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4 YEAR UNDERGRADUATE PROGRAMME IN SANSKRIT

university of delhi
DEPARTMENT OF SANSKRIT
4 YEAR UNDERGRADUATE PROGRAMME
(Courses effective from Academic Year 2013-14)

SYLLABUS OF COURSES TO BE OFFERED


Discipline Courses I, Discipline Courses II
& Applied Courses

Note: The courses are uploaded as sent by the Department concerned. The scheme of marks will be determined
by the University and will be corrected in the syllabus accordingly. Editing, typographical changes and formatting
will be undertaken further.
4 Year Undergraduate Programme Secretariat
fouryearprog@gmail.com

4 YEAR UNDERGRADUATE PROGRAMME IN SANSKRIT

Preamble
The Department offers Sanskrit in the four year undergraduate programme in all course
categories, i.e. DC 1, DC 2, Foundation Course and Applied Course. Usually, Sanskrit has
been deemed merely as a classical language of India. But this aspect of language is just the
tip of the iceberg. Our present syllabus covers most aspects of Sanskrit and therefore, projects
it as a discipline rather than as a language. This four year undergraduate course intends to
make one aware of the fact that Sanskrit is the gateway of the ancient Indian wisdom and is a
perennial source of inspiration for national integrity and universal brotherhood. The
following areas are covered under the present syllabus of DC 1, DC 2, Foundation Course
and Applied Course : (a) Language (b) Literature (classical and modern) (c) Aesthetics,
Theatre and Poetics (d) Indian Scientific Heritage (e) Mathematics and Astronomy (f) Indian
Logic and Science of Debate (g) Linguistics (h) Vedic Literature (i) Indian Philosophy (j)
Dharmastra (k) Epigraphy and Chronology (l) Indian Polity (m) Indian Economics (n)
Personality Development (o) Art of Living (p) Script Writing and Fashion Designing (q)
Management and so on.
The course aims to improve the language skills of the learners in order to equip them with
better communicative, creative, analytical and critical abilities. It also aims to enable them to
appreciate different forms and genre of literature and to become aware of the rich intellectual
tradition of India.
Those who want to take Sanskrit as a secondary subject would also be benefitted with papers
of Language, Literature, Vedic Mathematics and Astronomy, Science of Debate and Logic,
and Aesthetics which would be extremely helpful for various career options. Efforts are made
to prepare such courses that may help students to get wider job opportunities.
Note : The medium of instruction and examination for the course would be Hindi and /
or Sanskrit and / or English. The students who offer Sanskrit in Discipline 1 are
required to answer a certain portion of their paper through Sanskrit medium.

4 YEAR UNDERGRADUATE PROGRAMME IN SANSKRIT

4 YEAR UNDERGRADUATE PROGRAMME


(Effective from Academic Year 2013-2014 onwards)

DEPARTMENT OF SANSKRIT
UNIVERSITY OF DELHI
DELHI-110007
DC-1

DC-2

Semester I

Paper 1- Proficiency in Sanskrit


Language (Elementary)
Paper 2 Sanskrit Literature (Poetry)

Semester II

Paper 3- Critical Survey of Sanskrit


Literature
(Veda, Epics and Mahkvya)
Paper 4- Sanskrit Literature (Prose)

Semester III

Paper 5 Sanskrit Literature (Drama)


Paper 6 Critical Survey of Sanskrit
Literature (Drama, Prose & Modern
Literature)
Paper 7 Self Management in Gt
Paper 8 Proficiency in Sanskrit
Language (Case, Compound and
Methodology of Pini)
Paper 9 Sanskrit Literature (Drama
and Modern Poetry)
Paper 10- Indian Epigraphy
Palaeography & Chronology
Paper 11 Poetics & Literary Criticism
Paper 12 Vedic Literature
Paper 13 Introduction to Indian
Philosophy
Paper 14 Proficiency in Sanskrit
Language (Essay & Translation)
Paper 15 Indian Scientific Heritage
Paper 16 Indian Social Institutions &
Polity
Paper 17 Research Methodology
Paper 18 Theatre & Dramaturgy in
Sanskrit
Paper 19 Indian Reasoning
Paper 20- Dissertation

Semester IV

Semester V

Semester VI

Semester VII

Semester VIII

Applied Courses

Paper 1 - Sanskrit
Language

Paper 1 Art of
Balanced Living

Paper 2 Introduction
to Sanskrit Literature

Paper 2 Indian
Perspectives on
Personality
Development
Paper 3 Arts And
Fine Arts

Paper 3 Aesthetics
and Indian Theatre

Paper 4 Social Issues


and Economic
Institutions
Paper 5 Indian
Mathematics and
Astronomy
Paper 6 Indian Logic
and Debate

Paper 4 Acting and


Script-Writing
(Abhinaya evam
Paakathlekhana)

4 YEAR UNDERGRADUATE PROGRAMME IN SANSKRIT

Discipline I Courses in Sanskrit


Paper 1- Proficiency in Sanskrit Language (Elementary)
[A]

Prescribed Course

Section A

Declensions, Conjugations, Indeclinables, Prefixes


and Suffixes
Section B
Saj and Sandhi
Section C
Comprehension and Composition
Projects/Presentations

24 hrs.
12 hrs.
12 hrs.
12 hrs.

[B] Course Objectives


This course aims to get the students to know the basics of Sanskrit Grammar, including rules of
Sandhi based on Laghusiddhntakaumud, a primer of Pinian grammar. Besides, the students will
be able to learn suffixes, prefixes, sentence structure, declensions, use of verbal roots etc.
[C]

Unit-wise Division
Section A
Declensions, Conjugations, Indeclinables, Prefixes and Suffixes
Unit 1 Declensions/
and the
Numerals from

to

Unit 2 Verbal Forms /

in
and

Lakras

Unit 3 Indeclinables/

Unit 4

Prefixes and Suffixes


Introductory knowledge of 22 prefixes.
Kt suffixes:
Taddhita suffixes :
Others:
06 weeks/24 hrs.
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4 YEAR UNDERGRADUATE PROGRAMME IN SANSKRIT


Section B
Laghusiddhnta-kaumud
Unit 1

Concept of Mhevara-stra and Pratyhra, Sanskrit


alphabets: places of articulation and articulatory efforts. On the basis of
Laghusiddhntakaumud.

Unit 2

Major sajs On the basis of Laghusiddhntakaumud

Unit 3

Sandhi

(On the basis of Laghusiddhntakaumud.) Knowledge and application


of the following Sandhis with the stras given against them.

(ii )

(iii) Visarga sandhi

03 weeks/12 hrs.

4 YEAR UNDERGRADUATE PROGRAMME IN SANSKRIT


Section C
Comprehension and composition
Unit 1

Composing small sentences

Unit 2

Unseen Passage
03 weeks/12 hrs.

[D]

Suggested Projects
Students may:
1.

Make a list of the declensions of similar words, not given in syllabus.

2.

Collect the examples of sandhis and give the relevant stras against all examples.

3.

Collect the indeclinables not found in the list and make sentences out of them.

4.

Point out common errors generally occurring in constructing Sanskrit sentences.

5.

Collect paragraph from texts like Pacatantra, Hitopadea etc. and learn to
make questions from them and answer them accordingly.

6.

Indicate the places of articulation and articulatory efforts etc. of the vowels and
consonants after writing Sanskrit alphabets.

[E]

7.

Word formation from prefixes.

8.

Word formation from suffixes.

Recommended Books

Apte, V.S. - The Students' Guide to Sanskrit Composition,Chowkhamba Sanskrit Series, Varanasi (Hindi
Translation also available).
Kale, M.R. - Higher Sanskrit Grammar, MLBD, Delhi (Hindi Translation also available).
Kanshiram- Laghusiddhntakaumud (Vol.1), MLBD, Delhi, 2009.

4 YEAR UNDERGRADUATE PROGRAMME IN SANSKRIT


Paper 2 - Sanskrit Literature (Poetry)
[A]

Prescribed Course

Section A Raghuvaa - Canto I (up to verse 30)


Section B Kumrasambhva - Canto - V (31-86)
Section C Kirtrjunya - Canto I (1-25 Verses)
Section D Ntiataka ( 1-30 Verses, 1stthree Paddhatis
according to D.D. Kosambi's edition)
Projects /Presentations

10hrs.
20hrs.
10hrs.
8 hrs.
12 hrs.

[B]Course Objectives
This course aims to get the students acquainted with the Classical Sanskrit Poetry. It also intends to give an
understanding of literature, through which students will be able to understand the basics of Sanskrit. The
course also seeks to help the students negotiate the text independently with the help of Proficiency of
Sanskrit, Paper I.
[C]

Unit-wise Division
Section A
(Raghuvaa)

Unit 1

Raghu: Canto I (1-10) Meaning/translation, Explanation, Story,


Characteristics of Raghu clan, Characteristics of Dilpa,

Unit 2

Raghu: (11-25) Meaning/translation, Explanation, Role of Dilpa for


the welfare of the subjects.
21/2weeks/10hrs
Section B
(Kumrasambhva)

Unit 1

Introduction (Author and Text), Appropriateness of title, Background of given contents, Text
Reading 31-55, (Grammar, Translation, and Explanation), poetic excellence and plot.

Unit 2

Text Reading 56-86 (Grammar, Translation, Explanation), Dialogue between iva and
Prvat, Poetic excellence, Plot.
5 weeks/20hrs.

4 YEAR UNDERGRADUATE PROGRAMME IN SANSKRIT


Section C
(Kirtrjunya)
Unit I

Verses 1-16, Text Reading (Grammar, Translation, Explanation), Poetic excellence, Plot.

Unit II

Verses 17-25, Text Reading (Grammar, Translation, Explanation), Poetic excellence, Plot.
21/2weeks/10hrs.
Section D
(Ntiataka)

Unit-I

Verses (1-15) Meaning, explanation.

Unit-II

Verses (16-30) Meaning, explanation, Social experiences of Bharthari,


Types of Fool.
2 weeks/8hrs.

[D]

Suggested Projects

Students may
1. Collect the adjectives used for Raghu clan and explain them accordingly.
2. Prepare similar parallels of courteous Verses from other texts and compare them with

Raghuvaa verses.
3. Make a presentation of the dialogue between iva and Prvat.
4. Collect Sayings from Kumrasambhava and their parallels from other texts of Klidsa.
5. Prepare Political insights given in Kirtrjunya and their application on contemporary world.
6. Highlight the changes made by Bhravi in Kirtrjunya.
7. Prepare a list of Political elements (glossary) in Kirtrjunya.
8. Stylistic/Artistic differences between Raghuvama and Kumrasambhava.
9. List of fools.
10. List of other similar verses as given by Bharthari.

4 YEAR UNDERGRADUATE PROGRAMME IN SANSKRIT


[E]

Recommended Books
Primary Readings:

3.

Ntiataka of Bharthari :

4. Raghuvaam of Klidsa :

(Ed.) M.R. Kale, M.L.B.D., Delhi.


(Text, Eng. Tr.)
- C.R. Devadhar, MLBD. Delhi.
- M.R. Kale, MLBD Delhi.
- Gopal Raghunath Nandergikar, MLBD,
Delhi.

5. Kirtrjunyam of Bhravi

- (Ed.) M.R. Kale, MLBD, Delhi.

Secondary Readings:
1. Mirashi, V.V.

Klidsa , Popular Publication, Mumbai.

2. Keith, A.B.

History of Sanskrit Literature, MLBD, Delhi.

4 YEAR UNDERGRADUATE PROGRAMME IN SANSKRIT


Paper 3- Critical Survey of Sanskrit Literature
(Veda, Epics and Mahkvya)
[A] Prescribed Course
Section A

Vedic Literature

16 hrs.

Section B

Rmyaa

08 hrs.

Section C

Mahbhrata

08 hrs.

Section D

Puras

06 hrs.

Section E

Mahkvyas

10 hrs.

Projects/Presentations

12 hrs.

[B]Course Objectives
This course aims to get the students acquainted with the journey of Sanskrit literature from Vedic
literature to mahkvya. It also intends to give an outline (History, Poet, and Text) of literature, through
which students will be able to know the different styles of Sanskrit Literature.
[C]

Unit-wise Division
Section'A
(Vedic Literature)

Unit 1

Sahit (k, Yaju, Sma, Atharva)

2 weeks/8hrs.

Unit 2

Brhmaa, rayaka, Upaniad, Vedga

2 weeks/8hrs.

Section B
(Rmyaa)
Unit 3

Time, Rmyaa as dikvya, Subject matter, Rmyaa as a Source Text.


2 weeks/8hrs.
Section C
(Mahbhrata)

Unit 4

Time, Development of Mahbhrata, Subject matter, Encyclopedic nature, Source Text.


2 weeks/8hrs.
Section D
(Puras)

Unit 5

Characteristics, Social, Cultural and Historical Importance, subject matter.


11/2weeks/6hrs.
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4 YEAR UNDERGRADUATE PROGRAMME IN SANSKRIT

Section E
(Mahkvyas)
Unit 6

Origin and Development, Different nature of Epics, Some important Poets and Texts :
Avaghoa, Klidsa, Bhravi, Mgha, rihara and their works.
21/2 weeks/10hrs.

[D]

[E]

Suggested Projects
1.

