Name: Ismail M Qaznili Student ID: 4089241 Course: Sustainable Urban Design (K14SUD) School: School of the Built Environment

Subject: MArch in Urban Design Number of Words: (1900)

Urban

Spaces

Thermal

Conditioning:

A

Comparative

Study

of

Public

Outdoor Spaces Passive Thermal Conditioning.

May 2009

Table of Contents
Introduction ............................................................................................................ 1 Outdoor Thermal Conditioning .......................................................................... 2 The Concept .......................................................................................................... 2 The Human Thermal Comfort ............................................................................. 3 The Methodology .................................................................................................. 4 Thermal Conditioning Case Study.................................................................... 5 Matsudo Station Square ................................................................................... 6 Matsudo Central Park ....................................................................................... 6 Empirical Research Method ............................................................................. 7 The Results .......................................................................................................... 9 Conclusion .............................................................................................................. 12

Table of Figures
Figure 1 Study Areas Location Map 8

Figure 2 - 3 Matsudo Square Platform and Street

9

Figure 4 – 5 Matsudo Park Walkway and Lawn

9

Figure 6 - 7 Right: Matsudo Square, Left: Matsudo Park

11

Figure 8 Distribution Frequency in both areas

13

Figure 9 Attendance total within time interval

13

Figure 10 Attendees correlated to PET Left: Matsudo Square, right: Matsudo Park

14

List of Tables
Table 1 Measuring Instruments 11

Table 2 PET Value Breakdown

12

Introduction
The rapid change of global climate conditions increases the

consumption of energy and generates large amounts of pollution. The effect of global warming, the increase of earth’s temperature forces the inhabitants of urban areas to rely heavily on artificial air

condition methods which generate large amounts of Co2 emissions due to the large energy consumption. There for that gives credit in promoting global warming. The awareness of this phenomenon has led responsible bodies

concerned with developing urban area to adopt methods to reduce the effect of global warning causes. Architects are using different design concepts to reduce reliance on artificial thermal conditioning methods and promote passive systems. In the process concerned with achieving passive thermal

conditioning, the focus was mainly on indoor closed spaces, neglecting the outdoor open areas, but not until recently. Examples of increasing focus by designers and developers on the outdoor space can be seen in Bara Funda in Sao Paulo, Tokyo in Japan, Syracuse in New York, and last but not least Hermosillo in Mexico.

The

Aim

of

this

paper

is

to

examine

the

basics

of

outdoor

thermal conditioning in design literature, and then will look into two case studies exhibiting the main points which had been took into

account for designing outdoor thermal conditioning in these areas, and then will conclude with how effective are these interventions.

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Outdoor Thermal Conditioning
The Concept
Creating an acceptable thermal condition within a given space is based on objective and subjective variables. They work in interact together differently based on the place location and the nature of the users. Subjective variables are those elements that are defined by the people’s behaviour based in their cultural and social characteristics such as the acceptance level of temperature and wind speed within a time interval or an area. Objective physical variables of are those elements that that are set by the

attributes

the

all the

components

create

spaces,

outdoor spaces in this case, such as materials colours and textures, shapes and formations of masses, the function of the space, and last but not least and most importantly static and dynamic features of microclimate.

Ochoa and Marincic (2005) argued that the thermal comfort and the energy impact on masses are neglected by designers. They suggested that designers should attempt to address the last two points in and work toward solving its issues. Their suggesting is attributed to the following points of views that; 1. series “Designers of fields should as acquire than knowledge pertaining botany to a

diverse

climatology,

and

geography; however, this knowledge is not always expressed in a language that they can adequately apply in their work.”, 2. “Since exterior spaces are normally not artificially cooled or heated, there is no extra energy consumption directly related with the outdoor thermal comfort. So developers of

2|Page

design tools and software have centred their efforts in thermal design and efficient use of energy in building indoors,

banishing the landscape microclimatic design.”, and 3. “Furthermore there is a lack of standards and

regulations for outdoors”

Herrington and Vittum (1977) in their study of Syracuse in New York had sought to set the variable related to human comfort in spaces based on microclimate features within central urban areas. They focused on the thermal exchange between the users of space and their surroundings, by taking into account the physical attributes of the materials and the physiological performance of the human body in relation to heat transfer and exchange.

