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International Journal on Recent and Innovation Trends in Computing and Communication

Volume: 4 Issue: 4

ISSN: 2321-8169
409 - 413


Lean Manufacturing for Productivity Improvement

Krunal Desai

Dr. K.V.L.Narayana Student at School of Electrical Engineering,

VIT University Vellore, Tamilnadu

Professor at School of Electrical Engineering,

VIT University Vellore, Tamilnadu.

Abstract-This Paper describes improvement in functioning of water pump in assembly line. By using Lean manufacturing tools like Poka
Yoke, the performance of assembly line should be improved. Programming of all five stations is done in Mitsubishi Nexgen PLCs and
Mitsubishi HMI Ms60ct Software. Main Objective of project is reduction in lead time by programming of the stations which will lead to
improve productivity, minimizing scrap cost, reduces human element so to prevent from human errors. Two subs- Stations are directly
connected to the external devices like Leak testing Unit F-510 and 2D marking. The experiment results explain 35 seconds gap between manual
and proposed method operation. Comparison of figures of scrap cost shows that D-Plug substation has high rejection level. Accuracy can be
improved of water pump in automatic mode as compared to manual mode.
Keywords: Lean manufacturing, Mitsubishi Nexgen PLCs, Mitsubishi HMI Ms60ct, Reducing lead time, Reducing Scrap cost, Leak testing
Unit F-510, 2D marking and reading.

Lean Manufacturing is process of identifying and
eliminating waste through continuous improvement by
flowing product. There are 5 different assembly stations for
DAF water Pump. All five stations consists sub-parts of
water pump. Water pump is fitted into the DAF Trucks.
There are 25 essential tools of Lean Manufacturing. But
Main tools like Poka yoke and Autonomation can be used in
project. Autonomation refers to the process due to which
substation will automatically stop whenever defects occur.
Multiple Stations can be monitored by persons and quality
of the product can be improved. Because of Poka- Yoke
technique there are lesser the chances of mistakes [4]. This
technique helps to recognize defect of product & process
and also improves quality and reliability. It is technique
which is use methods in products and process designs which
can prevent human and mechanical errors.

Five substations are 1). Water Seal and cover assembly 2)

D- Plug Assembly and Leak Testing 3) Cover and Impeller
assembly 4) Pulley Assembly to cover sub assembly 5)
Assembly Leak Test Marking and Reading. The Functions
of the each station and programming of the PLC are
explained below. 5 PLCs have 32 Inputs and 32 outputs. As
per various applications, number of the inputs and outputs
will change.
1) Sub stations of Seal Assembly indicate that water seal is
being fitted into the water pump . As seen in figure 2, if we
put assembled part (water seal) on the fixture then Laser
sensor senses the part and signal will be given to PLC. Once
Water pump is fitted on the fixture then, Second laser sensor
senses the water pump, and laser sensors pass on the signals
to PLC.

Block diagram of the assembly line system is given below
which consist five sub- stations of assembly line.

Figure 2: Water Seal

Figure 1 Block Diagram of the system

After PLC unit sends signal to top cylinder, top

cylinder will go downward and the water seal will
be pressed (certain distance).
Second Laser sensor senses the top cylinder and
then the cylinder automatically goes to original

IJRITCC | April 2016, Available @


International Journal on Recent and Innovation Trends in Computing and Communication

Volume: 4 Issue: 4

ISSN: 2321-8169
409 - 413


position. Afterwards, Actuator is used for cleaning

area of D-Plug assembly.
Actuator moves horizontally. After moving
certain distance in horizontal direction, it will move
in vertical direction. Once it reaches in vertical
direction, Actuator motor will start. It will spread
the water in area of the D-Plug assembly. Then
Actuator will return to the original position.
Pump feeding cycle will start and RAM Cylinder
moves forward. After reaching certain distance,
cylinder will be in position to feed water seal into
the water pump.
Depending upon diameter of the water seal, Load
cell value will be applied. During Feeding
operation, water seal is fitted into pump then
cylinder will move in vertical direction. Cylinder is
at original position.
Locktite is similar to actuator which put liquid into
d-plug for fixing d- plug assembly into the water
pump. After filling liquid in d-plug, Locktite will
come to its original position and cycle will be over.
Here water seal is fitted into the DAF water pump.
There are four different water seal diameters
present in it. If Water seal is not fitted into pump,
error message will be displayed on the screen of the

