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Engineering Encyclopedia

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ELECTRIC MOTORS

Note: The source of the technical material in this volume is the Professional
Engineering Development Program (PEDP) of Engineering Services.
Warning: The material contained in this document was developed for Saudi
Aramco and is intended for the exclusive use of Saudi Aramcos employees.
Any material contained in this document which is not already in the public
domain may not be copied, reproduced, sold, given, or disclosed to third
parties, or otherwise used in whole, or in part, without the written permission
of the Vice President, Engineering Services, Saudi Aramco.

Chapter : General Engineering


File Reference: AGE-102.08

For additional information on this subject, contact


PEDD Coordinator on 874-6556

Engineering Encyclopedia

Rotating Equipment
Electric Motors

Section

Page

INTRODUCTION............................................................................................................. 4
MOTOR TYPES AND APPLICATIONS........................................................................... 5
Incentives for Using Electric Motors........................................................................... 5
Advantages........................................................................................................... 5
Disadvantages...................................................................................................... 5
Motor Types Applied to Plant Services ...................................................................... 6
General................................................................................................................. 6
Squirrel Cage Induction Motors ............................................................................ 6
Salient Pole Synchronous Motors......................................................................... 7
Induction Versus Synchronous Motors ............................................................... 11
Single Phase Motors .......................................................................................... 12
Direct Current Motors ......................................................................................... 16
Motor Classification.................................................................................................. 19
NEMA Design Classifications for General Purpose Induction Motors................. 19
Hazardous LocationsEnclosure Classifications .................................................... 20
MOTOR ENCLOSURES ............................................................................................... 21
Drip-Proof Enclosures.............................................................................................. 22
Weather-Protected Type I Enclosures (WP-I).......................................................... 22
Weather-Protected Type II Enclosures (WP-II)........................................................ 22
Totally Enclosed Forced Ventilated Enclosures (TEFV) .......................................... 23
Totally Enclosed Fan Cooled Enclosures (TEFC)* .................................................. 23
Totally Enclosed Air-to-Air Cooled Enclosures (TEFC/CACA)*................................ 23
Totally Enclosed Water-to-Air Cooled Enclosures (TEWAC) ................................... 24
Explosion-Proof Enclosures ..................................................................................... 24
BASIC DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS............................................................................ 25
Motor and Plant Power Factor ................................................................................. 25
Speed and Slip......................................................................................................... 26
Standard Motor Horsepower Ratings....................................................................... 27
Voltage Levels for Motors ........................................................................................ 27
Motor Efficiency (See Work Aid 10) ......................................................................... 28
Motor Service Factor................................................................................................ 28
VARIABLE SPEED MOTORS ....................................................................................... 29
MOTOR CONTROL ...................................................................................................... 31
Starting AC Induction Motors ................................................................................... 32
Voltage Drop ............................................................................................................ 33
Unloading Motor-Driven Compressors for Starting .................................................. 33
Reduced Voltage Starting Methods for Induction Motors......................................... 34
Synchronous Motor Starting Methods...................................................................... 35
Motor Re-acceleration.............................................................................................. 36

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MOTOR SIZING AND CALCULATIONS ....................................................................... 37


TYPICAL MOTOR PROBLEMS .................................................................................... 39
WORK AID 1: INCENTIVES FOR USING ELECTRIC MOTORS................................. 40
WORK AID 2: ADVANTAGES OF INDUCTION VERSUS SYNCHRONOUS
MOTORS ...................................................................................................................... 41
WORK AID 3: GUIDELINE FOR THE APPLICATION OF INDUCTION AND
SYNCHRONOUS MOTORS ......................................................................................... 42
WORK AID 4: SUMMARY OF POLYPHASE MOTOR CHARACTERISTICS............... 43
WORK AID 5: SUMMARY OF DC AND SINGLE-PHASE MOTOR
CHARACTERISTICS .................................................................................................... 44
WORK AID 6: AREA ELECTRICAL CLASSIFICATIONS............................................. 45
WORK AID 7: TYPICAL SHAFT SPEEDS FOR VARIOUS MOTORS (RPM).............. 46
WORK AID 8: STANDARD MOTOR HORSEPOWER RATINGS ................................ 47
WORK AID 9: VOLTAGE LEVELS FOR MOTORS...................................................... 48
WORK AID 10: TYPICAL EFFICIENCY AND POWER FACTORS OF
SQUIRREL CAGE INDUCTION MOTORS (1) ............................................................... 49
WORK AID 11: SIMPLIFIED MOTOR PROTECTION SCHEMES ............................... 51
WORK AID 12: MOTOR PROTECTION CURVES....................................................... 53
WORK AID 13: MOTOR SIZING AND CALCULATIONS ............................................. 54
WORK AID 14: ELECTRICAL FORMULAS ................................................................. 55
GLOSSARY .................................................................................................................. 56
REFERENCES.............................................................................................................. 58

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LIST OF FIGURES
Figure 1. Typical Rotor, Stator Construction for Large Squirrel-Cage Motor -------------- 8
Figure 2. Wound-Rotor Motor ------------------------------------------------------------------------- 9
Figure 3. Synchronous Motors---------------------------------------------------------------------- 10
Figure 4. Single Phase Motors---------------------------------------------------------------------- 14
Figure 5. DC Motors ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 17
Figure 6. Synchronous Speed of Induction and Synchronous Motors -------------------- 42
Figure 7. Mechanical Induced Draft Type Cooling Tower Handling Process
Cooling Water ------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 45
Figure 8. Simplified Motor Protection Schemes ------------------------------------------------ 51
Figure 9. Simplified Motor Protection Schemes (Contd)------------------------------------- 52
Figure 10. Motor Protection Curves --------------------------------------------------------------- 53

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INTRODUCTION
More electric motors are used to drive pumps and compressors
than all the other driver types combined. The motor sizes in use
in refineries and gas plants range from fractions of one
horsepower (hp) up to 30,000 hp. Large numbers of motors up
to 10,000 hp are in use in refineries and gas plants. A limited
number in the 10,000 to 20,000 hp range are in use.
Electric motors require individual engineering attention in
proportion to their power ratings. Those under 250 hp are
highly standardized and require very little individual attention.
Many motors in the 800 to 1500-hp range, and all motors above
1500 hp, require individual attention to process design,
procurement, detailed engineering, testing and commissioning.
Electric motors have achieved wide acceptance in refinery and
gas plant services for the following reasons:

Electrical distribution systems and equipment are designed


to minimize voltage fluctuations and service interruptions in
both public utility networks and in-plant systems.

Electric generation facilities are reliable.

Motor enclosures and cooling systems have been


developed for safe operation in a wide variety of industrial
environments.

The cost of electric power has declined in many locations


over time.

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MOTOR TYPES AND APPLICATIONS


Incentives for Using Electric Motors
Advantages
The most attractive feature of electric motor drives for large
machinery is the low investment requirement. Equipment cost
is slightly lower for motors than for steam turbines, but the inplant utility system investment requirement is much lower.
Other advantages of electric motors over other available drive
types are:

Little mechanical or performance deterioration over very


long runs.

Low maintenance costs.

Marginally higher equipment reliability than other drive


types.

Quick startup, requiring less operator manipulation of the


driver than other drive types.

Simple operation with minimal monitoring. No speed


governing system required.

Disadvantages
The disadvantages of electric motor drivers are:

Energy costs are usually higher than for other driver types.

Purchased power rates are subject to increases beyond user


control during the economic life of the process unit.
Reliability is completely dependent on the continuity of
electric power service. Supply continuity, in turn, depends on
weather, power generation/distribution system design and utility
company management factors that are not within the direct
control of the plant operations and management. Quick start
requires more care in preparing the process for startup than the
gradual startup capability of other driver types.

Constant speed occasionally limits process flexibility. This


is overcome by throttling or recycling for control, which
reduces overall efficiency.

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Motor Types Applied to Plant Services


General
Three types of polyphase (three-phase) ac motors are used for
nearly all plant pump, fan and compressor services:

Squirrel-cage induction motors.

Wound Rotor Induction motors.


Synchronous (motors.

The induction motor is by far the most common. It is used for


most motor drives for pumps and compressors. The
synchronous motor is mainly used to drive low-speed
reciprocating machines.
Squirrel Cage
Induction Motors
The polyphase induction motor has a rugged and simple design
and is the most common driver used in industry.
The motor has two main parts, the stator and the rotor. See
Figure 1. The stator is a cylindrical iron core with insulated
windings arranged around the inner periphery of the core. The
stator is mounted in an enclosure.
The rotor is a cylindrical iron core mounted on a shaft and fitted
inside the stator. The rotor windings of a squirrel-cage induction
motor consist of a number of copper or aluminum bars fitted
lengthwise in the core and connected at each end to a ring: thus
the term "squirrel cage." There is no direct electrical connection
to the rotor winding.
A wound rotor induction motor has a rotor winding similar to the
stator winding. A variable resistor can be added to the rotor to
give some speed control. See Figure 2.

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A source of polyphase (three-phase for all high-power motors)


voltage is connected to the stator winding through the motor
starter. Most squirrel-cage motors are single-speed, although
the speed varies slightly with load, but two-speed and threespeed motors are commercially available.
Squirrel cage motors use bearing construction similar to other
types of medium-speed rotating machines. Greased ball
bearings are most common in motors under 200 hp. Oillubricated sleeve bearings are normally used for larger motors.
Salient Pole
Synchronous Motors
Salient pole synchronous motors are similar to squirrel-cage
motors except for their rotors. The rotor, or field, consists of a
number of iron core pole pieces arranged around a central hub
on the shaft. Each pole has an insulated winding. All pole
windings are connected together. They are energized by a
direct current source. Also mounted on the poles is a
squirrel-cage-like structure called an amortisseur winding. See
Figure 3.
Motor startup is similar to a squirrel-cage motor on the
amortisseur winding and when the motor approaches
synchronous speed, the dc field winding is energized. The
motor then runs at a constant speed, equal to synchronous
speed, regardless of load variations, unless the load exceeds
the capability of the motor.
Synchronous motors may have slip rings and brushes to
connect the dc voltage to the rotating field. Newer synchronous
motors do not require slip rings and brushes and are known as
brushless synchronous motors. Brushless motors are preferred
for hazardous locations, because they have no arcing or
sparking contacts.
Compared to synchronous motors, squirrel-cage induction
motors can be economically built to operate at high efficiency at
lower speed.

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With permission from Power Magazine

Figure 1. Typical Rotor, Stator Construction for


Large Squirrel-Cage Motor

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With permission from Power Magazine

Figure 2. Wound-Rotor Motor

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With permission from Power Magazine

Figure 3. Synchronous Motors

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Induction Versus
Synchronous
Motors
The relative advantages and disadvantages of induction and
synchronous motors may be summarized as follows:
Squirrel Cage Induction Motor
Advantages:

Simple, rugged construction without windings on rotor.

Lowest installed cost except for high hp ratings at low


speed.

Can usually be re-accelerated after momentary voltage


interruption.

Disadvantages:

Low power factor in low speed ranges.

High starting current.

Power factor always lagging, and low at part load.

Synchronous Motor
Advantages:

More efficient than induction motor, by typically 2% at high


speed, more at low speed.

Suitable for direct connection without gears, for example,


for large reciprocating compressors.

Power factor can be 1.0 or leading.

Less sensitive to rotor alignment and gap uniformity than


induction motors.

Lower installed cost at speed below approximately 500 rpm


(for ratings above 150 bhp).

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Disadvantages:

Control equipment more costly than for induction motors.

More complex construction.

Higher maintenance.

Higher installed cost for most applications.

Difficult to re-accelerate after momentary voltage


interruption.

Requires dc power supply for the field.

The general range speed and power ranges for major motor
types are discussed later in this module and in Work Aid 3.
Single Phase
Motors
Single-phase motors are used mainly for low hp applications.
See Figure 4. The starting method is a major consideration in
selecting a single-phase motor, because single-phase squirrelcage motors are not self-starting on a single winding. Singlephase motors must have an auxiliary means for developing
starting torque.
Basic types of single-phase motors include split-phase,
capacitor, and repulsion-start. With the exception of some
forms of the repulsion design, all run as induction motors.
Split-phase design is the simplest. It has a squirrel-cage rotor
and two stator windings spaced 90 electrical degrees apart.
Auxiliary or starting winding poles are physically halfway
between main winding poles. Split-phase motors have low
starting torque, high starting current. They are used for small
fans and unit heaters.
Repulsion-start motors have a rotor winding connected to a
commutator. Heavy starting torque diminishes as the motor
comes up to speed. Applications include compressors, pumps,
stokers, blowers.

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Capacitor-start motors use a modified auxiliary winding and


centrifugal switch with a capacitor in series to give good starting
characteristics. They are used interchangeably with the
repulsion-start type.
Variations of this design include the capacitor-run motor, which
has the capacitor permanently connected in series with the
auxiliary winding. In the same family is the capacitor-start-andrun motor that has an electrolytic capacitor in series with the
auxiliary winding only during the starting period. A liquid-filled
capacitor is permanently in series with the auxiliary winding.
Reversing rotation of many single-phase motors requires
interchanging leads on either the auxiliary or running winding.
Repulsion-type motors can be reversed by reconnecting the
field winding or brushes.
Performance of single-phase designs varies with the motor.
Permanent capacitor motors have very low starting and pull-in
torques; about 50% of full-load torque. They also have a
rather low full-load speed. The load's torque needs must be
checked carefully before applying this design, because the
torque required to accelerate the load may exceed that
developed by the motor.
Split-phase designs offer starting and pull-in torques from 150%
to 230% of the full-load value. Capacitor-start and capacitorstart-and-run motors have starting torques from 350% to 450%
of the full-load torque. Pull-up value is about 200% of the fullload torque.
Repulsion-start motors have starting torques in the 350% to
550% range. Their pull-up torque is slightly less than for
capacitor start motors, but their starting currents are less than in
any other single-phase design.

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With permission from Power Magazine.

Figure 4. Single Phase Motors

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With Permission from Power Magazine

Figure 4. Single Phase Motors - Auxiliary Starting (Contd)

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Direct Current
Motors
The development of highly efficient, low-maintenance rectifiers
and the growing need for adjustable speed have made the
direct current motor popular again. Industrial plants seldom
generate direct current for their power needs. Motor/generator
sets or rectifying equipment are located alongside production
machines. Short dc leads are run directly to the motor.
The dc motor is used where an ac motor will not perform
satisfactorily. Direct current motors cost more, especially in
larger sizes, but they offer adjustable speed and effective and
simple control of torque, acceleration, and deceleration. Even
with the limitations of a commutator they can handle tough duty
cycles. The need for critical speed adjustment and continuous
processes often finds dc motors operating in tandem, with
speeds of each unit changing proportionally over a wide range.
The maximum economical dc-motor size is usually not
exceeded so long as the product of horsepower and speed is
less than 1.5 million; for example, 250 V for units up to 500 hp,
600 V for 600 to 1000 hp, 700 or 900 V above 1000 hp.
Classes - Direct current motors are divided into three classes:
series, shunt, and compound. The armature is similar in all
three. The main difference between motors is in field coils and
hookup. (See Figure 5).
Series design is the simplest of the three. Because the
armature and field are in series, the field is wound with
conductors large enough to carry armature current without big
losses. The high ratio of no-load to full-load speed leads to
using the series motor in hoist and traction work where the
speed must vary inversely with load. But this same speed
characteristic makes it necessary to positively connect the
motor to the load through couplings or gears. A series motor
without load will race at high speed. In larger sizes, the series
motor will be destroyed by centrifugal force on runaway or
extremely high speed.
To prevent dangerous changes in field strength, series motors
are sometimes modified to include a small shunt winding that is

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strong enough to prevent the motor from reaching excessive


speeds without changing its characteristics.
Shunt motors have their armature and fields in parallel, giving
essentially constant field strength and motor speed. This design
is used both for constant speed (little application) and adjustable
speed applications. In constant-speed applications, variation
between no load and full load is 5% to 12%.

Shunt

With
permission from Power Magazine

Figure 5. DC Motors

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The speed of a shunt motor is adjusted by a rheostat in the field


circuit. This adjustment may be as much as 2 to 1 on small
units at moderate speeds, but decreases with larger ratings and
higher speeds. A final point: Torque varies directly as armature
current.
The compound-wound motor combines series and shunt. The
compound design is used for drives needing fairly high starting
torque and reasonably constant running speed. The shunt field,
usually predominant, is parallel with the armature. The series
field is in series with the armature. By varying the series-field
strength, speed regulation can be increased to that of a series
motor.
Because of the series winding, compound motor speed is not as
constant for varying loads as the speed of a shunt motor.
Normal shunt design varies less than 10% from no load to full
load. In contrast, compound motor speed varies about 25%.
Power supplies for dc motors are usually made up of a number
of dc conversion points close to load centers. Local rectifiers
with short dc secondaries have replaced central conversion.
Motor generator sets and rectifying equipment follow the
"packaged" theme. In large applications, the packages are full
unit substations with ac circuit-breaker equipment, stepdown
transformer, dc conversion unit, and dc circuit breakers.
A summary of motor types and applications is given in Work
Aids 4 and 5.

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Motor Classification
NEMA Design
Classifications for
General Purpose
Induction Motors
National Electrical Manufacturer's Association (NEMA)
standards characterize several design classifications for
induction motors according to their speed-torque characteristics,
starting (locked rotor) current level, and full load slip range. Of
the four design classes defined (A, B, C, D), B is preferred and
most widely applied to pumps and compressors. Designs C and
D are occasionally applied where high starting torque is
required.
The specific speed-torque and speed-current characteristics of
each type vary with motor rating, so that quantitative
comparisons are valid only for specific ratings.
Design B motors have "normal" starting torque and a starting
current acceptable to most power systems. This design has a
relatively high breakdown torque (about 200% in sizes over 10
HP) and low slip. These motors are used on fans, machine
tools, and centrifugal pumps.

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Comparison of Characteristics for NEMA Design Types

NEMA

Starting

Starting

Breakdow
n Torque

Design

Torque

Current

Normal

Normal

High

Normal

Low

High

Low

Same as for Design A

High

Low

Normal

Low

Loaded Compressor,Loaded Conveyor

Very
High

Low

High

Punch Presses

Low

Very Low

Above
Normal

Fans ( Large)

---------

Very Low

Full-Load
Slip

Typical Application

Machine Tools, Centrifugal Pumps,


Fans

Hazardous LocationsEnclosure Classifications


Hazardous locations are classified by the National Electric
Code. Class I usually applies to refinery, chemical, and gas
plants. Within this class are two divisions. Division 1 locations
are those in which hazardous concentrations of flammable
gases or vapors exist, either continuously or periodically during
normal conditions. Division 2 locations are those in which
flammable gases are handled, processed, or used but are
normally confined within closed systems from which the gas can
escape only in the event of accidental breakdown or abnormal
operation. (See Work Aid 6.)
In Division 1 areas, all electrical equipment must be approved
as explosion-proof or intrinsically safe. Motors must be
explosion-proof.

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In Division 2 locations, motors without sparking contacts need


not be explosion-proof and only need enclosures suitable for
protection against weather and other ambient conditions. This
permits use of non-explosion- proof squirrel-cage or brushless
synchronous motors. Conventional synchronous motors, when
collector rings are housed in approved enclosures, are also
acceptable.
Within Class I, four groups of hazardous materials are defined.
Group D is the most common in refinery and gas plant
compressor and pump applications. The group classifications
are:
Group A - Atmospheres containing acetylene.
Group B - Atmospheres containing hydrogen, or gases or
vapors of equivalent hazard, such as manufactured
gas.
Group C - Ethyl ether, ethylene, or cyclopropane vapors.
Group D - Gasoline, hexane, naphtha, benzene, butane,
propane, alcohol, acetone, benzol, lacquer solvent
vapors, or natural gas.
When a location for a motor application is defined, all three
categories must be stated, such as: Class I, Division 2,
Group D.

MOTOR ENCLOSURES
Choosing a motor enclosure should be based upon the
environmental conditions under which the motor operates and
the amount of maintenance required to provide long-term
reliability and motor life. In general, the more open the
enclosure is to the atmosphere, the lower the purchase cost of
the machine but the higher the maintenance costs.
Motor enclosures are defined in NEMA MG1-1.25 and 1.26.
Enclosures frequently used in ac motors are listed below. The
motor enclosures allowed by Saudi Aramco are marked with an
asterisk (*).

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Drip-Proof Enclosures
Drip-proof enclosures are generally used only indoors or in
enclosed spaces not exposed to the elements. Maintenance
requirements will depend upon the general cleanliness of the
location and chemical contaminants in the area.
Drip-proof enclosures are not suitable for use in Division 1 areas
or Division 2 areas unless approved.

Weather-Protected Type I Enclosures (WP-I)


These enclosures are the least costly option for an outdoor
motor. They are essentially drip-proof guarded motors with
heaters and outdoor bearing seals and are very susceptible to
weather and atmospheric contamination. Considerable
maintenance may be required to ensure satisfactory winding
and bearing life.
They are not suitable for use in Division 1 areas or Division 2
areas unless approved.

Weather-Protected Type II Enclosures (WP-II)


These are the more commonly used outdoor enclosures. They
are more expensive than the WP-I, but minimize the entrance of
water and dirt. Maintenance is less than for WP-I types.
Chemicals in gaseous form may be carried into a WP-II
machine with the ventilating air and contaminate vulnerable
parts.
They are not suitable for use in Division 1 areas.

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Totally Enclosed Forced Ventilated Enclosures (TEFV)


These can be used indoors or outdoors in dirty or hazardous
environments. Since the motor cooling air comes from a remote
source, the influx of dirt and gaseous contaminants is
minimized. Maintenance is minimal depending upon the
cleanliness of the cooling air.
They can be used in Division 1 areas only if approved.

Totally Enclosed Fan Cooled Enclosures (TEFC)*


Totally enclosed fan cooled enclosures offer the highest degree
of enclosure for an air-cooled machine. Internal motor air is
recirculated around the outside of the tubes while outside air is
driven through the tubes by a shaft driven fan. These motors
are costly in large sizes because of the high volume of cooling
air required. They are used in very dirty or hazardous locations.
The TEFC enclosure minimizes the maintenance required for
very dirty applications. However, the machines will breathe or
pull in surrounding air during shutdown, and vapor and gaseous
contaminants can be drawn into them. TEFC motors are noisy
because they have a large external fan.
TEFC enclosures without heat exchangers are not permitted for
motors above 15,000 hp.
TEFC enclosures can be used in Division 1 areas only if
approved.

Totally Enclosed Air-to-Air Cooled Enclosures (TEFC/CACA)*


These enclosures use an air-to-air heat exchanger to remove
heat generated by motor losses. The machine is cooled by
circulating the internal air through the heat exchanger, which in
turn is cooled by circulating external air. It is provided with an
air-to-air exchanger and a fan, integral with the rotor shaft or a
separate fan, for circulating internal air and another fan for
circulating the external air.
They can be used in Division 1 areas only if approved.
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Totally Enclosed Water-to-Air Cooled Enclosures (TEWAC)


These enclosures use a water to air heat exchanger to remove
heat generated by motor losses. It is the quietest enclosure
available and will usually result in the lowest maintenance costs.
It will breathe during shutdown, but often a breather filter is used
to remove particulate contaminants. It is more efficient than a
TEFC motor because it does not have to drive the external fan.
Its first cost is greater than WP-II but less than TEFC.
Operating costs are higher than the previously described
enclosures because of the necessity to continuously supply it
with cooling water.
They can be used in Division 1 areas only if approved.