Prepare a list of is, devats and metres of all hymns.

2.

Prepare a list of yaja and their ritualistic approach, given in Yajurveda.

3.

Students will make a flow chart of characters and their contribution from
Ramyaa/Mahbhrata.

4.

Analyze the idealistic approach of Ramyaa and comment on it critically.

5.

Collect all those theories which are propounded to establish the timing of Vedas and
comment on them.

6.

Prepare a list of play/mahkvya/lyrics/prose etc., their authors, time and contents based on
Ramyaa/Mahbhrata..

7.

Differentiate between Classical and modern Sanskrit mahkvya.

8.

A survey on the lost mahkvyas and their contents.

Recommended Books

Keith, A.B.

History of Sanskrit Literature, also Hindi translation, MLBD, Delhi.

Krishnamachariar :

History of Classical Sanskrit Literature, MLBD, Delhi.

Gaurinath Shastri :

A Concise History of Sanskrit Literature, MLBD, Delhi.

Winternitz, Maurice : History of Indian Literature (Vol. I-III), also Hindi Translation, MLBD,
Delhi.

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4 YEAR UNDERGRADUATE PROGRAMME IN SANSKRIT


Paper 4- Sanskrit Literature (Prose)
[A]

Prescribed Course

Section A

ukansopadea (Ed. Prahlad Kumar)

24 hrs.

Section B

Virutacarita

12 hrs.
Upto 15th Para)

(
Section C

ivarjavijaya, Chapter I
(up to para

Projects/Presentations

12 hrs.
12 hrs.

[B] Course Objectives


This course aims to acquaint the students with the Classical Sanskrit Prose literature. One of the
most famous prose texts of modern era, namely ivarjavijayam is also included here for the
students to get acquainted with the beginnings of modern Sanskrit literature. The course also seeks
to help students negotiate the text independently with the help of Proficiency of Sanskrit Paper I.
[C]

Unit-wise Division
Section A
(ukansopadea)
Unit 1

Introduction- Author/Text, Text up to

Unit 2

Up to

Unit 3
Unit 4

up to the end of the Text.


Society, yurveda and political thought depicted in ukanasopadea, logical
meaning and application of sayings like
etc.
6 weeks/24hrs.
Section B
(Virutacaritam)

Unit 1

Para 1 to 10 - Introduction- Author/Text, Text reading (Grammar, Translation, and


Explanation), Poetic excellence, plot, Timing of Action.

Unit 2

Para 11 to 15 - Text reading (Grammar, Translation, and Explanation), Poetic


excellence, plot, Timing of Action.
logical meaning and application of sayings like
etc. Society, language and style of Dain.
3 weeks/12hrs.
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4 YEAR UNDERGRADUATE PROGRAMME IN SANSKRIT


Section C
(ivarjavijayam)
Unit 1

Para 1 to 15
Introduction- Author/Text, Text reading
(Grammar, Translation, and Explanation), poetic excellence, plot, Timing of Action.

Unit 2

Up to para 20
Text reading (Grammar, Translation, and
Explanation), Poetic excellence, plot, Timing of Action.
3 weeks/12hrs.

[D]

Suggested Projects
Students may
1. Collect the adjectives used for Lakshmi and explain them accordingly.
2. Prepare similar parallels of political thoughts of ukansopadea from other texts and compare
them.
3. Make a list of present tense
sentences and convert them into future
tense
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.

[E]

sentences.
Stylistic similarity between ukansopadea and ivarjavijayam.
Prepare political insights given in ukansopadea and Virutacaritam and their application in
contemporary world.
Collect synonyms from all these Prose Texts and make sentences out of them.
Stylistic/Artistic difference between ukansopadea and Virutacaritam.
Create a story.
Folk elements in Virutacaritam / ukansopadea.
Stylistic/Artistic difference between ukansopadea and Virutacaritam.

Recommended Books
Primary Readings:

Secondary Readings:

Keith, A.B.

History of Sanskrit Literature,MLBD, Delhi.


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4 YEAR UNDERGRADUATE PROGRAMME IN SANSKRIT


Paper 5- Sanskrit Literature (Drama)
[A]

Prescribed Course
Section A
Section B

ij nakuntalam I, IV and V and the interlude


between V and VI

36 hrs.

Svapnavsavadattam Act I, V & VI

12 hrs.

(A complete study of both the dramas is expected


for answering critical questions)
Projects/Presentations
[B]

12 hrs.

Course Objectives
This course aims to acquaint the students with two most famous dramas of Sanskrit literature, which
not only reflect the poetic excellence but also help depict contemporary society, sacrifice for each
other and sentiment of love. It also enables the student to develop a literary vision by studying these
two beautiful texts of Sanskrit.

[C]

Unit-wise Division
Section A
ij nakuntalam

Unit 1

First Act (a) Introduction, Author, Explanation of terms like nnd, prastvan, stradhra,
na, vikambhaka, vidaka, kacuk, Personification of nature, kvyeu nakam ramyam,
upam, Language of Klidsa, dhvani in Klidsa, Purpose and design behind
Abhijanakuntalam and other problems related to texts.
(b) Text Reading (Grammar, Translation, Explanation), Poetic excellence, Plot, Timing of
Action.
3 weeks/12 hrs.

Unit 2

Act IV- Text Reading (Grammar, Translation, Explanation), Poetic excellence, Plot, Timing
of Action.
3 weeks/12 hrs.

Unit 3

Act V- Text Reading (Grammar, Translation, Explanation), Poetic excellence, Plot, Timing
of Action.
Interlude (6th Act) Text Reading- Grammar, Translation, Explanation, Poetic excellence,
Plot, Timing of Action.
3 weeks/ 12 hrs.
Section B
(Svapnavsavadattam)

Unit 1

Svapnavsavadattam: Act I, V &VI Story, Meaning/Translation and Explanation.

Unit 2

Unique features of Bhsa's style, Characterization, Importance of 1st, 5th and 6th Act,
Society, Norms of Marriage, Story of regains.
3weeks/12 hrs.
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4 YEAR UNDERGRADUATE PROGRAMME IN SANSKRIT


[D]

[E]

Suggested Projects
1.

Student may make lists of flora used in Abhijanakuntalam, their Sanskrit, modern and
botanical names, paste their pictures in file.

2.

Words used for conveying the sense of Love in Abhijanakuntalam, their application in
play, references, suggestions.

3.

Literature based on Abhijanakuntalam and their details.

4.

Festivals, rituals, cultural elements in Abhijanakuntalam and critical comments on them.

5.

Folk elements in Abhijanakuntalam.

6.

Stylistic/Artistic difference between Abhijanakuntalam and Svapnavsavadattam.

7.

Women in Klidsa.

8.

Present parallels of Svapnavsavadattam, used by Bhsa in his various plays.

9.

Collect sentences from Svapnavsavadattam, related to women dignity/suffering and then


comment.

Recommended Books

Primary Readings

Abhijanakuntalam

Svapnavsavadattam :
Secondary Readings

-(Ed.) Sanskrit Text, Eng. Trans. C.R.Devadhar, MLBD,


-Ed. M.R. Kale
-Ed. Gajendra Gadakar
-Ed. Bose, Ramendramohan, Modern Book Agency, 10 College,
Square, Calcutta.
M.R. Kale, M.L.B.D., Delhi.

Dalal, Minakshi

Conflict in Sanskrit Drama, Somaiya Publication Pvt. Ltd.

Dikshit, Ratnamayi

Women in Sanskrit Dramas, Meherchand Lacchman Das,


Delhi.

Keith, A.B.

Sanskrit Drama, Oxford University Press London, 1970.


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4 YEAR UNDERGRADUATE PROGRAMME IN SANSKRIT


Mirashi, V.V.

Klidsa, Popular Prakashan Bombay.


Paper 6 - Critical Survey of Sanskrit Literature
(Drama, Prose and Modern Literature)

[A] Prescribed Course


Section A

Drama

12hrs.

Section B

Prose, Fables

08 hrs.

Section C

Lyric Poetry, Historical Kvyas

08 hrs.

Section D

Modern Sanskrit literature

12 hrs.

Section E

Media and Internet

08 hrs.

Projects/Presentations

12 hrs.

[B] Course Objectives


This course aims to acquaint the students with the journey of Sanskrit literature in the genres which
are excluded in Paper III. It also intends to give an outline of modern literary genres, through which
students will be able to associate themselves to media and modern communicative world.
[C]

Unit-wise Division
Section A
(Drama)
Unit 1

Origin and Development, Nature of Ntaka, Some important dramatists and dramas :
Bhsa, Klidsa, draka, Vikhadatta, Hara, Bhavabhti, Bhaanryaa and
their works.
3 weeks/12hrs.
Section B
(Prose, Fables)

Unit 2

Origin and development of prose, Important prose romances and fables :


(i) Subandhu, Ba, Dain, Ambikadatta Vysa.
(ii) Kathsaritsgara, Pacatantra, Hitopadea, Bhatkathmajar of Kemendra.
2 weeks/ 8hrs.
Section C
(Lyrical Poetry, Historical Kvya)

Unit 3

Major lyrical and historical texts.


2 weeks/8hrs.
Section D
(Modern Sanskrit literature)

Unit 4 (a)

Prose, Poetry, Drama, Translations in Sanskrit from other languages (general


awareness only).
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4 YEAR UNDERGRADUATE PROGRAMME IN SANSKRIT


(b)

Modern genres- kavvl, ghazal, hiku, folk styles.


2 weeks/12hrs.
Section E
(Media and Internet)

Unit 5

[D]

[E]

Magazines and Newspapers, Media Radio, TV, Internet, blogs, important sites,
Sanskrit Wikipedia (general awareness only).
2 weeks/8hrs.

Suggested Projects
1.

Collect all those theories which are propounded to establish the origin and development of
drama and give your comments.

2.

Prepare a list of modern Play and write notes on their characteristics.

3.

Prepare a list of modern contributions to Sanskrit in generes which are ignored and comment
on them.

4.

Present a comparative study of available major source books on Survey of Sanskrit


literature.

5.

Present a detailed survey of translated Sanskrit works in different languages and also
translated works in Sanskrit from other languages.

6.

Prepare a list of Prose/Drama/lyrics/modern literature etc, their authors, time and contents,
which are not based on Source text.

7.

Find difference between classical and modern Sanskrit Prose.

8.

Script writing, News editing/ writing.

Recommended Books

Keith, A .B.

History of Sanskrit Literature, MLBD, Delhi

Krishnamachariar

History of Classical Sanskrit Literature, MLBD, Delhi.

Shastri, Gaurinath

A Concise History of Sanskrit Literature, MLBD, Delhi.


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4 YEAR UNDERGRADUATE PROGRAMME IN SANSKRIT


Dalal, Minakshi

Conflict in Sanskrit Drama, Somaiya Publication Pvt. Ltd.

Keith, A.B.

Sanskrit Drama, Oxford University Press, London, 1970.


Paper 7- Self Management in the Gt

[A]

Prescribed Course
Selected verses from the Gt
Section A Cognitive and emotive apparatus

14 hrs.

Section B Controlling the mind

20hrs.

Section C Self management through devotion

14 hrs.

Projects /Presentations

[B]

12 hrs.

Course Objectives

The objective of this course is to study the philosophy of self management in the Gt. The course
seeks to help students negotiate the text independently without referring to the traditional commentaries so as
to enable them to experience the richness of the text.
[C]

Unite-wise Division
Section A
(Cognitive and emotive apparatus)
Unit 1

a.

Hierarchy of indriya, manas, buddhi and tman III.42; XV. 7;

b.

Role of the tman XV.7; XV.9;

c.

Mind as a product of prakti VII.4;

d.

Properties of three kinds of gua and their impact


on the mind XIII. 5-6; XIV.5-8, 11-13; XIV.17 .
3 weeks/14 hrs.

Section B
(Controlling the mind)
Unit 1

Confusion and conflict


a.
b.

Unit 2

Nature of conflict I.1; IV.16; I.45; II.6


causal factors ignorance II.41; indriya II.60, mind II.67; rajogua
III.36-39; XVI.21; weakness of mind- II.3; IV.5

Means of controlling the mind


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4 YEAR UNDERGRADUATE PROGRAMME IN SANSKRIT

Unit 3

a.

Meditationdifficulties VI.34-35; procedure VI.11-14;

b.

Balanced life- III.8; VI.16-17 ;

c.

Diet control- XVII. 8-10 ;

d.

Physical and mental discipline XVII. 14-19, VI. 36.

Means of conflict resolution


a.

Importance of knowledge II. 52 ; IV.38-39; IV.42;

b.

Clarity of buddhi XVIII.30-32;

c.

Process of decision making XVIII.63 ;

d.

Control over senses II.59, 64;

e.

Surrender of kartbhva XVIII .13-16; V.8-9;

f.

Desirelessness- II.48; II.55;

g.

Putting others before self III.25.


5 weeks/ 20hrs.
Section C
(Self management through devotion)

Unit 1

a.

Surrender of ego II.7 ; IX.27; VIII.7; XI.55 ; II.47;

b.

Abandoning frivolous debates VII.21, IV.11; IX.26;

c.

Acquisition of moral qualities - XII.11; XII.13-19.


3 weeks/14hrs.

Suggested Projects
1. Students may write about their own dilemmas in life and how they propose to resolve them;
2. Hold a group discussion on a controversial topic and try to resolve differences ; prepare a report
on the issues, conflicts and their suggested resolution;
3. Imaginary situations of conflict of duties and their suggested resolutions;
4. Reading biographies of known leaders to see the problems they faced in their lives and how they
coped with them;
5. Analysis of any story, film, drama or a news item to see how a dispute develops and is resolved;
6. Preparation of diet charts for people suffering from hypertension;
7. Diet charts for examination days;
8. Preparation of exercise modules for relaxation of mind;
9. Preparation of regular exercise schedule for yourself;
10. Learning breathing exercises simple pryamas;
11. Meditation.
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4 YEAR UNDERGRADUATE PROGRAMME IN SANSKRIT


Recommended Books
Primary Readings :

rimadbhagavadgt

English commentary by Jayadayal Goyandka, Tattvavivecini Gita Press,


Gorakhpur, 1997.
rimadbhagavadgtrahasya - The
Hindu
Philosophy
of
Life,
Ethics
and
or Karmayogastra
Religion, Original Sanskrit Stanzas with English ranslation, Bal
Gangadhar Tilak & Balchandra Sitaram Sukthankar,
J.S.Tilak&S.S.Tilak,1965.
rimadbhagvadgt
A Guide to Daily Living, English translation and notes by Pushpa Anand,
Arpana Publications, 2000.
rimadbhagvadgt
The Scripture of Mankind, text in Devanagari with transliteration in
English and notes by Swami Tapasyananda, Sri Ramakrishna Math,
1984.
Secondary Readings:
Chinmayananda
The Art of Man Making (114 short talks on the Bhagvadgt),
Central Chinmaya Mission Trust, Bombay, 1991.
Panchamukhi, V.R.
Managing One-Self (rimadbhagvadgt: Theory and Practice),R.S.
Panchamukhi Indological Research Centre, New Delhi & Amar Grantha
Publications, Delhi, 2001.
Sri Aurobindo
Essays on the Gt, Sri Aurobindo Ashram, Pondicherry,1987.
Srinivasan, N.K.
Essence of rimadbhagavadgt: Health & Fitness (commentary on
selected verses), Pustak Mahal, Delhi, 2006.

20

4 YEAR UNDERGRADUATE PROGRAMME IN SANSKRIT


Paper 8 - Proficiency in Sanskrit Language
(Case, Compound and Methodology of Pini)
[A]

Prescribed Course
Section A

Methodology of Pini

12 hrs.

Section B

Cases (based on the selected stras of the Siddhntakaumud)

20 hrs.

Section C

Compounds (based on the Laghusiddhntakaumud)

16 hrs.

Projects/Presentations
[B]

12 hrs.

Course Objectives
This proficiency course aims to get the students to know the history and gradual thematic
development of Sanskrit Grammar, including rules of kraka (Case) and samsa (Compounds)
based on Siddhntakaumud and Laghusiddhntakaumud respectively. Besides, the students will be
able to learn the applications of Pini's stras.

[C]

Unit-wise Division
Section A
(Methodology of Pini)
Unit 1

Brief historical introduction from Pini to Varadarja.

Unit 2
Unit 3
Unit 4

General Knowledge of the structure of Adhyy.

week/2hrs.

week/2hrs.

Meaning of the stra, Analysis of the component words of the stra, Identifying the
case endings (vibhakti) of the words in the stra and their meanings and anuvtti.
1week/4hrs.
Understanding of the Stras pertaining to the methodology of Pini.
1week/4hrs.

Section B
(Cases based on selected stras of Sidd ntakaumud)
Unit 1

21

4 YEAR UNDERGRADUATE PROGRAMME IN SANSKRIT

3weeks/12hrs.
Unit 2

2weeks/8hrs.
Section C
Compounds based on Lag usidd ntakaumud )
Unit 1

2 weeks/8hrs.
Unit 2

The stras beginning with

(and the next six stras)

upto

2 weeks/8hrs.
[D]

Suggested Projects

Students may :
1.
Make a list of the compound words, not given in syllabus and show the application of rules thereon.
2.
Collect the examples of cases from literature studied and give the relevant stras against all examples.
(Vykaraa-candrodaya of Charudev Shastri may be helpful.)
3.
Point out common errors generally occurring in constructing Sanskrit sentences, pertaining to case.
4.
Prepare power point presentation on methodology of Pini.
22

4 YEAR UNDERGRADUATE PROGRAMME IN SANSKRIT


5.

Present any other project conneted with the practical aspect of the course.

[E]

Recommended Books

Apte, V.S.

T e Students Guide to Sanskrit Composition, Chowkhamba Sanskrit


Series, Varanasi.
Hindi Translation also available

Kale, M.R.

Higher Sanskrit Grammar, MLBD, Delhi.


Hindi Translation also available

Kanshiram

Laghusiddhntakaumud (Vol. II), MLBD, Delhi, 2009.

23

4 YEAR UNDERGRADUATE PROGRAMME IN SANSKRIT


Paper 9 - Sanskrit Literature (Drama and Modern Poetry)

[A]

Prescribed Course

Section A : Mudrrkasa - I, II, III and V

36 hrs.

(It is expected to study the entire play for critical questions)


Section B : Modern Poetry

12 hrs.

Bhmyanam (Prabhashankar Joshi) - Canto X. verses 20-29;


Canto - XI. Verses 13-20 & 40-46.
Katam Kavit (Shri Nivas Rath)
Dhvaragti (Radha Vallabha Tripathi) two versions
Tripd (Reva Prasad Dwivedi)
Projects / Presentations

12 hrs.

[B]Course Objectives
This course aims to get the students acquainted with an ancient political drama, which not only reflects the
poetic excellence, but also depicts contemporary political rivalry. Collection of modern poems and a
modern story is also given here to give a feel of modern literature. It also intends to enable the student to
develop a literary taste as well as the political vision while studying these texts.
[C]

Unit-wise Division
Section A
(Mudrrkasa)
Unit 1

Act I - (a) Introduction, Author, Purpose and design behind Mudrrkasa and other
problems related to texts.
(b) Text Reading (Grammar, Translation, Explanation), Poetic excellence, Plot,
Timing of Action.
3 weeks/12 hrs.

Unit 2

Act II - Text Reading (Grammar, Translation, Explanation),


Poetic excellence, Plot, Timing of Action.

2 weeks/8 hrs.

Unit 3

Act III - Text Reading (Grammar, Translation, Explanation), Poetic excellence, Plot,
Timing of Action.
2 weeks/8 hrs.

Unit 4

Act V - Text Reading- Grammar, Translation, Explanation, Poetic excellence, Plot,


Timing of Action.
2 week/8 hrs.
Section B
(Modern Poetry)

Unit 1

Bhmyanam (Prabhashankar Joshi) Canto X. verses 20-29;


Canto - XI. Verses 13-20 & 40-46.
Katam Kavit (Shri Nivas Rath)
24

4 YEAR UNDERGRADUATE PROGRAMME IN SANSKRIT

Unit 2

Dhvaragti (Radha Vallabh Tripathi) [two different lyrics]


Tripd (Reva Prasad Dwivedi)
3weeks/12 Hrs

[D] Suggested Projects

[E]

1.

Student should make a list of characters present in the Mudrrkasa and trace them out in
the known history and comment on their differences.

2.

Excellence of Vikhadatta in writing the script of Mudrrkasa.

3.

Political parallels in Mudrrkasa and Kirtrjunyam or other Political Texts, composed in


Sanskrit.

4.

Stylistic/Artistic difference between Mudrrkasa and Kirtrjunyam.

5.

Political elements in Mudrrkasa.

6.

Students may prepare a list of new genres of modern Sanskrit Poetry.

Recommended Books

Mudrrkasa

- (Ed.) M.R. Kale, MLBD, Delhi.


- (Ed.) K.T.Telang, Nag Publishers, Delhi.

Secondary Readings:
Keith, A.B.

The Sanskrit Drama, Oxford University Press London, 1970

Bhat, G. K.

Sanskrit Drama, Karnataka University Press, Dharwar 1975

Wells, Henry W.

Six Sanskrit Plays, Asia Publishing House, Bombay

25

4 YEAR UNDERGRADUATE PROGRAMME IN SANSKRIT


Paper 10 - Indian Epigraphy, Paleography and Chronology
[A]

Prescribed Course

Section A

Epigraphy

12 hrs.

Section B

Paleography

12 hrs.

Section C

Study of selected inscriptions

16 hrs.

Section D

Chronology

08 hrs.

Projects / Presentations

12 hrs.

[B]Course Objectives
This course aims to acquaint the students with the epigraphical journey in Sanskrit, the only source which
directly reflects the society, politics, geography and economy of the time. The course also seeks to help
students to know the different styles of Sanskrit writing.
[C]

Unit-wise Division
Section A
(Epigraphy)

Unit 1

Introduction to Epigraphy and Types of Inscriptions


1/2

week/2 hrs.

Unit 2

Importance of Indian Inscriptions in the reconstruction of Ancient


Indian History and Culture
1week/4hrs.

Unit 3

History of Epigraphical Studies in India


1/2

week/2 hrs.

Unit 4

History of Decipherment of Ancient Indian Scripts (Contribution of


Scholars in the field of epigraphy): Fleet, Cunninghum, Princep, Buhler, Ojha, D.C.Sircar.
1week/4hrs.
Section B
(Paleography)

Unit 1

Antiquity of the Art of Writing

1week/4hrs.

Unit 2

Writing Materials, Inscribers and Library

1week/4hrs.

Unit 3

Introduction of Ancient Indian Scripts with the knowledge of Brhm


Script.

1week/4hrs.

26

4 YEAR UNDERGRADUATE PROGRAMME IN SANSKRIT


Section C
(Study of Selected Inscriptions)
Unit 1

(i) Aoka's Girnra Rock Edict-1


(ii) Aoka's Sranth Pillar Edict

1week/4hrs.

Unit 2

Girnra Inscription of Rudradman

1week/4hrs.

Unit 3

(i) Eran Pillar Inscription of Samudragupta


(ii) Mehrauli Iron Pillar Inscription of Candra

Unit 4

1week/4hrs.

(i) Delhi Topra Edict of Bsaladeva


(ii) Nryaa Kpa Inscription of rdhara

1week/4hrs.

Section D
(Chronology)
Unit 1

General Introduction to Ancient Indian Chronology

1week/4hrs.

Unit 2

System of Dating the Inscriptions (Chronograms)

1/2week/2hrs.

Unit 3

Main Eras used in Inscriptions - Vikrama Era, aka Era and Gupta Era
1/2week/2hrs.

[D]

Suggested Projects
Students may :
(i)
(ii)
(iii)
(iv)
(v)
(vi)

[E]

Prepare a list of Asokas rock edicts, their place, time and messages.
Prepare a list of Sanskrit inscriptions with the names of their writers, kings, places, time and
messages.
Collect the names of Sanskrit inscriptions of Guptas and comment on their poetic excellence.
Collect historical and social elements from the given inscriptions and comment on them.
Learn the names of all Indian eras and compare them with their Western counterparts.
Study types of inscriptions and give their examples in details.

Recommended Books

Select Inscriptions (Vol.I) - D.C. Sircar, Calcutta, 1965.


27

4 YEAR UNDERGRADUATE PROGRAMME IN SANSKRIT

Dani, Ahmad Hasan : Indian Paleography , Oxford, 1963.


Pillai, Swami Kannu & K.S. Ramchandran : Indian Chronology (Solar, Lunar and Planetary),
Asian Educational Service, 2003.
Satyamurty, K. : Text Book of Indian Epigraphy, Lower Price Publication, Delhi, 1992.

28

4 YEAR UNDERGRADUATE PROGRAMME IN SANSKRIT


Paper 11- Poetics and literary criticism
[A]
Prescribed Course
SectionA Introduction to Sanskrit Poetics and its six Schools

08 hrs.

Section B Poetry and its Forms

12 hrs.

Section C a da-akti (Power of Word) and rasa-stra

16 hrs.

Section D Alakra (figures of speech) and chanda (metre)

12 hrs.

Projects /Presentations

12 hrs.

[B]

Course Objectivess

The study of shityastra(Sanskrit Poetics) embraces all poetic arts and includes concepts like alakra,
rasa, rti, vakrokti, dhvani, aucitya etc. The poetics and its six schools came into existence and contributed
towards the principles of literary criticism. The entire domain of Sanskrit poetics has flourished with the
topics such as definition of poetry and divisions, functions of word and meaning, theory of rasa and alakra
(figures of speech) and chanda (metre), etc. This develops capacity for creative writing and literary
appreciation.
[ C]

Unitwise Divison
Section A
(Introduction to Sanskrit Poetics and its Six Schools)
Introduction to poetics: Origin and various names.
Six Schools: rasa, alakra, rti, dhvani, vakrokti,and aucitya.
2 weeks/ 8 hrs.
Section B
(Poetry and its forms)
Poetry and its various forms : dya, ravya, mira, mahkvya, khaakvya, gadya-kvya:
kath, khyayik and camp (according to Shityadarpaa)
3 weeks/12 hrs.
Section C
(abda-akti and rasa-stra)
Power/Function of word and meaning (according to abdavypravicra). abhidh (expression/
denotative meaning), laka (indication/ indicative meaning) and vya jan (suggestion/
suggestive meaning).
Rasa: rasa-stra of Bharata and its prominent expositions: utpattivda, anumitivda,
bhuktivda and abhivyaktivda, alaukikat (transcendental nature) of rasa (as discussed in
Kvyaprka).
4weeks/16 hrs.
29

4 YEAR UNDERGRADUATE PROGRAMME IN SANSKRIT


Section 'D'
(Figures of speech and Metre)
Unit 1

Figures of speech- anuprsa, cheknuprsa, yamaka, lea, upam, rpaka, sandeha,


bhrntimn, apahnuti, utprek, atiayokti, tulyayogit, dpaka, dnta, nidaran,
vyatireka, samsokti, svabhvokti, aprastutapraas, arthntaranysa,
kvyaliga,
vibhvan.

Unit 2

Metres- anuup, ry, indravajr, upendravajr, drutavilambita,


mlin, mandkrnt, ikhari, rdlavikrita, sragdhar.

upajti, vasantatilak,
3weeks/ 12 hrs.

[D]

Suggested Projects
Students may identify the alakra and chanda from various kvyas studied by them.
Prepare assignments on classical aspects (rasa, dhvani etc) of poetry studied by students in their
previous semester curriculum.
Group discussion by students on classical aspects of poetry studied by them.
Any project which is connected with the practical aspect of this course.

[E] Essential Readings


Section A Introduction to Sanskrit Poetics and its Six Schools
Kane P.V., History of Sanskrit Poetics pp.352-991,
Upadhyaya, Baladeva, Sanskrit locan (for six schools)
Section B Poetry and its Forms
Shityadarpaa: (Ch.VIth), Krik 6/1,2,313-37
Section C abda-akti (power of word) and rasa-stra
abdavypravicra of Mammaa
Kvyapraka, kriks 4/27, 28 with explanatory notes.
Section D Figures of speech(Alakra and Metre (Chanda)
Alakra according to Shityadarpaa (Ch. X) and metres according to prescribed texts of poetry
and drama.
[F]
Recommended Books
Ray, Sharda Ranjan, Shityadarpaa; Vivantha, (Ch.VI & X) with Eng. Exposition, Delhi.
Dwivedi, R.C, The Poetic Light: , Motilal Banarsidas, Delhi.1967.
Kane, P.V., 1961, History of Sanskrit Poetics and its Hindi translation by Indrachandra Shastri, Motilal
Banarasidas, Delhi.

1974.

30

4 YEAR UNDERGRADUATE PROGRAMME IN SANSKRIT


Paper 12 - Vedic Literature
[A]

Prescribed Course
Section A gveda, Yajurveda, Atharvaveda and
atapatha Brhmaa

[B]

24 Hrs.

Section B Vedic Grammar

08 Hrs.

Section C Upaniad: Muakopaniad

16 Hrs.

Projects / Presentations

12 Hrs.

Course Objectives
This Vedic literature course aims to get the students to know about the worlds most ancient texts
and the vision of our ancient seers. For this, selected hymns from three Vedas and a portion of the
Brhmaa literature has been prescribed. Also, students will be able to read one great Upaniad,
namely, Muaka, where primary Vednta-view is propounded.

[C]

Unit-wise Division
Section A
( Sa it and Br maa )
Unit 1

gveda- Agni- 1/1 U- 3/61, Aka- 10/34, Hirayagarbha- 10/121


3 weeks/12 hrs.

Unit 2

Yajurveda- ivasakalpa Skta- 34.1-6


1week/04 hrs.

Unit 3

Atharvaveda- Smanasyam- 3.30, Bhmi- 12.1-12


1week/04hrs.

Unit 4

atapat a r maa - Agnihotrvayavopsana-11/3/11


1week/04hrs.
Section B
(Vedic Grammar )

Declensions (nmarpa), Conjugations (dhturpa), Imperatives (lo), Subjunctive mood (le) and Indicative
mood (vidhimlakabhva) only; Gerunds (ktvrthaka) and Vedic Accent.
2weeks/8hrs.
31

4 YEAR UNDERGRADUATE PROGRAMME IN SANSKRIT


Section C
(Muakopaniad)

[D]

Unit 1

Muakopaniad - 1/1 to 2/1

Unit 2

Muakopaniad - 2/2 to 3/2

11/2 week/6hrs.
11/2 week/6hrs.

Suggested Projects
Students may :
(i)

Prepare a list of is, Devats and metres of all Hymns.

(ii)

Collect similar social hymns and comment on them.

(iii)

Collect gerunds from given hymns and highlight the roots.

(iv)

Mark the sign of Vedic accent on unread mantras and give the reason for the same.

(v)

Collect the mantras from Muakopaniad which emphasize the nature of Atman and
explain them.

[E]

Recommended Books

Atharvaveda (aunakya): (Ed.) Vishva Bandhu, VVRI, Hoshiharpur, 1960.


ksktval, H.D. Velankar, Vaidika Sanshodhana Mandala, Pune, 1965.
ksktavaijayant, H.D. Velankar, Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan, Bombay, 1972.
atapatha Brhmaa , (Ed.) Ganga Prasad Upadhyaya, SLBSRS Vidyapeeth, Delhi.
uklayajurveda-Sahit, (Vjasaneyi-Mdhyandina), (Ed.) Jagadish Lal Shastri, MLBD,
1978.

32

Delhi,

4 YEAR UNDERGRADUATE PROGRAMME IN SANSKRIT


Paper 13 - Introduction to Indian Philosophy
[A]

Prescribed Course

Section A : Fundamentals of Philosophy

12 hrs.

Section B : Schools of Indian Philosophy

24 hrs.

Section C : Problems in Indian Philosophy

12 hrs.

Projects/Presentations

12 hrs.

[B]

Course Objectives

This course aims to get the students acquainted with the basic approach to study philosophy. It also intends to
give an elementary understanding of Indian Philosophy and to enable students to handle philosophical texts
in Sanskrit easily.
[C]

Unit-wise Division
Section A
(Fundamentals of Philosophy)

Unit 1

Basic understanding of philosophy and its distinction from darana, Evolution of philosophy
as the panacea to human sufferings, General frame of philosophical study : ontology
(tattvamms or sattmms) including cosmology, epistemology (jnamms) &
axiology (mlyamms) specially ethics (ntistra), difference between metaphysics
(padrthastra) & ontology (tattvamms or sattmms), Inter-relationship of
ontology (tattvamms or sattmms), epistemology (jnamms) & axiology
(mlyamms); Indian frame of philosophical study : valid cognition (pram), means of
valid cognition (prama), object of valid cognition (prameya) & cognizer of valid cognition
(pramt).
2 weeks/8hrs.

Unit 2

Ontological classification : Monism (ekatattvavda), Dualism (dvitattvavda) &


Pluralism (bahutattvavda); Epistemological classification : Realism (yathrthavda or
vastuvda) and Idealism (pratyayavda), Axiological classification : Egoism (svrthavda) &
altruism (parrthavda), Path of association (pravtti-mrga) & Path of disassociation
(nivtti-mrga).
1 week/4hrs.

33

4 YEAR UNDERGRADUATE PROGRAMME IN SANSKRIT


Section B
(Schools of Indian Philosophy)
Unit 1

Salient features of Indian Philosophy, Vedic and Non-vedic Schools of Indian Philosophy and
their basic doctrines as given below :
Skhya - prakti, guatraya & purua
Yoga - Concept of yoga and its eight limbs, samdhi, vara & kaivalya
3 weeks/12hrs.

Unit 2
Mms Dharma & adharma, bhvan , aprva, vidhi and niedha
Vednta Brahma, vara, my, jva and jagat
Nyya-Vaieika seven padrthas, four pramas and paramukravda
Bauddha Four-fold ryasatya, antmavda and kaikatvavda
Jaina Anekntavda, sydvda
Crvka materialism and basic ethics
3 weeks/12hrs.
Note :

1. These topics should be taught on the basis of Outline of Indian Philosophy by Hiriyanna and A
Primer of Indian Logic by Kuppuswami Shastri (only introduction).
2. It is expected to understand various schools of Indian Philosophy in the light of general frame
and Indian frame of Philosophical Study.
Section C
(Problems in Indian Philosophy)

Unit 1

Basic understanding of the following : Concept of located (dharma) & locus (dharm) and
their relation specially with reference to substance (dravya) & attribute (gua), Causality
(kryakraavda) specially, naturalism (svabhvavda), doctrine of pre-existence of effect
in cause (satkryavda), doctrine of real transformation (parimavda), doctrine of illusory
transformation (vivartavda), doctrine of pre-nonexistence of effect in cause (asatkryavda)
1 weeks/4hrs.

Unit 2

Basic Arguments for accepting God and its counter-arguments, Concept of soul
(tm), Concept of suffering (dukha) and salvation (moka), Theory of action (karma) and
rebirth (punarjanma) along with the arguments for them.
2 weeks/8hrs.

[D]
1.

Suggested Projects
Group discussion on various philosophical problems.
34

4 YEAR UNDERGRADUATE PROGRAMME IN SANSKRIT


2. Dialogue writing and presentation on various philosophical problems.
3. Power Point presentation on the course content.
4. Any project which is connected with the practical aspect of this course.

[E]

Recommended Books

Primary Readings :

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Bhartiya, Mahesh - Bhratya Darana K Pramukha Samasye, Ghaziabad, 1999.


Chatterjee, S. C. & D. M. Datta - Introduction to Indian Philosophy, Calcutta University, Calcutta,
1968 (Hindi Translation also).
Chatterjee, S. C. The Nyya Theory of Knowledge, Calcuuta, 1968.
Hiriyanna, M. - Outline of Indian Philosophy, London, 1956 (also Hindi Translation).
Shastri, Kuppuswami, A Primer of Indian Logic, 1951 (only introduction).

Secondary Readings :

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Bhartiya, Mahesh - Causation in Indian Philosophy, Ghaziabad, 1975.


OFlaherty, Wendy Doniger Karma and Rebirth in Classical Indian Tradition, MLBD, Delhi, 1983.
Pandey, Ram Chandra - Panorama of Indian Philosophy (also Hindi version), M.L.B.D., Delhi, 1966.
Radhakrishnan, S. - Indian Philosophy, Oxford University Press, Delhi, 1990.
Raja, Kuhnan - Some Fundamental Problems in Indian Philosophy, MLBD, Delhi, 1974.

35

4 YEAR UNDERGRADUATE PROGRAMME IN SANSKRIT


Paper 14 - Proficiency in Sanskrit Language
(Essay and Translation)
[A]

Prescribed Course

Section A : Translation

30 hrs.

Section B : Essay

18 hrs.

Projects/Presentations

12 hrs.

[B] Course Objectives


This course aims to get the students well equipped in Sanskrit language. Students can express their
thoughts independently and create better sentences in Sanskrit.
[C]

Unit-wise Division

Unit 1

Unit 2

Unit 3

Unit 4

Unit 1

Unit 2

Section A
( Translation)
Rules for Translation into Sanskrit from Hindi and English
(A) Cases and Case-endings
(B) Sanskrit Voices : Concept, types and rules
(C) Application of compounds and numeral words
(D) Application of suffixes
3 weeks / 12 hrs.
Concept of Voice, nature of active voice (kart-vcya), passive voice (karma-vcya)
and impersonal passive voice (bhva-vcya), Rules of voice change and Changing
voice of simple sentences specially with reference to verbal terms, ktya-suffixes &
nih-suffixes.
1.5 weeks / 06 hrs.
Translation from Hindi/English into Sanskrit (Translation of
passages and
independent sentences)
2 weeks / 08 hrs.
Translation of unseen Sanskrit passages into Hindi/English.
1 week / 04 hrs.
Section B
(Essay)
Art of Essay writing : Structure-formation like introduction, main body, conclusion
etc. by the points and sub-points and uses of appropriate references.
1 week / 04 hrs.
Traditional Essays based on the issues and topics related to the subjects like Sanskrit
Language, Culture, Veda, Rmyaa, Mahbhrata, Upaniad, Gt, Renowned
Sanskrit Poets and their poetic excellence.
2 weeks / 08 hrs.
36

4 YEAR UNDERGRADUATE PROGRAMME IN SANSKRIT


Unit 3

Contemporary Essays based on the issues and topics related to the subjects like
entertainment, sports, national and international affairs and problems.
1.5 weeks / 06 hrs.

[D]

Suggested Projects
Students may :

[E]

1.

Identify contemporary problems and write a paragraph on each of them.

2.

Give examples for the guidelines given in Unit I.

3.

Collect the indeclinables not given in the list and make sentences out of them.

4.

Point out the common errors found in writing essays.

5.

Collect paragraphs from texts like Pacatantra, Hitopadea etc. and translate them into
Hindi/English.

6.

Collect paragraphs from daily national newspapers and translate them into Sanskrit.

7.

Collect sentences from ukansopadea and change their voices.

8.

Collect simple sentences from the texts, read and change their voices.

Recommended Books

Apte, V.S.

The Students' Guide to Sanskrit Composition, Chowkhamba Sanskrit


Series, Varanasi (Hindi Translation also available)

Kale, M.R.

