that in viewing these results that the preliminary economic assessment is
preliminary in nature, that it includes Inferred mineral resources that are considered
too speculative geologically to have the economic considerations applied to them
that would enable them to be categorises as mineral reserves, and there is no
certainty that the preliminary economic assessment will be realised.

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25.1.1

Conclusions
This PEA is based on industry standard mining, processing and development practice
as well as standard economic evaluation methodology. The quality of geological and
other relevant data is adequate for the purpose of generating a PEA. Based on the
assumptions and methodology applied, the results of this study show that the Yaoure
project has positive economics (within the very preliminary parameters of a PEA) and
should be advanced to the next phase of studies by undertaking the work outlined in
the Recommendations section of this report.
While a significant amount of information is still required for a complete assessment of
the project, at this point, there do not appear to be any fatal flaws in the project. The
study has achieved its original objective of providing a preliminary review of the
potential economic viability of the Yaoure Project and has highlighted that the project
contains a large amount of optionality that may be explored in further detail as the
project progresses.

25.1.2

Risks
As with almost all mining ventures, there are a large number of risks and opportunities
that can affect the economic viability of the project. Subsequent higher level
engineering studies would be required to further understand the existing risks and
opportunities, identify new ones, and define strategies for risk mitigation or opportunity
implementation. For the process and infrastructure component, AMEC have detailed
risks and opportunities which are provided in Appendix A.
The key risks for the Yaoure Project have been identified as follows:

Reduced gold prices,


Geological interpretation and mineral resource classification (80% of the resources
used in the mine plan are Inferred), specifically with respect to overall Yaoure
deposit tonnage and grade,
Increased operating and capital estimates,
Geotechnical, geochemical and hydrogeological considerations,
Changes to gold recovery and mineral processing assumptions,
Cte dIvoire mining convention and changes in fiscal terms, and
Community engagement and unexpected changes in relocation and environmental
requirements.

More general statements regarding the project risk areas are defined below:

Defined risks
The nature of mining is characterised by inherent risk, with many factors both known
and unknown being able to threaten the economics of the project. For the project to
progress the risk factors needed to be aggressively addressed but that where possible,
further analysis or mitigating actions are required which can demonstrate that the
project remains robust despite inherent risks. Thus known risks, relevant to the
preliminary nature of this study, are identified and discussed below.
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The risks have been divided up into several sections, under the sub-headings seen as
follows:

General risks
Project specific risks
Mining and reserves risks
Processing risks
Environmental risks

General Risks
Mining assets are subject to certain inherent risks and opportunities, which apply to
some degree to all participants of the international precious metals mining industry.
These are defined largely as being items outside the control of the operator however
can be mitigated to a degree by have suitable mitigating plans in place.
Items such as fluctuations in gold price, gold price, exchange rates, inflation rate and
fuel prices are all beyond the control of the Project however some can be minimized by
potential forward selling of gold or ensuring contracts are fixed for certain periods of
time.
Country risks tend also to fall into this category where a stable fiscal environment is
desired. The negotiation of a mine convention that is beneficial to both parties becomes
paramount including the extent to which such conditions remain stable.
Project Stage Risks
It needs to be recognised that in viewing this document that the preliminary economic
assessment is preliminary in nature, that it includes Inferred mineral resources that are
considered too speculative geologically to have the economic considerations applied to
them that would enable them to be categorises as mineral reserves, and there is no
certainty that the preliminary economic assessment will be realised. Further work to
increase the confidence of the resource estimate has potential to have a significant
impact on key project parameters as the project advances through the preliminary
feasibility study (PFS) and feasibility study (FS) stages of the project. Accordingly, at
the present level of development, there are no mineral reserves at the Yaour Project.
Project Specific Risks
Project-specific risks relate largely to the reliability of the PEA and the skilled
knowledge of personnel who provided input into the document on a discipline basis.
Examples of such risk include the level of accuracy of the financial model including the
inputs that stand behind it. It therefore highlights the need to ensure that well qualified
and experienced personnel become involved at an early stage so that risks in this area
are minimized.
Mining Risks
In mining, the very many aspects that contribute towards its definition or scope and
quantification thereof in terms of capital and operating costs is each subject to a certain
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amount of uncertainty. This in turn can have either a major or minor effect on the
originally intended project economics. Risks specific to this discipline include the level
of geotechnical and hydrological investigation performed along with its interpretation to
ensure that the selected pit slopes are considered adequate. The physical ability to be
able to follow the theoretical mine plan needs to be proved by further study and project
development.
Processing Risks
Processing risks to consider are specifically related to the material treatment. These
risks are unlikely to be catastrophic in nature but are more likely to represent gaps in
the knowledge base which with time will in any event become more accurate. These
have a high potential for being successfully managed and controlled through further
metallurgical testing and process design. The major risks identified include the ability of
being able to ramp up to full production as forecast both in terms of production and
gold recovery as well as reagent consumptions.
Environmental Risks
These risks are related to causal events which potentially result in some form of
environmental hazard. While no fatal flaws have been identified, the project needs to
be mindful of environmental and social risks the project may face. Such risks require
careful management, and are helped by a history of success. Amara has in the past,
and continues to maintain a strong relationship and dialogue with the surrounding
communities, and recognizes the value of a relationship built on the basis of mutual
benefit.

25.1.3

Opportunities
The following key opportunities may improve the project economics and need further
investigation:

Selective mining: The Mineral Resource and the PEA have assumed a bulk
approach to mining. The economics of the project may be optimised by selective
mining of the mineralised packages contained in the CMA combined with further pit
optimisation. Increased selectivity would allow for reduced blocks sizes in the
model, resulting in lower dilution and higher grades to supplement the lower grades
of Yaoure Central.

Equipment optimisation: Given the bulk nature of the mining in Yaoure mine
plans and the relative proportion of mining operating costs, there is potential for
future optimisation of the size of the equipment fleet compared to what was
considered in the PEA.A trade-off on contract versus owner-operator equipment will
be required as the project advances.

Process selection: With favourable metallurgy and Yaoure ores amenability to a


number of conventional processing methods, items such pre-concentration via
flotation and/or gravity need further testing and evaluation, to see if capital and
operating savings can be achieved. Also SAG milling has been excluded based on
one rod mill test results further test work is required to confirm this approach.

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Project layout: Depending on the processing route taken, there is further potential
to optimise the locations of site infrastructure such as the waste storage facility,
tailing storage facility and the mill site to take greater advantage of the project
topography, thus reducing total operating costs.

Staged development: The capital spending profile of Yaoure project may benefit
from staged development approach, particularly with regards to mill capacity,
process route and the mining and processing schedule of oxide & sulphide material
to reduce start-up capital requirements.

Heap leach plant relocation: An opportunity exists to develop oxides in short term
assuming the relocation to site of the 1.6 Mt/a Kalsaka/Sega plant, which has an
estimated plant and infrastructure capital spend of USD 31.2 million.

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26.0

RECOMMENDATIONS
The results of the PEA indicate that the Project should be taken to the next level of
engineering study and economic assessment, typically a PFS, but it could be a FS.
It is estimated that a PFS, along with all of the accompanying engineering and field
work would cost approximately USD 2.5 million, exclusive of the recommended
additional geology and drilling program outlined below.
To enable a comprehensive prefeasibility or feasibility study to be completed, the
Inferred Resource component in the current resource estimate requires upgrading to
Indicated or Measured Resource categories.

26.1

Exploration
The recommended three phase exploration programme is therefore focused on infill
drilling:
(i)

Phase 1 - to bring the drill spacing across the whole predominantly Inferred
resource to a nominal 100m x 100m spacing,

(ii)

Phase 2 - nominal 50m x 50m drill spacing for Indicated Resources for the for
Indicated Resources for the Pre-feasibility Study, and

(iii)

Phase 3 - 25m x 25m drill spacing for Measured Resources for the Feasibility
Study. The first infill phase of 12,500m will be diamond drilling.

The second phase of 42,500m will be split between diamond drilling and RC drilling. In
addition, about 4500m of core drilling for geotechnical, hydrogeological and
metallurgical studies is recommended for the Pre-Feasibility Study. A further 30,000m
of drilling is anticipated for the third phase to bring a portion of the Indicated Resource
to Measured status. The total programme is budgeted as $14.4 million.
Table 26.1: Yaoure Infill Drilling Cost Estimates

Infill
Objective
Phase 1
Information
Gaps
Phase 2
Indicated
resource
Phase 3
Measured
Resource
TOTAL

Method

Drill
Spacing

Drilling
Metres

Cost
1
USD K

Drilling
2
Duration

DD

100m x
100m

12,500

2,500

1.5 months

50m x 50m

42,500

6,800

4 months

25m x 25m

30,000

5,100

3 months

85,000

14,400

8.5 months

DD + RC

DD + RC

1.

Includes all drilling, assay and Mineral Resource Estimation costs, plus staff and logistics costs.

2.

Based on 3-4 Diamond drill rigs and one RC rig.

3.

Approximately 70% diamond drilling and 30% RC.

4.

There is likely to be a break between Phase 2 and Phase 3, whilst PFS is completed.

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26.2

Metallurgy/process Recommendations
It is recommended that test work and process trade off studies are performed to cover
the following:

Mineralogy: develop an understanding of the gold association and the sulphide


mineralisation present in the ore and waste. This is specifically relevant to waste
handling to understand the potential for acid rock drainage.
Ore Characterisation and Comminution: UCS values, crusher indices and SAG
milling indices were not measured previously. It is recommended that this test work
is done at the next phase of the project to ascertain whether SAG is a viable option
and to improve the level of confidence in the design of the crushing and milling
systems. Further crushing and grinding tests should be undertaken to quantify
variability in rock hardness across the deposit.
Beneficiation: conduct further flotation and gravity separation test work, in
particular aimed at reducing the consumption of cyanide in concentrate leaching, to
better estimate the effects on capital and operating cost of installing gravity or
flotation circuits, and to review and validate process selection.
Conventional Leaching: continue leach tests to determine the optimal conditions
for leaching, including oxygen uptake rate tests to confirm whether low pressure
compressed air is able to supply sufficient oxygen or oxygen enrichment is
necessary.
Solid-Liquid Separation: should geotechnical testing of tailings confirm that
thickening is required ahead of the TMF, perform settling tests to determine the size
of the required thickener and rheological tests to direct design of the tailing pipeline.
Geometallurgy: develop a geometallurgical model of the deposit to quantify
variability of throughput rate, gold recovery and reagent consumption across the
deposit which will allow more accurate financial modelling and better operational
management and control.
Acid Generating Potential: conduct laboratory tests to measure the acidgenerating potential of waste rock and tailings to identify suitability of this material
for construction of the TMF retaining walls and any lining requirements for these or
the waste dump.

Geotechnical studies for key infrastructure

A detailed topographical survey will be required to validate the heap leach pad,
solution corridor, TMF embankments alignment and TMF storage capacity.

Tailings and foundation soil geotechnical laboratory and site investigation will need
to be undertaken to confirm earthworks volume and foundation soil geotechnical
characteristics and investigate potential borrow area for fill material.

Hydrological and hydrogeological investigations will need to be undertaken at the


next stage of study. Geotechnical and geochemical analysis of mine waste should
commence as soon as possible to validate Amaras preference for using approved
mine waste in the construction of TMF embankments.

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26.3

Mining recommendations

Undertake mine layout studies, including review the location of the plant site, waste
dumps and TMFs;

Conduct geotechnical and hydrological studies of the pit parameters to confirm key
design assumptions;

Review and optimise the haulage cycles and equipment selections, with respect to
both bulk or selective mining methods and waste dump locations;

Optimise mine planning aspects such at Year 1 production and pre-stripping


requirements, ramp designs to optimise the ramp up early cash flow.

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27.0

REFERENCES
Abraham, A 2013, Report for CLUFF Gold plc. Cte dIvoire SARL (Amara Mining) on
the methodology for building of the Grade shells for the Yaoure Gold Deposit Cte
dIvoire, 11 April 2013. Unpublished Report.
Allieres, A 2013, Geophysical modelling and interpretation over Yaoure Deposit, Cte
dIvoire, Unpublished PGN Report 7/2013 for Amara Mining, April 2013, 23 pages.
AMC Consultants Ltd (UK), Yaoure Gold Project, Cte dIvoire: Technical Report and
Mineral Resource Estimates for Amara Mining Plc. NI 43-101 Report with effective
date 25 March, 2013.
AMEC Earth & Environmental UK Ltd, 2014, Scoping Study - Processing Facilities and
Site Infrastructure - Yaoure Gold Project, Cte dIvoire 11 April 2014, Unpublished
report for Amara Mining plc.
Baker, M 2011, Remote sensing/magnetics interpretation of Yaoure permit, Cte
dIvoire, Job No.211, June 2012, 11 pages.
Bond, W, 2013a, Final Summation Report for the Yaoure Project, new logging system
and interpretations, 4 May 2013, 22 pages.
Bond, W, 2013b, Report on the Cluff Gold (WA) CI Yaoure Mining SA Project, 10 July
2013, 91 pages.
Canadian Institute of Mining, Metallurgy, and Petroleum. CIM DEFINITION
STANDARDS - For Mineral Resources and Mineral Reserves. November 27, 2010.
Coulibaly, Y, Boiron, M, Cathelineau, M, & Kouamelan, A 2008, Fluid immiscibility and
gold deposition in the Birimian quartz veins of the Angovia deposit (Yaoure, Ivory
Coast), Journal of African Earth Sciences Volume 50, pp. 234-254.
Deustch, C.V., DECLUS: a FORTRAN 77 Program for Determining Optimum Spatial
Declustering Weights, Computers & Geosciences, 15(3): 325-332, 1989.
Deustch, C.V., and Journel, A.G., GSLIB: A Geostatistical Software Library and Users
Guide, Oxford University Press, New York, 340p., plus CD-ROM, 1997.
GeoSystems International, Inc, 2014, Yaoure Gold Project, Cte DIvoire; Technical
Report and Mineral Resource Estimates. NI 43-101 Report with effective date 13
January 2014.
Isaaks, E.H., SAGE2001 Documentation, www.isaaks.com, 68pp, 2001.
Isaaks, E.H., and Srivastava, R.M., An Introduction to Applied Geostatistics, Oxford
University Press, 561p, 1989.
Journel, A.G., and Huijbregts, Ch.J., Mining Geostatistics, Academic Press, 600p,
1978.
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Kerr, D 2012, Geological Interpretation and Controls on Gold Mineralization at the


Yaoure Gold Deposit, Cte dIvoire, Unpublished report for Yaoure Mining SARL, 26
November 2012, 22 pages.
Le Roux, T 2012, High Resolution Airborne Magnetic and Radiometric Survey
Interpretation Report, Yaoure Area, Xcalibur Airborne Geophysics, June 2012, 27
pages, Unpublished report for Amara Mining plc.
Lompo, M 2010, Paleoproterozoic structural evolution of the Man-Leo Shield (West
Africa). Key structures for vertical to transcurrent tectonics, Journal of African Earth
Sciences, Volume 58, pp. 19-36.
Milesi, JP, Ledru, P, Feybesse, J L, Dommanget, A & Marcoux, E 1992, Early
Proterozoic ore deposits and tectonics of the Birimian orogenic belt, West Africa,
Precambrian Research Volume 58, pp. 305-344.
Robert, F, Poulsen, KH & Dube, B, 1997, Gold Deposits and Their Geological
Classification, Proceedings of Exploration Geochemistry Volume 97 Paper 29, pp.
209-291.
Rossi, M.E. and Parker, H.M., Estimating Recoverable Reserves: Is It Hopeless?,
presented at the Forum 'Geostatistics for the Next Century', Montreal, Quebec,
Canada, June 3-5, 1993.
SGS, 2012a, Scoping Metallurgical Report on a Gold Ore from Cte dIvoire Project
Number 10866-321, 16 April 2012, Unpublished report for Amara Mining plc.
SGS 2012b Variability Cyanidation Report on a Gold Ore from Cte dIvoire Project
Number 10866-375, 5 December 2012, Unpublished report for Amara Mining plc.
SGS 2012c Phase Two Scoping Testwork on Yaoure Sulphide Ore Project Number
10866-395 dated 15th May 2013, Unpublished report for Amara Mining plc.
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Cte dIvoire Project Number 10866-425 dated 14th November 2013, Unpublished
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SGS Environmental, 2014, Scoping Metallurgical Report on a Gold Ore from Cte
dIvoire Yaoure Gold Project - Preliminary Environmental Assessment, 13 March
2014, Unpublished report for Amara Mining plc.
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Amstrong, Ed., Geostatistics, pp. 295-308, Reidel, Dordrecht, Holland, 1988.
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Vidal, M, Gumiaux, C , Cagnard, F, Pouclet, A G. Ouattara, G & M. Pichon, M 2009,


Evolution of a Paleoproterozoic weak type orogeny in the West African Craton (Ivory
Coast), Tectonophysics Volume 477, pp.145-159.

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APPENDICES

Appendix Page 1

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APPENDIX A

Process & Infrastructure Risks & Opportunities

Appendix Page 2

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Sulphides Plant and Infrastructure Risks and Opportunities
Risk/Opportunity

Explanation

Potential Impact

Potential Mitigation

Assumed gold recovery


too high/low

The recovery values selected for the Study are


based on limited test work.

Gold production/revenue values not correct.

Perform metallurgical test work based on a


sample selection programme/geometallurgical
evaluation.

Inaccurate topographical
base data

Project topographical map currently based on


low resolution satellite data only

Inaccurate earthworks volume estimation.


Inaccurate TMF storage capacity

More detailed survey will improve quantities


estimation accuracy

Climate report and water


management

The water balance defines the overall water


management strategy and costs

Excess storm water can cause significant


operating issues

Gather additional information on the


precipitation characteristics on site

Geotechnical assessment

No geotechnical assessment has been


undertaken to assess the soil foundation
strength and to identify potential fill sources

Lack of geotechnical data could affect heap


area requirement and TMF embankment slope
assumptions. A decrease in slope angles
would negatively impact on project economics
due to increased heap leaching area and TMF
embankment fill requirements.

Geotechnical site and laboratory


investigation/evaluation for next level of study
to develop reliable geotechnical models

Geochemical assessment

No geochemical laboratory testing has been


conducted to assess the potential of Acid Rock
Drainage

Specific monitoring and ARD control method


could be required to contain potential
contamination

Geochemical laboratory
investigation/evaluation for next level of study

Base data on water


quality and villages water
supply

No assessment has been undertaken to


identify possible path and receptors,
monitoring water quality, identify villages
water supply and to assess the transport fate
of contaminants from the tailings water

Implication of inaccurate assumptions on


detoxification requirement could impact
operating costs

Laboratory testing to assess cyanide and other


contaminant levels and determine impact on
environment and water supply detoxification
requirement

Appendix Page 3

PRELIMINARY ECONOMIC ASSESSMENT


YAOURE GOLD PROJECT CTE DIVOIRE
APRIL 2014
Risk/Opportunity

Explanation

Potential Impact

Potential Mitigation

Environmental/social
impact of location of
TMFs

Impact of TMF location on local communitys


exclusion areas (sacred forest areas,
cemeteries)

Risk of onerous mitigation measures which


require to be incorporated into technical design

Evaluate alternative TMF locations in greater


detail during further phases of study

TMF embankment fill


material won from open
pit pre-stripping works

Capital cost of suitable earth fill material for


embankment construction will influence the
overall project economics. No assessment has
been made of suitability of earth fill from open
pit pre-stripping works for embankment fill

Lack of suitable earth fill from open pit prestripping works at time of construction can
increase capital investment

Geotechnical and geochemical (ARD potential)


site and laboratory investigation/evaluation for
next level of study to identify alternative earth
fill sources

Laterite material to be
used for Heap Leach Pad
over liner-cushion layer

Over liner material (crushed gravel or naturally


sourced laterite) can have significant impact on
Heap Leach Pad capital cost

Availability of locally sourced laterite can


significantly reduce cost

Investigation/evaluation to assess suitability of


laterite material as over liner

No HDPE liner for the


proposed TMF

The requirement for a HDPE liner can have


significant impact on capital cost

Permeability of natural basal liner and potential


contamination of groundwater due to tailings
water seepage could lead to the requirement
for a HDPE liner and significant additional cost

Hydrogeological investigation of TMF


impoundment area to address the requirement
of HDPE liner

Ore hardness (Rod Mill


Work Index) is extremely
high
SAG milling

Cannot be certain of sample representivity.

Size of comminution equipment and power


requirement may be overstated

Perform further RMWI (and BMWI) tests on


representative samples

SAG appears not to be viable due to very high


RMWI value.

Opex and capex may be higher or lower than


could be achieved

Perform SAG-specific lab tests to determine


whether sulphides are amenable to SAG

Kalsaka crushing plant is


not capable of crushing
1.6 Mt/a of Yaoure oxides

AMEC has not reviewed the inputs to the


USIMPAC simulation of the Kalsaka crushers

Oxide plant throughput less than current


specification

Confirm crushability parameters through


specific testing

Appendix Page 4

PRELIMINARY ECONOMIC ASSESSMENT


YAOURE GOLD PROJECT CTE DIVOIRE
APRIL 2014
Risk/Opportunity
Preconcentration by
flotation

Explanation

Potential Impact

Potential Mitigation

Test work has shown that flotation and


intensive cyanidation of concentrate can
recover >80 % of the gold. High cyanide
consumption currently makes this less
economic than WOL but reduction in this could
change the comparison.
Pump cells of a given size are more costly
than conventional adsorption tanks of the
same size but a smaller elution plant is
possible.
Density for placement of tailings on TMF has
been assumed for this study due to absence of
geotechnical or rheological characterisation
tests. Higher pumped densities may be better
for TMF operation or have lower capex/opex.

Significant reduction in capital cost of leach


and CIP plants with lower opex.

Lab test work to investigate potential to reduce


cyanide addition.

Costs currently estimated may not be as low


as could be achieved.

Trade-off study recommended

Reduction in Capex

Determine if thickener is required by


performing tailings settling and compaction
tests

Cyanide detoxification
opex assumed to be zero
on the basis that UV light
will destruct cyanide at
TMF.
Cost to upgrade HV
substation at
hydroelectric station may
be inaccurate

In times when water is not retained at TMF for


long enough, detoxification may be required.

Opex will be higher during these periods.

Ensure decant pond provides sufficient


residence time to allow cyanide destruction

Previous quote from CIE was for 10 MW


upgrade but switchgear costs appear high.
Cost for 40 MW upgrade has been estimated
from this quote.

Capital cost may vary from current estimate

Substation inspection and discussion with


utility company recommended during next
stage of study

Power may not be


available for the
hydroelectric station

The increase of power demand to ~40 MW


may exceed the requirements/allocation to
industry.

Capex increase due to the necessity of


installing additional power generation capacity.
Project delays due to the above.

Engage with power supply authorities early


and confirm power availability.

High cost of pump cells


may not be offset by
reduced elution costs
Cost of tailing thickener
not currently justified by
demonstrable reduction
in TMF cost

Appendix Page 5

PRELIMINARY ECONOMIC ASSESSMENT


YAOURE GOLD PROJECT CTE DIVOIRE
APRIL 2014

APPENDIX B

Process Design Criteria Sulphides Plant

Appendix Page 6

PRELIMINARY ECONOMIC ASSESSMENT


YAOURE GOLD PROJECT CTE DIVOIRE
APRIL 2014

Yaoure Project PEA

Process Design Criteria


Sulphides Leach

Document No. 130134-2000-1100-DSC-001

Document No:

130134-2000-1100-DSC-001

Document Holder:

Ian Jackson

Region:

Growth Regions

Division:

Mining & Metals

Revision

Prepared

Reviewed

Approved
(&Position)

Date

Description

I Jackson

6 Jan 2014

I Jackson

Z El-Ansary

Z El-Ansary

8 Jan 2014

For Client Review

I Jackson

Z El-Ansary

Z El-Ansary

12 Feb 2014

Issued for Study

Appendix Page 7

PRELIMINARY ECONOMIC ASSESSMENT


YAOURE GOLD PROJECT CTE DIVOIRE
APRIL 2014

Table of Contents
1.

INTRODUCTION......................................................................................................................... 9

2.

REFERENCES ............................................................................................................................ 9

3.

DESIGN CRITERIA................................................................................................................... 11
3.1
General ........................................................................................................................ 11
3.2
Crushing ....................................................................................................................... 12
3.3
Milling ........................................................................................................................... 13
3.4
Leaching ....................................................................................................................... 14
3.5
Adsorption .................................................................................................................... 14
3.6
Elution, regeneration, electrowinning, smelting ........................................................... 15
3.7
Tailing thickening ......................................................................................................... 16
3.8
Detoxification ................................................................................................................ 16
3.9
Reagents ...................................................................................................................... 17

Appendix Page 8

PRELIMINARY ECONOMIC ASSESSMENT


YAOURE GOLD PROJECT CTE DIVOIRE
APRIL 2014

1.

INTRODUCTION
The Yaoure Project is an extension of previous mining and processing of oxide ores at
the Yaoure mine (previously known as Angovia) to include primary sulphide ore below
the existing pits. Amara Mining plc (Amara) has undertaken some laboratory testing of
samples of drill core extracted during resource estimation which indicates that the
sulphide ore is not refractory. AMEC has reviewed these test results and the process
route and throughput upon which a Preliminary Economic Assessment (PEA) will be
based has been agreed with Amara.
This document describes the process design criteria to form the basis of the design of
the processing facilities and required site services for the PEA. Together with the
Block Flow Diagram, these criteria are the basis for definition of the mass balance and
equipment specifications. The design criteria and the associated mass balances will
be used to derive capital cost estimates and schedules for operating requirements such
as power, reagents and consumables, etc. Any recovery or similar data presented
herein are used for the purpose of this study only and are not statements of predicted
plant performance.
The design criteria have been based on data from various sources and each criterion is
referenced to its respective source. It is of particular importance to note areas in which
assumptions have been made that require verification.
This design criteria document is to be read in conjunction with the block flow diagram.

2.

REFERENCES
The process design criteria are derived from a variety of sources. All data is
referenced to a source to ensure that the basis of the information is fully understood.
Codes 1 to 10 are a standard set of codes where Code 9 and 10 are available for
additional standard references relevant to the project/client requirements. Information
included in the Specific reference section is referenced to documents in a Reference
Data bank where all references used for the PDC are catalogued under consecutive
numbers.

Appendix Page 9

PRELIMINARY ECONOMIC ASSESSMENT


YAOURE GOLD PROJECT CTE DIVOIRE
APRIL 2014

CODE

SOURCE OF INFORMATION AND DATA

Client advice/correspondence

Agreement between client and AMEC

Test work data

AMEC recommendation

AMEC experience/database

Calculated data

Assumed or estimated data

Vendor data

9
10
11

Scoping Metallurgical Test Report, SGS, 16 April 2012

12

Scoping Phase 2 Metallurgical Test Report, SGS, 15 May 2013

13

Further Metallurgical Test Report, SGS, 14 November 2013

14
15

NI 43-101 Technical Report, AMC Consultants, 25 March 2013

to 19

Mineral Resource Estimate, Amara Mining plc, 13 December 2013

TBA

(Free use, e.g. a specific document)


To be advised

TBC

To be confirmed
Reference to a document number in the Project Reference Data Bank
Reference to a document number in the Project Reference Data Bank

20
onwards

Appendix Page 10

PRELIMINARY ECONOMIC ASSESSMENT


YAOURE GOLD PROJECT CTE DIVOIRE
APRIL 2014

3.

DESIGN CRITERIA

3.1

General
Units

Value/Comment
40 km NW of Yamoussoukro,
central Cte dIvoire
0701' North

Ref

Rev

12

Longitude

0531' West

Elevation

masl

TBC

Rainfall
Minimum annual

Location
Latitude

mm

850

Average annual

mm

1,160

Maximum annual

mm

1,438

mm

829

79,676,371

g/t

1.44

13

Sulphur

TBA

Solids density (mean)

t/m

2.77

% w/w

Average

% w/w

Minimum

% w/w

kWh/t

26.3

11

Measured range

kWh/t

13.9 14.8

9,10

Design

kWh/t

14.8

0.1816

11

h/d

24

d/y

365

Crushing

75

Milling, leaching

93

Crushing

h/y

6,570

Milling, leaching

h/y

8,150

Evaporation rate per annum

Ore characteristics
Resource (Indicated + Inferred)
Head grade
Gold

Run-of-mine moisture content


Maximum

Bond rod mill work index


Bond ball mill work index

Bond abrasion index


Plant operation
Daily
Annual
Overall availability/utilisation

Annual operating hours

Appendix Page 11

PRELIMINARY ECONOMIC ASSESSMENT


YAOURE GOLD PROJECT CTE DIVOIRE
APRIL 2014
t/y

6,500,000

Units

Value/Comment

Ref

Rev

t/h

989

t/h

1,000

mm

900

Jaw

178

Number of screens

Screen aperture

mm

60

3.0

9.1

Cone

Osborn T900

Number of units

Closed side setting

50

Ore to plant

Crushing

3.2

General
Average crushing rate
Design crushing rate
ROM top size
Primary crushing
Crusher type
Number of units
Open side setting

mm

Secondary crushing

Screen dimensions
Width
Length

Crusher type
Model
mm

Tertiary crushing
Number of screens
Screen aperture
Top deck

mm

25

Bottom deck

mm

15

3.0

9.1

Screen dimensions
Width
Length
Crusher type
Model
Number of units
Closed side setting

mm

Appendix Page 12

Cone

Osborn T900

13

PRELIMINARY ECONOMIC ASSESSMENT


YAOURE GOLD PROJECT CTE DIVOIRE
APRIL 2014
Product size (d80)

Units

Value/Comment

Ref

Rev

mm

11

Units

Value/Comment

Ref

Rev

t/h

798

t/h

800

Single stage

Milling

3.3

Average milling rate


Design milling rate
Configuration
Number of modules
Feed size
d100

mm

15

d80

mm

11

Mill feed storage


Type
Capacity

Silo

Ball

Overflow

Closed

7.62

Mill type
Discharge arrangement
Circuit
Number of mills
Size of mills
Diameter
Length
Mill speed
Charge volume
Mill discharge density
Power at pinion

13.26

% of critical

75

30

% solids

70

kW

13,000

Number of drive trains

Motor rating (each)

kW

7,500

Ball size

mm

75

Media consumption

kg/t

1.30

Classification method

Hydrocyclones

Circulating load ratio

250

9,10

Product slurry density

% solids

45

106

10

Vibrating

Product size
d80
Trash screening
Screen type
Appendix Page 13

PRELIMINARY ECONOMIC ASSESSMENT


YAOURE GOLD PROJECT CTE DIVOIRE
APRIL 2014
mm

0.6

Width

TBC

Length

TBC

Aperture

Screen dimensions

TBC

Number of units

Leaching

3.4

Units

Value/Comment

Ref

Rev

24

Number of tanks

Gold extraction

95

13

% solids

40

t/m
m

1.34

4,452

Diameter

18

Height

19

kW

132

Total retention time

Feed slurry density


Live volume per tank
Tank dimensions

Agitator motor rating


Oxygen
Concentration in process slurry

mg/l

TBC

Consumption

kg/d

10,000

8,7

Cyanide
Form

Sodium cyanide solution

Concentration in process slurry

g/l

0.5

Addition rate

kg/t

0.54

10.5

kg/t

1.09

13

95

Units

Value/Comment

Ref

Rev

minutes

100

1.34

Lime
Process slurry pH
Consumption
Leach extraction efficiency

3.5

Adsorption

Total retention time


Number of tanks
Feed slurry density

t/m
Appendix Page 14

PRELIMINARY ECONOMIC ASSESSMENT


YAOURE GOLD PROJECT CTE DIVOIRE
APRIL 2014
Feed slurry solution gold concentration

mg/l

0.781

350

Diameter

TBC

Height

TBC

kW

55

Kemix pump cell

0.6

20 m

Included in agitator drive

Live volume per tank


Tank dimensions

Agitator motor rating


Interstage screens
Type
Aperture

mm

Model
Motor rating

kW

Number per stage


Adsorption efficiency
Stage

50

Overall

98.4

mg/l

0.012

Carbon concentration

g/l

50

Loaded carbon gold grade

g/t

2,095

Production rate of loaded carbon

t/d

8.8

Carbon loss

g/t

18

Vibrating

mm

0.6

Width

1.22

Length

3.66

Value/Comment

Ref

Rev

AARL

Number of modules

Elutions per day per module

Tailing solution gold concentration

Carbon safety screening


Screen type
Aperture
Screen size

Number of units

3.6

Elution, regeneration, electrowinning, smelting


Units

Elution method

Batch size
Cycle duration
Cyanide addition
Caustic addition

t
h
kg NaCN
/batch
kg NaOH
/batch

Appendix Page 15

12

414

540

PRELIMINARY ECONOMIC ASSESSMENT


YAOURE GOLD PROJECT CTE DIVOIRE
APRIL 2014
Acid treatment

Hydrochloric

619

Regeneration kiln type

Rotary

Heat source

Electric

kg/h

450

176

Units

Value/Comment

Ref

Rev

% solids

35

Thickener underflow density

% solids

>50

Flocculant addition
Solids loading

g/t
t/(m h)

20

0.64

1,600

40

Units

Value/Comment

Ref

Rev

SO2/air

% solids

>50

650

Sodium metabisulphite

Air

Copper sulphate

Acid consumption

Carbon throughput

kg HCl
/batch

Volume of eluate
Per batch

3.7

Tailing thickening

Thickener feed density

Thickener area
Number of units
Thickener diameter

3.8

Detoxification

Method
Retention time
Number of stages
Feed slurry density
Tank volume

SO2 source
Addition rate

kg/t

Oxygen source
Catalyst
Addition rate

kg/t

Appendix Page 16

PRELIMINARY ECONOMIC ASSESSMENT


YAOURE GOLD PROJECT CTE DIVOIRE
APRIL 2014

Reagents

3.9

Units

Value/Comment

Ref

Bulk

Rev

Lime
Received form
Storage
Consumption rate

m
kg/t

250

1.09

13

kg/d

20,928

t/m

628

t/d

10

Briquettes

Oxygen
Consumption rate (maximum)
Cyanide
Received form
Consumption rate

0.54

Elution

kg/t
kg/t

Total

kg/t

0.56
293

Elution

t/m
t/m

Total

t/m

306

25

Leach

0.02

Consumption
Leach

Solution make-up concentration

13

Hydrochloric acid
Received form
Consumption rate
Solution concentration

Bulk liquid
kg/t

0.16

t/m

63

30

Sodium hydroxide
Received form
Consumption rate

Solid
kg/t

0.06

t/m

33

Sodium metabisulphite
Received form
Consumption rate

Solid
kg/t

Flocculant
Received form
Total consumption rate

Dry powder
g/t

20

t/m

11

Appendix Page 17

PRELIMINARY ECONOMIC ASSESSMENT


YAOURE GOLD PROJECT CTE DIVOIRE
APRIL 2014

APPENDIX C

Process Design Criteria Oxides Plant

Appendix Page 18

PRELIMINARY ECONOMIC ASSESSMENT


YAOURE GOLD PROJECT CTE DIVOIRE
APRIL 2014

Yaoure Project PEA

Process Design Criteria


Oxides Leach

Document No. 130134-2000-1100-DSC-001

Document No:

130134-2000-1100-DSC-001

Document Holder:

Ian Jackson

Region:

Growth Regions

Division:

Mining & Metals

Revision

Prepared

I Jackson

I Jackson

Reviewed

Approved

Date

Description

?
Z El-Ansary

Z El-Ansary

Appendix Page 19

12 Feb 2014

Issued for study

PRELIMINARY ECONOMIC ASSESSMENT


YAOURE GOLD PROJECT CTE DIVOIRE
APRIL 2014

Table of Contents
1.

INTRODUCTION....................................................................................................................... 21

2.

REFERENCES .......................................................................................................................... 21

3.

DESIGN CRITERIA................................................................................................................... 23
3.1
General ........................................................................................................................ 23
3.2
Crushing ....................................................................................................................... 24
3.3
Agglomeration .............................................................................................................. 25
3.4
Heap Leaching ............................................................................................................. 25
3.5
Adsorption .................................................................................................................... 26
3.6
Elution, regeneration, electrowinning, smelting ........................................................... 26
3.7
Reagents ...................................................................................................................... 27

Appendix Page 20

PRELIMINARY ECONOMIC ASSESSMENT


YAOURE GOLD PROJECT CTE DIVOIRE
APRIL 2014

1.

INTRODUCTION
The Yaoure Project is an extension of previous mining and processing of oxide ores at
the Yaoure mine (previously known as Angovia) to include primary sulphide ore below
the existing pits. Amara Mining plc (Amara) has undertaken some laboratory testing of
samples of drill core extracted from the sulphide zone during resource estimation which
indicates that the sulphide ore is not refractory. AMEC has reviewed these test results
and the process route and throughput upon which a Preliminary Economic Assessment
(PEA) will be based has been agreed with Amara.
This document describes the process design criteria applicable to crushing and heap
leaching of oxide material. It is presently assumed that the plants to be used for
crushing and ADR will be relocated from Kalsaka. Design criteria for those plants have
been included where they are available. The criteria applicable to milling and leaching
of sulphide material are described in document 130134-2000-1100-DSC-001.
Together with the Block Flow Diagram, these criteria are the basis for definition of the
mass balance and equipment specifications. The design criteria and the associated
mass balances will be used to derive capital cost estimates and schedules for
operating requirements such as power, reagents and consumables. Any recovery or
similar data presented herein are for the purpose of this study only and are not
statements of predicted plant performance.
The design criteria have been based on data from various sources and each criterion is
referenced to its respective source. It is of particular importance to note areas in which
assumptions have been made that require verification.

2.

REFERENCES
The process design criteria are derived from a variety of sources. All data is
referenced to a source to ensure that the basis of the information is fully understood.
Codes 1 to 10 are a standard set of codes where Code 9 and 10 are available for
additional standard references relevant to the project/client requirements. Information
included in the Specific reference section is referenced to documents in a Reference
Data bank where all references used for the PDC are catalogued under consecutive
numbers.

Appendix Page 21

PRELIMINARY ECONOMIC ASSESSMENT


YAOURE GOLD PROJECT CTE DIVOIRE
APRIL 2014
CODE

SOURCE OF INFORMATION AND DATA

Client advice/correspondence

Agreement between client and AMEC

Test work data

AMEC recommendation

AMEC experience/database

Calculated data

Assumed or estimated data

Vendor data

9
10
11

Scoping Metallurgical Test Report, SGS, 16 April 2012

12

Scoping Phase 2 Metallurgical Test Report, SGS, 15 May 2013

13

Metallurgical Test Report, SGS, 14 November 2013

14
15

NI 43-101 Technical Report, AMC Consultants, 25 March 2013

to 19
TBA
TBC

Mineral Resource Estimate, Amara Mining plc, 13 December 2013


(Free use, e.g. a specific document)
To be advised
To be confirmed
Reference to a document number in the Project Reference Data Bank
Reference to a document number in the Project Reference Data Bank

20
onwards

Appendix Page 22

PRELIMINARY ECONOMIC ASSESSMENT


YAOURE GOLD PROJECT CTE DIVOIRE
APRIL 2014

3.

DESIGN CRITERIA

3.1

General
Units

Location
Latitude

Value/Comment
40 km NW of Yamoussoukro,
central Cte dIvoire
0701' North

Ref

Rev

12

0531' West

Longitude
Elevation (approx)

masl

200

Rainfall
Minimum annual

mm

850

Average annual

mm

1,160

Maximum annual

mm

1,438

mm

829

8,891,837

Gold

g/t

1.35

Sulphur

TBA

Solids density (mean)

t/m

2.77

% w/w

% w/w

Minimum

% w/w

Bond rod mill work index

kWh/t

26.3

11

kWh/t

13.9 14.8

9,10

kWh/t

14.8

0.1816

11

Evaporation rate per annum

Ore characteristics
Resource (Inferred)
Head grade

Run-of-mine moisture content


Maximum
Average

Bond ball mill work index


Measured range
Design
Bond abrasion index
Plant operation
Daily

h/d

24

Annual

d/y

365

75

95

h/y

6,570

h/y

8,322

Overall availability/utilisation
Crushing & stacking
Leaching, ADR
Annual operating hours
Crushing
Leaching, ADR

Appendix Page 23

PRELIMINARY ECONOMIC ASSESSMENT


YAOURE GOLD PROJECT CTE DIVOIRE
APRIL 2014

Ore to plant

Units

Value/Comment

Ref

Rev

t/y

1,600,000

Units

Value/Comment

Ref

Rev

t/h

244

mm

600

Vibrating grizzly feeder

Crushing

3.2

General
Average crushing rate
ROM top size
Primary crushing first stage
Scalper
Model

TBC

Crusher type

Jaw

30 x 42

101.6

Number of screens

Screen aperture

mm

75

0.9

3.6

Jaw

24 x 36

Number of units

Closed side setting

50

Model
Number of units
Closed side setting

mm

Primary crushing second stage

Screen dimensions
Width
Length

Crusher type
Model
mm

Secondary crushing first stage


Number of screens
Screen aperture
Top deck

mm

30

Bottom deck

mm

13

1.8

4.8

Cone

Screen dimensions
Width
Length
Crusher type
Appendix Page 24

PRELIMINARY ECONOMIC ASSESSMENT


YAOURE GOLD PROJECT CTE DIVOIRE
APRIL 2014
Number of units
Model
Closed side setting

mm

Symons 4'

19

Secondary crushing second stage


Number of screens
Screen aperture
Top deck

mm

20

Bottom deck

mm

13

2.4

6.7

Cone

Symons 5'

mm

13

units

Value/Comment

Ref

Rev

TBC

TBC
1

Cement

kg/t

14

% by weight

10

m/t

2.22

Units

Value/Comment

Ref

Rev

t/y

1,600,000

t/h

244

Maximum heap height


Irrigation rate

14

Normal

l/(h m)

10

Design

l/(h m)

12

Screen dimensions
Width
Length
Crusher type
Number of units
Model
Closed side setting

Agglomeration

3.3

Drum dimensions
Diameter
Length
Number of units
Agglomerating agent
Addition rate
Moisture content of agglomerates
Water addition

Heap Leaching

3.4

Stacking rate
Lift height

Appendix Page 25

PRELIMINARY ECONOMIC ASSESSMENT


YAOURE GOLD PROJECT CTE DIVOIRE
APRIL 2014
Units
Irrigation system

Ref

Rev

Drip

Sodium hydroxide

pH adjustment
Consumption

Value/Comment

kg/t

0.042

Units

Value/Comment

Ref

Rev

Ref

Rev

Adsorption

3.5

Number of stages
Feed solution gold concentration

TBC
mg/l

TBC

Diameter

TBC

Height

TBC

Tank dimensions

Carbon safety screening


TBC

Screen type
Aperture

mm

TBC
TBC

Screen size
Width

TBC

Length

TBC
TBC

Number of units

Elution, regeneration, electrowinning, smelting

3.6

Units
Elution method

Number of modules

Elutions per day per module


Batch size
Cyanide addition
Caustic addition

t
kg NaCN per
elution
kg NaOH per
elution

2.5
92
120

Hydrochloric

Acid treatment
Acid consumption

Value/Comment
Zadra

kg HCl per
elution

138

TBC

Regeneration kiln type

Diesel

Heat source
Carbon throughput
Nominal

kg/h

Appendix Page 26

100 (TBC)

PRELIMINARY ECONOMIC ASSESSMENT


YAOURE GOLD PROJECT CTE DIVOIRE
APRIL 2014

Reagents

3.7

Units

Value/Comment

Ref

Rev

25

Heap leach

kg/t

0.48

Elution

kg/t

0.02

Total consumption rate

kg/t

0.50

30

kg/t

0.1

Heap leach

kg/t

0.042

Elution

kg/t

0.03

kg/t

14

t/m

2,460

Cyanide
Solution concentration
Consumption rate

Hydrochloric acid
Solution concentration
Consumption rate
Sodium hydroxide
Consumption rate

Portland cement
Total consumption rate

Appendix Page 27

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APPENDIX D

Design Criteria - TMFs

Appendix Page 28

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Yaoure Project PEA

Tailings Management Facility


Design Criteria

Document No. 130134-3100-1600-DSC-001

Document No:

130134-3100-1600-DSC-001

Document Holder:

Ciaran Molloy

Region:

Growth Regions

Division:

Mining & Metals

Revision
A

Prepared
E. Spadafora

Reviewed

Approved
(&Position)

C. Molloy

Date
9 Jan 2014

Appendix Page 29

Description

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APRIL 2014

Table of Contents
1.

INTRODUCTION....................................................................................................................... 31

2.

DESIGN STANDARD AND GUIDELINES ................................................................................ 31

3.

DESIGN CRITERIA................................................................................................................... 34
3.1
Site Location ................................................................................................................ 34
3.2
Climatological ............................................................................................................... 34
3.3
Plant Operation ............................................................................................................ 35
3.4
TMF Operating Requirements ..................................................................................... 36
3.5
Seepage Pond ............................................................................................................. 36

Appendix Page 30

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1.

INTRODUCTION
AMEC E&E (AMEC) has been appointed by Amara Mining plc (Amara) to undertake a
Preliminary Economic Analysis (PEA) of the Yaoure Gold Project in Cte dIvoire. The
study includes a preliminary economic assessment of the Tailings Management Facility
(TMF) associated with Yaoure Gold Project
This document describes the design criteria to form the basis for the PEA of the TMF.
The design criteria have been based on data from various sources and each criterion is
referenced to its respective source. It is of particular importance to note areas in which
assumptions have been made that require verification.

2.

DESIGN STANDARD AND GUIDELINES


The following standards and guidelines are used for the design of the TMF:

European Commission Directive 2006/21/EC Management of Waste from the


Extractive Industries

European Commission (2009) Reference Document on Best Available


Technologies for the Management of Tailings and Waste-Rock on Mining Activities

European Commission Decision (2009/337/EC) Classification of Waste Facilities in


accordance with Annex III of Directive 2006/21/EC

IFC General EHS Guidelines (Discharge)

IFC EHS Guidelines for Mining (Discharge)

EU Ambient Water Quality Guidelines

International Cyanide Management Institute (2012) The International Cyanide


Management Code

Mining Association of Canada (MAC, 2011) A Guide to the Management of Tailings


Facilities

Dept. Of Minerals and Energy, Western Australia (DME, 1999) Guidelines on the
Safe Design and Operating Standards for Tailings Storage

South African Bureau of Standards (SANS 10286) Code of Practice for Mine
Residue Deposits

British Standards BS EN 1997 Eurocode 7 Geotechnical Design

Australian Committee on Large Dams (ANCOLD, 2012 Draft) Guidelines On


Tailings Dams Planning, Design, Construction, Operation And Closure

International Committee on Large Dams (ICOLD) Bulletin 45 (1982) Manual on


tailings dams and dumps

ICOLD Bulletin 97 (1994) Tailings Dams - Design of drainage

Appendix Page 31

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ICOLD Bulletin 98 (1995) Tailings Dams and Seismicity - Review and


Recommendations

ICOLD Bulletin 101 (1995) Tailings Dams. Transport. Placement. Decantation Review and recommendations

ICOLD Bulletin 103 (1996) Tailings Dams and Environment - Review and
Recommendations

ICOLD Bulletin 106 (1996) A guide to Tailings Dams and impoundments - Design,
construction, use and rehabilitation

ICOLD Bulletin 121 (2001) Tailings dams risk of dangerous occurrences - Lessons
learnt from practical experiences.

ICOLD Bulletin 139 (2011) Improving tailings dam safety - Critical aspects of
management, design, operation and closure

ICOLD Bulletin 163 (2013) Sustainable design and post-closure performance of


tailings dams

In addition, technical papers and other publications are referenced for the design of
specific items (to be detailed in final report). The following list is provided as an
example:

Construction Industry Research and Information Association (CIRIA) Report 33


(1978). The Hydraulic Design of Stepped Spillways

CIRIA Special Publication 142 (1997) Design of Stepped Block Spillways

US Dept of Interior (1982) Surface Water Mining Diversion Design Manual

Blight G.E. and Bentel G.M., (1983) The behaviour of mine tailings during hydraulic
deposition

Davies, M.P., Chin, B.G. & Dawson, B.G. 1998. Static liquefaction slump of mine
tailings.

Paterson & Cooke. 2012. The Design of Slurry Pipeline Systems

Appendix Page 32

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Design Input Codes


A

Assumed

Calculated

Client

GT
I

Geotehcnical Testwork
Industry practice

MT

Metallurgical Testwork

Information by Others

Published Information

AM

AMEC

Appendix Page 33

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3.

DESIGN CRITERIA

3.1

Site Location
Item

Latitude
Longitude
Units

0701' North
0531' West
Degrees, Minutes
Generated from ASTGTM2 30
m Satellite Digital Elevation
Model data

Topographical Map

3.2

Value/Description

Design
Input

Source Reference

Rev

AM

GoogleEarth (Angovia Mine Site)

AM

NASA - ASTER Global Digital Elevation Map

Climatological
Item

Value/Description

Design Input

Source Reference

Rev

Angovia 2007 EIA


(Yamoussouko Station)

Design Storm Event


5-Year, 24 hr

97.4 mm

10-Year, 24 hr
100-Year, 24 hr
Diversion Channel System

Average Monthly Precipitation Data (mm)

112 mm
159 mm
100-Year, 24 hr
Jan
Feb
Mar
Apr
May
June

12.8
41
89.4
118
167.9
185.8
Appendix Page 34

Angovia 2007 EIA


(Yamoussouko Station)

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Item

Average Monthly Evaporation Data (mm)

3.3

Value/Description

Design Input

Source Reference

Rev

Angovia 2007 EIA


(Yamoussouko Station)

120
90.6
148.4
116.7
53
16.7
104.2
117.8
108.3
80.2
63.7
48.3
48.1
46.3
47.6
50.3
54.7
59.7

July
Aug
Sept
Oct
Nov
Dec
Jan
Feb
Mar
Apr
May
June
July
Aug
Sept
Oct
Nov
Dec

Plant Operation
Item

Value/Description

Design
Input

Source Reference

Rev

AMEC Process Workshop (19/12/2013)

Tailings Slurry Production Rate


Yearly

6.5 Mt

Operating hours/year

8,150

A
Appendix Page 35

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Tailings Slurry Characteristics
Solids SG
Slurry SG
Solids % Slurry

3.4

TBA
TBA
50

TMF Operating Requirements


Item

Total tailings tonnage


Design Life
TMF Embankment

Design
Input

Source Reference

80 Mt

AM

AMEC Process Workshop (19/12/2013)

~13 years

Value/Description

Upstream Slope

3H:1V

Downstream Slope
Crest width

3H:1V
8m
Min. 2.0 m between embankment
crest lower point and pond operating
level plus allowance from inflow for
PMF

Minimum tailings freeboard

3.5

A
A

Rev

AM

Seepage Pond
Item

Design Storm Event

Design
Input

Value/Description
100-Year, 24 hr

Appendix Page 36

Source Reference

Rev
A

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Item

Minimum Freeboard

Slope

Minimum Storage

Value/Description
0.8 metres above full operational
level plus allowance from inflow for
1:100 year 24hr rainfall

Design
Input

Source Reference

Rev

South Africa - National Water Act, 1998


(Act No.36 of 1998)

3H:1V

AM

5 days seepage water from TMF


plus 1:100 year 24hr rainfall

AM

Appendix Page 37

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APPENDIX E

Design Criteria Heap Leach

Appendix Page 38

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Yaoure Project PEA

Heap Leach Pad and Solution Ponds


Design Criteria

Document No. 130134-25400-1600-DSC-001

Document No:

130134-2540-1600-DSC-001

Document Holder:

Ciaran Molloy

Region:

Growth Regions

Division:

Mining & Metals

Revision
A

Prepared
E. Spadafora

Reviewed

Approved
(&Position)

C. Molloy

Date
9 Jan 2014

Appendix Page 39

Description

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APRIL 2014

Table of Contents
1.

INTRODUCTION....................................................................................................................... 41

2.

DESIGN STANDARD AND GUIDELINES ................................................................................ 41

3.

DESIGN CRITERIA................................................................................................................... 43
3.1
Site Location ................................................................................................................ 43
3.2
Climatological ............................................................................................................... 43
3.3
HLP Operating Requirements ...................................................................................... 44
3.4
HLP Solution Application And Recovery ...................................................................... 45
3.5
Ore Properties .............................................................................................................. 46
3.6
Conveying And Stacking .............................................................................................. 46
3.7
Solution Ponds ............................................................................................................. 47

Appendix Page 40

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APRIL 2014

1.

INTRODUCTION
AMEC E&E (AMEC) has been appointed by Amara Mining plc (Amara) to undertake a
Preliminary Economic Analysis (PEA) of the Yaoure Gold Project in Cte dIvoire. The
study includes a preliminary economic assessment of the Heap Leach Pad (HLP)
associated with the Yaoure Gold Project
This document describes the design criteria to form the basis for the PEA of the HLP
and Solution Ponds.
The design criteria have been based on data from various sources and each criterion is
referenced to its respective source. It is of particular importance to note areas in which
assumptions have been made that require verification.

2.

DESIGN STANDARD AND GUIDELINES


The following standards and guidelines are used for the design of the HLP:

IFC General EHS Guidelines (Discharge)

IFC EHS Guidelines for Mining (Discharge)

EU Ambient Water Quality Guidelines

International Cyanide Management Institute (2012) The International Cyanide


Management Code

British Standards BS EN 1997 Eurocode 7 Geotechnical Design

Nevada Administrative Code Chapter 445A Water Controls Mining Facilities

Utah Department of Environmental Quality Design and Construction Guidance


Document for Precious Metal Extraction Facilities

Appendix Page 41

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Design Input Codes


A

Assumed

Calculated

Client

GT
I

Geotehcnical Testwork
Industry practice

MT

Metallurgical Testwork

Information by Others

Published Information

AM

AMEC

Appendix Page 42

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APRIL 2014

3.

DESIGN CRITERIA

3.1

Site Location
Item

Latitude
Longitude
Units

0701' North
0531' West
Degrees, Minutes
Generated from ASTGTM2 30
m Satellite Digital Elevation
Model data

Topographical Map

3.2

Value/Description

Design
Input

Source Reference

Rev

AM

GoogleEarth (Angovia Mine Site)

AM

NASA - ASTER Global Digital Elevation Map

Climatological
Item

Value/Description

Design Input

Source Reference

Rev

Angovia 2007 EIA


(Yamoussouko Station)

Design Storm Event


5-Year, 24 hr

97.4 mm

10-Year, 24 hr
100-Year, 24 hr
Diversion Channel System

Average Monthly Precipitation Data (mm)

112 mm
159 mm
100-Year, 24 hr
Jan
Feb
Mar
Apr
May
June

12.8
41
89.4
118
167.9
185.8
Appendix Page 43

Angovia 2007 EIA


(Yamoussouko Station)

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Item

Average Monthly Evaporation Data (mm)

3.3

Value/Description
July
Aug
Sept
Oct
Nov
Dec

120
90.6
148.4
116.7
53
16.7

Jan
Feb
Mar
Apr
May
June
July
Aug
Sept
Oct
Nov
Dec

104.2
117.8
108.3
80.2
63.7
48.3
48.1
46.3
47.6
50.3
54.7
59.7

Design Input

Source Reference

Rev

Angovia 2007 EIA


(Yamoussouko Station)

HLP Operating Requirements


Item

Ore production Rate


Placement Method
HLP Capacity
Design Life

Value/Description

Design Input

1.6 Mtpa
Stacker / Conveyor
10 Mt
~6 years

A
A
A
B

Appendix Page 44

Source Reference

Rev
A
A
A
A

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Item
No. of Lifts
Lift Thickness
Maximum Ore Depth
Ore Angle of Repose
Leak Detection System

Value/Description

Design Input

Source Reference

Rev

2
7m
7m
37
Underliner below primary collection pipes only

A
A
A
A
A

A
A
A
A
A

HLP Containment Configuration

Composite Liner System consisting of:

1.5 mm HDPE geomembrane

300 mm natural soil liner ripped and compacted

HLP Cushion Layer

600 mm crushed gravel roadways with lateritic gravel (TBC)

3.4

HLP Solution Application And Recovery


Item

Containment Requirements
Unit Solution Application Rate
Leach Area
Active Leach Method
Evaporation Rate from Active Leach Area
Minimum leach cycle time
Manning n
Minimum Gradient
Cell Area
No. of Cells

Value/Description

Design Input

Zero Discharge
2
12/l/hr m
TBC
Drip Irrigation
5%
120 days
0.01
2%
510 m x 75 m
16

A
A

A
A

A
A
A
A
A
A
A

A
A
A
A
A
A
A

Appendix Page 45

Source Reference

Rev

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Solution Conveyance Method
Leachate Recovery

3.5

Gravity Flow
HDPE perforated pipes:

250 mm primary

100 mm secondary @ 6 m ccs

Ore Properties
Item

Dry Density
Wet Density
Initial Water Content
As delivered Water Content (by dry solid weight)
Leaching Water Content
Drain down Water Content
Ore Crush Size