Explosion-Proof Enclosures
Explosion-proof enclosures are totally enclosed and are
designed and constructed to withstand an internal explosion.
They are also designed to prevent the ignition of combustibles
surrounding the motor by sparks, flashes, or explosions within
the motor casing.
They are preferred in Division 1 areas.

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BASIC DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS


Motor and Plant Power Factor
In alternating current distribution systems, amplitudes of voltage
and current vary in separate sine waves. Power factor, in its
simplest terms, describes the load-caused relationship of these
waves to one another. This relationship determines the
efficiency of the distribution system and thus the unit cost of
useful power transmitted. When these waves are in phase,
power factor is unity and the distribution system is at peak
efficiency. When these waves are displaced or out of phase
(the current wave may either lead or lag the voltage wave),
power factor is less than unity. The larger the wave
displacement, the lower the power factor and the less efficient
the distribution system becomes, with the penalty usually being
increased unit power costs.
Squirrel-cage motors always operate at a lagging power factor
that varies with load. Power factor is highest at full load and
reduces as load is decreased. Typical full-load power factors
range from 80% to 85% for small motors (10 hp and smaller)
and 90% to 95% for large motors (200 hp and larger).
Synchronous motors are available that operate at a power factor
of one or at 80% leading power factor. With constant field
excitation, power factor will vary with load. Most synchronous
motors operate at a power factor of one.
Occasionally, synchronous motors are selected instead of
induction motors because they can raise the overall plant power
factor and may therefore reduce the cost of purchased power.
Raising plant power factor also releases existing generator and
transformer capacity for additional load. Without such
improvement, most plants would run with a lagging power factor
of about 85% to 90%.
However, many things must be considered in any effort to
improve plant power factor and an electrical specialist should be
consulted before a synchronous motor is selected for this
purpose.

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Speed and Slip


An induction motor does not run at a constant speed. Its speed
varies from very close to synchronous speed at no load to a
speed as much as 5% less than synchronous speed (or 5% slip)
at full load. Slip is usually expressed in percent of synchronous
speed. Synchronous motors operate at synchronous speed,
from no load to full load, with no slip.
Typical Shaft Speeds For Various Motors (rpm)
Synchronous Motors
Poles

60 Hertz

Induction Motors*
60 Hertz

3600

3545

1800

1772

1200

1182

900

886

10

720

709

12

600

591

14

514.3

506

16

450

443

18

400

20

360

22

327.2

24

300**

* Slip varies inversely with motor size and speed and ranges
from 0.5% and 5.0%; 1.5% slip is typical.
** Still lower speeds for unusual applications.
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Standard Motor Horsepower Ratings


The standard NEMA horsepower ratings for induction motors
are:
Standard NEMA Frame Sizes - 1/2, 3/4, 1, 1-1/2, 2, 3, 5, 7-1/2,
10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 40, 50, 60, 75, 100, 125, 150, 200.
Larger Frame Sizes - 250, 300, 350, 400, 450, 500, 600, 700,
800, 900, 1000, 1250, 1500, 1750, 2000, 2250, 2500, 3000,
3500, 4000, 4500, 5000.
Manufacturers typically stock motors to 100 hp and build larger
ones to order.
Some vendors have standard ratings in 5,000 to 10,000-hp
range. Other vendors design to match the required size. Above
10,000 hp, most vendors design to the required size.

Voltage Levels for Motors


Standard voltages for motors that are used for Saudi Aramco
plant pump and compressor drive service are 115, 230, 460,
2300, 4000, 6600, and 13,200 V. Voltages most commonly
selected (others are available) for various motor sizes are as
follows:
Motor Sizes, hp
up to 1/3

Voltage

Type

115

Induction

(Single Phase)
1/4 to 10

230

Induction

1/4 to 400

460

Induction

200 to 4000

4000

Induction

670 to 4000

4000

Synchronous

1340 to 8000

6600

Induction

Above 1340

13,200

Induction

Above 15,000

13,200

Synchronous

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The voltage selected is usually established by the system


voltage available at the motor location. When more than one
suitable voltage is available, selection is based on economics.
For voltage levels above 600 V and other factors equal, motors
built for lower voltage levels are considered more reliable.
For a guide to application of induction and synchronous motors,
see Work Aid 3.

Motor Efficiency (See Work Aid 10)


Some general characteristics of motor efficiency are:

A motor's highest efficiency is at some point between 3/4


and full load. Efficiency falls off at part load and at
overload.

Efficiency of a synchronous motor is generally 1% to 2%


higher than for a squirrel-cage induction motor.

Larger motors have higher efficiency than small motors.

Motor efficiency cannot be measured directly in the field.

If vendor data on motor losses are available, a close estimate of


motor efficiency can be made in the field using the following
equation.
Efficiency = (Input Losses)/ input
Work Aid 10 gives motor efficiencies and power factors of
squirrel-cage induction motors for a wide range of motor sizes.

Motor Service Factor


Motor service factor, or continuous overload capability,
expresses the horsepower at which a motor can operate
continuously, above its rated horsepower, without exceeding its
rated temperature rise by more than 10C. Most motors have a
service factor of either 1.0 (no overload permitted) or 1.15 (15%
overload permitted).
Regardless of their service factor rating, motors should not be
applied above their rated horsepower without consulting
electrical specialists.

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Electric Motors

VARIABLE SPEED MOTORS


Direct current (dc) can provide variable speed operation over a
wide range, but they are costly.
Series motors have the widest speed range, varying from zero
to maximum depending upon control and load. They are used
where high starting torque is required and speed change with
load change is not critical.
Shunt and compound wound motors are more limited in speed
range, usually about 2 to 1 in larger sizes.
Shunt motors are used where constant or adjustable speed is
required and starting conditions are not severe.
Compound motors are used where high starting torque and
fairly constant speeds are required.
Single-phase ac repulsion motors can give some speed control
by varying the position of the brushes on the repulsion rotor.
Three-phase ac wound rotor motors can provide 50% to 100%
speed control by varying rotor resistance.
Multiple-speed ac motors (two to four constant speeds) are
available that can control speed by changing the winding
connections, which effectively changes the number of poles.
Pole amplitude modulation, which changes the coil grouping
around the stator, is another method used in multiple-speed ac
motors.
Adjustable speed can also be obtained by varying frequency.
Synchronous speed of a four-pole induction motor at 60 Hz is
1800 rpm; at 50 Hz, it is 1500 rpm; at 70 Hz, 2100 rpm. Infinite
speed adjustment above and below a base value can be
obtained by adjusting the frequency above and below the
corresponding base frequency. It is necessary to adjust voltage
along with frequency because the reactance of the motor varies
with its speed. As frequency goes up, voltage must go up; as
frequency goes down, voltage must go down proportionally.

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The source of adjustable frequency is usually solid-state


equipment, although motor generator sets could be used and
sometimes are. Two approaches are possible: the rectifierinverter and the cycloconverter. The rectifier- inverter takes the
line frequency (usually 60 Hz), rectifies it to dc, then inverts the
dc to ac of the desired frequency. With this approach, any
desired frequency may be obtained. With the cycloconverter,
the original 60-Hz sine wave is cut up into segments.
Summation of these segments constitutes a roughly defined
sine wave of a slower frequency. Cycloconverters can be used
only where desired frequency is lower than original frequency,
but it is adjustable within its range. Rectifier-inverter units have
been built for motors up to 30 MW and for speeds from 0 to
10,000 rpm.
In addition to the methods of achieving variable speed
described above, load speed control can be achieved by
magnetic or Eddy current clutches, which allow the driven
equipment speed to change while motor speed remains
constant.
Typical applications of variable speed drives are for
compressors and pumps, fans, and mixers or masticators.
Other applications include cranes and hoists, elevators,
conveyors and wood- and metal-working machines.

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MOTOR CONTROL
(See Work Aids 11 and 12)
The functions of a motor control system are (a) to start and stop
the motor; (b) to reaccelerate the motor after a voltage dip or
outage; (c) to protect the motor and its supply feeder from
overload, overheating, locked rotor, short circuits and other
abnormal conditions; (d) to control motor speed for variable or
multiple-speed motors; (e) to vary motor operations based on
process conditions; and (f) to maintain proper sequencing of
motors, equipment, processes, and operations.
The "motor-protection" function protects the motor from
overcurrent conditions during starting or running that could
cause overheating and damage to the windings. The controller
starts and stops the motor and also provides the desired
operating characteristics of the drive (combination of controller
and motor). Usually, the motor protection and controller are
combined in one unit.
The "branch-circuit protection" protects the branch circuit to the
motor, the motor and associated controls from short circuits.
The "disconnect means" permits the entire branch circuit to be
de-energized and disconnected from the power supply. It can
be a separate unit or can be combined with the branch- circuit
protection.
Selection of a motor controller depends on: (a) the nature of the
job, (b) characteristics of the motor, (c) characteristics of the
power supply, (d) type of environment and (e) laws, codes,
regulations and standards. Controllers are classified by to the
type of motor they control: single- or multiple-speed squirrelcage, wound-rotor, or synchronous motors.
Plant motors are normally arranged for across-the-line (full
voltage) starting and employ magnetic contactor or circuit
breaker starters. Magnetic starters contain a mechanism for
opening and closing a set of contacts in the motor circuit and a
thermal-overload protective device. Unlike a manual starter, a
magnetic starter depends on an electrical signal to open and
close the contacts.

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Magnetic starters are frequently controlled by such pilot devices


as pushbuttons, limit switches, relays, timers, pressure switches
and float switches. These are designed for a high frequency of
open/close (start-stop) cycles.
Circuit breaker starters are used for larger motors. They are
latched-in switches that are opened by a powerful spring when
the latch is released. Circuit breakers are opened and closed
by an electrical signal. Circuit breakers are often equipped with
relays that can protect the motor and its feeder circuit. They
may also be controlled by pilot devices. They are not suitable
for a high frequency of open/close cycles.

Starting AC Induction Motors


When power is first applied to an electric motor at rest for
starting, the current flows instantly at 5.5 to 6.5 times the full
load current. This is termed "in-rush" or "locked rotor" current.
The current level remains very high until the speed reaches
80% to 85% of normal (typically 8 to 15 seconds for a
centrifugal pump and 2 to 4 seconds for a centrifugal
compressor) and then drops rapidly toward normal as the speed
approaches the synchronous speed. The torque developed by
the in-rush current rotates the load machine and accelerates the
rotors of the train to full speed, overcoming rotor inertia.
The motor-locked rotor torque must exceed the load breakaway
torque for the motor to be able to accelerate. The amount by
which the motor torque exceeds the driven machine load torque
is the net torque available for accelerating the rotor system.
Both the load torque required and the motor torque developed
vary continuously between zero speed and full speed, so that
the net accelerating torque varies throughout the acceleration
period. If the "average" net accelerating torque is low, the
starting time, and therefore the time during which in-rush current
occurs, is high and may cause overheating of the motor. If the
net accelerating torque reaches zero at any point during the
acceleration, acceleration ceases and the motor will stall and
may overheat if the motor starter fails to quickly disconnect the
motor.
Many factors influence the starting performance of a motorcompressor system, all of which require careful engineering.
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The speed-torque capability characteristics of large motors vary.


Basic designs can be modified by varying the shape of the rotor
bars and slots and by changing the magnetic field strength of
the stator windings. Motors designed for high starting torque
employ higher resistance in the rotor bars and short circuit rings
and are slightly less efficient at normal speed.
The speed-torque requirement of load machines varies among
the several machine types and the unloading means provided.
The inertia values of compressor, gear and motor rotors vary
considerably. Axial compressors, for instance, have higher
2
inertia (WK ) than centrifugal compressors of the same flow and
heat capability. The complete trains must be evaluated to
determine motor starting requirements.

Voltage Drop
The level to which the supply voltage drops during the in-rush
period is a function of the distribution system design and the
relationship of each motor size to system capacity. The voltage
drop is critical because the starting torque developed by a motor
reduces roughly in proportion to the square of the voltage at the
motor terminals. That is, a 20% voltage drop will reduce starting
torque to 64% of rated voltage.
The heat capacity of motors varies according to insulation type,
construction, and other factors. Because of the many variables
involved, computer analysis may be required to engineer the
starting characteristics of large motors.

Unloading Motor-Driven Compressors for Starting


Provisions should be made in the piping system and control
systems to unload all types of motor-driven compressors before
the motor is energized. Reducing the load on the compressor
during acceleration lowers the torque requirements of the
compressor. This shortens the time for the motor to reach full
speed and reduces the motor heating due to in-rush current,
thus prolonging the useful service life of the motor insulation.

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Startup unloading of the common compressor types may be


accomplished as follows:
Reciprocating compressors - Valve unloaders or recycle line
(atmospheric vents at each stage discharge for air
compressors).
Rotary compressors - Recycle line or atmospheric vents.
Centrifugal compressors - Nearly closed position for inlet block
valve (or guide vanes or butterfly throttling valve) and open
recycle line. For air compressors lacking inlet valve or guide
vanes, nearly closed discharge valve position.
Axial compressors - Closed position of variable stator vanes or
nearly closed inlet throttle valve.

Reduced Voltage Starting Methods for Induction Motors


Full voltage starting should not be used in applications where
the driven machine, or method of coupling, may be damaged by
the resulting high shock load. In these cases, one of the
following methods of reduced voltage starting should be
considered.
Part-winding starting may be used with motors with a multiple
winding primary circuit. This is a full-voltage starting method,
except that voltage is applied to only one winding during startup.
As the motor accelerates, more windings are energized until the
full winding is in use. The starting current and torque are low,
and full-load torque is built up in steps, depending on the motor
design. Control is accomplished through simple switching.
Autotransformer starting is a reduced-voltage starting method in
which a voltage less than line voltage is supplied to the motor.
This method is often used with high-speed synchronous motors
started at 65% of line voltage. Reduced-voltage starting limits
motor starting current in direct proportion to the reduction in
starting voltage.
Autotransformer starting is generally limited to two steps. One
tap on the winding proves the reduced voltage, and the entire
winding is bypassed when full voltage is applied.
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When the voltage is changed from the reduced starting voltage


to the full running voltage, high line surges may occur, resulting
from transients generated by the difference in voltage and
phase angle between the motor and the power supply.
Reactor starting is a reduced-voltage starting method obtained
by placing a series reactor in each phase of the power supply.
This is usually a two-step method in which the reactors are
shorted out after the motor accelerates. During acceleration,
the motor current decreases, and voltage drop across the
reactor decreases, thus increasing the voltage at the motor
terminals. Reactor starting is simple, but gives low starting
torque per kilovolt-ampere (kVA) drawn from the line.
Resistor starting is occasionally used for smaller motors in lowvoltage networks where several steps of starting are required.
Tapped resistors are inserted in each phase of the power supply
to obtain reduced voltage. Sections of the resistors are
successively shorted out until full voltage is applied to the motor
terminals. This is a voltage-drop method, and the starting
torque is reduced by the ratio of motor terminal voltage squared
to line voltage squared. It is used where several steps of
starting are required without opening the motor circuit between
steps.

Synchronous Motor Starting Methods


Synchronous motor has a squirrel cage for starting, the inherent
low starting torque and the need for a dc power source for
excitation require a starting system that will: 1) provide full
motor protection while starting, 2) apply dc field excitation at
the proper time, 3) remove field excitation upon rotor pull-out,
4) protect the squirrel-cage winding against thermal damage
under out-of-step conditions. Several methods that meet these
requirements are used for starting excited synchronous motors.
Full-voltage starting, because of its simplicity, is used wherever
possible. On some applications that require high starting
torque, increment starting by means of part-windings, reactors,
or resistors is used. The motor need not start on the first step,
and additional torque increments are applied until the motor
starts and accelerates. The motor will pull into synchronism
when excitation is applied to the rotor field winding. Application

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of excitation at the proper speed and phase angle is governed


by the type of starting method. Most low-speed synchronous
motors can be started by direct connection across the line.
High-speed motors may require a reduced-voltage starting
method.
Full-voltage starting is the simplest starting method and requires
the least time to accelerate the motor to operating speed. No
complex control equipment is needed; thus, it is an economical
method. However, full-voltage starting produces high
mechanical stresses due to the sudden application of maximum
starting torque. This method should not be used when the
driven machine or method of coupling may be damaged by the
resultant high shock load.
In such applications, the methods discussed under induction
motor starting should be considered.