Higher Sanskrit Grammar, MLBD, Delhi (Hindi Translation also


available)

37

4 YEAR UNDERGRADUATE PROGRAMME IN SANSKRIT


Paper 15 - Indian Scientific Heritage
[A]

Prescribed Course

Section A

Indian Calendar Systems

08 hrs.

Section B

Vedic Mathematics

16 hrs.

Section C

Climatology and Hydrology

12 hrs.

Section D

yurveda

12 hrs.

Projects / Presentations

12 hrs.

[B] Course Objectives


The ancient Sanskrit literature contains various marvellous concepts of Science and Technology. Indias
scientific heritage is an area of growing interest and opportunities. This course aims at acquainting scholars
with some of its aspects and developing an appreciative mind towards our scientific heritage.
[C]

Unit-wise Division
Section A
(Indian Calendar Systems)

Unit 1

Divisions of time in Vedic Literature Day, month, season, year etc. in Sahit texts
(gveda;1.25.8,1.164.11; Taittirya Sahit, 1.4.14 ; 4.4.11), Concept of tu and samvatsara
in Brhmaa texts (Taittirya Brhmaa 3.10.4.1, atapatha Brhmaa 1.6.3), Calculation of
five years, yuga, ayana, tithi and nakatra in Vedga Jyotia (Yjua Jyotia,verses 5,9,1920)
1 week/4hrs.

Unit 2

Ontological Measurement of time in India and the National Calendar Nine-fold timemeasurement according to the Sryasiddhnta (mndhyya,14.1), four types of practical
measurements (14.2), solar units (14.3), lunar units and their practical applications (14.12-13)
nkatra msa and msa planning (14.15-16), swana msa and its use (14.18-19), revised
rules of time calculation in the national Calendar accepted by Indian government since 1957.
1 week/4hrs.
Section B
(Vedic Mathematics)

Unit 1

Mathematics in Vedic Literature - Concept and praise of Mathematics in Vedic literature


(Chndogyopaniad; 7.1.2, 7.1.4;
Vedga Jyotia (Yjua Jyotia,4), Numerical
words in Sahit texts (gveda; 1.164.2, 1.164.10-15), Concept of zero (gveda;
38

4 YEAR UNDERGRADUATE PROGRAMME IN SANSKRIT


4.11.2,5.32.1,8.91.7, Bhdrayakopniad, 5.1.1, Chndogyopaniad; 4.10.5), decimal
system (gveda; 10.94.7), Numbers from one to parrdha in Vedas (Yajurveda, 17.2),
Development of geometry in ulba period specially Pythagoras theorem (ulbastras 1.37 ;
drgha caturarasy .tadubhaya karoti)
8hrs.
Unit 2

Applied Principles of Vedic Mathematics Definitions of mathematical functions


according to Bhskaracryas Llvat
Place of number, Addition, Subtraction,
Multiplication, Division (Lilvat - Abhinnaparikarmaka, 1-7 verses,
i.e.
from
llgala--- to bhjedv sati sambhave tu) ; Application of
first three formulae from
Vedic Mathematics by Bhrtikrishna Tirtha ekdhikena purvena;
nikhila
navatacarama daata ; rdhva- tiryagbhym.
8hrs.
Section C
(Indian Climatology and Hydrology)

Unit 1

Climatology in Ancient Sanskrit Literature and history of climatology in Ancient India,


Meteorology in Vedic period (gveda; 1.19.7, 1.37.11, 1.164.47, 1.164.5, 5.62.1, 5.63. 1-7),
Concept of vi-garbha in Bhatsahit (vi-garbhalakaa chapter 21.1-12),
Examination of wind in Bhadrabhu Samhit (Bhadrabhu Sahit, 9.115) Drought and
good rainfall in Madhusudana Ojhs Kdambini, (Sihvaloka verses 592-600)
6 hrs.

Unit 2

Water Management and Harvesting System in Ancient India Water management in Indus
valley civilization, Water-management in Vedic Sahits, Eleven types of water in Yajurveda
(Yajurveda; 22.25) Methods of detecting underground water and hydrology in
Bhatsahit, Role of flora and fauna in recharging of underground water, Methods of water
purification (Bhatsahit; 54.121-122, Vkyurveda; 2.36-38)
6 hrs.
Section D
(yurveda)

Unit 1

Subject matter and importance of yurveda ; History of yurvedic speculations in the


Vedas, Atharvaveda as an early source for medicinal speculations
2 hrs.

Unit 2

Major texts and authors Caraka, Suruta, Aga Hdayam, Aga Sagraha of
Vgbhaa
3 hrs.
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4 YEAR UNDERGRADUATE PROGRAMME IN SANSKRIT


Unit 3

[D]

Selections from Vgbhaas Ag- sagraha; (Ed. Ravi Datta Tripathi : Chowkhamba
Sanskrit Pratishthanam, Delhi., Reprinted 2011)
(a) Eight parts of yurveda, (pp 6-7); Three doas, (I.23-24); causes of diseases (I.42); types
of diseases (II. 26-33, 35)
3 hrs.
(b) Healthy foods Water (VI.30-31, 43, 46-51), Milk products (verses from Ch VI :
dugdha 54-56 ; dadhi 65-68 ; takra, 69-70; navanta 72-73 ; ghta 73-76 ;
fruits drk 168-169 ; dima 169-171; condiments - Ch. XIII verses 39-43;
malakam 44- 45; vibhtaka 46; triphal 47 ; hingu 66-67, ngara and
trikau 54
3 hrs.
Suggested Projects

1. Conversion from Christian calendar to aka calendar.


2. Calculations based on Bharati Krishna Tirthas formulae.
3. Case studies of rain water harvesting in various buildings.
4. Study of pollution of the Yamuna.
5. Dying or dead water bodies in Delhi.
6. Reports with pictures on visit to Ugrasena ki Bvli and /or other water bodies.
7. Collection of samples of medicinal plants with write ups.
8. Visit to an yurvedic clinic/ hospital and case studies.
9. Reports on interview with doctors and patients.
[E]

Recommended Books
Section A : Indian Calendar Systems

Unit 1 Divisions of time in Vedic Literature

www. abhivyakti-hindi.org/smibandh/2008

Chakravarthy, A.K.

Origin and Development of Indian Calendrical Science, Indian


Studies Past and Present, Calcutta, 1975, pp. 1-18.

Shastri, T.S. Kuppana :

Vedga Jyotia of Lagadha, ed. K.V. Sarma, Indian National


Science Academy, New Delhi, 1985, pp.11-16
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4 YEAR UNDERGRADUATE PROGRAMME IN SANSKRIT


Unit 2 Measurement of time in India and the National Calendar

Section B : Vedic Mathematics


Unit 1 Mathematics in Vedic Literature

Davi, S.G.

"Ancient Indian Mathematics -A Conspectus", website


article), Resonance, March, 2012, pp. 236-246, www. ias.
ac.in

Krishna Swami

"Peeps into India's Mathematical Past" (website article)


Ayyangar, A.A. www.ms.uky.edu.

Unit 2

Applied Principles of Vedic Mathematics

Sri Sathya Sai Veda

"Vedic Mathematics-Methods" (website article) Pratisthan


www.Vedanu.org/Veda/1795-vedic

Williams, Kenneth R

"The System of Vedic Mathematics - A comparison"


(website article) www. vedic maths. org. system of vedic
Section C : Climatology and Hydrology

Unit 1 Climatology in Ancient Sanskrit Literature

41

4 YEAR UNDERGRADUATE PROGRAMME IN SANSKRIT

Ramanathan, A.S.

Weather Science in Ancient India, Rajasthan Patrika, Jaipur, 1993, pp.1-43

Srinivasan, T.M.

"The Theories of Cloud Formation and Rain in Ancient India", (Article),


Recent Researchs in Indology, Hermen Publishing House, New Delhi, 1966
pp. 377-388

Unit 2 Water Management and Harvesting System in Ancient India

Tripathi, T.M. and others

Hydrology in Ancient India, Document of National Institute


of Hydrology, Rookee September, 1990, pp 1-15

Murty, K.S.

"Varahamihira, the earliest Hydrologist", Procedings of the


Rom Symposium, April, 1987, IAHS, Publication No 164,
1987, pp.11-15.

Pandey, D.N.Gupta, A.K.


Anderson, David M.

"Rainwater Harvesting
as an adaptation to climate change",
Current Science, vol. 85, No. 1, July, 2003, pp. 46-52.

Unit 3 Classical References to Aspects of Hydrology in Sanskrit Literature


Note: Primary readings are the same as given in the reference books for Unit 3 of Section C.
Section D : yurveda
Aga- Sagraha of Vgbhaa, (Ed.) Ravidatta Tripathi, Chowkhamba Sanskrit Pratishthana, Delhi,
Reprinted 2011.
yurveda K Sakipta Itihsa, Hindi Sahitya Sammelan, Allahabad.

42

4 YEAR UNDERGRADUATE PROGRAMME IN SANSKRIT


Paper 16 - Indian Social Institutions and Polity
[A]

Prescribed Course

Section A Indian Social Institutions : Nature and Concepts

12 hrs.

Section B Structure of Society and Value of Life

12 hrs.

Section C Indian Polity : Origin and Development

14 hrs.

Section D Cardinal Theories and Thinkers of Indian Polity

10 hrs.

Projects / Presentations

12 hrs.

[B] Course Objectives


Social institutions and Indian Polity have been highlighted in Dharma-stra literature as the scientific
branches of knowledge in ancient India. The aim of this course is to make the students acquainted with
various aspects of social institutions and Indian polity as propounded in the ancient Sanskrit texts such as
Sahits, Mahbhrata, Pura, Kauilya's Arthastra and other works known as Ntistra.
[C]

Unit-wise Division
Section A
(Indian Social Institutions : Nature and Concepts)

Unit 1

Indian Social Institutions : Definition and Scope

Unit 2

Social Institutions and Dharmastra Literature


3 weeks/12hrs.
Section B
(Structure of Society and Value of Life)

Unit 1

Vara System and Caste System

Unit 2

Position of women in the society

Unit 3

Social values
3 weeks/12hrs.
Section C
(Indian Polity : Origin and Development)

Unit 1

Initial stage of Indian polity (from Vedic period to Buddhist period)


43

4 YEAR UNDERGRADUATE PROGRAMME IN SANSKRIT


Unit 2

Position of women in the society

Unit 3

Later stage of Indian polity (From Kauilya to Mahatma Gandhi)


3.5 weeks/14hrs.
Section D
(Cardinal Theories and Thinkers of Indian Polity)

Unit 1

Cardinal Theories of Indian Polity

Unit 2

Important Thinkers of Indian Polity


2.5 weeks/10hrs.

[D]

Suggested Projects

1. Group discussion on various social and political issues.


2. Dialogue writing and skit-presentation on various social issues.
3. Application of theories with examples from day to day life.
4. Comparison of ancient political system and modern political system.
5. Power Point presentation on the course content.
6. Any project which is connected with the practical aspect of this course.
[E]

Recommended Books

Primary Readings :

English translation by M.R.Bhatt, MLBD, Delhi 2003.

English translation by Ganganath Jha, Calcutta.

44

4 YEAR UNDERGRADUATE PROGRAMME IN SANSKRIT

Secondary Readings :

Gharpure, J.R., Teaching of Dharmasastra, Lucknow University, 1956, pp. 1-25.


Sharma, S.L., Smtis, A Philosophical Study, Eastern Book Linkers, Delhi, 2013, pp. 62-74.

Prabhu, P.H., Hindu Social Organisation, Popular Prakashan, Mumbai, 1998, pp. 257-283.

Altekar, A.S., State and Government in Ancient India, MLBD, Delhi, 1972, (reprint), pp. 1-25.

45

4 YEAR UNDERGRADUATE PROGRAMME IN SANSKRIT


Paper 17 - Research Methodology
[A]

Prescribed Course

Section 'A' Introductory : Problems and Extent

16 hrs.

Section 'B' Elementary Research Methodology & Its Steps

24 hrs.

Section 'C' Important Research Tools in Sanskrit

08 hrs.

Projects/Presentations

12 hrs.

[B] Course Objectives


This course aims to get the students acquainted with the elementary research methodology applied specially
in Sanskrit researches. It also intends to give an understanding of application of the same in the prescribed
course and to develop a research-oriented vision while studying texts in Sanskrit.
[C]

Unit-wise Division
Section 'A'
(Introductory : Problem & Extent)

Unit 1

Unit 2

Nature & definition of Research various Sanskrit-synonyms of Research and their


respective differences, difference of traditional & scientific research & position of Sanskrit
there in.
2 weeks/8 hrs.
Branches of Sanskrit study, Purpose and areas of Sanskrit research, ingredients of Sanskrit
research.
2 weeks/8hrs.
Section 'B'
(Elementary Research Methodology & its Steps)

Unit 1

Steps of research : I - Methods of identifying research-problem & selecting a research-topic,


Tools of Sanskrit research, survey of existing research-works on a topic, Formation and
planning of the synopsis of a thesis and preparing a working bibliography.
2 weeks/8hrs.

Unit 2

Steps of research : II - Material-collection types of material (primary sources and secondary


sources), Sources of material collection and its methods, analyzing, validating, classifying and
interpreting material collected.
2 weeks/8hrs.

