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Solar cell is one of the renewable technologies that convert solar energy into

electricity directly. This technology has potential developed in the Indonesia which is located
in the equatorial and tropical climates. But there are still many weaknesses of these
technologies such as the output power generated was unstable and efficiency is still low, The
condition is caused by radiation received courtship module is not constant. To maximize the
output power of the module can be done by adjusting the angle of the module, adding a
reflector and directs the module towards the sun azimuth on the right position. All these
treatments aim to maximize the intensity of solar radiation which is received by the module.
This study was conducted to determine the effect of reflector on the output power and
efficiency of polycrystalline module types. Research carried out by adding a reflector on the
four sides of the solar modules with each reflector size (106.2 30) cm for the length of the
panel, and (67.5 30) cm to the width of the panel, as well as the variation of the angle of
500, 600, and 700 of the solar module. From the test results obtained that the angle of 600
percentage increase in the average output power of the highest of 26.49%. solar cell,
or photovoltaic cell (previously termed solar battery is an electrical device that converts the
energy of light directly into electricity by the photovoltaic effect, which is
a physical and chemical phenomenon. It is a form of photoelectric cell, defined as a device
whose electrical characteristics, such as current, voltage, or resistance, vary when exposed to
light. Solar cells are the building blocks of photovoltaic modules, otherwise known as solar
Solar cells are described as being photovoltaic, irrespective of whether the source
is sunlight or an artificial light. They are used as a photodetector (for example infrared
detectors), detecting light or other electromagnetic radiation near the visible range, or
measuring light intensity. Solar cells can be analogous to a device with two terminals or
connections, where dark area or not enough light is function as a diode, and when irradiated
with sunlight can generate voltage. When irradiated, generally a commercial solar cell to
produce a dc voltage of 0.5 to 1 volt, and short-circuit currents in the milliampere per cm2
scale. Large voltages and currents is not enough for many applications, so it is generally a
number of solar cells arranged in series to form a solar module. One solar module typically
consists of 28-36 solar cells, and total produce a dc voltage of 12 V in standard lighting
conditions (Air Mass 1.5). The solar modules can be coupled in parallel or in series to
increase the total output voltage and current in accordance with the power needed for a
particular application. The image below shows an illustration of the solar module.

The solar module typically consists of 28-36 solar cells are strung together series to increase
the total power output. (Picture: "The Physics of Solar Cell", Jenny Nelson)

The Stucture of Solar Cell

Accordance with the development of science and technology, types of solar cell
technology was developed with a variety of innovations. Its called next-generation solar cells
one, two, three and four, with the structure or cell constituent parts different (types of solar
technology will be discussed in the article "Solar Cells: The types of technology").
In this paper will discuss the structure and workings of the solar cells are generally
in the market today that solar cells based on silicon material is also generally covers the
structure and workings of solar cells first generation (silicon solar cells) and second (thin film
/ thin layer ).

The structure from solar cells which used from silicon materials as semicondutor

The image above shows an illustration of solar cells and parts. Generally consists of :
1. Substart/Metal Backing
The substrate is a material that sustains all components of solar cells. The substrate
material must also have good electrical conductivity because it also serves as a positive
terminal contact solar cells, so that commonly used metal or metal material such as aluminum
or molybdenum. For the dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC) and organic solar cells, substrates
also serves as the entry point of light so that the material used is a material that is conductive
but also transparent sepertii ndium tin oxide (ITO) and Fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO).
2. Semiconductor Materials
Semiconductor material forms a core part of solar cells usually have up to several
hundred micrometers thick for the first generation solar cells (silicon), and 1-3 micrometers
for thin film solar cells. This is a semiconductor material that absorbs the light from the sun.
For the case of the image above, the semiconductor material used is silicon, which is
commonly applied in the electronics industry. As for the solar cell thin layers, semiconductor
materials that are commonly used and have entered the market, namely for example material
Cu (In, Ga) (S, Se) 2 (CIGS), CdTe (cadmium telluride), and amorphous silicon, in addition
to materials of semiconductor another potential in currently in intensive research as Cu2ZnSn
(S, Se) 4 (CZTS) and Cu2O (copper oxide). For the case of the image above, the
semiconductor material used is silicon, which is commonly applied in the electronics
industry. As for the solar cell thin layers, semiconductor materials that are commonly used
and have entered the market, namely for example material Cu (In, Ga) (S, Se) 2 (CIGS),
CdTe (cadmium telluride), and amorphous silicon, in addition to materials of semiconductor
another potential in currently in intensive research as Cu2ZnSn (S, Se) 4 (CZTS) and Cu2O
(copper oxide).

3. Contact Grid
Beside to the substrate as a positive contact above, most of the semiconductor
material is usually superimposed metal material or a transparent conductive material
as the negative contact.
4. Antireflection Coating
Reflection of light should be minimized to optimize the light absorbed by the
semiconductor. Therefore, the solar cell is usually covered by an anti-reflection
coating. Anti-reflection material is a thin layer of material with a large optical
refractive index between the semiconductor and the air that causes the light is
deflected toward the semiconductor so as to minimize the light that is reflected back.
5. Enkapsulasi / cover glass
This section serves as a solar module encapsulation to protect from rain or dirt.
How solar cells work
Solar (or photovoltaic) cells convert the suns energy into electricity. Whether theyre
adorning your calculator or orbiting our planet on satellites, they rely on the the photoelectric
effect: the ability of matter to emit electrons when a light is shone on it. Silicon is what is
known as a semi-conductor, meaning that it shares some of the properties of metals and some
of those of an electrical insulator, making it a key ingredient in solar cells. Lets take a closer
look at what happens when the sun shines onto a solar cell. Sunlight is composed of
miniscule particles called photons, which radiate from the sun. As these hit the silicon atoms
of the solar cell, they transfer their energy to loose electrons, knocking them clean off the
atoms. The photons could be compared to the white ball in a game of pool, which passes on
its energy to the coloured balls it strikes. Freeing up electrons is however only half the work
of a solar cell: it then needs to herd these stray electrons into an electric current. This involves
creating an electrical imbalance within the cell, which acts a bit like a slope down which the
electrons will flow in the same direction. Creating this imbalance is made possible by the
internal organisation of silicon. Silicon atoms are arranged together in a tightly bound
By squeezing small quantities of other elements into this structure, two different
types of silicon are created: n-type, which has spare electrons, and p-type, which is missing
electrons, leaving holes in their place. When these two materials are placed side by side
inside a solar cell, the n-type silicons spare electrons jump over to fill the gaps in the p-type
silicon. This means that the n-type silicon becomes positively charged, and the p-type silicon
is negatively charged, creating an electric field across the cell. Because silicon is a semiconductor, it can act like an insulator, maintaining this imbalance. As the photons smash the
electrons off the silicon atoms
The illustration below depicts the semiconductor junction of p-type and n-type.

Junction in between p-type semiconductor (excess holes) and n-type (excess electrons).

Role of the p-n junction is to form an electric field so that electrons (and holes) can
be extracted by contact material to produce electricity. When the p-type semiconductor and ntype contacted, the excess electrons will move from the n-type semiconductor to the p-type
to form a positive pole on the n-type semiconductor, and conversely the negative pole to the
p-type semiconductor. As a result of the flow of electrons and holes then formed an electric
field when sunlight on the composition of the pn junction, this will push the electrons move
from the semiconductor to the contact negative, which is subsequently used as electricity, and
vice versa hole moving toward the positive contact waited electron comes, like illustrated in
the figure below

Illustration of how solar cells work with the principles of the p-n junction. (Image: