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Antibiotic Growth Promoters

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-1 .Organic Acids
-2 ( .Yeasts active dry yeast
)or yeast cell culture .
-3 .Enzymes
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.Spices &Herbs

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-5 ( : Probiotics. ).

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-6 Prebiotics
( fructo-
.)oligosacharrides




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-1 Super Bug phenomena



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Drug residues .


organic
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organic
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Organic acids
Short chain fatty acids
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formic acid
acetic acid propionic acid butyric
acid Lactic acid fumaric acid malic
acid tartaric acid .citric acid
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Mode of action


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( ) Cidal & Static effect

. .Sorbic
Cell wall

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) (Non-dissociated or Non- Ionized form

)(H+

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) (COO -


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DNA

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-1
Protease Enzyme



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-2 microvilli
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)1 .
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)3 increase energy
.digestibility

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%90 .

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( )colonization
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)1 Lactic acid lactobacillus
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)2 Bacteriocins
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)3 colonization sites

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Competitive Exclusion
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Effect of Thyme and / or Formic Acid Dietary Supplementation on Broiler
Performance and Immunity

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480
40 .
-1 : ( )T1 (
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-2 ( )T2 1
-3 ( )T3 5
-4 ( )T4 5 +1 .
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+
). )p< 0.05
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() .
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Abstract :
An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of thyme, formic acid (FA) and thyme plus
formic acid in broiler ration on
performance, carcass traits, blood biochemical parameters , intestinal microbial load, and
histological picture of intestine as well as immunity parameters of broilers.
. A number of 480Yday old broiler chicNs were divided into 4 groups with
three replicates of 40 chicNs each.
Experimental groups included T1, control group with no thyme or formic acid supplementation,
T2 group which was fed on basal
diet supplemented with thyme (1g / Ng diet), T3 group received the basal diet supplemented with
formic acid (5g / Ng) and T4 group
was fed on basal diet supplemented with thyme (1g / Ng) plus formic acid (5g / Ng).
The results showed that the use of thyme or formic acid or formic plus thyme had significant
effects on growth performance and carcass traits of broilers (P <0.05 ).
The highest% of breast and thigh was observed in group T4, while an improvement in villus
height was observed in all supplemented groups compared to control group but the highest was
observed in T4.
. It is concluded that using of thyme or formic acid in broiler feeds have significant effects on
performance and immunity parameters.

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Effect of Citric and Acetic Acid Water Acidification on Broilers


Performance with respect to Thyroid Hormones Levels

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) 4.5 (
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: 4 132
(C-gr) : -1
(CA-gr) -2
(AA-gr) -3
(CO-gr) + -4
CA, AA ) 4.5( ,
(LBW) : , ) 1:1 AA and CA)
, , , (FCR) ,
. , histopathology, , ,
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CA-gr ( P<0.05)
. AA-gr
, ( P<0.05)
. AA-gr CA-gr ( P<0.05)
( P<0.5) ( )
. ( P<0.5) .
. AA-gr C-gr ) T3 ( ( P<0.05) Co-gr CA-gr
) T4 (( P<0.05(
( P<0.05) .
. Co-gr CA-gr ( P<0.05) .
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) 4.5(
. ,
Abstract
The current study investigated the effects of water acidification (pH 4.5) on broilers' performance judged
by thyroid hormones modulation. A total 132 Cobb broiler chicks were equally divided into 4
groups; control group (C- gr), citric acid group (CA -gr), acetic acid group (AA-gr) and combination group
(CO-gr). Control received tape water and other treatment groups received acidified drinking water (pH 4.5)
by CA, AA, and a mixture
of 1: 1 AA and CA, respectively. Live body weight (LBW), feed consumption, feed conversion ratio(FCR),
pH values of small intestine, edible organs weight, serum thyroid hormones, and lipid profile were
determined. Liver, small intestine histopathology, and villi morphometry were performed. The LBW was
significantly(P <0.5 )
improved in CA-gr while reduced in AA-gr than control. Feed consumption was significantly(P <0.5 )
reduced in all treated groups than C-gr. The FCR was significantly (P <0.05) improved in CA-gr and Co-gr
than Cg and AA-gr. The AA significantly(P <0.05) reduced liver weight while CA increased heart weight
than control. Gizzard weight was significantly (P <0.05 ) increased in all treatments groups than control.
The CA-gr and Co-gr significantly (P <0.05) elevated serum T3 level than C-gr and AA-gr.
While Serum T4 level was significantly (P <0.05) elevated in all experimental groups than C-gr. Lipid
profile showed significant (P <0.05) improvement in all treated groups than C-gr. Intestinal morphometry
was significantly(P <0.05) increased in CA -gr and CO-gr. Water acidification by CA (pH 4.5) improved
poultry performance via modulating gut, liver health and thyroid hormones with respect to lipid profile
while AA gave adverse effects.

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Effect of Organic Acid Supplementation on the Performance and Ileal Microflora of Broiler
During Finishing Period

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150 5 :
-1 .OA-0
-2 % 0.5 .OA-0.5
-3 %1 . OA-1
-4 % 1.5 . OA-1.5
-5 % 2 . OA-2.00
Aciflex -1 ( -: 80
-2 52
-3 10 -4 92 ) .
3 10 .
42-22 .
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-1 ) (P<0.05
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-2 ) (P<0.05 .
-3 .% 2
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Abstract.:This study was conducted to determine the effect of different levels of organic acid on the
performance and ileal microflora of broiler during finishing phase. A total of 150 day old broiler chicks were divided into
five experimental groups i.e., OA-0, OA-0.5, OA-1, OA-1.5 and OA-2.00 and were supplemented in drinking water at the
rate of 0, 0.5, 1, 1.5 and 2% organic acid blend, Aciflex,
respectively. Aciflex consisted of citric acid80 g, lactic acid 52 g, CuSO4 10 g and phosphoric acid 92 g/l. Each group
was further divided into three replicates
having 10 chicks per replicate in a completely randomized design. The birds were reared in separate pens for 22 to 42
days in an open sided house. At the end of the experiment, the results revealed that body weight
, feed conversion ratio, carcass yield and liver weight increased significantly (P<0.05) in the treated groups
showing linear improvement. Similarly, bacterial microflora including E. coli and Salmonella
decreased significantly (P<0.05) in the treated groups. Best antimicrobial results were observed in OA-2 group.
We concluded from the results that organic acid improved the production and decreased microbial population in
broiler during finishing stage.
Keywords: Broiler, organic acid, performance and microbiota.

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rganic acid blend in diets of broiler chickens
challenged with Clostridium perfringens

)Clostridium perfringens(
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( OAs)
( AGP)
. )Clostridium perfringens(
:
4 () 1200
. , 43 50 6
()
, 7 .
. ) Clostridium perfringens( 16-15-14
43-1
.

. 35
. , ) CD3+ cells)
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SUMMARY:
This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of a blend of organic acids (OAs) in diets
with or without antibiotic growth promoter (AGP) in chickens challenged with Clostridium
perfringens. Day-old male broiler chicks were used in a trial with 4 treatments and 6 replicates
of 50 birds per pen, for 43 days, in a completely randomized design. The treatments in a 22
factorial arrangement consisted of the presence or absence of enramycin (AGP) and of a blend
of OA in the feed. All birds were inoculated at 7 days of age with an anticoccidial vaccine in
the drinking water; on days 14, 15, and 16, they were inoculated with C. perfringens in the
feed. OA improved weight gain, body weight, and feed intake in the periods 17 days and 121
days in chicks without antibiotic supplementation. The AGP had the main effect of increasing
weight gain and body weight at 35 d; the OA increased weight gain, body weight, and feed
intake at 43 days of age. The birds supplemented with OA without AGP had a higher number
of CD3+ cells in the ileum mucosa and lower crypt depth than birds supplemented with both
OA and antibiotic at 7 days. At 21 days of age, birds fed OA without AGP had higher villus
height and a larger villus/crypt ratio; however, there were no differences in the CD3+ cells in
the ileal mucosa. The use of OA was beneficial for weight gain and AGP for feed conversion,
and the combination of OA and AGP brings complementary advantages in production.