3.6

Value/Description

Design Input

Source Reference

Rev

1400 kg/m3
1600 kg/m3
1%
5%
TBC
TBC
13 mm minus

A
A
A
A

A
A
A
A

AM

Value/Description

Design Input

Source Reference

Rev

AM

Kalsaka Project
Design Criteria

Conveying And Stacking


Item

Transport method

Ridge RHS construction, tire mounted movable


hoppers + conveyors

Over land conveyor No.1

width 600 mm x length 500 m x 22 kW

Overland conveyor speed

1.60 m/sec

Hopper conveyors

width 600 mm x length 35 m x No. 10 x 11 kW

Appendix Page 46

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Maximum ramp/hopper conveyor angle
Hopper conveyor speed

12 & 5 degree
1.60 m/sec

Transverse conveyor

width 600 mm x length 20 m x 11 kW

Transverse conveyor speed


Stacker feed conveyor

width 600 mm x length 38 m x 11 kW

Belt speed (max)

3.7

1.60 m/sec

1.60 m/sec

Solution Ponds
Item

Minimum Pond Freeboard

Value/Description

Design Input

0.5 m (to invert of spillway)

Source Reference

Rev
A

Pond System/ No. of Ponds

Five (5) Pond System: 1 Barren, 1


Intermediate, 1 Pregnant, 1 Excess Water,
1 Fresh Water, 1 Detox

Pond Containment Requirements

Pond System to contain: 4 hours draindown


at Maximum Pumping Rate, 100 year-24
hour runoff, Precipitation Fluctuations,
Freeboard

Pond Configuration Process Solution

Double Liner System consisting of: Primary


geomembrane, Geonet, Secondary
geomembrane, Prepared Subgrade

Pond Containment for Storm water

Single Liner System consisting of: Synthetic


geomembrane, Prepared Subgrade

Leak Detection System

Geonet Collection System

Appendix Page 47

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APPENDIX F

TMF Site Options

Appendix Page 48

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Appendix Page 49

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APPENDIX G

Typical TMF Sections

Appendix Page 50

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Appendix Page 51

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APPENDIX H

Heap Leach Pad Earthworks General Arrangement

Appendix Page 52

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Appendix Page 53

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APPENDIX I

Pit Sections

Appendix Page 54

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Appendix Page 55

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Appendix Page 56

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Appendix Page 57

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Appendix Page 58

PRELIMINARY ECONOMIC ASSESSMENT


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Appendix Page 59

PRELIMINARY ECONOMIC ASSESSMENT


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Appendix Page 60

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Appendix Page 61

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Appendix Page 62

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Appendix Page 63

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Appendix Page 64

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Appendix Page 65

PRELIMINARY ECONOMIC ASSESSMENT


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Appendix Page 66

PRELIMINARY ECONOMIC ASSESSMENT


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Appendix Page 67

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Appendix Page 68

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Appendix Page 69

PRELIMINARY ECONOMIC ASSESSMENT


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Appendix Page 70

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Appendix Page 71

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APPENDIX J

Opex Estimates Processing & Infrastructure

Appendix Page 72

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Appendix Page 73

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Appendix Page 74

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Appendix Page 75

PRELIMINARY ECONOMIC ASSESSMENT


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Appendix Page 76

PRELIMINARY ECONOMIC ASSESSMENT


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Appendix Page 77

PRELIMINARY ECONOMIC ASSESSMENT


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Appendix Page 78

PRELIMINARY ECONOMIC ASSESSMENT


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Appendix Page 79

PRELIMINARY ECONOMIC ASSESSMENT


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Appendix Page 80

PRELIMINARY ECONOMIC ASSESSMENT


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Appendix Page 81

PRELIMINARY ECONOMIC ASSESSMENT


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Appendix Page 82

PRELIMINARY ECONOMIC ASSESSMENT


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Appendix Page 83

PRELIMINARY ECONOMIC ASSESSMENT


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Appendix Page 84

PRELIMINARY ECONOMIC ASSESSMENT


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Appendix Page 85

PRELIMINARY ECONOMIC ASSESSMENT


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Appendix Page 86

PRELIMINARY ECONOMIC ASSESSMENT


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Appendix Page 87

PRELIMINARY ECONOMIC ASSESSMENT


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Appendix Page 88

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APPENDIX K

Sustaining Capital Processing & Infrastructure

Appendix Page 89

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Appendix Page 90

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APPENDIX L

Mining Cost Estimates

Appendix Page 91

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5 Mt/a (USD 800 Pit Design) Case


Manpower

($)

1
6,824,900

2
8,087,520

3
9,697,850

4
9,886,879

5
10,077,850

6
10,052,520

7
9,921,250

8
9,348,138

9
8,639,739

10
1,944,442

11
6,577,550

12
6,711,596

13
6,063,200

14
4,781,670

Total
108,615,105

per tonne mined

($/t)

0.20

0.24

0.29

0.32

0.30

0.30

0.29

0.35

0.33

0.09

0.30

0.28

0.35

1.26

$0.29

6,714,216

5,238,120

5,062,831

4,256,800

4,268,209

4,687,606

3,309,451

Drilling

($)

per tonne mined

($/t)

0.27

0.26

0.24

0.25

0.24

0.22

0.20

0.19

0.19

0.19

0.19

0.19

0.19

0.19

$0.22

Explosives & Blasting

($)

12,952,430

9,119,672

12,909,815

9,008,734

12,445,527

8,184,181

11,506,536

7,853,584

12,313,203

8,066,049

12,077,714

7,468,869

11,827,830

9,286,480

8,969,563

7,477,253

7,491,917

8,296,236

5,778,928

1,199,638

722,511

134,533,068

83,960,833

per tonne mined

($/t)

0.38

0.38

0.37

0.37

0.36

0.36

0.35

0.34

0.34

0.34

0.34

0.34

0.33

0.32

$0.36

Blasting Management Fee


Contractor - BME

($)

482,000

432,000

432,000

432,000

432,000

432,000

432,000

432,000

432,000

432,000

432,000

432,000

432,000

108,000

5,774,000

($/t)

0.01

0.01

0.01

0.01

0.01

0.01

0.01

0.02

0.02

0.02

0.02

0.02

0.03

0.03

$0.02

Loading - Shovels

($)

5,287,980

5,272,021

4,451,528

4,841,463

4,302,757

4,302,757

4,302,757

3,408,545

3,304,735

2,774,546

2,774,546

3,060,573

2,171,191

475,197

50,730,598

per tonne mined

($/t)

0.16

0.16

0.13

0.15

0.13

0.13

0.13

0.13

0.13

0.13

0.13

0.13

0.13

0.13

$0.13

Loading - Rehandle - FEL

($)

366,088

967,581

847,224

820,047

794,546

777,684

750,833

743,902

739,782

734,000

814,065

817,245

817,245

278,520

10,268,760

per tonne rehandled


per tonne milled

($/t)

0.19
0.19

0.19
0.19

0.17
0.17

0.16
0.16

0.16
0.16

0.16
0.16

0.15
0.15

0.15
0.15

0.15
0.15

0.15
0.15

0.16
0.16

0.16
0.16

0.16
0.16

0.14
0.14

$0.16
0.16

Ore & Waste Haulage - Trucks

($)

8,821,571

8,744,277

9,290,730

9,165,047

10,641,562

11,117,217

10,773,239

9,354,061

9,378,544

8,251,751

8,886,087

10,101,073

7,924,635

1,996,429

124,446,222

per tonne mined

($/t)

0.26

0.26

0.27

0.29

0.31

0.33

0.32

0.35

0.36

0.38

0.40

0.42

0.46

0.53

$0.33

Roads & Dumps - Other Machines

($)

6,473,887

7,118,822

7,140,774

6,902,411

7,185,508

7,208,300

7,231,383

6,027,556

5,838,999

4,685,253

4,286,938

4,283,682

3,814,446

712,122

78,910,082

per tonne mined

($/t)

0.19

0.21

0.21

0.22

0.21

0.21

0.21

0.22

0.22

0.21

0.19

0.18

0.22

0.19

$0.21

General

($)

1,209,427

1,125,564

1,261,218

1,265,566

1,330,002

1,324,247

1,318,479

1,186,663

1,152,265

1,062,969

802,982

864,291

622,511

352,253

14,878,438

per tonne mined

($/t)

0.04

0.03

0.04

0.04

0.04

0.04

0.04

0.04

0.04

0.05

0.04

0.04

0.04

0.09

$0.04

Mine Engineering

($)

1,123,301

1,870,589

1,688,033

1,590,903

1,666,607

1,610,170

1,548,315

1,301,733

1,237,512

1,124,757

848,032

885,639

759,794

244,386

17,499,770

per tonne mined

($/t)

0.03

0.06

0.05

0.05

0.05

0.05

0.05

0.05

0.05

0.05

0.04

0.04

0.04

0.06

$0.05

Maintenance - Not covered by RAMP

($)

323,714

302,782

306,609

280,783

313,001

310,123

307,240

241,332

224,132

193,485

197,491

214,145

157,256

36,127

3,408,219

per tonne mined

($/t)

0.01

0.01

0.01

0.01

0.01

0.01

0.01

0.01

0.01

0.01

0.01

0.01

0.01

0.01

$0.01

RAMP - Contractor - KOMATSU

($)

11,411,606

23,044,045

35,102,477

29,802,688

24,372,312

31,086,064

26,384,389

26,957,166

27,421,768

16,917,399

15,757,035

19,859,683

15,321,174

3,079,621

306,517,428

per tonne mined

($/t)

0.34

0.68

1.03

0.95

0.72

0.91

0.78

1.00

1.05

0.77

0.72

0.82

0.89

0.81

$0.81

Total Costs
Cost $ per tonne Mined

($)

($US/t)

$64,396,575
$1.89

$78,883,750
$2.32

$90,848,150
$2.67

$84,347,907
$2.70

$81,495,398
$2.40

$87,767,665
$2.58

$81,511,932
$2.40

$73,525,695
$2.72

$72,401,872
$2.77

$49,854,654
$2.27

$53,136,851
$2.42

$60,213,768
$2.48

$47,171,831
$2.73

$13,986,474
$3.68

$939,542,522
$2.49

Appendix Page 92

12%

9%

14%

1%

5%

1%

13%

8%

2%

2%

0%

33%

100%

PRELIMINARY ECONOMIC ASSESSMENT


YAOURE GOLD PROJECT CTE DIVOIRE
APRIL 2014

6.5 Mt/a (USD 800 Pit Design) - Base Case


1

10

11

Manpower

($)

7,704,300

8,647,770

10,388,150

10,871,650

10,689,850

10,489,010

9,877,050

9,531,471

8,773,950

1,930,962

3,655,700

Total
$US/t
92,559,863

per tonne mined

($/t)

0.18

0.20

0.24

0.25

0.25

0.25

0.30

0.32

0.29

0.08

0.85

$0.25

Drilling

($)

11,295,566

11,275,256

10,435,426

10,272,702

9,221,971

8,221,169

6,384,566

5,754,298

5,810,262

4,712,772

820,603

84,204,589

per tonne mined

($/t)

0.26

0.26

0.24

0.24

0.21

0.20

0.19

0.19

0.19

0.19

0.19

$0.22

Explosives & Blasting

($)

16,050,989

16,033,356

15,602,075

15,425,107

15,014,394

14,087,902

11,184,069

10,022,533

10,136,445

8,182,993

1,357,710

133,097,574

per tonne mined

($/t)

0.37

0.37

0.36

0.36

0.35

0.34

0.34

0.34

0.34

0.33

0.31

$0.35

Blasting Management Fee


Contractor - BME

($)

482,000

432,000

432,000

432,000

432,000

432,000

432,000

432,000

432,000

432,000

72,000

4,442,000

($/t)

0.01

0.01

0.01

0.01

0.01

0.01

0.01

0.01

0.01

0.02

0.02

$0.01

Loading - Shovels

($)

6,320,660

5,890,826

5,067,342

5,002,206

4,929,643

4,648,602

3,608,116

3,310,596

3,376,032

2,790,980

508,672

45,453,676

per tonne mined

($/t)

0.15

0.14

0.12

0.12

0.11

0.11

0.11

0.11

0.11

0.11

0.12

$0.12

Loading - Rehandle - FEL

($)

586,895

1,197,903

1,104,746

1,021,238

1,008,511

968,198

951,711

954,571

969,509

961,851

349,603

10,074,734

per tonne rehandled


per tonne milled

($/t)

0.18
0.18

0.18
0.18

0.17
0.17

0.16
0.16

0.16
0.16

0.15
0.15

0.15
0.15

0.15
0.15

0.15
0.15

0.15
0.15

0.16
0.16

$0.16
0.16

Ore & Waste Haulage - Trucks

($)

11,196,038

9,986,374

10,982,946

13,061,636

12,351,390

12,778,538

10,750,526

10,521,059

11,502,242

10,971,398

2,481,142

116,583,288

per tonne mined

($/t)

0.26

0.23

0.26

0.30

0.29

0.31

0.33

0.35

0.38

0.45

0.58

$0.31

Roads & Dumps - Other Machines

($)

8,282,107

8,675,392

8,700,990

8,851,348

8,753,170

8,605,923

7,136,108

6,286,423

6,769,182

4,926,142

467,597

77,454,381

per tonne mined

($/t)

0.19

0.20

0.20

0.21

0.20

0.21

0.22

0.21

0.23

0.20

0.11

$0.21

General

($)

1,397,266

1,406,323

1,583,890

1,774,628

1,783,567

1,740,596

1,577,131

1,530,467

1,605,244

1,620,864

796,721

16,816,695

per tonne mined

($/t)

0.03

0.03

0.04

0.04

0.04

0.04

0.05

0.05

0.05

0.07

0.18

$0.04

Mine Engineering

($)

1,477,485

2,327,206

2,161,398

2,128,853

2,027,209

1,888,857

1,583,848

1,502,299

1,530,050

1,359,584

266,847

18,253,636

per tonne mined

($/t)

0.03

0.05

0.05

0.05

0.05

0.05

0.05

0.05

0.05

0.06

0.06

$0.05

Maintenance - Not covered by RAMP

($)

408,591

379,349

388,179

395,563

389,282

367,797

286,065

262,733

267,871

221,931

40,859

3,408,219

per tonne mined

($/t)

0.01

0.01

0.01

0.01

0.01

0.01

0.01

0.01

0.01

0.01

0.01

$0.01

RAMP - Contractor - KOMATSU

($)

13,448,991

30,079,789

45,271,593

35,416,712

28,457,969

40,074,149

27,032,776

30,448,203

36,564,612

17,145,876

3,212,656

307,153,325

per tonne mined

($/t)

0.31

0.70

1.05

0.82

0.66

0.97

0.82

1.02

1.22

0.70

0.74

$0.81

Total Costs
Cost $ per tonne Mined

($)

($US/t)

$78,650,888
$1.83

$96,331,544
$2.24

$112,118,735
$2.61

$104,653,643
$2.43

$95,058,954
$2.21

$104,302,739
$2.53

$80,803,966
$2.45

$80,556,652
$2.71

$87,737,397
$2.92

$55,257,352
$2.25

$14,030,110
$3.25

$909,501,981
$2.41

Appendix Page 93

Total
10%

9%

15%

0%

5%

1%

13%

9%

2%

2%

0%

34%

100%

PRELIMINARY ECONOMIC ASSESSMENT


YAOURE GOLD PROJECT CTE DIVOIRE
APRIL 2014

6.5 Mt/a (USD 950 Pit Design) Case


1

10

11

12

13

14

15

16

Manpower

($)

6,665,899

8,336,325

10,653,425

10,702,325

10,909,325

10,651,815

10,961,075

10,961,075

7,980,015

10,521,915

9,251,530

8,667,491

8,537,795

8,618,131

6,811,037

1,142,113

Total
$US/t
141,371,291

per tonne mined

($/t)

0.15

0.19

0.24

0.25

0.25

0.24

0.25

0.25

0.16

0.22

0.26

0.32

0.32

0.30

0.32

0.48

$0.24

Drilling

($)

10,965,283

10,709,996

10,381,144

9,172,993

8,469,884

8,877,494

8,693,564

9,025,935

10,015,933

10,277,549

7,291,096

5,787,579

6,099,811

6,948,053

5,509,694

-307,954

127,918,057

per tonne mined

($/t)

0.25

0.25

0.24

0.21

0.19

0.20

0.20

0.21

0.21

0.21

0.21

0.21

0.23

0.25

0.26

-0.13

$0.22

Explosives & Blasting

($)

17,178,871

16,711,192

16,244,572

15,692,796

15,384,203

15,379,553

15,333,351

15,406,901

17,020,472

17,021,877

12,083,629

9,232,030

9,188,792

9,667,015

7,055,659

807,428

209,408,340

per tonne mined

($/t)

0.38

0.38

0.37

0.36

0.35

0.35

0.35

0.35

0.35

0.35

0.35

0.34

0.34

0.34

0.33

0.34

$0.36

Blasting Management Fee


Contractor - BME

($)

482,000

432,000

432,000

432,000

432,000

432,000

432,000

432,000

432,000

432,000

432,000

432,000

432,000

432,000

432,000

108,000

6,638,000

($/t)

0.01

0.01

0.01

0.01

0.01

0.01

0.01

0.01

0.01

0.01

0.01

0.02

0.02

0.02

0.02

0.05

$0.01

Loading - Shovels

($)

6,961,862

6,743,870

6,743,870

5,504,439

5,504,439

5,504,439

5,504,439

5,504,439

6,123,899

6,141,194

4,421,704

3,399,349

3,386,892

3,570,424

2,662,130

301,626

77,979,014

per tonne mined

($/t)

0.16

0.16

0.16

0.13

0.13

0.13

0.13

0.13

0.13

0.13

0.13

0.13

0.13

0.13

0.13

0.13

$0.13

Loading - Rehandle - FEL

($)

600,723

1,294,774

1,085,559

1,029,397

1,034,636

977,355

984,902

1,017,137

1,008,692

1,004,620

988,991

997,283

1,009,952

1,007,841

990,926

87,498

15,120,288

per tonne rehandled


per tonne milled

($/t)

0.20
0.20

0.20
0.20

0.17
0.17

0.16
0.16

0.16
0.16

0.15
0.15

0.15
0.15

0.16
0.16

0.16
0.16

0.15
0.15

0.15
0.15

0.15
0.15

0.16
0.16

0.16
0.16

0.15
0.15

0.15
0.15

$0.16
0.16

Ore & Waste Haulage - Trucks

($)

10,284,435

10,745,815

11,757,517

11,861,434

13,760,311

11,844,730

15,000,083

15,222,184

20,457,298

19,925,959

17,079,047

15,576,329

13,192,949

15,682,731

14,466,890

1,775,862

218,633,575

per tonne mined

($/t)

0.23

0.25

0.27

0.27

0.32

0.27

0.34

0.35

0.42

0.41

0.49

0.58

0.49

0.55

0.69

0.75

$0.37

Roads & Dumps - Other Machines

($)

7,741,188

8,184,120

8,309,799

8,211,864

8,363,137

8,289,023

8,417,861

8,445,760

8,811,637

8,077,184

5,614,195

4,177,597

4,458,267

4,275,238

3,358,195

2,208,168

106,943,232

per tonne mined

($/t)

0.17

0.19

0.19

0.19

0.19

0.19

0.19

0.19

0.18

0.17

0.16

0.15

0.17

0.15

0.16

0.93

$0.18

1,272,559

1,520,458

1,752,824

1,941,190

2,176,040

2,176,040

2,176,040

2,378,614

2,753,260

2,922,393

2,624,354

2,463,797

2,628,289

2,656,263

2,344,621

1,969,912

35,756,654

General

($)

per tonne mined

($/t)