The Human Thermal Comfort
The status of the body which ensures the effectiveness of all the internal functions after exposure to outdoor spaces temperature is consider a thermal comfort area. This perception of this status is completely subjective to the users’ state of mind and physical

condition. The different situations of the users scale the level of comfort. Herrington and Vittum (1977) have stated that “Thermal stress is created when the net loss of thermal energy from the subject's body does not equal the production of heat by metabolism within the body” this mismatch depending on the outdoor temperature will cause either a drop or increase in the internal temperature of the body. The body respond to this in the form of skin respiration. For idle stationed entities, the sensation of comfort results from stabilising the body internal temperature to 98.6F (Herrington and Vittum, 1977). Any excessive alteration to the surrounding

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temperature or the inner temperature may cause skin respiration which is a thermal discomfort. As for active moving entities, the level of comfort is based on the body and surrounding air temperature for as long the exchange rate between the body temperature and the surrounding air is at minimum. Discomfort occurs in the case of excessive sweating (Herrington and Vittum, 1977).

The Methodology
Basically to prepare a study regarding outdoor thermal

conditioning, it is important to note that it is based on empirical research. These should be carried out in designated times, the time which considered vital to outdoor activity promotion. Information is gathered from users subjects directly involved within the designated area either by interviews or observation,

information such as the personal behaviour in the area, the users’ physical characteristics of clothing, sex, age and their motives. Microclimate information and pattern of air temperature, globe temperature, surface temperature, relative humidity, wind speed,

incoming short wave radiation, and incoming long wave radiation should be calculated and correlated with users’ behaviour in order to

establish a link to help understand what is needed to be done to promote usage.

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Thermal Conditioning Case Study
Two case studies will be examined to demonstrate the how the previously mentioned methodology had been implied and it was useful in measuring and enhancing outdoor thermal conditioning. The Japan. locations main are in the city of of Matsudo, the area Chiba prefecture, are a

The

characteristics

microclimate

temperate climate, warm and humid summers, and dry and relative mild winter seasons (Thorsson, Honjo, Lindberg, Eliasson, and Lim, 2005). The areas are Matsudo Central Park and Matsudo Station Square in Matsudo central area.

Figure 2 Study Areas Location Map
(Thorsson, Honjo, Lindberg, Eliasson, and Lim, 2005)

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Matsudo Station Square
A one level elevated two squares next to Matsudo train station, of an area of 50m by 40m paved with light coloured clinkers. It acts as a point of gathering in the area of Central Matsudo. Its elevated platform creates a pedestrians friendly area that connects the station with the surrounding buildings.

Figure 2-3 Matsudo Square Platform and Street
(Thorssonet et al, 2005).

Matsudo Central Park
An open space area of 2.1 ha with two tennis courts and a

swimming pool, penetrated by walkways. A typical Japanese park located east of Matsudo Station.

Figure 4 – 5 Matsudo Park Walkway and Lawn
(Thorssonet et al, 2005).

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Empirical Research Method
The two researches were carried out simultaneously in the park and the square, within the dates of March 12th till March 24th 2004 between 11.00 am and 3.00 pm. The process was consisting of structured interviews, outdoor activity observations, and micrometeorological measurements of both areas (Thorssonet et al, 2005).

For the structured interviews, it was carried out in Japanese language a single interview lasted for an average period of 30 min, addressing clothing, general visiting information purpose, and about the subjects Also such it as: age, a

desired

times.

covered

qualitative assessment of the areas by the subjects.