Unit 3

Steps of research : III Writing a thesis/ dissertation / paper, parts of thesis/ dissertation.
2 weeks/8hrs.

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4 YEAR UNDERGRADUATE PROGRAMME IN SANSKRIT


Section 'C'
(Important Research Tools in Sanskrit)
Unit 1

Important reference works, i.e. tools of research histories, dictionaries,


encyclopedias, bibliographies, catalogues, indexes, proceedings & research journals
in Sanskrit.
2 weeks / 8hrs.

Note :

[D]

It is expected to understand the research methods with reference to the prescribed course, i. e.
the topics should be clarified with proper examples from the prescribed course contents only
to give a vision to the students. Teachers are expected to make students aware of only
authentic or referred works, not of any ordinary work or guide etc., which is not credulous for
genuine research.
Suggested Projects

1.

Identify research problems for paper or dissertation from the courses read in the previous semesters as
per student's own interest-area.

2.

Make a survey of existing researches on a particular topic.

3.

Prepare a bibliography on a particular area in different ways.

4.

Identify various information sites available on internet in a particular area.

5.

Prepare a list of important national and international seminars, conferences and journals in Indology.

6.

Any project which is connected with the practical aspect of this course.

[E]

Recommended Books

Primary Readings:

1.

Dash, Keshab Chandra, Elements of Research Methodology in Sanskrit, Chaukhambha Sanskrit


Pratisthan, Varanasi,1992.

2.

Nagendra, Anusandhnasya Pravidhi-prakriy, Rashtriya Sanskrit Sansthan, 1994.

Secondary Readings:

1.

Anderson, J., B. H. Durston and M. Poole, Thesis and Assignment Writing, Wiley Eastern Ltd.,
Sydney, 1970.

2.

Chinmulgund, P. G. & V. V. Mirashi, Review of Indological Research in Last 75 Years.

3.

Gibaldi, Joseph & Walter S. Achtert, MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers, East West
Press, New York, 1991.

4.

Raghvan, V, Indological Studies in India, 1962.


47

4 YEAR UNDERGRADUATE PROGRAMME IN SANSKRIT


Paper 18 - Theatre and Dramaturgy in Sanskrit
[A]

Prescribed Course

Section A

Theatre: Types and Constructions

12 hrs.

Section B

Drama : vastu (subject-matter), net Hero) and rasa

16 hrs.

Section C

Dance, Music and Musical instruments

08 hrs.

Section D

Tradition and History of Indian Theatre

12 hrs.

Projects/Presentations
[B]

12 hrs.

Course Objectives

Being audio-visual, drama is considered to be the best amongst all forms of arts.. The history of theatre in
India is very old, the glimpses of which can be traced in the hymns (savdaskta) of the gveda. The
dramaturgy was later developed by the Bharatamuni. The objectives of this curriculum are to identify the
beauty of drama and to introduce classical aspects of development of Indian theatre among the students.
[C]

Unit-wise Division
Section A
(Theatre: Types and Construction)

Types of theatre: vika (oblong), caturasra (square), tryasra (triangular), jyea (big), madhyama
(medium), avara (small). bhmi-odhana (Examining the land) and mpa (measurement of the site),
mattavra (raising of pillars), ragapa and rangara (stage), drukarma (woodwork), nepathya gha (green-house), prekkopavea (audience-hall), Doors for entrance & exit.
03weeks / 12 hrs.
Section B
(Drama - vastu (subject-matter), net (hero) and rasa)
Unit 1

Unit 2

Definition of drama and its various names - dya, rpa,rpaka , abhineya;abhinaya and its
types: gika (gestures), vcika(oral), sttvika (representaion of the sattva), hrya (dresses
and make-up).
Vastu: (subject-matter) : dhikrika (principal), prsagika (subsidiary), Five kinds of
arthaprakti, kryvasth (stages of the
action of actor) and sandhi (segments),
arthopakepaka (interludes), kinds of dialogue:1. sarvarvya or praka (aloud) 2. arvya
or svagata (aside) 3. niyatarvya : janntika (personal address), apavrita (confidence) 4.
kabhita (conversation with imaginary person).
Net: Four kinds of heroes, Three kinds of heroines, stradhra (stage manager),
priprvika (assistant of stradhra), vidaka (jester), kacuk (chamberlain), pratinyaka
(villain).

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4 YEAR UNDERGRADUATE PROGRAMME IN SANSKRIT


Unit 3

[D]

Rasa: definition and constituents, ingredients of rasa-nipatti:


- bhva (emotions), vibhva (determinant), anubhva (consequent), sttvikabhva
(involuntary state), sthyibhva (permanent states), vyabhicribhva (complementary
psychological states), svda (pleasure), Four kinds of mental levels : viksa (cheerfulness),
vistra(exaltation), kobha (agitation), vikepa (perturbation).
4 weeks/ 16hrs.
Section C
(Dance, Music and Musical instrument)
Importance of music in drama, dhruv and its five kinds- 1) prveik (entering) 2) kepik
(casual), 3) naikrmik (leaving), 4) prsdik (pleasing) 5) ntarik (intermediate); three
types of gandharva-sagta based on svara; tla and pada .
todya (kinds of musical instruments ) 1. tata (stringed) 2. avanaddha (covered) 3. ghana
(solid) 4. suira (hollow).
Dance: ntya, ntta, lsya and tnava.
2 weeks/8 hrs.
Section D
(Tradition and History of Indian Theatre)
Origin and development of stage in different ages: pre-historic, Vedic age, epic-puranic age,
court theatre, temple theatre, open theatre, modern theatre: folk theatre, commercial theatre,
national and state level theatre.
3 weeks/12hrs.
Suggested Projects
Students may identify the vastu, net and rasa from various dramas studied by them.
Prepare assignments on classical aspects of drama studied by the student in their previous semester
curriculum.
Group discussion by students on classical aspects of dramas studied by them.
Demonstrate the skill of constructing dialogue based on social issues or plots.
Any project which is connected with the practical aspects of this course.

[E] Recommended Books


Essential Readings
Section A Theatre: Types and Constructions
Unit - 1
Ghosh , M.M. - Nyastra of Bharatamuni, pp. 18-32.

Section B

Drama : Subject-Matter (vastu),Actor (net) and rasa

Unit 1 Vastu (Subject-Matter)

Hass , The Daarpa: A Treatise on Hindu Dramaturgy, krika 7,8,11-24,30,36,43,48,57-65.

Unit 2 Net (Hero)

Hass , The Daarpa: A Treatise on Hindu Dramaturgy, kriks 2/1-5,8,9,15.


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4 YEAR UNDERGRADUATE PROGRAMME IN SANSKRIT


Unit 3

Rasa
Hass , The Daarpa: A Treatise on Hindu Dramaturgy, kriks 4/1-8,43,44.

Section C Dance, Music and Musical instruments.


Importance of Music in Drama, D ruv and its Five kinds
Ghosh , M.M. - Nyastra of Bharatamuni, kriks 6/29,30,
Kinds of musical instrumentGhosh , M.M. - Nyastra of Bharatamuni, kriks, 6/27, 29 and
.
Dance
Hass , The Daarpa: A Treatise on Hindu Dramaturgy, kriks, 1/9,10.
Section D
The Tradition and History of Indian Theatre.
Farley P.Richmond, (2007),ed. Indian Theatre: traditions of performance, vol-I, Origins of Sanskrit
Theatre, pp. 25-32.

Further Readings and Bibliography


Farley P.Richmond, (ed) Indian Theatre: traditions of performance vol-I Delhi, MLBD. 2007,

pp. 25-32.

Ghosh , M.M, Nyastra of Bharatamuni, vol-1, Manisha Granthalaya, Calcutta, 1967.

Hass, The Daarpaka : A Treatise on Hindu Dramaturgy, Columbia University, NewYork ,


1912.

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4 YEAR UNDERGRADUATE PROGRAMME IN SANSKRIT


Paper 19 Indian Reasoning
[A] Prescribed Course
Section A : Tarkasagraha of Annambhaa
32 hrs.
Section B : Tarka in Indian Philosophy
16 hrs.
Projects/Presentations
12 hrs.
[B] Course Objectives
This course aims to get the students acquainted with the cardinal principles of the Nyya-Vaieika
philosophy through text and to enable students to handle philosophical texts in Sanskrit. It also intends to
give an understanding of tarka in Indian Philosophy and to give a vision to the students for applying them in
their day to day life.
[C]
Unit-wise Division
Section A
(Tarkasagraha of Annambhaa)
Unit 1
From the beginning to the exposition of abda
3 weeks/12hrs.
Unit 2
Exposition of buddhi (cognition valid & invalid)
3 weeks/12hrs.
Unit 3
From the exposition of sukha to the end
2 weeks/08hrs.
Note :
These portions should be clarified on the basis of the philosophical frames taught in Paper
no. 13 of semester 6, i.e. Introduction to Indian Philosophy.
Section B
(Tarka in Indian Philosophy)
Unit 1
Concept of tarka, Kinds of tarka - vyghta, tmraya, anyonyraya, cakraka, anavasth,
pratibandhikalpan, kalpangaurava, kalpanlghava, utsarga, apavda, vaijtya and
kevalniaprasaga
2 weeks/08hrs.
Unit 2
Parts of tarka (tarkga) - vypti, tarkpratihati, viparyaya-paryavasna, ania, anuklat
Tarkbhsas mithovirodha, mlaaithilya, ipdana, anuklatva, viparyayaaparyavasna, the tarkbhsas caused due to lack of tarkga.
2 weeks/08hrs.
Note : 1. These topics should be taught on the basis of the following books:
Sarvadaranasagraha of Mdhavcrya, (Ed. & Tr.) Umashankar Sharma Rishi,Chaukhambha
Vidyabhavan, Varanasi, 1964, pp. 467-469.
Khaanakhaakhdya of rhara (with kar), (Ed. & Tr.) Swami Yogindranand, Chaukhambha
Vidyabhavan, Varanasi, 1964, p. 738.
[D]
Suggested Projects

1. Group discussion on various philosophical issues.


2. Dialogue writing and presentation on various philosophical issues.
3. Application of tarka etc. with examples from day to day life.
4. Power Point Presentation on the course content.
5. Any project which is connected with the practical aspect of this course.

51

4 YEAR UNDERGRADUATE PROGRAMME IN SANSKRIT

[E]

Recommended Books

Primary Readings :
Sarvadaranasagraha of Mdhavcrya, (Ed. & Tr.) Umashankar Sharma Rishi,Chaukhambha
Vidyabhavan, Varanasi, 1964. pp. 467-469.
Khaanakhaakhdya of

rhara (with kar), (Ed. & Tr.) Swami Yogindrananda,

Chaukhambha Vidyabhavan, Varanasi, 1964. p. 738.


Any one of the following -

1.

A Primer of Indian Logic, Kuppuswami Shastri, Madras, 1951.

2.

Tarkasagraha of Annambhaa (with Dpik & Nyyabodhin), (Ed. & Tr.) Athalye & Bodas,
Mumbai, 1930.

3.

Tarkasagraha of Annambhaa (with Dpik & Nyyabodhin), (Ed. & Tr.)


Virupakshananda, Sri Ramkrishna Nath, Madras, 1994.

4.

Tarkasagraha of Annambhaa (with Dpik ), (Ed. & Tr. in Hindi), Kanshiram & Sandhya Rathore,
MLBD, Delhi, 2007.

Secondary Readings :

1.

Chatterjee, S. C. & D. M. Datta - Introduction to Indian Philosophy, Calcutta University, Calcutta,


1968 (Hindi Translation also).

2.

Chatterjee, S. C. The Nyya Theory of Knowledge, Calcutta, 1968.

3.

Hiriyanna, M. - Outline of Indian Philosophy, London, 1956 (also Hindi Translation).

4.

Radhakrishnan, S. - Indian Philosophy, Oxford University Press, Delhi, 1990.

52

4 YEAR UNDERGRADUATE PROGRAMME IN SANSKRIT


Paper 20 Dissertation
[A]

Prescribed Course

Dissertation Writing

60 hrs.

[B] Course Objectives


This course aims to initiate the students into adding new ideas or researched facts to the realm of knowledge
in the area of their interest, where they are equipped with basic knowledge acquired in the earlier semesters.
They are also expected to apply the doctrines of research methodology in the quest of knowledge.
[C]

General Instructions

1.

The research topic for dissertation is to be given in the seventh semester itself.

2.

Students should identify research problems and choose a research topic for dissertation from the
courses read in the previous semesters as per their own interest-area.

3.

Teachers should help the students in selecting topic as a facilitator. They should avoid giving topic by
themselves.

4.

For selecting a topic, students, while doing the project-work in the Paper 17, should do proper survey
for choosing a topic. Teachers should encourage the students apply their minds as far as possible.

5.

As the teachers would work as supervisor, they should distribute the students among themselves. As
far as possible, teachers should guide their students in their own area of research-interest for better
outcomes.

6.

Research topic should be based on main problems, descriptions, events etc.

7.

The dissertation should be at least of 40-60 effective research pages. Preface/introduction would not
be considered as research page.

8.

The dissertation should be neatly typed using the standard research methods.

9.

The modality of examining the dissertation would be decided by the university.