0.03

0.03

0.04

0.04

0.05

0.05

0.05

0.05

0.06

0.06

0.07

0.09

0.10

0.09

0.11

0.83

$0.06

Mine Engineering

($)

1,614,650

2,639,973

2,372,024

2,249,821

2,188,636

2,167,489

2,160,438

2,183,703

2,329,087

2,322,748

1,292,787

1,133,790

1,133,575

1,198,908

1,005,943

99,468

28,093,039

per tonne mined

($/t)

0.04

0.06

0.05

0.05

0.05

0.05

0.05

0.05

0.05

0.05

0.04

0.04

0.04

0.04

0.05

0.04

$0.05

Maintenance - Not covered by RAMP

($)

446,280

435,000

435,000

435,000

435,000

435,000

435,000

435,000

483,642

485,000

349,980

269,702

268,739

282,726

210,905

23,814

5,865,788

per tonne mined

($/t)

0.01

0.01

0.01

0.01

0.01

0.01

0.01

0.01

0.01

0.01

0.01

0.01

0.01

0.01

0.01

0.01

$0.01

RAMP - Contractor - KOMATSU

($)

18,328,917

35,537,514

54,409,993

41,161,850

40,941,840

48,574,773

30,539,547

33,517,942

38,635,400

26,415,180

26,119,533

23,931,525

28,686,893

12,061,806

11,784,414

5,051,176

475,698,301

per tonne mined

($/t)

0.41

0.82

1.25

0.95

0.94

1.12

0.70

0.77

0.80

0.54

0.75

0.89

1.07

0.43

0.56

2.12

$0.81

Total Costs
Cost $ per tonne Mined

($)

($US/t)

$82,542,667
$1.85

$103,291,036
$2.37

$124,577,726
$2.86

$108,395,109
$2.49

$109,599,452
$2.52

$115,309,711
$2.65

$100,638,300
$2.31

$104,530,691
$2.40

$116,051,335
$2.40

$105,547,620
$2.18

$87,548,846
$2.50

$76,068,472
$2.82

$79,023,955
$2.94

$66,401,137
$2.35

$56,632,413
$2.69

$13,267,111
$5.57

$1,449,425,580
$2.47

Appendix Page 94

Total
10%

9%

14%

0%

5%

1%

15%

7%

2%

2%

0%

33%

100%

PRELIMINARY ECONOMIC ASSESSMENT


YAOURE GOLD PROJECT CTE DIVOIRE
APRIL 2014

8 Mt/a (USD 950 Pit Design) - Headline Case


1

10

11

12

13

Manpower

($)

7,195,900

9,156,000

11,447,900

11,582,400

11,685,900

11,997,660

12,151,650

12,203,400

7,885,874

10,242,558

9,218,584

8,722,469

1,717,575

Total
$US/t
125,207,870

per tonne mined

($/t)

0.13

0.17

0.21

0.21

0.21

0.21

0.22

0.22

0.19

0.29

0.27

0.32

0.32

$0.21

Drilling

($)

13,332,757

13,617,404

13,855,365

12,818,069

12,692,153

12,347,540

11,950,049

11,891,468

8,544,049

7,271,806

7,049,277

5,552,894

1,106,045

132,028,874

per tonne mined

($/t)

0.25

0.25

0.26

0.23

0.22

0.22

0.21

0.21

0.21

0.21

0.21

0.20

0.20

$0.23

Explosives & Blasting

($)

20,554,358

20,025,268

19,988,773

20,105,673

20,300,794

20,180,104

20,235,756

20,226,841

14,635,953

12,291,774

12,011,393

9,373,985

1,879,590

211,810,262

per tonne mined

($/t)

0.38

0.37

0.37

0.36

0.36

0.36

0.36

0.36

0.35

0.35

0.35

0.35

0.35

$0.36

Blasting Management Fee


Contractor - BME

432,000

108,000

($/t)

0.01

0.01

0.01

0.01

0.01

0.01

0.01

0.01

0.01

0.01

0.01

0.02

0.02

$0.01

Loading - Shovels

($)

7,661,183

7,639,352

7,639,352

6,430,669

6,580,840

6,561,059

6,580,840

6,580,840

4,870,476

4,119,861

4,009,197

3,195,566

640,435

72,509,670

per tonne mined

($/t)

0.14

0.14

0.14

0.12

0.12

0.12

0.12

0.12

0.12

0.12

0.12

0.12

0.12

$0.12

Loading - Rehandle - FEL

($)

1,006,040

1,580,858

1,580,858

1,580,858

1,602,429

1,602,429

1,602,429

1,602,429

1,602,429

1,602,429

1,602,429

1,602,429

301,159

18,869,203

per tonne rehandled


per tonne milled

($/t)

0.20
0.20

0.20
0.20

0.20
0.20

0.20
0.20

0.20
0.20

0.20
0.20

0.20
0.20

0.20
0.20

0.20
0.20

0.20
0.20

0.20
0.20

0.20
0.20

0.20
0.20

$0.20
0.20

Ore & Waste Haulage - Trucks

($)

13,240,975

15,360,358

14,861,881

14,597,536

16,845,551

19,903,449

21,950,521

22,463,661

18,680,054

20,496,176

15,188,133

14,042,939

3,106,697

210,737,932

per tonne mined

($/t)

0.24

0.28

0.28

0.26

0.30

0.35

0.39

0.40

0.45

0.58

0.44

0.52

0.57

$0.36

Roads & Dumps - Other Machines

($)

8,943,926

9,363,604

9,488,365

9,515,646

9,543,283

9,597,505

9,599,652

9,628,398

8,718,100

6,625,971

6,104,991

4,757,505

776,718

102,663,663

per tonne mined

($/t)

0.17

0.17

0.18

0.17

0.17

0.17

0.17

0.17

0.21

0.19

0.18

0.18

0.14

$0.18

General

($)

1,491,207

1,939,190

2,067,190

2,410,054

2,436,040

2,476,774

2,971,449

3,082,393

2,782,343

2,625,240

2,775,803

2,633,842

1,257,838

30,949,364

per tonne mined

($/t)

0.03

0.04

0.04

0.04

0.04

0.04

0.05

0.05

0.07

0.07

0.08

0.10

0.23

$0.05

Mine Engineering

($)

2,111,505

3,071,135

2,924,368

2,841,673

2,783,514

2,754,403

2,757,410

2,753,805

2,180,687

1,957,515

1,418,564

1,257,170

240,306

29,052,053

per tonne mined

($/t)

0.04

0.06

0.05

0.05

0.05

0.05

0.05

0.05

0.05

0.06

0.04

0.05

0.04

$0.05

Maintenance - Not covered by RAMP

($)

541,603

540,000

540,000

552,007

565,000

563,289

565,000

565,000

414,975

350,423

342,496

271,516

54,479

5,865,788

per tonne mined

($/t)

0.01

0.01

0.01

0.01

0.01

0.01

0.01

0.01

0.01

0.01

0.01

0.01

0.01

$0.01

RAMP - Contractor - KOMATSU

($)

15,828,351

36,542,590

59,486,463

48,087,959

34,867,513

46,980,353

42,173,633

39,699,051

47,869,925

33,967,754

24,943,419

23,452,707

18,883,135

472,782,852

per tonne mined

($/t)

0.29

0.68

1.10

0.87

0.62

0.83

0.75

0.70

1.15

0.97

0.73

0.86

3.47

$0.81

Total Costs
Cost $ per tonne Mined

($)

($US/t)

$92,389,804
$1.71

$119,267,758
$2.21

$144,312,514
$2.67

$130,954,545
$2.37

$120,335,015
$2.13

$135,396,564
$2.40

$132,970,388
$2.35

$131,129,286
$2.32

$118,616,863
$2.86

$101,983,509
$2.91

$85,096,286
$2.48

$75,295,021
$2.77

$30,071,978
$5.52

$1,417,819,532
$2.42

($)

482,000

432,000

432,000

432,000

432,000

432,000

432,000

432,000

Appendix Page 95

432,000

432,000

432,000

5,342,000

Total
9%

9%

15%

0%

5%

1%

15%

7%

2%

2%

0%

33%

100%

PRELIMINARY ECONOMIC ASSESSMENT


YAOURE GOLD PROJECT CTE DIVOIRE
APRIL 2014

OTHER G&A MANNING


PERSONNEL LEVELS

Coverage

No.

Employment Cost

Total

$/ yr

$/ yr

General Manager
Secretary

D
D

1
1

275,000
12,263

275,000
12,263

Commercial Manager
Secretary
Senior Accountant
Accountants
Clerks
Warehouse Coordinator
Procurement Officer
Warehouse Attendants
HR Coordinator
HR Specialist
HR Officers

D
D
D
D
D
D
D
C
D
D
D

1
1
1
2
5
1
1
4
1
1
3

233,000
12,263
166,000
112,000
14,716
112,000
20,000
12,728
166,000
112,000
14,716

233,000
12,263
166,000
224,000
73,580
112,000
20,000
50,912
166,000
112,000
44,148

HSE Manager
Envirionmental Officer
H&S Officer
CLO Officer
HSE Technican

D
D
D
D
D

1
1
1
1
1

112,000
20,000
20,000
20,000
12,728

112,000
20,000
20,000
20,000
12,728

Security Manager

112,000

112,000

TOTAL NUMBER OF PEOPLE


Grand Sub Total
CONTINGENCY
0%
TOTAL OTHER G&A LABOUR COST, $/ yr

29
1,797,894
1,797,894

Appendix Page 96

PRELIMINARY ECONOMIC ASSESSMENT


YAOURE GOLD PROJECT CTE DIVOIRE
APRIL 2014

APPENDIX M

Manning

Appendix Page 97

PRELIMINARY ECONOMIC ASSESSMENT


YAOURE GOLD PROJECT CTE DIVOIRE
APRIL 2014

5 Mt/a (USD 800 Pit Design)


Year
Number
Costs

1
15
$1,513,500

2
16
$1,548,000

3
19
$1,915,500

4
19
$1,915,500

5
19
$1,915,500

6
19
$1,915,500

7
19
$1,915,500

8
19
$1,915,500

9
19
$1,915,500

10
16
$1,533,000

11
16
$1,533,000

12
16
$1,533,000

13
16
$1,533,000

14
16
$1,533,000

Technical Support

Number
Costs

20
$1,366,500

20
$1,555,500

32
$2,091,000

36
$2,331,000

37
$2,331,000

37
$2,331,000

37
$2,331,000

36
$2,331,000

36
$2,331,000

35
$2,331,000

23
$1,348,500

24
$1,348,500

23
$1,348,500

20
$1,108,500

Mine Operations

Number
Costs

167
$3,353,550

202
$4,010,700

213
$4,156,350

209
$4,076,179

219
$4,259,850

219
$4,233,300

213
$4,103,250

185
$3,537,438

158
$3,037,539

146
$2,812,650

144
$2,805,150

152
$2,931,896

119
$2,290,800

66
$1,270,350

Maintenance Supervision

Number
Costs

3
$313,950

5
$408,750

5
$408,750

5
$408,750

5
$408,750

5
$408,750

5
$408,750

5
$408,750

5
$408,750

5
$408,750

5
$408,750

5
$408,750

5
$408,750

5
$408,750

Maintenance Operations

Number
Costs

0
$0

15
$264,450

47
$717,450

47
$717,450

47
$717,450

47
$717,450

47
$717,450

47
$717,450

33
$508,950

17
$282,450

9
$160,950

9
$160,950

9
$160,950

9
$160,950

Accomodations Back-charge

Number
Day rate
Costs
Number
Costs

38
$20
$277,400
205
$6,824,900

41
$20
$300,120
258
$8,087,520

56
$20
$408,800
316
$9,697,850

60
$20
$438,000
316
$9,886,879

61
$20
$445,300
327
$10,077,850

61
$20
$446,520
327
$10,052,520

61
$20
$445,300
321
$9,921,250

60
$20
$438,000
292
$9,348,138

60
$20
$438,000
251
$8,639,739

56
$20
$409,920
219
$7,777,770

44
$20
$321,200
197
$6,577,550

45
$20
$328,500
206
$6,711,596

44
$20
$321,200
172
$6,063,200

41
$20
$300,120
116
$4,781,670

Mine Supervision

Total Manning Level


Total Manning Costs

6.5 Mt/a (USD 800 Pit Design) - Base Case


Year
Number
Costs

1
15
$1,513,500

2
16
$1,548,000

3
19
$1,915,500

4
19
$1,915,500

5
19
$1,915,500

6
19
$1,915,500

7
19
$1,915,500

8
19
$1,915,500

9
19
$1,915,500

10
16
$1,533,000

11
13
$1,429,500

Technical Support

Number
Costs

21
$1,366,500

20
$1,555,500

32
$2,091,000

37
$2,331,000

37
$2,331,000

37
$2,331,000

36
$2,331,000

36
$2,331,000

36
$2,331,000

36
$2,331,000

5
$382,500

Mine Operations

Number
Costs

212
$4,225,650

232
$4,570,950

249
$4,846,650

261
$5,053,650

252
$4,871,850

245
$4,669,790

213
$4,066,350

196
$3,720,771

166
$3,171,750

145
$2,751,409

57
$1,106,100

Maintenance Supervision

Number
Costs

3
$313,950

5
$408,750

5
$408,750

5
$408,750

5
$408,750

5
$408,750

5
$408,750

5
$408,750

5
$408,750

5
$408,750

5
$408,750

Maintenance Operations

Number
Costs

0
$0

15
$264,450

47
$717,450

47
$717,450

47
$717,450

47
$717,450

47
$717,450

47
$717,450

33
$508,950

17
$282,450

9
$160,950

Accomodations Back-charge

Number
Day rate
Costs

39
$20
$284,700
251
$7,704,300

41
$20
$300,120
288
$8,647,770

56
$20
$408,800
352
$10,388,150

61
$20
$445,300
369
$10,871,650

61
$20
$445,300
360
$10,689,850

61
$20
$446,520
353
$10,489,010

60
$20
$438,000
320
$9,877,050

60
$20
$438,000
303
$9,531,471

60
$20
$438,000
259
$8,773,950

57
$20
$417,240
219
$7,723,849

23
$20
$167,900
89
$3,655,700

Mine Supervision

Total Manning Level


Total Manning Costs

6.5 Mt/a (USD 950 Pit Design)


Year
Number
Costs

1
6
$654,000

2
10
$1,093,500

3
19
$1,915,500

4
19
$1,915,500

5
19
$1,915,500

6
19
$1,915,500

7
19
$1,915,500

8
19
$1,915,500

9
19
$1,915,500

10
19
$1,915,500

11
18
$1,788,000

12
18
$1,788,000

13
18
$1,788,000

14
17
$1,660,500

15
16
$1,533,000

16
16
$1,533,000

Technical Support

Number
Costs

21
$1,366,500

20
$1,555,500

32
$2,091,000

38
$2,331,000

38
$2,331,000

38
$2,331,000

38
$2,331,000

38
$2,331,000

38
$2,331,000

38
$2,331,000

37
$2,331,000

36
$2,331,000

36
$2,331,000

36
$2,331,000

25
$1,483,500

20
$1,357,500

Mine Supervision

Mine Operations

Number
Costs

207
$4,112,449

241
$4,757,925

261
$5,111,925

252
$4,877,025

264
$5,084,025

249
$4,825,275

267
$5,135,775

267
$5,135,775

261
$5,023,219

255
$4,921,125

202
$3,845,830

173
$3,269,091

164
$3,139,395

175
$3,353,371

148
$2,749,537

48
$897,750

Maintenance Supervision

Number
Costs

3
$313,950

5
$408,750

5
$408,750

5
$408,750

5
$408,750

5
$408,750

5
$408,750

5
$408,750

5
$408,750

5
$408,750

5
$408,750

5
$408,750

5
$408,750

5
$408,750

5
$408,750

2
$300,000

Maintenance Operations

Number
Costs

0
$0

15
$264,450

47
$717,450

47
$717,450

47
$717,450

47
$717,450

47
$717,450

47
$717,450

33
$508,950

32
$491,700

29
$439,950

29
$439,950

29
$439,950

29
$439,950

19
$300,450

12
$202,800

Accomodations Back-charge

Number
Day rate
Costs

30
$20
$219,000
237
$6,665,899

35
$20
$256,200
291
$8,336,325

56
$20
$408,800
364
$10,653,425

62
$20
$452,600
361
$10,702,325

62
$20
$452,600
373
$10,909,325

62
$20
$453,840
358
$10,651,815

62
$20
$452,600
376
$10,961,075

62
$20
$452,600
376
$10,961,075

62
$20
$452,600
356
$10,640,019

62
$20
$453,840
349
$10,521,915

60
$20
$438,000
291
$9,251,530

59
$20
$430,700
261
$8,667,491

59
$20
$430,700
252
$8,537,795

58
$20
$424,560
262
$8,618,131

46
$20
$335,800
213
$6,811,037

38
$20
$277,400
98
$4,568,450

Total Manning Level


Total Manning Costs

8 Mt/a (USD 950 Pit Design) - Headline Case


Year
Number
Costs

1
6
$654,000

2
10
$1,093,500

3
19
$1,915,500

4
19
$1,915,500

5
19
$1,915,500

6
19
$1,915,500

7
19
$1,915,500

8
19
$1,915,500

9
19
$1,915,500

10
19
$1,915,500

11
18
$1,788,000

12
18
$1,788,000

13
18
$1,788,000

Technical Support

Number
Costs

22
$1,366,500

20
$1,555,500

32
$2,091,000

39
$2,331,000

39
$2,331,000

39
$2,331,000

39
$2,331,000

39
$2,331,000

38
$2,331,000

37
$2,331,000

37
$2,331,000

36
$2,331,000

34
$2,331,000

Mine Operations

Number
Costs

234
$4,635,150

284
$5,577,600

301
$5,906,400

295
$5,749,800

301
$5,853,300

319
$6,163,800

328
$6,319,050

331
$6,370,800

260
$4,897,699

247
$4,649,088

199
$3,812,884

173
$3,324,069

76
$1,486,500

Maintenance Supervision

Number
Costs

3
$313,950

5
$408,750

5
$408,750

5
$408,750

5
$408,750

5
$408,750

5
$408,750

5
$408,750

5
$408,750

5
$408,750

5
$408,750

5
$408,750

5
$408,750

Maintenance Operations

Number
Costs

0
$0

15
$264,450

47
$717,450

47
$717,450

47
$717,450

47
$717,450

47
$717,450

47
$717,450

33
$508,950

32
$491,700

29
$439,950

29
$439,950

29
$439,950

Accomodations Back-charge

Number
Day rate
Costs

31
$20
$226,300
265
$7,195,900

35
$20
$256,200
334
$9,156,000

56
$20
$408,800
404
$11,447,900

63
$20
$459,900
405
$11,582,400

63
$20
$459,900
411
$11,685,900

63
$20
$461,160
429
$11,997,660

63
$20
$459,900
438
$12,151,650

63
$20
$459,900
441
$12,203,400

62
$20
$452,600
355
$10,514,499

61
$20
$446,520
340
$10,242,558

60
$20
$438,000
288
$9,218,584

59
$20
$430,700
261
$8,722,469

57
$20
$416,100
162
$6,870,300

Mine Supervision

Total Manning Level


Total Manning Costs

Appendix Page 98

PRELIMINARY ECONOMIC ASSESSMENT


YAOURE GOLD PROJECT CTE DIVOIRE
APRIL 2014

APPENDIX N

Mine Schedules and Discounted Cash Flow Models

Appendix Page 99

PRELIMINARY ECONOMIC ASSESSMENT


YAOURE GOLD PROJECT CTE DIVOIRE
APRIL 2014

5 Mt/a (USD 800 Pit Design)


Year

-2

-1

10

11

12

13

14

63,897
1.53
3,140
313,848
377,745
4.9

0
0.00
0
0
0
0.00

0
0.00
0
0
0
0.00

1,963
1.40
88
32,037
34,000
16.32

5,000
1.54
248
29,000
34,000
5.80

5,000
1.53
246
29,000
34,000
5.80

5,000
1.51
243
26,254
31,254
5.25

5,000
1.45
233
29,000
34,000
5.80

5,000
1.34
215
29,000
34,000
5.80

5,000
1.11
179
29,000
34,000
5.80

5,000
1.30
209
22,028
27,028
4.41

5,000
1.56
251
21,163
26,163
4.23

5,000
1.61
259
17,000
22,000
3.40

5,000
1.38
222
17,000
22,000
3.40

5,000
1.62
261
19,246
24,246
3.85

5,000
1.86
299
12,258
17,258
2.45

1,934
3.01
187
1,863
3,796
0.96

63,897
1.53
3,140
95.0%
2,983
216

0
0.00
0
0.0%
0

0
0.00
0
0.0%
0

1,963
1.40
88
95.0%
84

5,000
1.54
248
95.0%
236

5,000
1.53
246
95.0%
233

5,000
1.51
243
95.0%
231

5,000
1.45
233
95.0%
221

5,000
1.34
215
95.0%
204

5,000
1.11
179
95.0%
170

5,000
1.30
209
95.0%
199

5,000
1.56
251
95.0%
238

5,000
1.61
259
95.0%
246

5,000
1.38
222
95.0%
211

5,000
1.62
261
95.0%
248

5,000
1.86
299
95.0%
284

1,934
3.01
187
95.0%
178

USD/oz
USDk
USDk
USDk
USDk
USDk

1,250
3,728,509
(130,498)
(18,643)
(19,388)
3,559,980

0
-

0
-

1,250
104,964
(3,674)
(525)
(546)
100,219

1,250
294,741
(10,316)
(1,474)
(1,533)
281,419

1,250
291,647
(10,208)
(1,458)
(1,517)
278,464

1,250
288,380
(10,093)
(1,442)
(1,500)
275,345

1,250
276,373
(9,673)
(1,382)
(1,437)
263,881

1,250
254,909
(8,922)
(1,275)
(1,326)
243,387

1,250
212,239
(7,428)
(1,061)
(1,104)
202,646

1,250
248,407
(8,694)
(1,242)
(1,292)
237,179

1,250
298,016
(10,431)
(1,490)
(1,550)
284,545

1,250
307,603
(10,766)
(1,538)
(1,600)
293,699

1,250
263,360
(9,218)
(1,317)
(1,369)
251,456

1,250
310,025
(10,851)
(1,550)
(1,612)
296,012

1,250
355,310
(12,436)
(1,777)
(1,848)
339,250

1,250
222,535
(7,789)
(1,113)
(1,157)
212,476

OPERATING COSTS
Mining
Processing
G&A
Total Opex

USDk
USDk
USDk
USDk

(939,543)
(672,195)
(58,800)
(1,670,537)

(64,397)
(20,653)
(4,200)
(89,250)

(78,884)
(52,600)
(4,200)
(135,684)

(90,848)
(52,600)
(4,200)
(147,648)

(84,348)
(52,600)
(4,200)
(141,148)

(81,495)
(52,600)
(4,200)
(138,295)

(87,768)
(52,600)
(4,200)
(144,568)

(81,512)
(52,600)
(4,200)
(138,312)

(73,526)
(52,600)
(4,200)
(130,326)

(72,402)
(52,600)
(4,200)
(129,202)

(49,855)
(52,600)
(4,200)
(106,655)

(53,137)
(52,600)
(4,200)
(109,937)

(60,214)
(52,600)
(4,200)
(117,014)

(47,172)
(52,600)
(4,200)
(103,972)

(13,986)
(20,341)
(4,200)
(38,528)

OPERATING CASHFLOW

USDk

1,889,443

10,970

145,735

130,816

134,197

125,585

98,819

64,334

106,854

155,343

187,044

141,519

178,998

235,278

173,948

CAPITAL COSTS
Mining Pre-production
Mining Equipment
Process Plant
Plant Infrastructure
Area Infrastructure
Regional Infrastructure
Miscellaneous
Indirects
Contingency
Total Initial Capex

USDk
USDk
USDk
USDk
USDk
USDk
USDk
USDk
USDk
USDk

(65,677)
(111,185)
(30,283)
(16,982)
(9,000)
(16,401)
(45,974)
(35,189)
(330,691)

Mining
Other Sustaining
Closure
Total Sustaining & Closure Capex

USDk
USDk
USDk
USDk

(46,033)
(61,140)
(18,400)
(125,573)

Total Capex

USDk

(456,264)

(106,006)

(224,686)

(1,812)

(995)

(3,960)

(5,022)

PRE-TAX CASHFLOW

USDk

1,433,178

(106,006)

(224,686)

9,158

144,740

126,856

129,175

Total/ Ave.
PRODUCTION
Mining
Total Ore Mined
Total Ore Grade
Contained Au
Waste Mined
Total Material
Strip Ratio

kt
g/t
koz
kt
kt
t:waste:ore

Processing
Plant Feed
Grade
Contained Gold
Overall Recovery
Gold Produced

kt
g/t
koz
%
koz

REVENUE
Gold Price
Gross Revenue
Royalty
Community Development Fund
Freight and Refining Charges
Net Revenue

(44,474)
(12,113)
(6,793)
(3,600)
(6,560)
(18,390)
(14,076)
(106,006)

(65,677)
(66,711)
(18,170)
(10,189)
(5,400)
(9,841)
(27,584)
(21,113)
(224,686)

(1,812)
(1,812)

(25)
(970)
(995)

(3,960)
(3,960)

(1,432)
(3,590)
(5,022)

(2,959)
(3,170)
(6,129)

(15,784)
(7,710)
(23,494)

(130)
(12,920)
(13,050)

(6,129)

(3,360)

(13,050)

(3,410)

(23,494)

(22,074)

(12,507)

(3,630)

(3,660)

(22,470)

119,457

95,459

51,284

103,444

131,849

164,970

129,012

175,368

231,618

151,478

Appendix Page 100

(3,410)
(3,410)

(3,360)
(3,360)

(15,434)
(6,640)
(22,074)

(8,457)
(4,050)
(12,507)

(3,630)
(3,630)

(3,660)
(3,660)

(4,070)
(18,400)
(22,470)

PRELIMINARY ECONOMIC ASSESSMENT


YAOURE GOLD PROJECT CTE DIVOIRE
APRIL 2014
Year
CORPORATE TAX
Depreciation
Cashflow less Depreciation

-2

-1

10

11

12

13

14

USDk
USDk

(501,602)
1,387,841

(5,740)
(5,740)

(16,341)
(16,341)

(38,809)
(27,840)

(38,990)
106,745

(39,090)
91,726

(39,486)
94,711

(39,988)
85,597

(40,601)
58,219

(40,937)
23,397

(42,242)
64,612

(36,843)
118,501

(28,592)
158,452

(8,331)
133,189

(9,400)
169,598

(9,664)
225,615

(9,634)
164,315

Tax allowance o/b


Tax allowance addition
Tax allowance used
Tax allowance c/b

USDk
USDk
USDk
USDk

5,740
5,740

5,740
16,341
22,081

22,081
27,840
49,920

49,920
(49,920)
-

Taxable income
Tax Payable

USDk
USDk

56,825
-

91,726
-

94,711
-

85,597
-

58,219
(14,555)

23,397
(5,849)

64,612
(16,153)

118,501
(29,625)

158,452
(39,613)

133,189
(33,297)

169,598
(42,400)

225,615
(56,404)

164,315
(41,079)

WORKING CAPITAL
Debtors - o/b
c/b
net change

USDk
USDk
USDk

2,746
(2,746)

2,746
7,710
(4,964)

7,710
7,629
81

7,629
7,544
85

7,544
7,230
314

7,230
6,668
561

6,668
5,552
1,116

5,552
6,498
(946)

6,498
7,796
(1,298)

7,796
8,047
(251)

8,047
6,889
1,157

6,889
8,110
(1,221)

8,110
9,295
(1,185)

9,295
9,295

Creditors - o/b
c/b
net change

USDk
USDk
USDk

(5,502)
5,502

(5,502)
(8,364)
2,862

(8,364)
(9,102)
738

(9,102)
(8,701)
(401)

(8,701)
(8,525)
(176)

(8,525)
(8,912)
387

(8,912)
(8,526)
(386)

(8,526)
(8,034)
(492)

(8,034)
(7,964)
(69)

(7,964)
(6,575)
(1,390)

(6,575)
(6,777)
202

(6,777)
(7,213)
436

(7,213)
(6,409)
(804)

(6,409)
(6,409)

Overall Net Change

USDk

PROJECT FREE CASHFLOW

USDk

1,154,204

Payback
Discount Rate
NPV
IRR

Years
%
USDk
%

3.4
8.00%
463,575
25.4%

AMARA FREE CASHFLOW

USDk

1,033,937

Payback
Discount Rate
NPV
IRR

Years
%
USDk
%

3.4
8.00%
407,542
24.0%

1,444,757
(278,974)

2,756

(2,102)

818

(315)

138

948

731

(1,438)

(1,367)

(1,641)

1,360

(784)

(1,989)

2,885

(106,006)
(106,006)

(224,686)
(330,691)

11,914
(318,777)

142,638
(176,139)

127,674
(48,465)

128,860
80,395
3.4

119,595
199,990

81,853
281,843

46,166
328,008

85,852
413,861

100,857
514,718

123,717
638,434

97,074
735,509

132,184
867,693

173,226
1,040,919

113,285
1,154,204

(106,006)
(106,006)

(224,686)
(330,691)

11,914
(318,777)

142,638
(176,139)

127,674
(48,465)

115,974
67,509
3.4

107,636
175,144

73,668
248,812

41,549
290,361

77,267
367,628

90,771
458,399

111,345
569,744

87,367
657,111

118,966
776,077

155,904
931,981

101,957
1,033,937

Appendix Page 101

PRELIMINARY ECONOMIC ASSESSMENT


YAOURE GOLD PROJECT CTE DIVOIRE
APRIL 2014

6.5 Mt/a (USD 800 Pit Design) - Base Case


Year

-2

-1

10

11

63,897
1.53
3,140
313,848
377,745
4.9

0
0.00
0
0
0
0.00

0
0.00
0
0
0
0.00

3,320
1.59
169
39,680
43,000
11.95

6,500
1.52
317
36,500
43,000
5.62

6,500
1.46
306
36,500
43,000
5.62

6,500
1.50
314
36,500
43,000
5.62

6,500
1.20
252
36,500
43,000
5.62

6,500
1.22
254
34,673
41,173
5.33

6,430
1.50
310
26,570
33,000
4.13

6,500
1.56
326
23,241
29,741
3.58

6,500
1.45
303
23,500
30,000
3.62

6,500
1.84
384
18,018
24,518
2.77

2,147
2.96
204
2,166
4,313
1.01

63,897
1.53
3,140
95.0%
2,982.81
279

0
0.00
0
0.0%
0

0
0.00
0
0.0%
0

3,320
1.59
169
95.0%
161

6,500
1.52
317
95.0%
301

6,500
1.46
306
95.0%
290

6,500
1.50
314
95.0%
298

6,500
1.20
252
95.0%
239

6,500
1.22
254
95.0%
241

6,430
1.50
310
95.0%
295

6,500
1.56
326
95.0%
310

6,500
1.45
303
95.0%
288

6,500
1.84
384
95.0%
365

2,147
2.96
204
95.0%
194

USD/oz
USDk
USDk
USDk
USDk
USDk

1,250
3,728,509
(130,498)
(18,643)
(19,388)
3,559,980

0
-

0
-

1,250
201,061
(7,037)
(1,005)
(1,046)
191,973

1,250
376,374
(13,173)
(1,882)
(1,957)
359,362

1,250
363,010
(12,705)
(1,815)
(1,888)
346,602

1,250
373,106
(13,059)
(1,866)
(1,940)
356,241

1,250
298,869
(10,460)
(1,494)
(1,554)
285,360

1,250
301,706
(10,560)
(1,509)
(1,569)
288,069

1,250
368,457
(12,896)
(1,842)
(1,916)
351,803

1,250
387,404
(13,559)
(1,937)
(2,015)
369,893

1,250
360,249
(12,609)
(1,801)
(1,873)
343,966

1,250
455,949
(15,958)
(2,280)
(2,371)
435,340

1,250
242,323
(8,481)
(1,212)
(1,260)
231,370

OPERATING COSTS
Mining
Processing
G&A
Total Opex

USDk
USDk
USDk
USDk

(909,502)
(647,275)
(46,200)
(1,602,977)

(78,651)
(33,632)
(4,200)
(116,483)

(96,332)
(65,845)
(4,200)
(166,377)

(112,119)
(65,845)
(4,200)
(182,164)

(104,654)
(65,845)
(4,200)
(174,699)

(95,059)
(65,845)
(4,200)
(165,104)

(104,303)
(65,845)
(4,200)
(174,348)

(80,804)
(65,131)
(4,200)
(150,135)

(80,557)
(65,845)
(4,200)
(150,602)

(87,737)
(65,845)
(4,200)
(157,782)

(55,257)
(65,845)
(4,200)
(125,302)

(14,030)
(21,752)
(4,200)
(39,982)

OPERATING CASHFLOW

USDk

1,957,003

75,490

192,986

164,439

181,543

120,256

113,721

201,668

219,292

186,183

310,038

191,388

CAPITAL COSTS
Mining Pre-production
Mining Equipment
Process Plant
Plant Infrastructure
Area Infrastructure
Regional Infrastructure
Miscellaneous
Indirects
Contingency
Total Initial Capex

USDk
USDk
USDk
USDk
USDk
USDk
USDk
USDk
USDk
USDk

(74,981)
(124,039)
(32,485)
(17,622)
(9,000)
(17,999)
(43,162)
(37,406)
(356,694)

Mining
Other Sustaining
Closure
Total Sustaining & Closure Capex

USDk
USDk
USDk
USDk

(13,943)
(56,830)
(18,400)
(89,173)

Total Capex

USDk

(445,867)

(112,685)

(244,009)

(7,003)

(1,155)

(7,822)

PRE-TAX CASHFLOW

USDk

1,511,136

(112,685)

(244,009)

68,487

191,831

156,616

Total/ Ave.
PRODUCTION
Mining
Total Ore Mined
Total Ore Grade
Contained Au
Waste Mined
Total Material
Strip Ratio

kt
g/t
koz
kt
kt
t:waste:ore

Processing
Plant Feed
Grade
Contained Gold
Overall Recovery
Gold Produced

kt
g/t
koz
%
koz

REVENUE
Gold Price
Gross Revenue
Royalty
Community Development Fund
Freight and Refining Charges
Net Revenue

(49,616)
(12,994)
(7,049)
(3,600)
(7,200)
(17,265)
(14,962)
(112,685)

(74,981)
(74,423)
(19,491)
(10,573)
(5,400)
(10,799)
(25,897)
(22,444)
(244,009)

(7,003)
(7,003)

(25)
(1,130)
(1,155)

(3,382)
(4,440)
(7,822)

(305)
(4,010)
(4,315)

(1,567)
(3,520)
(5,087)

(1,531)
(14,930)
(16,461)

(4,315)

(5,087)

(16,461)

(3,930)

(8,840)

(7,570)

(4,540)

(22,450)

177,228

115,169

97,260

197,738

210,452

178,613

305,498

168,938

Appendix Page 102

(130)
(3,800)
(3,930)

(8,840)
(8,840)

(7,570)
(7,570)

(4,540)
(4,540)

(4,050)
(18,400)
(22,450)

PRELIMINARY ECONOMIC ASSESSMENT


YAOURE GOLD PROJECT CTE DIVOIRE
APRIL 2014
Year
CORPORATE TAX
Depreciation
Cashflow less Depreciation

USDk
USDk

-2

-1

10

11

(501,022)
1,455,981

(5,740)
(5,740)

(17,009)
(17,009)

(41,409)
34,080

(42,110)
150,876

(42,225)
122,213

(43,007)
138,535

(43,439)
76,817

(43,948)
69,773

(45,594)
156,074

(45,987)
173,305

(41,131)
145,053

(30,619)
279,419

(6,672)
184,716

Tax allowance o/b


Tax allowance addition
Tax allowance used
Tax allowance c/b

USDk
USDk
USDk
USDk

5,740
5,740

5,740
17,009
22,749

22,749
(22,749)
-

Taxable income
Tax Payable

USDk
USDk

11,332
-

150,876
-

122,213
-

138,535
-

76,817
-

69,773
(17,443)

156,074
(39,019)

173,305
(43,326)

145,053
(36,263)

279,419
(69,855)

184,716
(46,179)

WORKING CAPITAL
Debtors - o/b
c/b
net change

USDk
USDk
USDk

5,260
(5,260)

5,260
9,846
(4,586)

9,846
9,496
350

9,496
9,760
(264)

9,760
7,818
1,942

7,818
7,892
(74)

7,892
9,638
(1,746)

9,638
10,134
(496)

10,134
9,424
710

9,424
11,927
(2,503)

11,927
11,927

Creditors - o/b
c/b
net change

USDk
USDk
USDk

(7,180)
7,180

(7,180)
(10,256)
3,076

(10,256)
(11,229)
973

(11,229)
(10,769)
(460)

(10,769)
(10,178)
(591)

(10,178)
(10,747)
570

(10,747)
(9,255)
(1,493)

(9,255)
(9,284)
29

(9,284)
(9,726)
443

(9,726)
(7,724)
(2,002)

(7,724)
(7,724)

Overall Net Change

USDk

1,921

(1,510)

1,323

(724)

1,351

496

(3,239)

(467)

1,153

(4,506)

4,203

PROJECT FREE CASHFLOW

USDk

1,259,051

Payback
Discount Rate
NPV
IRR

Years
%
USDk
%

2.6
8.00%
612,721
33.1%

AMARA FREE CASHFLOW

USDk

1,123,549

Payback
Discount Rate
NPV
IRR

Years
%
USDk
%

2.7
8.00%
538,732
31.1%

1,508,113
(252,085)

(112,685)
(112,685)

(244,009)
(356,694)

70,408
(286,286)

190,320
(95,966)

157,939
61,973
2.6

176,504
238,477

116,520
354,996

80,312
435,308

155,481
590,789

166,659
757,448

143,503
900,951

231,138
1,132,088

126,962
1,259,051

(112,685)
(112,685)

(244,009)
(356,694)

70,408
(286,286)

190,320
(95,966)