As

for

the

outdoor activity

observation,

it

was

carried out

every 30 min, roughly 11 times per day. The areas were subdivided into smaller sub areas to ease the observation process. The data collected were about attendee number, sitting and

standing attendee in the sun and shade, and lastly personal behaviour such as eating, reading, playing, smoking, and other actions. Also passers through the site were taken into consideration.

Regarding

the

micrometeorological

measurements,

it

was

calculated using two stations. Air temperature (Ta), globe temperature (Tg), surface temperature (Ts), relative humidity (RH), wind speed (W), incoming short wave radiation (S), and incoming long wave radiation (L) values were calculated in the most vital parts of the two areas, using their respective tools as shown in Table 1.

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Table 1 Measuring Instruments

Two fish eye shots were taken to create SVF analysis, one for each area, with a measurement height of 1.1m (Thorssonet et al, 2005).

Figure 6-7 Right: Matsudo Square, Left: Matsudo Park
(Thorssonet et al, 2005).

Matsudo Square scored 0.61 while Matsudo Park scored 0.58 due to the vegetation layer presence (Thorssonet et al, 2005).

Wind speed was calculated at 2m height then it has been scaled down using Sverdrup’s power law. Surface thermometers were used to calculate surface temperature every 30 min (Thorssonet et al, 2005).

In attempt to investigate the thermal conditioning of the both areas, air temperature (Ta), the mean radiant temperature (Tmrt), and the physiological equivalent temperature (PET) values we correlated altogether.

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By

using

computer

calculation

using

the

RayMan

application,

which calculates (Tmrt) and (PET) based on urban areas parameters such as (Ta) and humidity, time interval, and the surfaces. The indicator used to express the PET value is explained in the following table: Aledo of the nearby

Table 2 PET Value Breakdown

The Results
The total number of respondents is 469, 219 at the park and 250 at the square. 74% were at the age between 21-65 years. 49.6% were female and 50.4% were male. Thermal Sensation The distribution frequency of the thermal sensation resulting from the carried interviews in the square shows that 25% of

respondents found it comfortable, 20% of respondents found it warm, and 15% found it cold. (Thorssonet et al, 2005).

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Figure 8 Distribution Frequency in both areas

While the distribution frequency resulting from the interviews carried in the park shows that, 30% of the respondents found it

comfortable, 15% of the respondent found it warm, and 20% of the respondents found it cold. (Thorssonet et al, 2005).

Outdoor space Usage

Figure 9 Attendance total within time interval

Attendees of Matsudo Station were exceeding those of Matsudo Park; an attendance peak could be noticed at 12.30 in Matsudo Park and an attendance peak at 13.5 in Matsudo Square.

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Figure 10 Attendees correlated to PET Left: Matsudo Square, right: Matsudo Park

By correlating the two outputs, PET frequency and the number of attendees, we find that the number of attendees is not affected by the PET conditions in the square case due to the fact that people don’t spend much time cause it is functioning as a joining hub between the station and the surrounding areas and the users don’t worry so much about being discomforted. On the contrary, the number of attendees on the park is

dramatically corresponds to the PET since the park is functioning as a resting place and the duration of staying is more greater than that of the square, people are becoming more subjective towards the PET

conditions.

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Conclusion
To conclude, the people behaviour, the place function, and the climate characteristics dramatically affect the thermal conditioning perception of the users. The empirical method used to measure the performance of outdoor open spaces is still traditional, but still it gives a clear and comprehensive image that help in evaluating the efficiency of outdoor spaces. Outdoor spaces thermal conditioning is matter which is more

subjective rather than objective.

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References
   HERRINGTON, L. P. and VITTUM, J. S. “Human Thermal Comfort in Urban Outdoor Spaces”, 1977 Thorsson, S., Honjo T. Lindberg, F. Eliasson, I. Lim, E. “Thermal comfort conditions and patterns of behaviour in outdoor urban spaces in Tokyo, Japan”, 2005 Ochoa, J.M.I. and Marincic, I. “Thermal comfort in urban spaces: The case of very warm and dry climate” 2005

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