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Modern Symbolic Logic Strategies are useful in demonstrating how the rules of inference and rules of replacement are applied in the context of conducting formal proof.

Modern Symbolic Logic Strategies are useful in demonstrating how the rules of inference and rules of replacement are applied in the context of conducting formal proof.

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1. Modus Ponens

PQ

_P_

:. Q

3. Hypothetical Syllogism

PQ

QR

:. PR

5.Constructive Dilemma

(PQ) o (RS)

PVR

:.QVS

7. Destructive Dilemma

(PQ) o (RS)

~Q V~S

:. ~P V~R

2. Modus Tollens

PQ

~Q_

:. ~P

4. Disjunctive Syllogism

PVQ

_~P_

:. Q

9. Conjunction

P

Q_

:.P o Q

10. Absorption

P Q

:. P ( P o Q)

RULES OF REPLACEMENT:

expressions may replace each other

~(P o Q) (~PV~Q)

~(PVQ) (~P o ~Q)

(PVQ) (QVP)

(P o Q) (Q o P)

[PV (QVR)] [(PVQ) VR]

[Po (Q o R)] [(P o Q) o R]

[Po(QVR)] [(P o Q) V (P o R)]

[PV (Q o R)] [(P V Q) o (PVR)]

P ~~P

(PQ) (~Q~P)

(PQ) (~PVQ)

(P Q)

[(P Q) o (Q P)]

(P Q)

[(P o Q) V (~P o ~Q)]

[(P o Q)R)] [P(QR)]

P (PVP)

P (P o P)

11. Commutation

12. Association

13. Distribution

14. Double Negation

15. Transposition

16. Material Implication

17. Material Equivalence

18. Exportation

19. Tautology

6. Simplification

PoQ

:.P

:.Q

8 Addition

P_

:.P V Q

Condensed by Roland L. Aparece, MA from Dan Magat, A First Book in Logic (Manila: Felta,

1991) p.60 and Patrick Hurley, A Concise Introduction to Logic.(Belmont: Wadswoth/Thompson

Learning, 2000) pp. 370,379-380,389-390,399-400.

AND RULES OF REPLACEMENT

TO PROVE

1. A statement letter or the

negation or a sentence letter

2. A o B

3. ~(A o B)

4. A V B

5. ~A V ~B

6. A B

7. ~(A B)

8. A B

STRATEGY

Use Modus Ponens, Modus Tollens, Disjunctive Syllogism

Work for A and work for B, then use conjunction

Work for the equivalent disjunction

~ A V ~B then apply De Morgans rule

Work for A and infer A V B by Addition or use Constructive

Dilemma

Work for the equivalent conjunction ~A o ~B then apply

De Morgans rule

Use any strategy for 1, or conditional proof. Work for the

equivalent ~A V B then apply Material Implication.

Sometime Hypothetical Syllogism will do also.

Work for the equivalent ~(~A V B) then apply Material

Implication.

Work for A B, and B A separately and derive the

conjunction (A B) o (B A).

Or work for [(A o B) V (~A ~B)] by Disjunctive Syllogism

or constructive Dilemma.

9. ~(A B)

10. A A

you need is to break or translate the equivalence to

(A B) o (B A), or (A o B) V (~A o ~ B).

Work for (A B) (B o ~A) using the strategies outlined

above for implications and conjunctions.

To derive (A A), or any tautology, the best strategy is to

use conditional proof or indirect proof)

Given

~J

JVK

KL

Prove

L

Let us examine the above argument in detail. The conclusion is L. Upon inspection, we

can find K L in the premises wherein K is the antecedent of the consequent L. More so, K is

found in another premise, a disjunctive statement, J V K. In this case, the partner or other

disjunct of K is J. Lastly, we have a single letter ~J. To solve this argument, one could simply

infer mentally the flow of the solution: J V K and ~J, by applying disjunctive syllogism to the two

premises, one could get K. Now we have K L and K, by applying Modus Ponens to the two

premises, one could get L. Thus, the argument is valid as demonstrated and the key to this

solution is by starting to find the conclusion in the premises.

JVK

given

~J

K

Disjunctive Syllogism

K L given

K

above

L

Modus Ponens

Q.E.D.