Motor Re-acceleration
Critical process and utility services that are motor-driven usually
have motor starters arranged to permit the motors to reaccelerate automatically after short voltage dips or interruptions
in the power source (called ride through capability). Automatic
re-acceleration minimizes shutdown or upset of process and
utility plants from power source disturbances.
The need for re-acceleration is determined by designers.
Standard squirrel-cage induction motors normally have
adequate torque capability to permit automatic re-acceleration
of centrifugal pumps and compressors.
Re-acceleration can take place immediately after voltage is
restored or in steps after preset times.
Automatic re-acceleration of synchronous motors and motors
driving reciprocating compressors requires close coordination
between machinery and electrical specialists. Automatic
unloading devices are required on reciprocating compressors
that will be re-accelerated.

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MOTOR SIZING AND CALCULATIONS


The motor size selected for a given service is typically equal to
the driven equipment maximum brake horsepower (bhp)
multiplied by a load factor, usually. 1.05 or 1.10. The following
table lists frequently used load factors:
Type of Load

Load Factor

Air compressor

1.05

Gas compressor

1.10

Centrifugal pump

1.10

Positive displacement pump

1.10

Centrifugal fan
Forward curved blades

1.10

Backward curved blades

1.05

Axial Fan

1.05

To calculate the required motor rating, use the following


equations:
Required motor KW = Driven load bhp x Load Factor x 0.746
Required motor hp = Driven load bhp x Load Factor
To calculate motor current, use the following equations:
Three-phase maximum motor current (amperes) =
Driven Load Max bhp Load Factor 746
% Efficiency
1.732 Volts
% Power Factor
100
where % efficiency and % power factor are at 100% load.

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Three phase motor running current (amperes) =


Driven Load Operating HP 746
% Efficiency
1.732 Volts
% Power Factor
100
where % eff. and % power factor are at operating load.
For additional electrical equations see Work Aid 14.

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TYPICAL MOTOR PROBLEMS


The initial alignment of motors frequently is a problem. The
electrical or magnetic center of a motor when it is running is not
the same as the center of gravity when the motor is idle.
Alignment and coupling should be based upon the electrical
center.
Motors require a high starting current. If special controls are not
used, the starting current of an induction motor is typically six
times normal full load current or more, until the motor reaches
operating speed.
Starting times can also be quite long for high-inertia loads. This
must be considered in setting the motor protective relay.
When a motor is idle in a humid atmosphere, the windings can
absorb moisture, which will lower the winding insulation
resistance. In some areas, heaters must be installed in or near
motors during long idle periods.

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WORK AID 1:

INCENTIVES FOR USING ELECTRIC MOTORS

Advantages
By far the most attractive feature of electric-motor drivers for large machinery is the low
investment requirement when electric power can be purchased from a local utility
system. Equipment costs are slightly lower for motors than for steam turbines, but the
in-plant utility system investment requirement is much lower.
Other advantages of electric motors over the other available driver types are:

Little mechanical or performance deterioration over very long runs.

Low maintenance costs.

Marginally higher equipment reliability than other driver types, although


not sufficiently higher than steam and gas turbines to warrant economic
credits for this feature.

Quick startup, requiring less operator manipulation of the driver than for
other driver types.

Simple operation with minimum monitoring speeds. No speed governing


system required.

Disadvantages

Usually higher drive energy cost than for other type drivers.

Purchased power rates subject to increases beyond user control during


the economic life of the process unit.

Reliability completely dependent on the continuity of electric power


service. Supply continuity, in turn, depends on weather, power
generation/distribution system design, and utility company management
factors that are not within the direct control of the plant operations and
management.

Quick start requires more care in preparing the process for startup than
the gradual startup capability of other driver types.

Constant speed occasionally limits process flexibility. This is overcome by


throttling or recycle for control, which reduces overall efficiency.

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WORK AID 2:

ADVANTAGES OF INDUCTION VERSUS


SYNCHRONOUS MOTORS

Squirrel Cage Induction Motor


Advantages:

Simple, rugged construction without windings on rotor.

Lowest installed cost except for high hp ratings at low speed.

Can usually be re-accelerated after momentary voltage interruption.

Disadvantages:

Low power factor in low speed ranges.

High starting current.

Power factor always lagging, and low at part load.

Synchronous Motor
Advantages:

More efficient than induction motor, by typically 2% at high speed, more at


low speed.

Suitable for direct connection without gears, for example, for large
reciprocating compressors.

Power factor can be 1.0 or leading.

Less sensitive to rotor alignment and gap uniformity than induction motors.

Lower installed cost at speed below approximately 500 rpm (for ratings
above 150 bhp).

Disadvantages:

Control equipment more costly than for induction motors.

More complex construction.

Higher maintenance.

Higher installed cost for most applications.

Difficult to re-accelerate after momentary voltage interruption.

Requires dc power supply for the field.

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WORK AID 3:

GUIDELINE FOR THE APPLICATION OF INDUCTION


AND SYNCHRONOUS MOTORS

Figure 6. Synchronous Speed of Induction and Synchronous Motors

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WORK AID 4:
Speed
Regulation

SUMMARY OF POLYPHASE MOTOR


CHARACTERISTICS
Speed
Control

Starting
Torque

Breakdown
Torque

Applications

General-Purpose Squirrel-Cage (Design B)


200% of Full Load Constant-Speed Service Where

Drops About 3%

Adjustable

100% for 200 hp,

for Large to 5% for

Frequency,

300% for 1-hp 4-

Starting Torque is Not Excessive.

Small Sizes

Adjustable

Pole Unit

Fans, Blowers, Rotary

Voltage,

Compressors, and Centrifugal

Multispeed (2 to 4

Pumps.

Constant Speeds)

High-Torque Squirrel-Cage (Design C)


Drops About 3%

Adjustable

250% of Full Load 200% of Full Load Constant-Speed Where Fairly

for Large to 6% for

Frequency,

for High-Speed to

High-Starting Torque is Required

Small Sizes

Adjustable

200% for Low-

Infrequently With Starting About

Voltage,

Speed Designs

550% of Full Load. Reciprocating

Multispeed (2 to 4

Pumps and Compressors,

Constant Speeds)

Crushers, etc.

High-Slip Squirrel-Cage (Design D)


Drops About 10%

Adjustable

225% to 300% of

200%. Will

Constant-Speed and High-

to 15% From No

Frequency,

Full Load

Usually Not Stall

Starting Torque. If Starting is Not

Load to Full Load

Adjustable

Depending on

Until Loaded to

Too Frequent, and for High-Peak

Voltage,

Speed With Rotor

Max-torque,

Loads With or Without Flywheels,

Multispeed (2 to 4

Resistance

Which Occurs at

Punch Presses, Shears,

Standstill

Elevators, etc.

Constant Speeds)

Wound Rotor
With Rotor Rings

Speed Can be

Up to 300%

300% When

Where High-Starting Torque with

Short Circuited,

Reduced to 50%

Depending on

Rotor Slip Rings

Low-Starting Current or Where

Drops About 3%

By Rotor

External

Are Short

Limited Speed Control is

for Large to 5% for

Resistance.

Resistance in

Circuited.

Required. Fans, Centrifugal and

Small Sizes

Speed Varies

Rotor Circuit and

Plunger Pumps, Compressors,

Inversely As Load

How Distributed.

Conveyors, Hoists, Cranes, etc.

Synchronous
Constant

None

40% for Slow to

Unity-PF Motors

For Constant-Speed Service,

160% for

170%; 80%-PF

Direct Connection to Slow-Speed

Medium-Speed

Motors 225%.