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Effect of Probiotics and Acidifiers on Growth Performance and
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Blood C hemistry of Broiler Chickens.
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, 220
( A) . 11 ( D,C,B,A)
500 Probiotic (Bacillus subtilis) ) B) ) )
, , , , ) ( C( . /
. ) D) . ./ 2(
21 . 6
( ,, , , , , , )
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( %0.5) ( B)
( ) mg/dl) 42 , 21
) B ) ( 154.89 mg/dl ( . )D
.) 117.11 mg/dl) C ( 143.67 mg/dl ) A ( 144mg/dl)D
) 10.11 mg/dl ( B
. D
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42 , 21
% 20 % 0.5 .
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Abstract:
An experiment was carried out to study effect of probiotics, acidifiers and their combination on broiler
growth performance and blood chemistry. A total of 220 day old broiler chicks (Ross 318) were randomly
assigned to four experimental diets in a completely randomized design(CRD). Each treatment group was
replicated five times with 11 chicks per replicate. Diet A, basal diet as control, diet B basal diet supplemented
with 500g/ton probiotic (bacillus subtilis), diet C supplemented with2kg/ton organic acids,
(citric acid, fumaric acid, D-L malic acid, lactic acid, orthophosphoric acid),diet Dsupplemented with mixture of
acidifier
(2kg/ton) plus probiotic (500g/ton).Feed intake ,body weight gain and feed conversion ratio (FCR) were recorded
on weekly basis throughout the experiment period. At 21 and 42 days of age, 3 ml of blood sample was collected
from wing vein. Blood serum parameters measured were glucose, albumin, total protein, cholesterol, triglycerides,
calcium,
phosphorus, sodium and potassium. The results showed that statistically there was no significant increase in
body weight gain at weeks 1, 3, 4, 5 and 6 of age. The body weight of broiler chickens was significantly
increased at weeks 2 of age when adding 0.05% bacillus subtilis.Dietary treatments had significant effect at second
and third weeks on (FCR). The data indicated that there were no significant effects oftreatment on all
blood parameters at day 21. However, at day 42, the cholesterol(mg/dl) A75.67, B72.56, C71.22, D71.44)
and triglyceride (mg/dl) (A55.66, vi B47.22, C47.89, D 40) level were numerically decreased as probiotic and
acidifier (diet D) were added. The highest levels of serum glucose was obtained for birds fed diet B (154.89mg/dl)
and it followed by diets, D(144mg/dl) and A (143.67mg/dl). However, diet C (117.11mg/dl) showed
the lowest levels of serum glucose. Birds which received diet B(7.82mg/dl) recorded the lowest levels of
serum calcium compared to control (diet A). While the highest value of serum calcium (10.11mg/dl)
was obtained by birds fed diet D. It concluded that inclusion of probiotic and probiotic plus acidifier to
broiler chickens diets improved live body weight,not significant effect on all blood serum parameters measured
at day 21for all treats. However at 42 blood calcium and glucose were affected day by treatment, the better
calcium level achieved by combined of probiotic and acidifiers. It can be recommended to used 0.5% probiotic
and 20% acidifiers in broiler ration which resultedbetter body weight gain and FCR, on the other hand more
research it necessary to study the effect of combination between probiotic and acidifiers at different concentration.

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Broiler Diets on the number Lacto Bacilli and Coliform Bacteria in the Small Effect Of Adding
Different Levels of Organic Acids, Citric and Butyric In Intestine Parts.
( )
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( )
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7 . 308 420
. 15 4 ()
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) ( T1
.(Butyric 1g/kg) T2
(Butyric 1.5g/kg) T3
. ( Citric 1g/kg ) T4
.( Citric 1.5 g/kg )T5
.( Butyric 0.5 g/kg+ Citric 0.5 g/kg) T6
. )Butyric 0.75 g/kg+Citric 0.75 g/kg) T7

)1
)2
)3
)4
)5
)6
)7

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( p<0.01)
, ( p<0.01) T3T1
, ( p<0.01) T5
. ( p<0.01)
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Abstract :
The study was conducted at the Poultry research and teaching farm-Department of Animal resources
college of Aquicalture.AL-Qasim green University. for the purpose of knowing the effectof adding organic acids (butyric acid and
citric acid) individually or mixed to the diets of broiler on the total number of lactic and coliform bacteria in the small intestine used in
This experiment was used 420 chicks one day old type (Rose 308 classic ) distributed randomly at the age of 8 day to 7 treatments
with a (60 birds) for each treatment Each treatments divided into four replicates for 15 birds per replicat and the treatments were
discribed as follow : First treatment T1 as control group with out any additive . Second treatment T2 adding 1gm butyric/kg diet.
Third treatment T3 adding 1.5gm butyric/kg diet. Fourth treatment T4 adding 1gm citric/kg diet.
Fifth treatment T5 adding 1.5 gm citric / kg diet . Sixth treatment T6 0.5 gm butyric + 0.5gm citric / kg diet .
Seventh treatment T7 0.75 gm butyric + 0.75gm citric / kg diet .
The results indicated the superiority of T7 seventh significantly (p <0.01) compare to the rest of the treatments in the numbers
of lactobacilli bacteria However The number of coliform bacteria was significant increased (p <0.01)for T1and T3compared
to other treatments in the duodenum treatment T5 was increased significantly (p <0.01) in the number of coliform
bacteria compared to other treatments in the jejunum, the first treatment was also outperformed on the rest of the treatments
significantly (p <0.01) in the ileum.