53

4 YEAR UNDERGRADUATE PROGRAMME IN SANSKRIT

Discipline II Courses in Sanskrit


Paper 1 - Sanskrit Language
(A)

Prescribed Course

Section 'A'

Declensions, Conjugations and Indeclinables

16 hrs.

Section 'B'

Sandhis, compounds and Kraka -vibhakti rules

12 hrs.

Section 'C'

Kt and Taddhita suffixes

08 hrs.

Section 'D'

Basic rules of sentence-formation

12 hrs.

Projects / Presentations
(B)

12 hrs.

Course Objectives

This course aims to provide the student with the elementary knowledge of the logical structure of Sanskrit
language and enable him to understand the Sanskrit sentences on his own upto a certain extent so that he can
make further progress in his study of the Sanskrit texts and appreciate the beauty of the language.
(C)

Unit-wise Division
Section 'A'
(Declensions and Conjugations)

Unit 1 - Declension of Nouns :

2 weeks/8 hrs.

Masculine Words
Stems endings in vowels :
Noun ending in '
Noun ending in '
Noun ending in '
Noun ending in '
Noun ending in '

'
'
'
'
'

rma
muni
guru
pit
go

Stems ending in consonants : tman, dain, candramas

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4YEAR UNDERGRADUATE PROGRAMME IN SANSKRIT


Feminine Words
Stems endings in vowels :
Noun ending in '
Noun ending in '
Noun ending in '
Noun ending in '
Noun ending in '
Noun ending in '

'
'
'
'
'
'

ram
mati
kumr
dhenu
vadh
mt

Nouns ending in consonants : vc, sarit.


Neuter Words
Nouns ending in vowels :
Noun ending in ' '
Noun ending in ' '
Noun ending in ' '

phala
vri
madhu

Nouns ending in consonants : payas, jagat.


Pronouns
asmad, yumad, tat, yat, idam, etad, kim (in all three genders)
Numerals
Declension of numeral words from eka to daan (In all three genders)
Unit 2 - Conjugations :
pah, pac, bh, k, as, ad, han, div, tud, ru, rudh, kr, (in La, L, La, Lo and Vidhili)
1 week/4 hrs.
Indeclinables : Introduction to the following indeclinable :
atra, tatra, yatra, sarvatra, adya, hya, va, parava, tadnm, idnm, kad, tad, yad, sarvad, adhun,
skam, saha, yata, tata, kuta, sarvata.
1 week/4 hrs.
Section 'B'
(Sandhis, Compounds and Kraka -vibhakti rules)
Unit 1 - Rules of Sandhi :
Svarasandhi :
drgha, ya, aydi, gua, vddhi, pararpa, prvarpa
Halsandhi

cutva, tutva, jatva, anunsika, prvasavara


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4 YEAR UNDERGRADUATE PROGRAMME IN SANSKRIT


Visargasandhi:

satva, utva, lopa (elision).

6 hrs.

Unit 2 Compounds:
The concept of Compound and its types

2 hrs.

Unit 3 - Kraka -vibhakti rules


Concept of kraka
Types of kraka
Concept of vibhakti
Types of vibhakti
Kraka-vibhakti and Upapada-vibhakti.

4 hrs.
Section 'C'
(Kt and Taddhita suffixes)

Unit 2 - Kt Suffixes : tavyat, anyar, yat, yat, vul, tc, kta, ktavatu, at,nac, tumun, ktv (lyap), lyu
1 week/4 hrs.
Unit 2 - Tadhita Suffixes : matup, ini, han (matvartha), a, i, hak (apatyrtha), tva, tal, imanic, ya
tarap, tamap, ihan yasun
1 week/4 hrs.
Section 'D'
(Sentence formation)
kartvcya sentences, karmavcya sentences and bhvavcya sentences
3 week/12 hrs.
[D]
Suggested Projects
Students may:
Collect examples of sandhis from simple texts prescribed by the teacher.
Prepare a list of common words ending with prescribed suffixes.
Collect paragraph from texts like Pacatantra, Hitopadea etc. and find out various grammatical
aspects prescribed in this course.
Indicate the places of articulation and effort process etc. of the vowels and consonants after writing
Sanskrit alphabets.
Form small sentences pertaining to their introduction, daily routine etc.
[E]
Recommended Books

The Students Guide to Sanskrit Language, V.S. Apte, Choukhabha Sanskrit Series office, Varansi.
(also Hindi Version).
Higher Sanskrit Grammar, M.R.Kale, Moti Lal Banarsidas, Delhi, 2007.
56

4 YEAR UNDERGRADUATE PROGRAMME IN SANSKRIT

Paper 2 -

Introduction to Sanskrit Literature

[A] Prescribed Course


Section A

: Selections from Literature

32 hrs.

Section B

: General Survey of Sanskrit literature

16 hrs.

Projects / Presentations

12 hrs.

[B]Course Objectives
This course aims to get the students acquainted with the outline of Sanskrit literature. It has two sections:
(i) Literature (poetry, prose and play) and (ii) Survey of literature. In literature segment two most famous
plays of Sanskrit have been introduced, which not only reflect the poetic excellence, but also depict
contemporary society. It also intends to give an understanding of application of the same in the prescribed
course and to equip the student to have a literary appreciation.
[C]

Unit-wise Division
Section A
(Selections from Literature)
Unit 1

Sundarakam, 15.6-25 (pradptmiva tatrastho ---------vanarjy


mahmiva) Gita Press, Gorakhpur edition.
2week/8hrs.

Unit 2

Gt; Ch. 12- Text Reading (Grammar, Translation, Explanation), Philosophy


of devotion.
2 weeks/8hrs.

Unit 3

(A) Svapnavsavadattam 5th Act (i) Introduction, Author, Story, Unique


features / Style of Bhsa
Characterization, Importance of 5th Act.
(ii) Text Reading (Grammar, Translation, Explanation), Poetic excellence,
Plot, Timing of Action.
(B) Abhijnakuntalam 4th Act (i) Introduction, Author, Personification of
nature, Importance of 4th Act, motif of Durvss Curse, Upam, Language,
and other problems related to texts.
(ii) Text Reading (Grammar, Translation, Explanation), Poetic excellence, Plot,
Timing of Action.
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4 YEAR UNDERGRADUATE PROGRAMME IN SANSKRIT


3 weeks/12hrs.
Unit 4

Two Stories from Pacatantra- (Brhmanakula-kath and Sihakrakamrkhabrhmaa-kath)


Text Reading (Grammar, Translation, Explanation), Message, Purpose of this
text.
1week/4hrs.
Section B
(General Survey of Sanskrit literature)

Unit 1

Outline of Vedic literature, gveda and Atharvaveda,


Upaniad and Vedga.

Unit 2

2 weeks/8hrs.

An outline of Classical Sanskrit literature- Rmyaa,


Mahbhrata, Mahkvya and Drama.
Major Poets- Bhsa, Klidsa, Babhaa, Dain,
Bhravi.

[D]

2 week/8hrs.

Suggested Projects
Student may:
1.

Collect the theories regarding the timing of Vedas and give their comments.

2.

Prepare a list of folk elements in Atharvaveda and establish their relevance.

3.

Make a flow chart


Abhijnakuntalam.

4.

Analyze the idealistic approach of Bhsa and comment critically.

5.

Prepare a list of Plays/Mahkvyas, their Author, time and contents based on Rmyaa
/Mahbhrata.

6.

Comment on devotion as propounded in Gt.

7.

Make a list of flora, used in Abhijnakuntalam, their Sanskrit, modern and botanical
names, paste their pictures in file.

8.

Words used for Love in Abhijnakuntalam, their application in play, reference,

of

characters

and

their

contribution

suggestion.
9.

Literature based on Abhijnnakuntalam and their details.

10.

Supernatural elements in Abhijnakuntalam.

11.

Stylistic/Artistic difference between Abhijnakuntalam and


Svapnavsavadattam.
58

from

Rmyaa/

4 YEAR UNDERGRADUATE PROGRAMME IN SANSKRIT

[E]

12.

Women in Sanskrit Literature.

13.

Develop his own story in Pacatantras way.

Recommended Books

Primary Readings :

Abhijnakuntalam :

(Ed.) Sanskrit Text, Eng. Trans.


- by C.R.Devadhar, MLBD, Delhi.
- M.R. Kale, MLBD, Delhi.
- Gajendra Gadakar.

Svapnavsavadattam :

M.R. Kale, M.L.B.D., Delhi.

Secondary Readings :

Dikshit, Ratnamayi

Women in Sanskrit Dramas, Meherchand Lacchman Das,


Delhi-6.

Keith, A.B.

- History of Sanskrit Literature, MLBD, Delhi.

Keith, A.B.

Sanskrit Drama, Oxford University


Press, London, 1970.

Krishnamachariar

History of Classical Sanskrit Literature,


MLBD, Delhi.

Mirashi, VV

Klidsa, Popular Prakashan Bombay.

59

4 YEAR UNDERGRADUATE PROGRAMME IN SANSKRIT

Paper 3 - Aesthetics and Indian Theatre


[A] Prescribed Course
Section A : Saundarya, its nature and components

08 hrs.

SectionB : Excellence of Rasa and its application

12 hrs.

Section C: Prominent Thinkers of Aesthetics

16 hrs.

Section D : Indian Theatre and Aesthetics

12 hrs.

Projects / Presentations

12 hrs.

[B] Course Objectivess


Aesthetics is the science and philosophy of essential analysis of all the fine arts. Indian perception accepts
poetry, drama, music, architecture, iconography and painting as independent Arts. Like other arts, drama also
exhibits aesthetic pleasure. The Indian theatre makes a collective art involving the efforts of the playwright,
director, set designer, composer and actor.
[C] Unit wise Division
Section A
( Saundarya, its nature and components)
Unit 1

Saundarya: its nature and components : vaya,rpa, vacana, hva.

Unit 2

Discussion of synonyms of the term saundarya : ramayat, ucit, lvaya, crut, knti,
vicchitti, madhurat, mugdhat, manohrit, r,etc.
2 weeks/ 8 hrs.
Section B
(Excellence of rasa and its application in various arts)

Unit 1

Nature of rasa (aesthetic experience) according to Shityadarpaa, realisation of materialistic


perception, ideal self-realisation and spiritual aesthetic experience, aesthetic enjoyment
eternal bliss, the ultimate reality (nandamayat, alaukikat).

Unit 2

Art as the mode of expression of saundarya its application in literary art (Poetry and Drama)
and fine arts (Architecture, Sculpture and Painting).
3 weeks/12hrs.
Section C
( Prominent thinkers of Aesthetics)
Bharata, Lollaa, akuka, Bhaanyaka, Abhinavagupta, nandavardhana, Mahimabhaa,
Jaganntha.
4 weeks/ 16 hrs

Unit 1

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4 YEAR UNDERGRADUATE PROGRAMME IN SANSKRIT


Section D
(Indian theatre and aesthetics)
Unit 1

[D]

sahdaya, smjika (Connoisseur / Spectator), Performing arts: Stage Management,


Perception of beauty in Drama from cultural and social point of view.
Indian theatre and aesthetics in the context of Abhijnakuntalam.
3 weeks/ 12 hours

Suggested Projects
Students may identify the beauty of various Kvyas studied by them, mainly vaya, rpa, vacana,
hva,etc.
Prepare assignments based on aesthetics by students.
Group discussion by students on aesthetics of poetry, drama and different arts .
Any project which is connected with the practical aspects of this course.

[E] Recommended Readings


Essential Readings:
Section A Definition of Saundarya and its nature and components.
Unit1&2 Section B
Unit 1

Excellence of Rasa and its application in various arts.


Shityadarpaa of Vishvanatha, karika3/1-28.

Unit 2

Section C Prominent thinkers of aesthetics

Section D Indian theatre and aesthetics.


Further Readings :
Pandey, Kantichandra: Comparative Aesthetics, vol.1 Chowkhamba Sanskrit series office Varanasi, 2008
Gnoli, R. : The Aesthetic Experience according to Abhinavaupta, Chowkhamba Sanskrit series office
Varanasi.

Gupta, C.B
: Indian Theatre, Munshiram Manoharlal, Delhi.
Coomarswami A : Introduction to Indian Art, Theosophical Society , Adyar, 1956.
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4 YEAR UNDERGRADUATE PROGRAMME IN SANSKRIT


Paper 4 - Social Issues and Economic Institutions
[A]

Prescribed Course

Section A :

Social Issues

24 hrs.

Section B :

Economic Institutions

24 hrs.

Projects / Presentations

12 hrs.

[B] Course Objectives


To help students appreciate issues like gender, caste, role of law and the role of state in society in the
light of Sanskrit Literature and to enable them to study the social impact of economic organization.
[C]

Unit-wise Division
Section A
( Social Issues)

Unit 1 Law and change - Dharma as a dynamic force

4 hrs.

Manu Smti, Chapter 2, verses 6 and 12 with the commentary of Medhtithi ;


Lingat, Robert : Classical Law of India, Chapter 1, pp 3-7; tradition pp 9-14 ;
good customs 14-17. Mathur, A.D. : Medieval Hindu Law, Chapter I, pp 1-8
Unit 2 Caste Voices of challenge

6 hrs.