142,145
46,179
2.7

158,853
205,032

104,868
309,900

72,281
382,181

139,933
522,114

149,993
672,106

129,153
801,259

208,024
1,009,283

114,266
1,123,549

Appendix Page 103

PRELIMINARY ECONOMIC ASSESSMENT


YAOURE GOLD PROJECT CTE DIVOIRE
APRIL 2014

6.5 Mt/a (USD 950 Pit Design)


Year

-2

-1

10

11

12

13

14

15

16

94,595
1.39
4,239
491,984
586,579
5.2

0
0.00
0
0
0
0.00

0
0.00
0
0
0
0.00

3,019
1.29
125
41,609
44,628
13.78

6,500
1.42
297
37,000
43,500
5.69

6,500
1.48
308
37,000
43,500
5.69

6,500
1.49
312
37,000
43,500
5.69

6,500
1.10
230
37,000
43,500
5.69

6,500
1.13
236
37,000
43,500
5.69

6,500
1.28
267
37,000
43,500
5.69

6,500
1.19
250
37,000
43,500
5.69

6,500
1.26
263
41,864
48,364
6.44

6,500
1.35
282
42,000
48,500
6.46

6,500
1.45
303
28,498
34,998
4.38

6,500
1.40
293
20,470
26,970
3.15

6,500
1.85
387
20,374
26,874
3.13

6,500
1.36
285
21,773
28,273
3.35

6,500
1.66
346
14,591
21,091
2.24

576
2.93
54
1,806
2,381
3.14

94,595
1.39
4,239
95.0%
4,027
265

0
0.00
0
0.0%
0

0
0.00
0
0.0%
0

3,019
1.29
125
95.0%
119

6,500
1.42
297
95.0%
282

6,500
1.48
308
95.0%
293

6,500
1.49
312
95.0%
296

6,500
1.10
230
95.0%
219

6,500
1.13
236
95.0%
224

6,500
1.28
267
95.0%
254

6,500
1.19
250
95.0%
237

6,500
1.26
263
95.0%
250

6,500
1.35
282
95.0%
268

6,500
1.45
303
95.0%
287

6,500
1.40
293
95.0%
278

6,500
1.85
387
95.0%
368

6,500
1.36
285
95.0%
271

6,500
1.66
346
95.0%
329

576
2.93
54
95.0%
52

USD/oz
USDk
USDk
USDk
USDk
USDk

1,250
5,033,662
(176,178)
(25,168)
(26,175)
4,806,140

0
-

0
-

1,250
148,504
(5,198)
(743)
(772)
141,792

1,250
352,512
(12,338)
(1,763)
(1,833)
336,578

1,250
366,300
(12,821)
(1,832)
(1,905)
349,743

1,250
370,107
(12,954)
(1,851)
(1,925)
353,379

1,250
273,612
(9,576)
(1,368)
(1,423)
261,244

1,250
280,281
(9,810)
(1,401)
(1,457)
267,613

1,250
317,639
(11,117)
(1,588)
(1,652)
303,282

1,250
296,464
(10,376)
(1,482)
(1,542)
283,064

1,250
311,943
(10,918)
(1,560)
(1,622)
297,843

1,250
334,963
(11,724)
(1,675)
(1,742)
319,823

1,250
359,288
(12,575)
(1,796)
(1,868)
343,048

1,250
348,021
(12,181)
(1,740)
(1,810)
332,290

1,250
459,570
(16,085)
(2,298)
(2,390)
438,798

1,250
338,686
(11,854)
(1,693)
(1,761)
323,378

1,250
411,373
(14,398)
(2,057)
(2,139)
392,779

1,250
64,398
(2,254)
(322)
(335)
61,487

OPERATING COSTS
Mining
Processing
G&A
Total Opex

USDk
USDk
USDk
USDk

(1,449,426)
(958,243)
(67,200)
(2,474,869)

(82,543)
(30,583)
(4,200)
(117,326)

(103,291)
(65,845)
(4,200)
(173,336)

(124,578)
(65,845)
(4,200)
(194,623)

(108,395)
(65,845)
(4,200)
(178,440)

(109,599)
(65,845)
(4,200)
(179,644)

(115,310)
(65,845)
(4,200)
(185,355)

(100,638)
(65,845)
(4,200)
(170,683)

(104,531)
(65,845)
(4,200)
(174,576)

(116,051)
(65,845)
(4,200)
(186,096)

(105,548)
(65,845)
(4,200)
(175,593)

(87,549)
(65,845)
(4,200)
(157,594)

(76,068)
(65,845)
(4,200)
(146,113)

(79,024)
(65,845)
(4,200)
(149,069)

(66,401)
(65,845)
(4,200)
(136,446)

(56,632)
(65,845)
(4,200)
(126,677)

(13,267)
(5,830)
(4,200)
(23,297)

OPERATING CASHFLOW

USDk

2,331,271

24,466

163,242

155,121

174,939

81,600

82,258

132,599

108,488

111,746

144,230

185,454

186,177

289,729

186,932

266,101

38,190

CAPITAL COSTS
Mining Pre-production
Mining Equipment
Process Plant
Plant Infrastructure
Area Infrastructure
Regional Infrastructure
Miscellaneous
Indirects
Contingency
Total Initial Capex

USDk
USDk
USDk
USDk
USDk
USDk
USDk
USDk
USDk
USDk

(79,895)
(124,039)
(32,485)
(17,622)
(9,000)
(17,999)
(43,162)
(37,406)
(361,608)

Mining
Other Sustaining
Closure
Total Sustaining & Closure Capex

USDk
USDk
USDk
USDk

(75,144)
(69,100)
(18,400)
(162,644)

Total Capex

USDk

(524,252)

(112,685)

(248,923)

(4,823)

(3,660)

(4,440)

PRE-TAX CASHFLOW

USDk

1,807,019

(112,685)

(248,923)

19,643

159,582

150,681

Total/ Ave.
PRODUCTION
Mining
Total Ore Mined
Total Ore Grade
Contained Au
Waste Mined
Total Material
Strip Ratio

kt
g/t
koz
kt
kt
t:waste:ore

Processing
Plant Feed
Grade
Contained Gold
Overall Recovery
Gold Produced

kt
g/t
koz
%
koz

REVENUE
Gold Price
Gross Revenue
Royalty
Community Development Fund
Freight and Refining Charges
Net Revenue

(49,616)
(12,994)
(7,049)
(3,600)
(7,200)
(17,265)
(14,962)
(112,685)

(79,895)
(74,423)
(19,491)
(10,573)
(5,400)
(10,799)
(25,897)
(22,444)
(248,923)

(4,823)
(4,823)

(2,530)
(1,130)
(3,660)

(4,440)
(4,440)

(5,065)
(4,010)
(9,075)

(2,041)
(3,520)
(5,561)

(2,255)
(14,930)
(17,185)

(9,075)

(5,561)

165,864

76,039

(18,800)
(4,050)
(22,850)

(11,450)
(8,840)
(20,290)

(5,363)
(7,570)
(12,933)

(17,185)

(4,405)

(20,290)

(12,933)

(23,691)

(22,850)

(7,027)

(4,215)

65,073

128,194

88,199

98,814

120,540

162,604

179,150

285,514

Appendix Page 104

(19,151)
(4,540)
(23,691)

(605)
(3,800)
(4,405)

(2,937)
(4,090)
(7,027)

(125)
(4,090)
(4,215)

(4,090)
(4,090)

(18,400)
(18,400)

(4,090)

(18,400)

182,842

266,101

19,790

PRELIMINARY ECONOMIC ASSESSMENT


YAOURE GOLD PROJECT CTE DIVOIRE
APRIL 2014
Year
CORPORATE TAX
Depreciation
Cashflow less Depreciation

USDk
USDk

-2

-1

10

11

12

13

14

15

16

(564,021)
1,767,250

(5,740)
(5,740)

(17,009)
(17,009)

(41,901)
(17,435)

(42,383)
120,859

(42,749)
112,371

(43,193)
131,745

(44,101)
37,499

(44,657)
37,601

(46,375)
86,223

(46,816)
61,672

(43,105)
68,642

(33,129)
111,101

(10,606)
174,848

(12,409)
173,768

(12,746)
276,983

(12,723)
174,209

(12,225)
253,877

(11,668)
26,521

Tax allowance o/b


Tax allowance addition
Tax allowance used
Tax allowance c/b

USDk
USDk
USDk
USDk

5,740
5,740

5,740
17,009
22,749

22,749
17,435
40,183

40,183
(40,183)
-

Taxable income
Tax Payable

USDk
USDk

80,676
-

112,371
-

131,745
-

37,499
-

37,601
(9,400)

86,223
(21,556)

61,672
(15,418)

68,642
(17,160)

111,101
(27,775)

174,848
(43,712)

173,768
(43,442)

276,983
(69,246)

174,209
(43,552)

253,877
(63,469)

26,521
(6,630)

WORKING CAPITAL
Debtors - o/b
c/b
net change

USDk
USDk
USDk

3,885
(3,885)

3,885
9,221
(5,337)

9,221
9,582
(361)

9,582
9,682
(100)

9,682
7,157
2,524

7,157
7,332
(174)

7,332
8,309
(977)

8,309
7,755
554

7,755
8,160
(405)

8,160
8,762
(602)

8,762
9,399
(636)

9,399
9,104
295

9,104
12,022
(2,918)

12,022
8,860
3,162

8,860
10,761
(1,901)

10,761
10,761

Creditors - o/b
c/b
net change

USDk
USDk
USDk

(7,232)
7,232

(7,232)
(10,685)
3,453

(10,685)
(11,997)
1,312

(11,997)
(11,000)
(998)

(11,000)
(11,074)
74

(11,074)
(11,426)
352

(11,426)
(10,522)
(904)

(10,522)
(10,762)
240

(10,762)
(11,472)
710

(11,472)
(10,824)
(647)

(10,824)
(9,715)
(1,110)

(9,715)
(9,007)
(708)

(9,007)
(9,189)
182

(9,189)
(8,411)
(778)

(8,411)
(7,809)
(602)

(7,809)
(7,809)

Overall Net Change

USDk

PROJECT FREE CASHFLOW

USDk

1,445,658

Payback
Discount Rate
NPV
IRR

Years
%
USDk
%

3.2
8.00%
554,474
25.9%

AMARA FREE CASHFLOW

USDk

1,298,163

Payback
Discount Rate
NPV
IRR

Years
%
USDk
%

3.2
8.00%
490,345
24.6%

1,807,737
(361,361)

3,348

(1,884)

952

(1,097)

2,598

178

(1,882)

794

305

(1,250)

(1,746)

(413)

(2,736)

2,384

(2,504)

2,952

(112,685)
(112,685)

(248,923)
(361,608)

22,990
(338,618)

157,698
(180,920)

151,632
(29,288)

164,767
135,479
3.2

78,637
214,116

55,850
269,966

104,756
374,722

73,574
448,297

81,959
530,255

91,515
621,770

117,147
738,917

135,295
874,212

213,532
1,087,744

141,674
1,229,418

200,128
1,429,546

16,111
1,445,658

(112,685)
(112,685)

(248,923)
(361,608)

22,990
(338,618)

157,698
(180,920)

151,632
(29,288)

148,290
119,002
3.2

70,773
189,776

50,265
240,041

94,280
334,321

66,217
400,538

73,763
474,301

82,364
556,665

105,432
662,097

121,766
783,862

192,179
976,041

127,506
1,103,547

180,116
1,283,663

14,500
1,298,163

Appendix Page 105

PRELIMINARY ECONOMIC ASSESSMENT


YAOURE GOLD PROJECT CTE DIVOIRE
APRIL 2014

8 Mt/a (USD 950 Pit Design) - Headline Case


Year

-2

-1

10

11

12

13

94,595
1.39
4,239
491,984
586,579
5.2

0
0.00
0
0
0
0.00

0
0.00
0
0
0
0.00

5,091
1.34
219
49,069
54,160
9.64

8,000
1.51
389
46,000
54,000
5.75

8,000
1.49
383
46,000
54,000
5.75

8,000
1.13
289
47,201
55,201
5.90

8,000
1.10
283
48,500
56,500
6.06

8,000
1.23
317
48,329
56,329
6.04

8,000
1.24
318
48,500
56,500
6.06

8,000
1.38
356
48,500
56,500
6.06

8,000
1.42
366
33,497
41,497
4.19

8,000
1.38
355
27,042
35,042
3.38

8,000
1.79
460
26,250
34,250
3.28

8,000
1.46
375
19,152
27,152
2.39

1,504
2.66
129
3,944
5,448
2.62

94,595
1.39
4,239
95.0%
4,027
325

0
0.00
0
0.0%
0

0
0.00
0
0.0%
0

5,091
1.34
219
95.0%
208

8,000
1.51
389
95.0%
370

8,000
1.49
383
95.0%
364

8,000
1.13
289
95.0%
275

8,000
1.10
283
95.0%
269

8,000
1.23
317
95.0%
301

8,000
1.24
318
95.0%
302

8,000
1.38
356
95.0%
338

8,000
1.42
366
95.0%
347

8,000
1.38
355
95.0%
337

8,000
1.79
460
95.0%
437

8,000
1.46
375
95.0%
357

1,504
2.66
129
95.0%
122

USD/oz
USDk
USDk
USDk
USDk
USDk

1,250
5,033,662
(176,178)
(25,168)
(26,175)
4,806,140

0
-

0
-

1,250
260,023
(9,101)
(1,300)
(1,352)
248,270

1,250
462,381
(16,183)
(2,312)
(2,404)
441,481

1,250
454,813
(15,918)
(2,274)
(2,365)
434,256

1,250
343,667
(12,028)
(1,718)
(1,787)
328,134

1,250
336,113
(11,764)
(1,681)
(1,748)
320,921

1,250
376,126
(13,164)
(1,881)
(1,956)
359,125

1,250
377,370
(13,208)
(1,887)
(1,962)
360,313

1,250
422,655
(14,793)
(2,113)
(2,198)
403,551

1,250
434,287
(15,200)
(2,171)
(2,258)
414,658

1,250
421,687
(14,759)
(2,108)
(2,193)
402,626

1,250
545,904
(19,107)
(2,730)
(2,839)
521,229

1,250
445,820
(15,604)
(2,229)
(2,318)
425,669

1,250
152,816
(5,349)
(764)
(795)
145,909

OPERATING COSTS
Mining
Processing
G&A
Total Opex

USDk
USDk
USDk
USDk

(1,417,820)
(936,487)
(54,600)
(2,408,906)

(92,390)
(50,402)
(4,200)
(146,992)

(119,268)
(79,200)
(4,200)
(202,668)

(144,313)
(79,200)
(4,200)
(227,713)

(130,955)
(79,200)
(4,200)
(214,355)

(120,335)
(79,200)
(4,200)
(203,735)

(135,397)
(79,200)
(4,200)
(218,797)

(132,970)
(79,200)
(4,200)
(216,370)

(131,129)
(79,200)
(4,200)
(214,529)

(118,617)
(79,200)
(4,200)
(202,017)

(101,984)
(79,200)
(4,200)
(185,384)

(85,096)
(79,200)
(4,200)
(168,496)

(75,295)
(79,200)
(4,200)
(158,695)

(30,072)
(14,885)
(4,200)
(49,157)

OPERATING CASHFLOW

USDk

2,397,234

101,278

238,813

206,543

113,779

117,186

140,328

143,943

189,022

212,641

217,243

352,732

266,974

96,752

CAPITAL COSTS
Mining Pre-production
Mining Equipment
Process Plant
Plant Infrastructure
Area Infrastructure
Regional Infrastructure
Miscellaneous
Indirects
Contingency
Total Initial Capex

USDk
USDk
USDk
USDk
USDk
USDk
USDk
USDk
USDk
USDk

(91,769)
(142,821)
(35,304)
(18,441)
(9,000)
(20,045)
(48,898)
(42,030)
(408,308)

Mining
Other Sustaining
Closure
Total Sustaining & Closure Capex

USDk
USDk
USDk
USDk

(64,561)
(62,780)
(18,400)
(145,741)

Total Capex

USDk

(554,049)

(126,616)

(281,692)

(7,672)

(1,555)

PRE-TAX CASHFLOW

USDk

1,843,185

(126,616)

(281,692)

93,606

237,258

Total/ Ave.
PRODUCTION
Mining
Total Ore Mined
Total Ore Grade
Contained Au
Waste Mined
Total Material
Strip Ratio

kt
g/t
koz
kt
kt
t:waste:ore

Processing
Plant Feed
Grade
Contained Gold
Overall Recovery
Gold Produced

kt
g/t
koz
%
koz

REVENUE
Gold Price
Gross Revenue
Royalty
Community Development Fund
Freight and Refining Charges
Net Revenue

(57,128)
(14,122)
(7,376)
(3,600)
(8,018)
(19,559)
(16,812)
(126,616)

(91,769)
(85,693)
(21,182)
(11,065)
(5,400)
(12,027)
(29,339)
(25,218)
(281,692)

(7,672)
(7,672)

(275)
(1,280)
(1,555)

(5,030)
(5,030)

(2,810)
(4,540)
(7,350)

(8,806)
(16,890)
(25,696)

(5,030)

(7,350)

(25,696)

(7,682)

(11,742)

(8,755)

(15,416)

(25,062)

201,513

106,429

91,490

132,646

132,200

180,267

197,224

192,181

Appendix Page 106

(3,382)
(4,300)
(7,682)

(1,732)
(10,010)
(11,742)

(175)
(8,580)
(8,755)

(10,266)
(5,150)
(15,416)

(21,562)
(3,500)
(25,062)

(7,755)
(3,500)
(11,255)

(125)
(18,400)
(18,525)

(11,255)

(18,525)

341,477

266,974

78,227

PRELIMINARY ECONOMIC ASSESSMENT


YAOURE GOLD PROJECT CTE DIVOIRE
APRIL 2014
Year
CORPORATE TAX
Depreciation
Cashflow less Depreciation

-2

-1

10

11

12

13

USDk
USDk

(604,766)
1,792,468

(5,740)
(5,740)

(18,402)
(18,402)

(46,571)
54,707

(47,338)
191,475

(47,493)
159,050

(47,996)
65,783

(48,731)
68,455

(51,301)
89,027

(52,069)
91,873

(53,244)
135,778

(48,379)
164,262

(37,259)
179,984

(11,596)
341,136

(11,954)
255,019

(11,799)
84,953

Tax allowance o/b


Tax allowance addition
Tax allowance used
Tax allowance c/b

USDk
USDk
USDk
USDk

5,740
5,740

5,740
18,402
24,142

24,142
(24,142)
-

Taxable income
Tax Payable

USDk
USDk

30,566
-

191,475
-

159,050
-

65,783
-

68,455
-

89,027
(22,257)

91,873
(22,968)

135,778
(33,945)

164,262
(41,065)

179,984
(44,996)

341,136
(85,284)

255,019
(63,755)

84,953
(21,238)

WORKING CAPITAL
Debtors - o/b
c/b
net change

USDk
USDk
USDk

6,802
(6,802)

6,802
12,095
(5,293)

12,095
11,897
198

11,897
8,990
2,907

8,990
8,792
198

8,792
9,839
(1,047)

9,839
9,872
(33)

9,872
11,056
(1,185)

11,056
11,360
(304)

11,360
11,031
330

11,031
14,280
(3,249)