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Influence of addition different levels of organic acids to the diets on the
performance of broiler chickens

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Lactic acid Acetic acid Propionic acid
. Fumaric acid
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Ross 308 240

%0.2 . 20

%0.6 % 0.4
.
:
( P0.05)
. ( )

(
P0.05)
( P0.05)

.
:
%0.4 %0.2

Abstract:-

The aim of the study was to determine the effect of dietary supplementation of mixing of organic
acids (Propionic acid, Fumaric acid, Acetic acid, and Lactic acid) on the performance of broiler
chicken. 240 one day old Male chicks (Ross 308) were used in this study and distributed
randomly into four treatments by three replicates per each treatment (20 chicks in each replicate).
The diets of second, third and fourth treatments were supplemented with 0.2% , 0.4% and 0.6%
from mixing of organic acid respectively and remained First treatment without supp- lementing as
a control treatment. The results showed the significant increase (P0.05) in the second and third
treatments in the body weight and no significant differences in weekly weight gain between
treatments. Also there were significant improving (P0.05) in feed conversion ratio, dressing
percentage, weekly feed intake and accumulated feed consumption in all treatments comparison
with control as well as there were significant differences (P0.05) in the mortality percentage,
Production Index and Economic Figure between treatments and control. The results indicated that
the organic acid supplementation at levels (0.2 % and 0.4%) had a beneficial effect on the
performance of broiler chicken.

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Studying the effect of formic acid and potassium diformate on performance, immunity and gut health
of broiler chickens
potassium diformate

potassium diformate ) KDF)( FA)


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:

. 35 . 40 3 3 360
:
(G1) ( )

-1

(G2) 5

-2

(G3) potassium diformate

-3

body weight gain (BWG) potassium diformate


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:

potassium diformate
potassium , ,
. diformate

a b s t r a c t:
Our trial was conducted to study the effects of formic acid (FA) and potassium di-formate (KDF) in broiler
ration on performance, carcass traits, blood biochemical, intestinal microbial load, histological picture of
intestine and immune parameters of broilers. In this study 360 one-day-old broiler chicks were divided
to 3 groups with 3 replicates of 40 chicks each. The trial continued for 35 days. The control group was fed
only basal diet (G1). Group 2 (G2) were fed basal diet supplemented with FA (5 g/kg diet), and group 3
(G3) received basal diet supplemented with KDF (5 g/kg diet). The results showed that both FA and KDF
significantly increased body weight gain (BWG), dressing percentage of broilers and significantly
decreased feed conversion ratio (FCR) (P < 0.05). The highest percent of breast and thigh was observed in
G3. The improvement in villus height was observed in G2 and G3 compared with the control one, and the
highest was in G3. The results evidence that the using of FA or KDF in broiler feeds have significant effects
on performance, immune parameters, and gut health without having any significant effects on blood
biochemical. However, KDF is more effective than FA as little amount of FA reaches the small intestine
due to metabolism and absorption, whereas KDF permits a proportion of FA to pass through the fore-gut
intact and enter the small intestinal tract. In addition, FA has a strong odor and corrosiveness to gastrointestinal tract
which limits its use.

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Growth Performance, Intestinal Histomorphology, Blood Hematology and Serum


Metabolites of Broilers Chickens Fed Diet Supplemented with Graded Levels of Acetic
Acid.

.) Acetic Acid (
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:

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:
200
. 10
. -1 :
% 0.2 ) AA2( -2
% 0.3 ) AA3 ) -3
:
) p< 0.001) ) AA (
A.A3 0.3 A.A
.
:
. A.A

Abstract :
Objective: The present study was performed to determine the influence of dietary Acetic Acid
(AA) supplementation on growth performance, intestinal histomorphology, blood hematology
and serum constituents of broilers. Methodology: A total 200 chicks were randomly divided into
five experimental groups with four replicates each (10 chicks / replicate) in a complete
randomized design
experiment. Treatments were as follow: (AA0: control, AA1: basal diet + 0.1% acetic acid kgG 1,
AA2: basal diet + 0.2% acetic acid kgG 1 and AA3: basal diet + 0.3% acetic acid kgG 1).
Results: The results showed that AA supplementation improved weight gain (p <0.001) and feed
conversion ratio (p <0.001). Generally, acetic acid supplementation at 0.3% level improved bird s
performance during 2-6 weeks of age.
Increased intestinal length and higher intestinal weight were recorded in AA treated
birds. Significant reduction in pH of proventriculus and ventriculus (p <0.01) was observed with
in dose related manner.
No significant effects were observed on dressing percentage Histological observations revealed
that intestinal morphology. professed positive effects under AA treatment.
Furthermore, the effect of dietary AA supplementation was significant (p < 0.05) only on
lymphocytes
count and heterophil / lymphocyte ratio. It is obvious that blood of birds fed AA3 diet had the
highest concentration of calcium, phosphorous, total protein and globulin comparing with the
control diet,
and other levels of AA. The best results of all parameters were observed in AA3. Conclusion:
Based on the results, it could be concluded that AA supplementations in feed employs positive
effect on performance
and intestinal histomorphology of broilers.

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_1 " "
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1988.
-2 :/ . 1986 .
_3 . .
_ .1971
_4 . .
_5 .
_6
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1990.
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1) Effect of Thyme and / or Formic Acid Dietary Supplementation on Broiler
Performance and Immunity by Naela M.Reda M.S Korany,F,F.Mohamed
Nutrition and Clinical Nutrition Dept., Fac. Vet. Med., Cairo UniversityGiza,(2016 )

2) Effect of Citric and Acetic Acid Water Acidification on Broilers


Performance with respect to Thyroid Hormones Levels Heba Mohammed
Ahmed Abdelrazek1*, Said Mahmoud Moustafa Abuzead1, Saadia AbdelFatah Ali1, Hala Mohammed Ali El-Genaidy 2, Samah Ahmed AbdelHafez3 , 1Department of Physiology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Suez
Canal University,(2016)
3- Effect of Organic Acid Supplementation on the Performance and Ileal
Microflora of Broiler During Finishing Period Asad Sultan, Tahseen Ullah,
Sarzamin Khan and Rifat Ullah Khan* Faculty of Animal Husbandry and
Veterinary Sciences, The University of Agriculture, Peshawar, Pakistan(2015)
4- Organic acid blend in diets of broiler chickens challenged with
Clostridium perfringens ,R. Pereira,,1 J. F. M. Menten, C.
Bortoluzzi, G. S. Napty, F. A. Longo, J. Vittori, M. C. Lourenco,
and E. Santin University of Sao Paulo-ESALQ, Piracicaba,
Brazil;(2015)
5-Studying the effect of formic acid and potassium diformate on
performance, immunity and gut health of broiler chickens , Naela M.
Ragaa a, *, Reda M.S. Korany b a Nutrition and Clinical Nutrition
Dept., Fac. Vet. Med., Cairo University, Giza 12211, Egypt (2016)
6- ffect of Probiotics and Acidifiers on Growth Performance
and Blood Chemistry of Broiler Chickens, Mudathir Salih Adam
Mohamed, A Dissertation Submitted to the University of Khartoum in
Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Master
of Science in Poultry Production,(2015)
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7- Effect of adding malic acid to The diet, in productive performance
of broiler chicken, Rokan A. Kh. AL-Hamdani and Ahmed A. A. ALDouri Department of animal Resources - Tikrit University-College of
Agriculture-Iraq (2012)
8- Effect Of Adding Different Levels of Organic Acids, Citric and
Butyric In Broiler Diets on the number Lacto Bacilli and Coliform
Bacteria in the Small Intestine Parts. Noor Raoof Dhahir, Saad
Mohsen Aljashami (2014)
9- Growth Performance, Intestinal Histomorphology, Blood
Hematology and Serum Metabolites of Broilers Chickens Fed Diet
Supplemented with Graded Levels of Acetic Acid, 1,4Zaib Ur Rehman,
2Ahsan Ul Haq, 2Naasra Akram, 3Mohamed E. Abd El-Hack,
3Mahmoud Alagawany, 3Department of Poultry, Faculty of
Agriculture, Zagazig University, 44511 Zagazig, Egypt (2016)

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