2) D-Plug Assembly and leak Testing indicates that D plug

is fitted into water pump. It will check if there is leakage in
water pump using staking tool.

cylinder controlled by PLC unit. If cover is not

proper then mark (V) wont appear on cover.
As a result, it will automatically generate alarm
(siren) indicating rejection with the help of PLC
unit. Then rejected part kept on rejection rack (for
reject), and appropriate parts are forwarded to next
operations. Here, RAM cylinder wont be used.
Instead of the cylinder, Staking tool will be
externally connected to the leak detector F-510.
Now Staking tool will go down and Leak test will
consume setting parameters in the ATEQ leak
detector machine. Current Pump parameters will be
compared with reference parameters which are
stored into leak detector.
Once parameters are matchable then next operation
will be performed else error message will be
displayed on the HMI screen .Pass Punch and
Staking tool will be at original position. Cycle for
one water pump operation is over.

3) Cover and Impeller Assembly indicate that impeller is

being fitted in DAF water pump. There are total 3 to 4 types
of impeller. PLC can differentiate impeller by using
diameter of the impeller. HMI screen will display part no of
the given impeller which is being fixed on the fixture.
Figure 4 indicates that impeller is being fixed on
fixture. Then, Laser sensor senses impeller and
sends signal to PLC.
Water Pump is fixed on fixture then Laser sensor
will sense its bearings and will give signal to PLC.
In continuation, another Laser sensor checks DPlug and later on it will be fitted to water pump. If
it wont get fixed then alarm will ring.

Figure 3: D-Plug Assembly

`As seen in figure 3 D plug Laser sensor, Cover

Laser sensor, sense the parts and that sensor
sending signal to PLC unit, Staking tool will go
down, then component will be clamped.
After fixture clamping automatically, leak testing
unit (ATEQ) will start cover leak testing with the
help of PLC unit. After leak testing, if sub
assembly leak testing found fine then V mark
will appear on cover with the help of pneumatic

Figure 4: Impeller assembly

PLC sends signal to cylinder which is positioned at

downward. Applied force value will depend upon
type of impeller. Impeller is being fixed into water
pump then RAM cylinder will be positioned to its
original position.

4) Pulley Assembly (sub assembly) indicates that pulley is

fixed into DAF water pump.

IJRITCC | April 2016, Available @


International Journal on Recent and Innovation Trends in Computing and Communication

Volume: 4 Issue: 4

ISSN: 2321-8169
409 - 413

memory location which consists binary file with
new operating system.

Figure 5 : Pulley Aseembly

As Shown in figure 5, pulley is being fixed upper

side of fixture. Assembled part can be fixed on the
fixture then , Second Laser sensor senses the sub
assembly and Laser sensor gives signal to PLC.
After PLC unit sends signal to top cylinder, top
cylinder goes to downward to press assembled
parts up to certain distance. Later on, another Laser
sensor senses top cylinder and cylinder will
automatically go back to its original position.
Pulley will get fixed on water pump depending
upon the force applied by cylinder. Applied force
value will depend upon the type of assembled part.
Applied force value for pulley will be greater than
the applied impellers force. Both impeller and
pulley has same programing stucture.

Figure 7: 2D Reading

Specific code, which is written on the water pump,

will be checked by the reader and if Readers test is
100% fine.
Scanner data matched with the written data. For
writing data on water pump, address of date and
time should be converted in to hexadecimal. PLC
wont allow data in ASCII code.
If reader test is 0% then water pump will be
rejected. Scanner wont match data with data which
is written and system wont highlight.

5) In this Sub-Station , There are total 6 Laser sensors

placed for checking other sub stations parts like D-plug,
water seal, impeller, and pulley. It will check parts fixed into
the water pump. Because if any part is missing then water
pump may get rejected and scrap cost will go on higher

Figure 8: 2D Reading Not OK

Figure 6: 2D Marking and Reading

2D Marking is placed for writing current date, time
and to identify the quantity of water pumps
produced at a time.
Keyence vision Laser sensor is used to throw lights
on the water pump during marking. Scanner will
scan and compare the date, time and specific code
If date, time and code are not perfect during
scanning activity then the water pump will be
rejected. Comparison of date, time and code should
be correct to minimize the scrap cost.
For specific code, 16 bit binary data is being
transferred to boost strap loader first and then to

Programming of PLC and Connections

Power circuit Diagram:

A power circuit distributes power from source to connected
load. Control circuit controls power through use of motor,
on/off switches and start/stop buttons. Here, directly 3phase supply wont be given to PLC unit. First, it will be
given to the MCB. If overload error occurs in electrical
circuit then it may damage all circuits components. To
overcome this, MCB is used after the 3- Phase supply. MCB
is more reliable than the fuse. Output of the MCB is given to
master control relay. MCR is protected against higher

IJRITCC | April 2016, Available @


International Journal on Recent and Innovation Trends in Computing and Communication

Volume: 4 Issue: 4

ISSN: 2321-8169
409 - 413

voltage and current. Output of the Relay is directly
connected to the power supply of the PLC. Second MCB is
used for applied load voltage to the SMPS. 3-Phase voltage
is converted to the 24 V DC using converter.

It will change by the changing substation like if

impeller substation is placed instead of water seal
substation to check impeller diameter by Laser
sensor sense.
Output programming unit is partially same for all
assembly stations except 2D marking and reading.
Marking and reading processes are replaced by
RAM cylinder on down and up positions.

Figure 9: Power Circuit Diagram

And connector is used for the given 24 V DC supply to the

PLC Input /Output. MCB output is given to leak testing unit
for operating F510. Common PLC Program is given in
below figure 10. In this programming unit every other
programming unit is called [2]. By default in this PLCs
PLC-PRG program unit is executed. Total 8 different
programming units are executed.

Figure 11: Flowchart

Figure 10: Different Programming Units

Below figure 11 shows basic flowchart of the

programming of substations. There are 7 to 8
programming units for ladder logic in which all
stations have different programming features.
RAM Cylinder is replaced by staking tools in dplug and leak testing sub stations. Conditions for
checking water seal by laser sensor in the first
substation are given.

Results and Discussions
There are totally five sub stations of assembly line and for
reducing cycle time for improving operations PLC ladder
diagram is effectively prepared. Photoelectric Laser sensors
are ensuring properly working of sub stations [1]. Manually
operating system has 4 men working on the sub stations.
Automatic operating system has 2 men working on the
substations. For moving from one station to another, travel
time will be reduced. Following is the table which indicates
comparison of manual and automatic substations of
assembly line. Comparison of cycle time reduction is shown
in below table 1.

IJRITCC | April 2016, Available @


International Journal on Recent and Innovation Trends in Computing and Communication

Volume: 4 Issue: 4

ISSN: 2321-8169
409 - 413

Table 1: Cycle Time Comparisons
Water Seal
2D Marking and

75 Sec
55 Sec
35 Sec
35 Sec
65 Sec

Propose Method
60 Sec
45 Sec
30 Sec
30 Sec
55 Sec

Distribution of man power in every substation is compared

with manual and proposes method in assembly line shown
below table 2.
Table 2: Men Power Comparison
Water Seal
2D Marking and


Propose Method

Below table 3 shows increase of scrap cost due to increase

in rejection in substations.
Table 3: Rejection of Pumps Comparison
Water Seal
2D Marking and


Propose Method

Figure 12: Final Product

This paper represents developing assembly line for water
pump and increasing number of water pump in a day with
automated system. In this experiment Nexgen 5000 PLCs
and MS60c HMI series are used. Processor cp 5220- B0 is
attached to the PLC and many electro-mechanical devices
are connected. Production of assembly line is improved by
ladder diagram of the PLC. Wiring and installing of F510
and 2D marking are improved because PLC inputs and
outputs are attached to the specific addresses. Cost reduction
and man power reduction is greatly achieved. For more
improvement in assembly line, Scada with PLC interfacing
is required in the industry. Usage of other than PLC process
in industry, integrating the artificial intelligence method
such as artificial neural network and genetic algorithm are
replaced to PLC.

Table 1 shows total 35 seconds gap between manual and

propose method operation. Time required to move from one
substation to another is also decreases. Comparison in table
3 shows D-plug substation has 25 pumps rejected out of 180
pumps. Same thing happens in 2D marking substation with
24 pumps rejection out of 180 pumps. Rejection of the
pumps is more in manual operation. Scrap cost will keep
increasing. Accuracy of given water pumps in proposed
method is more than the manual operations. Leakage parts
are greater in manual operation as compared to proposed
method. Final product is shown in figure 12.



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IJRITCC | April 2016, Available @