14,280
11,662
2,618

11,662
11,662

Creditors - o/b
c/b
net change

USDk
USDk
USDk

(9,061)
9,061

(9,061)
(12,493)
3,432

(12,493)
(14,037)
1,544

(14,037)
(13,214)
(823)

(13,214)
(12,559)
(655)

(12,559)
(13,487)
928

(13,487)
(13,338)
(150)

(13,338)
(13,224)
(113)

(13,224)
(12,453)
(771)

(12,453)
(11,428)
(1,025)

(11,428)
(10,387)
(1,041)

(10,387)
(9,783)
(604)

(9,783)
(9,783)

Overall Net Change

USDk

2,259

(1,861)

1,742

2,084

(457)

(118)

(182)

(1,298)

(1,076)

(696)

(4,290)

2,014

1,880

1,857,361
(335,508)

PROJECT FREE CASHFLOW

USDk

1,507,677

Payback
Discount Rate
NPV
IRR

Years
%
USDk
%

2.4
8.00%
688,237
32.0%

AMARA FREE CASHFLOW

USDk

1,349,205

Payback
Discount Rate
NPV
IRR

Years
%
USDk
%

2.4
8.00%
607,574
30.2%

(126,616)
(126,616)

(281,692)
(408,308)

95,866
(312,442)

235,397
(77,045)

203,255
126,209
2.4

108,513
234,723

91,033
325,756

110,271
436,027

109,050
545,076

145,024
690,100

155,083
845,184

146,489
991,673

251,903
1,243,576

205,233
1,448,809

58,868
1,507,677

(126,616)
(126,616)

(281,692)
(408,308)

95,866
(312,442)

235,397
(77,045)

182,929
105,884
2.4

97,662
203,546

81,930
285,475

99,244
384,719

98,145
482,864

130,522
613,386

139,575
752,961

131,840
884,801

226,713
1,111,514

184,710
1,296,223

52,981
1,349,205

Appendix Page 107

PRELIMINARY ECONOMIC ASSESSMENT


YAOURE GOLD PROJECT CTE DIVOIRE
APRIL 2014

1.6 Mt/a Oxide (Heap Leach)


Year

-1

5,619
1.49
269
14,294
19,912
2.544

0
0.00
0
0
0
0.00

1,600
2.23
115
4,054
5,654
2.53

1,600
1.17
60
4,093
5,693
2.56

1,600
1.24
64
4,150
5,750
2.59

819
1.14
30
1,996
2,815
2.44

5,619
1.49
269
80.0%
214.81
54

0
0.00
0
0.0%
0

1,600
2.23
115
80.0%
92

1,600
1.17
60
80.0%
48

1,600
1.24
64
80.0%
51

819
1.14
30
80.0%
24

USD/oz
USDk
USDk
USDk
USDk
USDk

1,250
268,509
(9,398)
(1,343)
(1,396)
256,372

0
-

1,250
114,803
(4,018)
(574)
(597)
109,614

1,250
60,149
(2,105)
(301)
(313)
57,430

1,250
63,584
(2,225)
(318)
(331)
60,710

1,250
29,973
(1,049)
(150)
(156)
28,618

OPERATING COSTS
Mining
Processing
G&A
Total Opex

USDk
USDk
USDk
USDk

(68,698)
(64,223)
(16,800)
(149,721)

(19,506)
(18,288)
(4,200)
(41,994)

(19,642)
(18,288)
(4,200)
(42,130)

(19,837)
(18,288)
(4,200)
(42,325)

(9,712)
(9,359)
(4,200)
(23,271)

OPERATING CASHFLOW

USDk

106,651

67,620

15,300

18,384

5,347

CAPITAL COSTS
Mining Pre-production
Mining Contractor Mobilisation
Inter-project Transfer
Process Plant
Plant Infrastructure
Area Infrastructure
Regional Infrastructure
Miscellaneous
Indirects
Contingency
Total Initial Capex

USDk
USDk
USDk
USDk
USDk
USDk
USDk
USDk
USDk
USDk
USDk

(5,000)
(10,000)
(14,140)
(1,087)
(1,365)
(3,424)
(4,958)
(6,243)
(46,216)

Mining Contractor Demob


Other Sustaining
Closure
Total Sustaining & Closure Capex

USDk
USDk
USDk
USDk

(1,000)
(10,160)
(2,600)
(13,760)

Total Capex

USDk

(59,976)

PRE-TAX CASHFLOW

USDk

46,675

CORPORATE TAX
Depreciation
Cashflow less Depreciation

USDk
USDk

(97,376)
9,275

Tax allowance o/b


Tax allowance addition
Tax allowance used
Tax allowance c/b

USDk
USDk
USDk
USDk

Taxable income
Tax Payable

USDk
USDk

WORKING CAPITAL
Debtors - o/b
c/b
net change

USDk
USDk
USDk

Creditors - o/b
c/b
net change

USDk
USDk
USDk

Overall Net Change

USDk

PROJECT FREE CASHFLOW

USDk

37,334

Payback
Discount Rate
NPV
IRR

Years
%
USDk
%

0.8
8.00%
28,150
52.3%

AMARA FREE CASHFLOW

USDk

28,979

Payback
Discount Rate
NPV
IRR

Years
%
USDk
%

0.9
8.00%
20,713
40.6%

Total/ Ave.
PRODUCTION
Mining
Total Ore Mined
Total Ore Grade
Contained Au
Waste Mined
Total Material
Strip Ratio

kt
g/t
koz
kt
kt
t:waste:ore

Processing
Plant Feed
Grade
Contained Gold
Overall Recovery
Gold Produced

kt
g/t
koz
%
koz

REVENUE
Gold Price
Gross Revenue
Royalty
Community Development Fund
Freight and Refining Charges
Net Revenue

(5,000)
(10,000)
(14,140)
(1,087)
(1,365)
(3,424)
(4,958)
(6,243)
(46,216)

(9,730)
(9,730)

(430)
(430)

(1,000)
(2,600)
(3,600)

(46,216)

(46,216)

67,620

(9,730)

(430)

(3,600)

5,570

17,954

1,747

(9,350)
(9,350)

(20,904)
46,716

(20,904)
(5,604)

(23,337)
(4,952)

(14,094)
(8,747)

9,350
9,350

9,350
(9,350)
-

5,604
5,604

5,604
4,952
10,556

10,556
8,747
19,303

37,366
(9,341)

3,003
(3,003)

3,003
1,573
1,430

1,573
1,663
(90)

1,663
1,663

(2,589)
2,589

(2,589)
(2,597)
8

(2,597)
(2,609)
12

(2,609)
(2,609)

37,366
(9,341)

(414)

1,438

(78)

(946)

(46,216)
(46,216)

57,864
11,648
0.8

7,008
18,657

17,877
36,533

801
37,334

(46,216)
(46,216)

52,078
5,862
0.9

6,308
12,169

16,089
28,258

721
28,979

Appendix Page 108

PRELIMINARY ECONOMIC ASSESSMENT


YAOURE GOLD PROJECT CTE DIVOIRE
APRIL 2014

APPENDIX O

Sensitivity Analysis

Appendix Page 109

PRELIMINARY ECONOMIC ASSESSMENT


YAOURE GOLD PROJECT CTE DIVOIRE
APRIL 2014

5 Mt/a (USD 800 Pit Design)


GOLD PRICE

NPV USD M

IRR
CAPEX

NPVs USD M

IRR

464
0.0%
5.0%
DR 8.0%
10.0%
12.0%
25.4%

464
0.0%
5.0%
DR 8.0%
10.0%
12.0%
25.4%

1,000
569
259
143
84
36
1,000
13.9%

1,100
796
412
267
193
133
1,100
18.5%

1,200
1,035
574
398
308
234
1,200
23.1%

1,250
1,154
654
464
366
285
1,250
25.4%

1,300
1,274
735
529
423
336
1,300
27.5%

-20%
1,235
727
533
433
351
-20.0%
31.3%

-10%
1,195
691
498
399
318
-10.0%
28.1%

0%
1,154
654
464
366
285
0.0%
25.4%

10%
1,114
618
429
332
252
10.0%
23.0%

20%
1,073
582
394
298
219
20.0%
21.0%

-20%
1,437
853
628
511
415
-20.0%
31.1%

-10%
1,296
754
546
438
350
-10.0%
28.2%

0%
1,154
654
464
366
285
0.0%
25.4%

10%
1,013
555
382
293
220
10.0%
22.4%

20%
871
456
300
220
155
20.0%
19.4%

-20%
560
253
138
80
32
-20.0%
13.7%

-10%
857
454
301
223
159
-10.0%
19.7%

0%
1,154
654
464
366
285
0.0%
25.4%

10%
1,451
855
626
509
412
10.0%
30.6%

20%
1,748
1,056
789
652
538
20.0%
35.6%

OPEX

NPVs USD M

IRR

464
0.0%
5.0%
DR 8.0%
10.0%
12.0%
25.4%

GOLD PRODUCTION

NPVs USD M

IRR

464
0.0%
5.0%
DR 8.0%
10.0%
12.0%
25.4%

Appendix Page 110

1,400
1,495
885
650
530
430
1,400
31.4%

1,500
1,733
1,046
781
644
531
1,500
35.3%

PRELIMINARY ECONOMIC ASSESSMENT


YAOURE GOLD PROJECT CTE DIVOIRE
APRIL 2014

6.5 Mt/a (USD 800 Pit Design) - Base Case


GOLD PRICE

NPV USD M
DR

IRR
CAPEX

613
0.0%
5.0%
8.0%
10.0%
12.0%
33.1%

NPVs USD M
DR

IRR

613
0.0%
5.0%
8.0%
10.0%
12.0%
33.1%

1,000
658
366
247
183
130
1,000
19.0%

1,100
890
535
388
310
244
1,100
24.7%

1,200
1,136
713
538
444
365
1,200
30.4%

1,250
1,259
802
613
511
425
1,250
33.1%

1,300
1,382
891
687
578
485
1,300
35.7%

-20%
1,338
877
685
582
495
-20.0%
40.9%

-10%
1,299
839
649
547
460
-10.0%
36.6%

0%
1,259
802
613
511
425
0.0%
33.1%

10%
1,219
765
576
475
390
10.0%
30.0%

20%
1,180
727
540
440
355
20.0%
27.4%

-20%
1,540
1,010
790
671
570
-20.0%
39.6%

-10%
1,399
906
701
591
497
-10.0%
36.4%

0%
1,259
802
613
511
425
0.0%
33.1%

10%
1,119
698
524
431
353
10.0%
29.7%

20%
978
594
436
352
281
20.0%
26.2%

-20%
648
359
241
178
126
-20.0%
18.8%

-10%
954
581
427
345
275
-10.0%
26.2%

0%
1,259
802
613
511
425
0.0%
33.1%

10%
1,565
1,024
799
678
575
10.0%
39.5%

20%
1,870
1,245
984
844
724
20.0%
45.6%

OPEX

NPVs USD M
DR

IRR

613
0.0%
5.0%
8.0%
10.0%
12.0%
33.1%

GOLD PRODUCTION

NPVs USD M
DR

IRR

613
0.0%
5.0%
8.0%
10.0%
12.0%
33.1%

Appendix Page 111

1,400
1,610
1,056
826
702
597
1,400
40.4%

1,500
1,854
1,234
975
835
717
1,500
45.3%

PRELIMINARY ECONOMIC ASSESSMENT


YAOURE GOLD PROJECT CTE DIVOIRE
APRIL 2014

6.5 Mt/a (USD 950 Pit Design)


GOLD PRICE

NPV USD M
DR

IRR
CAPEX

554
0.0%
5.0%
8.0%
10.0%
12.0%
25.9%

NPVs USD M
DR

IRR

554
0.0%
5.0%
8.0%
10.0%
12.0%
25.9%

1,000
668
284
147
79
25
1,000
13.1%

1,100
967
480
304
216
146
1,100
18.3%

1,200
1,286
689
471
362
274
1,200
23.4%

1,250
1,446
793
554
435
338
1,250
25.9%

1,300
1,605
898
638
507
402
1,300
28.3%

-20%
1,537
875
633
510
412
-20.0%
32.1%

-10%
1,491
834
594
473
375
-10.0%
28.7%

0%
1,446
793
554
435
338
0.0%
25.9%

10%
1,400
752
515
397
301
10.0%
23.5%

20%
1,354
711
476
359
264
20.0%
21.5%

-20%
1,859
1,073
782
635
515
-20.0%
25.9%

-10%
1,652
933
668
535
426
-10.0%
25.9%

0%
1,446
793
554
435
338
0.0%
25.9%

10%
1,239
654
441
335
249
10.0%
25.9%

20%
1,032
514
327
235
161
20.0%
25.9%

-20%
656
276
140
74
21
-20.0%
25.9%

-10%
1,049
533
347
253
179
-10.0%
25.9%

0%
1,446
793
554
435
338
0.0%
25.9%

10%
1,842
1,053
762
616
497
10.0%
25.9%

20%
2,239
1,313
970
797
656
20.0%
25.9%

OPEX

NPVs USD M
DR

IRR

554
0.0%
5.0%
8.0%
10.0%
12.0%
25.9%

GOLD PRODUCTION

NPVs USD M
DR

IRR

554
0.0%
5.0%
8.0%
10.0%
12.0%
25.9%

Appendix Page 112

1,400
1,901
1,092
793
643
521
1,400
32.7%

1,500
2,218
1,300
960
788
648
1,500
37.2%

PRELIMINARY ECONOMIC ASSESSMENT


YAOURE GOLD PROJECT CTE DIVOIRE
APRIL 2014

8 Mt/a (USD 950 Pit Design) - Headline Case


GOLD PRICE

NPV USD M
DR

IRR
CAPEX

688
0.0%
5.0%
8.0%
10.0%
12.0%
32.0%

NPVs USD M
DR

IRR

688
0.0%
5.0%
8.0%
10.0%
12.0%
32.0%

1,000
711
363
227
157
100
1,000
16.7%

1,100
1,019
579
406
316
241
1,100
22.9%

1,200
1,345
807
594
483
390
1,200
29.1%

1,250
1,508
921
688
566
465
1,250
32.0%

1,300
1,670
1,035
782
650
539
1,300
34.9%

-20%
1,605
1,011
775
651
547
-20.0%
40.2%

-10%
1,557
966
731
609
506
-10.0%
35.7%

0%
1,508
921
688
566
465
0.0%
32.0%

10%
1,459
876
645
524
423
10.0%
28.9%

20%
1,410
831
602
482
382
20.0%
26.3%

-20%
1,919
1,214
933
784
660
-20.0%
39.6%

-10%
1,713
1,068
810
675
562
-10.0%
35.9%

0%
1,508
921
688
566
465
0.0%
32.0%

10%
1,302
774
566
457
367
10.0%
28.1%

20%
1,097
627
444
348
269
20.0%
24.0%

-20%
698
354
220
151
94
-20.0%
16.4%

-10%
1,103
637
454
359
279
-10.0%
24.5%

0%
1,508
921
688
566
465
0.0%
32.0%

10%
1,912
1,204
922
774
650
10.0%
39.1%

20%
2,317
1,488
1,156
982
835
20.0%
45.8%

OPEX

NPVs USD M
DR

IRR

688
0.0%
5.0%
8.0%
10.0%
12.0%
32.0%

GOLD PRODUCTION

NPVs USD M
DR

IRR

688
0.0%
5.0%
8.0%
10.0%
12.0%
32.0%

Appendix Page 113

1,400
1,972
1,246
957
805
678
1,400
40.1%

1,500
2,296
1,473
1,144
971
826
1,500
45.4%

PRELIMINARY ECONOMIC ASSESSMENT


YAOURE GOLD PROJECT CTE DIVOIRE
APRIL 2014

1.6 Mt/a Heap Leach (Oxide)


GOLD PRICE

NPV USD M
DR

IRR
CAPEX

28
0.0%
5.0%
8.0%
10.0%
12.0%

1,000
-8
-9
-10
-11
-11
1,000
-26.1%

1,100
10
6
5
4
3
1,100
17.2%

1,200
28
23
20
19
17
1,200
41.7%

1,250
37
31
28
26
24
1,250
52.3%

1,300
47
40
36
34
32
1,300
62.3%

-20%
49
42
39
37
35
-20.0%
83.3%

-10%
43
37
34
32
30
-10.0%
66.2%

0%
37
31
28
26
24
0.0%
52.3%

10%
32
26
23
21
19
10.0%
40.8%

20%
26
20
17
15
13
20.0%
31.1%

-20%
64
55
50
47
44
-20.0%
76.0%

-10%
51
44
40
37
35
-10.0%
65.3%

0%
37
31
28
26
24
0.0%
52.3%

10%
23
19
17
15
14
10.0%
37.5%

20%
9
7
5
4
3
20.0%
18.9%

-20%
-8
-10
-11
-11
-12
-20.0%
52.3% #NUM!

-10%
14
11
9
7
6
-10.0%
24.1%

0%
37
31
28
26
24
0.0%
52.3%

10%
60
52
47
45
42
10.0%
76.2%

20%
80
70
64
61
58
20.0%
96.3%

52.3%

NPVs USD M
DR

IRR

28
0.0%
5.0%
8.0%
10.0%
12.0%
52.3%

OPEX

NPVs USD M
DR

IRR

28
0.0%
5.0%
8.0%
10.0%
12.0%
52.3%

GOLD PRODUCTION

NPVs USD M
DR

IRR

28
0.0%
5.0%
8.0%
10.0%
12.0%

Appendix Page 114

1,400
63
54
50
47
44
1,400
79.2%

1,500
79
69
63
60
57
1,500
95.3%

PRELIMINARY ECONOMIC ASSESSMENT


YAOURE GOLD PROJECT CTE DIVOIRE
APRIL 2014

APPENDIX P

Qualified Persons Certificates

Appendix Page 115

PRELIMINARY ECONOMIC ASSESSMENT


YAOURE GOLD PROJECT CTE DIVOIRE
APRIL 2014

Appendix Page 116

PRELIMINARY ECONOMIC ASSESSMENT


YAOURE GOLD PROJECT CTE DIVOIRE
APRIL 2014

Appendix Page 117

PRELIMINARY ECONOMIC ASSESSMENT


YAOURE GOLD PROJECT CTE DIVOIRE
APRIL 2014

Appendix Page 118

PRELIMINARY ECONOMIC ASSESSMENT


YAOURE GOLD PROJECT CTE DIVOIRE
APRIL 2014

Appendix Page 119

PRELIMINARY ECONOMIC ASSESSMENT


YAOURE GOLD PROJECT CTE DIVOIRE
APRIL 2014

Appendix Page 120

PRELIMINARY ECONOMIC ASSESSMENT


YAOURE GOLD PROJECT CTE DIVOIRE
APRIL 2014

Appendix Page 121

PRELIMINARY ECONOMIC ASSESSMENT


YAOURE GOLD PROJECT CTE DIVOIRE
APRIL 2014

Appendix Page 122

PRELIMINARY ECONOMIC ASSESSMENT


YAOURE GOLD PROJECT CTE DIVOIRE
APRIL 2014

Appendix Page 123

PRELIMINARY ECONOMIC ASSESSMENT


YAOURE GOLD PROJECT CTE DIVOIRE
APRIL 2014

Appendix Page 124

PRELIMINARY ECONOMIC ASSESSMENT


YAOURE GOLD PROJECT CTE DIVOIRE
APRIL 2014

END

Appendix Page 125