2. If the conclusion contains a letter that appears in the consequent of a conditional statement in

the premises, consider obtaining that letter via Modus Ponens.

Given

AB

AB

given

A

A

Prove

B

Modus Ponens

B

Q.E.D

3. If the conclusion contains a negated letter and that appears in the antecedent of a conditional

statement in the premises, consider obtaining the negated letter via Modus Tollens.

Given

AB

AB

~B

given

~B

~A

Modus Tollens

Prove

Q.E.D

~A

4. If the conclusion is a conditional statement, consider obtaining it via Hypothetical syllogism.

Given

AC

AC

given

CB

CB

Prove

AB

Hypothetical Syllogism

AB

5. If the conclusion contains a letter that appears in a disjunctive statement in the premises,

consider obtaining that letter via Disjunctive Syllogism.

Given

AVB

AVB

given

~A

~A

Prove

B

Disjunctive Syllogism

B

Q.E.D

6. If the conclusion contains a letter that appears in a conjunctive statement in the premises,

consider obtaining it via simplification.

Given

AoB

Ao B

given

Prove

A

Simplification

A

Q.E.D.

7. If the conclusion is a conjunctive statement, consider obtaining it via conjunction by first

obtaining the individual conjuncts.

Given

AB

A

given

A

C

C

A o C Conjunction

Prove

Q.E.D

Ao C

.

8. If the conclusion is a disjunctive statement, consider obtaining it via Constructive Dilemma or

Addition. Given

(AB) o (CD)

(AB) o (CD)

given

BC

AVC

given

AVC

BVD

Constructive Dilemma

Prove

Q.E.D

BVD

Given

AVC

B

Prove

BVD

B

BVD

given

Addition

Q.E.D

9. If the conclusion contains a letter not found in the premises, Addition must be used to obtain

that letter. (See second example under strategy 8.)

10. Conjunction can be used to set up De Morgans Rule.

~A

given

~B

given

~A o ~B

Conjunction

~(AV B)

De Morgans Rule

Q.E.D

11. Constructive Dilemma can be used to set up De Morgans Rule.

(A ~B) o (C ~D)

given

AVC

~BV~D

Constructive Dilemma

~(B o D)

De Morgans Rule

12. Addition can be used to set up De Morgans Rule.

~A

given

~AV~B

Addition

~(A o B)

De Morgans Rule

13. Distribution can be used in two ways to set up Disjunctive Syllogism

(A V B) o (AVC)

given

~A

AV (B o C)

Distribution

BoC

Disjunctive Syllogism

A o (B V C)

(A o B) V (A o C)

~(A o B)

AoC

given

Distribution

given

Disjunctive Syllogism

A V (B o C)

given

(A V B) o (A V C)

Distribution

(A V B)

Simplification

(A o B) V (A o C)

A o (B V C)

A

given

Distribution

Simplification

15. If inspection of the premises does not reveal how the conclusion should be derived, consider

using the rules of replacement to deconstruct the conclusion. (See the example above)

16. Material implication can be used to set up Hypothetical Syllogism

~AVB

given

~BVC

given

A B

Material Implication

B C

AC

Hypothetical Syllogism

(A o B)C)

given

A

A(BC)

Exportation

A

Above

BC)

Modus Ponens

18. Exportation can be used to set up Modus Tollens.

A(BC)

given

(A o B)C

Exportation

~C

given

~(AB)

Modus Ponens

19. Addition can be used to set up Material Implication.

A

Given

AV~B

Addition

~BVA

Commutation

B A

Material Implication

20. Transposition can be used to set up Hypothetical Syllogism

AB

given

~C~B

BC

Transposition

AB

above

AC

Hypothetical Syllogism

21. Transposition can be used to set up Constructive Dilemma.

Given

(AB) o (CD)

given

(~B~A) (~D ~C)

Transposition

~BV~D

given

~AV~C

Constructive Dilemma

22. Constructive Dilemma can be used to set up Tautology.

(A C) o (B C)

given

AVB

CVC

Constructive Dilemma

C

Tautology

23. Material Implication can be used to set up Tautology.

A~A

given

~AV~A

Material Implication

~A

Tautology

24. Material Implication can be used to set up Distribution.

A (Bo C)

given

~AV (Bo C)

Material Implication

(~A V B) o (~AVC)

Distribution

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