Machines and Where Power-

80% PF.

Specials Up to

Factor Correction is Required

Specials Higher.

300%

With Permission from Power Magazine

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WORK AID 5:
Speed
Regulation

SUMMARY OF DC AND SINGLE-PHASE MOTOR


CHARACTERISTICS
Speed
Control

Starting
Torque

Breakdown
Torque

Applications

Series
Varies Inversely As Zero to Maximum

High. Varies as

High. Limited by

Where High-Starting Torque is

Load. Races on

Depending on

Square of

Commutation,

Required and Speed Can be

Light Loads and

Control and Load

Voltage. Limited

Heating Line

Regulated. Traction, Bridges,

by Commutation,

Capacity

Hoists, Gates, Car Dumpers, Car

Full Voltage

Retarders.

Heating Line
Capacity

Shunt
Good. With

High. Limited by

Where Constant or Adjustable

Commutation,

Speed is Required and Starting

Heating Line

Conditions Are Not Severe.

Drops 3% to 5%

Any Desired

from No Load to

Range Depending Constant Field,

Full Load

on Design, Type

Varies Directly as

of System

Voltage Applied to Capacity

Fans, Blowers, Centrifugal

Armature

Pumps, Conveyors, Wood and


Metal-Working Machines,
Elevators

Compound
Higher than for

Drops 7% to 20%

Any Desired

From No Load to

Range Depending Shunt, Depending

Full Load

on Design, Type

on Amount of

Depending on

of System

Compounding

High. Limited by

Where High-Starting Torque and

Commutation,

Fairly Constant Speed is

Heating Line

Required. Plunger Pumps, Punch

Capacity

Presses, Shears, Bending Rolls,

Amount of

Geared Elevators, Conveyors,

Compounding

Hoists

Single-Phase Motors
Split-Phase
75% for Large to

150% for Large to

Constant-Speed Service Where

from No Load to

175% for Small

200% for Small

Starting is Easy. Small Fans,

Full Load

Sizes

Sizes

Centrifugal Pumps and Light-

Drops About 10%

None

Running Machines, Where


Polyphase is Not Available

Capacitor
150 to 350% of

150% for Large to

Constant-Speed Service for Any

for Large to 10%

Full Load

200% for Small

Starting Duty and Quiet

for Small Sizes

Depending on

Sizes

Operation, Where Polyphase

Drops About 5%

None

Type, Size

Current Cannot be Used

With Permission from Power Magazine

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WORK AID 6:

AREA ELECTRICAL CLASSIFICATIONS

Figure 7. Mechanical Induced Draft Type Cooling Tower


Handling Process Cooling Water

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WORK AID 7:

TYPICAL SHAFT SPEEDS FOR VARIOUS MOTORS


(RPM)

Synchronous Motors
Poles

Induction Motors*

60 Hertz

60 Hertz

3600

3545

1800

1772

1200

1182

900

886

10

720

709

12

600

591

14

514.3

506

16

450

443

18

400

20

360

22

327.2

24

300**

Slip varies inversely with motor size and speed and ranges
from 0.5% and 5.0%; 1.5% slip is typical.

**

Still lower speeds for unusual applications.

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Electric Motors

WORK AID 8:

STANDARD MOTOR HORSEPOWER RATINGS

The standard NEMA horsepower ratings for induction motors are:


Standard NEMA Frame Sizes - 1/2, 3/4, 1, 1-1/2, 2, 3, 5, 7-1/2, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 40,
50, 60, 75, 100, 125, 150, 200.
Larger Frame Sizes - 250, 300, 350, 400, 450, 500, 600, 700, 800, 900, 1000, 1250,
1500, 1750, 2000, 2250, 2500, 3000, 3500, 4000, 4500, 5000.
Manufacturers typically stock motors to 100 HP and build larger ones to order.
Some vendors have standard ratings in 5,000 to 10,000-hp range. Other vendors
design to match the required size. Above 10,000 hp, most vendors design to the
required size.

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WORK AID 9:

VOLTAGE LEVELS FOR MOTORS

Standard voltages to which induction motors are applied for plant pump and compressor
drive service are: 115, 230, 460, 2300, 4000, 6600, and 13,200 V. Voltages most
commonly selected (others are available) for various motor sizes are as follows:

Motor Sizes, hp

Voltage

Type

up to 1/3

115
(Single Phase)

Induction

1/4 to 10

230

Induction

1/4 to 400

460

Induction

200 to 4000

4000

Induction

670 to 4000

4000

Synchronous

1340 to 8000

6600

Induction

Above 1340

13,200

Induction

Above 15,000

13,200

Synchronous

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WORK AID 10: TYPICAL EFFICIENCY AND POWER FACTORS OF


(1)
SQUIRREL CAGE INDUCTION MOTORS
MOTOR
MOTOR
MOTOR EFFICIENCY (%) (3) AT
RATING CONNECTED % OF FULL LOAD CAPACITY
hp
LOAD (2) kW
50
75
100
(4)

1
1-1/2
2
3
5

0.98
1.42
1.86
2.76
4.39

67.0
72.0
73.0
74.5
81.0

72.5
76.0
78.0
79.0
83.5

74.0
77.0
79.5
80.5
84.0

7-1/2 6.65
10
8.78
15
13.0
20
17.05
25
21.00

78.0
83.0
85.0
86.5
87.5

82.0
85.0
86.0
87.5
88.5

83.0
85.0
86.0
87.5
88.5

30
40
50
60
75

88.0
88.0
88.0
89.5
89.0

89.0
89.0
89.5
90.0
90.0

25.10
33.5
41.7
49.7
62.1

POWER FACTOR (%) AT


% OF FULL LOAD CAPACITY
50
75
100
(5)

53.5
54.0
54.5
55.5
60.0

65.5
73.5
68.0
68.0
71.0

75.4
80.5
77.0
75.5
78.0

87.5
87.5
88.5
89.5

58.0
65.5
76.0
79.0
79.0

70.0
75.5
84.0
84.5
84.5

77.0
80.5
87.0
87.0
87.0

89.0
89.0
89.5
90.0
90.0

89.5
90.2
90.2
91.7
92.4

80.0
81.0
82.0
82.0
82.0

85.0
86.0
87.0
87.0
87.0

88.0
88.5
89.0
89.0
89.0

93.0
93.0
93.0
94.1
94.1

85.0
85.0
85.0
87.5
84.0

89.0
90.0
90.0
91.0
87.7

91.0
92.0
92.0
92.0
90.5

100
125
150
200
250

82.0
102.0
123.0
161.0
201.0

84.0
85.0
86.0
88.0
90.5

89.0
89.5
89.0
91.0
92.5

91.0
91.5
91.0
92.5
92.5

300
350
400
450
500

241.0
281.0
320
360
399

90.8
90.9
91.1
91.2
91.4

92.5
92.6
92.8
93.0
93.1

92.8
92.9
93.1
93.2
93.4

84.4
84.8
85.0
85.1
85.3

88.2
88.5
89.0
89.0
89.2

90.9
91.1
91.3
91.6
91.6

478
557
636
715
92.1

91.6
91.7
91.9
92.0
93.8

93.3
93.4
93.6
93.7
94.1

93.6
93.7
93.9
94.0

85.5
85.7
85.8
85.9
89.9

89.5
89.7
89.8
89.9
92.1

91.8
91.9
92.0
92.0

600
700
800
900
1000793

Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards

85.9

88

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Rotating Equipment
Electric Motors

MOTOR
MOTOR
MOTOR EFFICIENCY (%) (3) AT
RATING CONNECTED % OF FULL LOAD CAPACITY
hp
LOAD (2) kW
50
75
100
(4)

POWER FACTOR (%) AT


% OF FULL LOAD CAPACITY
50
75
100
(5)

1250
1500
1750
2000

988
1185
1380
1575

92.3
92.4
92.6
92.7

94.0
94.1
94.3
94.4

94.3
94.4
94.6
94.7

86.0
86.1
86.2
86.3

90.0
90.1
90.2
90.4

92.2
92.3
92.4
92.5

2250
2500
3000
3500
4000

1770
1965
2355
2750
3140

92.8
92.9
93.0
93.0
93.1

94.5
94.6
94.7
94.7
94.8

94.8
94.9
95.0
95.0
95.1

86.4
86.5
86.6
86.6
86.6

90.5
90.6
90.7
90.7
90.7

92.6
92.8
93.0
93.0
93.0

4500
5000
5500
6000

3580
3920
4310
4700

93.1
93.2
93.8
93.8

94.8
94.9
95.0
95.0

95.1
95.2
95.2
95.2

86.6
86.6
86.3
86.3

90.7
90.7
90.7
90.7

93.0
93.0
92.6
92.6

5480
6260
7050
7820

94.0
93.7
93.8
93.9

95.2
95.1
95.2
95.3

95.3
95.3
95.3
95.4

84.3
84.3
84.3
84.3

88.7
88.7
88.7
88.7

90.6
90.6
90.6
90.6

7000
8000
9000
10000 (6)

NOTES:
1.

Applies to open and enclosed motors rated at 1800 rpm, 3-phase, 60 hertz. At 7000 hp and
above, speed is 1200 rpm, instead of 1800.

2.

Connected Load =

3.

For totally enclosed fan-cooled (TEFC) motors, efficiency should be reduced 1% at full load,
1-1/2% at 3/4 load and 2-1/2% at half load.

4.

Saudi Aramco requires minimum full load efficiencies as listed in IEEE-841 Table-1.

5.

Saudi Aramco requires minimum full load power factor of 88 %.

6.

Above 10,000 hp, use the 10,000 hp values until specific vendor estimates are obtained.

(hp ) (0.746 kW hp )
Efficiency @ 100% of Full Load

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WORK AID 11: SIMPLIFIED MOTOR PROTECTION SCHEMES

Figure 8. Simplified Motor Protection Schemes

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Figure 9. Simplified Motor Protection Schemes (Contd)

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WORK AID 12: MOTOR PROTECTION CURVES

Figure 10. Motor Protection Curves

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WORK AID 13: MOTOR SIZING AND CALCULATIONS


The motor size selected for a given service is typically equal to the driven equipment
maximum brake horsepower (bhp) multiplied by a load factor, usually 1.05 and 1.10.
The following table summarizes frequently used load factors:
Type of Load

Load Factor

Air compressor

1.05

Gas compressor

1.10

Centrifugal pump

1.05

Positive displacement pump

1.10

Centrifugal fan
Forward curved blades

1.10

Backward curved blades

1.05

Axial Fan

1.05

To calculate the required motor rating, use the following equations:


Required motor KW = Driven load bhp x Load Factor x 0.746
Required motor hp = Driven load bhp x Load Factor

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WORK AID 14: ELECTRICAL FORMULAS


Desired Data

Alternating Current

kilowatts
KVA
Reactive kVA

Direct Current

Single Phase

Three Phase

V I PF
1000

1.73 V I PF
1000

V I
1000

1.73 V I
1000

V I 1 PF2
1000

)1 2

1.73 V I 1 PF2
1000

V I
1000

)1 2

Horsepower
(Output)

V I eff PF
(746 )(100 )

1.73 V I eff PF
(746 )(100 )

V I eff
(746 )(100 )

Amperes (when
horsepower is
known)

hp(746 )(100 )
V eff PF

hp(746 )(100 )
1.73 V eff PF

hp(746 )(100 )
V eff

Amperes (when
kilowatts are
known)

kW 1000
V PF

kW 1000
1.73 V PF

kW 1000
V

Amperes (when
kVA is known)

kVA 1000
V

kVA 1000
1.73 V

PF =

kW
kVA

PF =

kW
1.73 V I

(for 3 phase)

PF = Power Factor, per unit


Eff = Efficiency, percent

Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards

Motor kilowatts

hp (0.746 )(100 )
Eff

Motor kVA

hp (0.746 )(100 )
Eff PF

Motor full load


Torque in ft. lbs

Synchronous
Speed in rpm

5252 Full Load hp


Full Load Speed
in RPM

120 Frequency
Number of Poles

55

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Electric Motors

GLOSSARY
Ambient Temperature

The temperature of the surrounding cooling


medium, such as gas or liquid, that comes into
contact with the heated parts of the apparatus.

Breakaway Torque

The maximum torque required to accelerate the


load (e.g., a compressor train) from zero speed.

Breakdown Torque

The maximum sustained torque that a motor will


develop with rated voltage applied at rated
frequency, without an abrupt drop in speed.

Connected Load

The load connected to a motor.

Efficiency

The ratio of the power output at the shaft to the


total electrical power input. It is expressed in
percent.

Full-Load Torque

The torque of a motor is the torque necessary to


produce the motor's rated horsepower at full-load
speed. In pounds at a 1-ft radius, it is equal to the
horsepower times 5252 divided by the full-load
speed in rpm.

Locked-Rotor Current

The steady-state current taken from the line with


the rotor locked and with rated voltage (and rated
frequency in the case of alternating-current motors)
applied to the motor.

Locked-Rotor Torque
(Static Torque)

The minimum torque which a motor will develop at


rest for all angular positions of the rotor, with rated
voltage applied at rated frequency. This condition
must be allowed to persist only momentarily, to
prevent damage to the rotor or stator windings.
The locked-rotor torque must exceed the
breakaway torque for the motor to be able to
accelerate the load from zero speed. Locked-rotor
torque is often called "starting torque."

NEMA

National Electrical Manufacturer's Association.

Overload Capability

See Service Factor.

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Power Factor

The ratio of the kilowatt input to the kilovolt-ampere


(kVA) input for an ac motor. Power factor is usually
expressed as a percentage.

Pull-In Torque

The maximum constant torque under which a


synchronous motor will pull its connected inertia
load into synchronism, at rated voltage and
frequency, when field excitation is applied.
The speed to which a motor will bring its load
depends on the power required to drive it.
Whether the motor can pull the load into step from
this speed depends on the inertia of the revolving
parts. Therefore, the pull-in torque depends not
only on the torque of the load, but also on the
inertia of the entire system.

Pull-Out Torque

The minimum torque developed by the motor


during the period of acceleration from rest to the
speed at which breakdown torque occurs.

Pull-Up Torque

The minimum torque developed up to rated speed.

Rated Load

The nameplate rating of a motor.

Service Factor

A multiplier applied to the rated horsepower to


indicate a permissible horsepower loading under
the conditions specified for the service factor.
These conditions usually include the requirement
that the actual temperature rise not exceed the
rated temperature rise by more than 10C, if rated
voltage and frequency are maintained. Also called
Motor Continuous Overload Capability/Service
Factor.

Slip

The difference between the actual running speed


of an induction motor and synchronous speed,
expressed as a percentage of synchronous speed.

Temperature Rise

The difference between ambient temperature and


the temperature of the motor in continuous service
at its rated load, as measured under conditions
specified in IEC 34.1.

Temperature Test

Determines the temperature rise of certain parts of


the machine above the ambient temperature, when
running under a specified load.

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REFERENCES
SAUDI ARAMCO STANDARDS

SAES-B-068, Electrical Area Classification

SAES-P-113, Motors and Generators

SAES-P-114, System Equipment and Protection

SAES-P-116, Switchgear and Control Equipment

SAUDI ARAMCO MATERIAL SYSTEM SPECIFICATION

17-SAMSS-502, Form-Wound Induction Motors 250 HP and above

17-SAMSS-503, Sever-Duty, Totally enclosed, Squirrel Cage Induction


Motors to 250 HP

17-SAMSS-520, Form Wound Brushless Synhronous Motors

EXXON BASIC PRACTICES

BP10-11-1, Sizing of Drivers and Transmissions

BP16-2-1, Power System Design

BP16-7-1, Motor Application

BP16-9-1, AC Motors

BP16-9-2, Additional Requirements for AC Motors Over 1,500 HP

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