Traditional vara hierarchy


Vajrasc by Avaghoa
Unit 3

Identity of women

6 hrs.

Draupads question Sabh Parva Dyta Parva


Chapter 66 - Duryodhana asks Draupad to be brought to the court 1; Viduras protest 2, 4 ;
Chapter 67 Duryodhana asks Pratikm to fetch Draupad 2; Draupads refusal and question 510, 16 ; Yudhihiras response 39-41 ; Bhmas response 47-49 ; Draupadis Rejoinder 50-52 ;
Vikaras statement, chapter 68, verses 12-17 Kara to Vikara 27-31, 35.
Unit 4

Struggle to secure womens right to property


Yjavalkya Smti, Vyavahrdhyya: Verse 135 with Vij nevaras
commentary (section on patn)

8 hrs.

6 weeks/24 hrs.
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4 YEAR UNDERGRADUATE PROGRAMME IN SANSKRIT


Section B
Economic Institutions
Unit 1

State of economy in ancient India : general survey

2 hrs.

Unit 2

Trade regulations Controlled market

6 hrs.

Arthastra (Gairola) (References in Page numbers/paragraph numbers) - public interest to be


preserved 164/3 ; restrictions on sale at source/ 190/3-7; sale at the designated market place
164/3 ; single vendor markets 355/2 ; sale with state permission 354/4 ; confiscation of nonpermitted goods- 354/3 ; price fixation 355/3 ; measures to tackle excess supplies 164/2 ;
uniform pricing 165/1
Unit 3

Consumer Protection

6 hrs.

Arthastra (Gairola) (References in Page numbers/paragraph numbers) sale of underweight goods


352/1-5; 353/1-2; sale of poor quality goods 353/4; sale of spurious goods 353/4; sale of
adulterated goods 354/2; traders cartels 353/6; check on profiteering - 354/4 ; Service
providers - 345-351(rapid survey)
Unit 4

Principles of Taxation: ulka Vayavhara


6 hrs.
Arthastra (Gairola) (References in Page numbers/paragraph numbers) tax collector 99 ; tax
collector checks on 107/1 ; taxes/levies - various kinds 99/1-4 ; 100/1-4 / 189/1 ; tax rates on
various goods -189/2-5 ; 190/1 ; toll tax 190/2 ; failure to collect tax liability of officers 106/3;
tax rebates for importers 165/3

Unit 5 Corruption

4 hrs.

Arthastra (Gairola) (References in Page numbers/paragraph


numbers) Corruption : a menace
117/4 ; 117/5 ; modes of - 110/1-6 ; 111/ 1 ; punishments for 112/1-2 ; 117/6 ; incentive for
informers 113/1 ; income in excess of known means presumption of offence 115/2 ; parking of
funds in foreign lands 116/3
6weeks/24 hrs.
[D]

Suggested Projects
Group discussion on various social and political issues (Some topics are suggested) : Aspects of Caste
discrimination, Plight of the landless, Caste riots, Affirmative action, Poverty and caste, Prevention of
atrocities against Scheduled Castes Act, Consumer protection act and case studies, Prevention of
corruption Act, Patriarchy and womens rights, Crimes against women, Vishakhas case and
Prevention of Sexual Harassment of Women at Workplace.
Dialogue writing and presentations on various issues.
Power Point Presentation on the course content.
Any project which is connected with the practical aspect of this course.
63

4 YEAR UNDERGRADUATE PROGRAMME IN SANSKRIT


[E]

Recommended Books

Primary Readings :
Arthastra of Kauilya , (Ed.) R.P. Kangle, Moti Lal Banarsi Das, Delhi.
Arthastra of Kauilya , (Ed.) Vachaspati Gairola , Chowkhamba Vidya Bhawan, Varanasi. (Edition
IV)
Mahbhrata ( with Hindi Translation in 6 volumes), Git Press, Gorakhpur, VI Edition, 2000.
Manu Smti : Ganga Nath Jha.
Vajrasc by Avaghoa (Digital Sanskrit Buddhist Cannon at webpage www.dsbcproject.org cannon
text).
Yjavalkya- Smti.
Secondary Readings :
Social Issues
Kane, P.V., History of Dharmastra , Volume 1, BORI, Poona.
Dharma stra ka Itihsa (Hindi translation of the above by) Kashyap, Arjuna Chaube, volume 1,
Uttar Pradesh Hindi Sansthan, Lucknow.
Mathur , A.D. , Medieval Hindu Law, Oxford University Press, Delhi 2006.
Robert, Lingat, Classical Law of India, (translated by J.D.M. Derrett), Munshi Ram Manohar lal, I,
Indian Edition, 1993.
Economic Institutions
Basu, Ratan Lal and Rajkumar Sen, Ancient Indian Economic Thought .
Buch, M.A., Economic Life in Ancient India.
Kangle, R.P., Kautilyas Arthastra (three volumes).
Maddison, Agnus, Contours of World Economy .
Sharma R.S., Cambridge Economic History of India.

64

4 YEAR UNDERGRADUATE PROGRAMME IN SANSKRIT


Paper 5 - Indian Mathematics and Astronomy
[A]

Prescribed Course

Section A : Indian Mathematics

32 hrs.

Section B : Indian Astronomy

08 hrs.

Section C : A Brief History of Indian Mathematics & Astronomy

08 hrs.

Projects / Presentations

12 hrs.

[B] Course Objectives


This course aims to create interest of the students in our indigenous sciences by giving elementary
knowledge of the Indian principles of Mathematics & Astronomy along with its applications. Also, it intends
to give some short cut methods of mathematical calculation for various competitive examinations to save
time and enable students to develop logical faculty of mind.
[C]

Unitwise Division
Section A
(Indian Mathematics)

Unit 1

Introduction : Nature of Mathematics (on the basis of ryabhaya, 1.1 and Bhskaras
commentary thereon), Kinds of Mathematics Abstract Mathematics viz, Algebra, Calculus,
Theory of Numbers etc. and Applied Mathematics viz. Dynamics, Statics etc., Importance of
Mathematics (Lagadha Jyotia, Yjua Jyotia, 4)
1 week/4 hrs.

Unit 2

Vedic Mathematics : Following stras of Vedic Mathematics with their proper application in
various mathematical operations primarily on the basis of Vedic Mathematics of r Bhrat
Ka Trtha and Vedic Mathematics for All Ages by Vandana Singhal :
i.

ii.
iii.
iv.
v.

nikhila navatacarama daata in finding Compliments, Subtraction,


Multiplication by 9, Base Multiplication, Division by 9 and Division by numbers less
than the base (pp. 1, 7, 47, 59, 151 & 160).
rdhvatiryagbhym in Multiplication, Multiplication of equations and Squares (pp.
97, 121 & 224).
parvartya yojayet in Division by numbers more than the base (p. 175).
ekdhikena prvea in finding Square of number ending in five (p. 193).
yvad na tvad nktya varga ca yojayet in finding squares of numbers close to
the base (p. 210).
65

4 YEAR UNDERGRADUATE PROGRAMME IN SANSKRIT


5 weeks/20 hrs.
Note :

The page numbers are given from Vedic Mathematics for All Ages by Vandana Singhal.
Teachers must encourage the students to practice the principles as much as possible.

Unit 3

Application of Pythagorean Triples (from Triples by Kenneth Williams, Chapter I & II only,
pp. 1-18)
2 weeks/08 hrs.

Note :

Teachers must encourage the students to practice the principles as much as possible.
Section B
(Indian Astronomy)

Unit 1

Sryasiddhnta (Madhyamdhikra, Verse 10-42)


2 weeks/08 hrs.

Note :

Teachers have to teach concepts only without going into word to word translation of the
verses. Students must see the animation pictures on the Sryasiddhnta given on Wikipedia to
understand the theories.
Section C
(A Brief History of Indian Mathematics & Astronomy)

Unit 1

In this segment, the history of Indian Mathematics & Astronomy is to be taught in brief and
contribution of the following scholars is to be mentioned : Lagadha, Ktyyana, Bodhyana,
ryabhaa I, Varhamihira, Brahmagupta, rdhara, ryabhaa II, Bhskara & Gaea.
2 weeks/08 hrs.

Note :

[D]

This segment is to be taught from Prcina Bhratya Gaita by Baldev Upadhyaya or


Hindu Astronomy by John Bentley.
Suggested Projects

1.

Group discussion on the comparison between methods of Vedic mathematics & contemporary
methods.

2. Discussion, survey etc. on the historical background of some of the theories rooted in India .
3. Application of theory with examples from real world situation.
4. Power Point presentation on the course content.
5. Any project which is connected with the practical aspect of this course.

66

4 YEAR UNDERGRADUATE PROGRAMME IN SANSKRIT


[E]

Recommended Books

Essential Readings :
ryabhaya of ryabhaa (with commentaries of Bhskara I and Somevara), ( Ed.) Kripa Shankar
Shukla, Indian National Science Academy, Delhi, 1976.
Hindu Astronomy, John Bentley, Sri India Publishing House, Delhi, 1990.
Prcina Bhratya Gaita, Baldev Upadhyaya, Vigyan Bharati, Delhi, 1976.
Sryasiddhnta, (Ed.) Kapileshwar Shastri, Chaukhambha Sanskrit Sansthan, Varanasi, 1987
(Madhyamdhikra, Verse 10-42).
Sryasiddhnta (A Text Book of Hindu Astronomy), Ebenezer Burgess, Indological Book House,
Delhi, 1977.
Triples, Kenneth Williams, MLBD, Delhi, 2003 ( Chapter I & II only, pp. 1-18).
Vedga Jyotia of Lagadha in Its k & Yajus Recensions, (Ed.) K. V. Sharma, Indian National
Science Academy, Delhi, 1976.
Vedic Mathematics for All Ages, Vandana Singhal, MLBD, 2007.
Further Readings :
Mathematics in Ancient and Medieval India, A. K. Bag, Chowkhambha Orientalia,
Varanasi, 1979.
Gaita Ka Itihsa, Brajmohan, Hindi Samiti, Ministry of Information, Lucknow, 1965.

67

4 YEAR UNDERGRADUATE PROGRAMME IN SANSKRIT

Paper 6 - Indian Logic and Debate


[A]

Prescribed Course

Section A : Fundamentals of Science of Debate

08 hrs.

Section B : Syllogistic Logic

16 hrs.

Section C : Elements of Science of Debate and Non-formal Logic

24 hrs.

Projects / Presentations

12 hrs.

[B] Course Objectives


This course aims to get the students acquainted with the Indian principles of debate and its applications, not
just in philosophical dialogue, but in every walk of knowledge. The course intends only to bring our
indigenous science of argument to the fore, but it also wants to enable students to develop logical faculty of
their mind and to perceive the world in a more rational way in their day to day life.
[C]

Unitwise Division
Section A
(Fundamentals of Science of Debate)

Unit 1

Science of inquiry (nvkik) & its importance, Growth of nvkik into art of debate, The
council of debate (pariad) & its kinds, Discussant (vd), Opponent (prativd), Judge
(madhyastha/prnika).
1 week/4 hrs.

Unit 2

The Method of debate (sambhvidhi/vdavidhi) & its utility, Types of debate - congenial
debate (anuloma sambh ) & hostile debate (vighya sambh ), The expedience of debate
(vdopya), The limits of debate (vdamaryd).
1 week/4 hrs.

Note :

The definitions and concepts are to be taken only from the Nyyasutra, Nyyakoa by
Bhimacharya Jhalkikar and A History of Indian Logic by S. C. Vidyabhushan, Chapter III of
Section I. The illustrations and examples must be taken from day to day life and philosophical
examples must be abandoned.
Section B
(Syllogistic Logic)

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4 YEAR UNDERGRADUATE PROGRAMME IN SANSKRIT


Unit 1

Inference (anumna) & its key terms, viz. major term or probandum (sdhya), middle term or
probans (hetu), minor term (paka), illustration (sapaka), contrary-illustration (vipaka),
basic understanding of invariable concomitance (vypti) & its types, establishing vypti by
inductive method, Five components of argument (pacvayava) proposition (pratij),
reason (hetu), example (udharaa), application (upanaya) & conclusion (nigamana), kinds
of middle term (hetu), attributes of middle term (hetudharma), fallacy or pseudo probans
(hetvbhsa).
4 weeks/16 hrs.

Note :

The definitions and concepts are to be taken only from the Tarkasagraha and The Nyya
Theory of Knowledge by S. C. Chatterjee, Chapters X1-XIV.
Section C
(Elements of Science of Debate and Non-formal Logic)

Unit 1

Basic understanding of the following terms - Example (dnta), Tenet (siddhnta),


Confutation (tarka), Ascertainment (niraya), Demonstration (sthpan), Counterdemonstration (pratisthpan), Censurable (anuyojya), Non-censurable (niranuyojya),
Interrogation (anuyoga), Re-interrogation (pratyanuyoga), Attribution of censure
(uplambha), Avoidance of defect (parihra), Dialouge (kath) and its kinds, Discussion
(vda), Wrangling (jalpa), Cavil (vita).
3 weeks/12 hrs

Unit 2

Defects of speech (vkyadoa) inadequacy, redundancy, meaninglessness, incoherence,


contradiction ; Quibble (chala) & its kinds; Analogue (jti) and its important kinds (only first
four, i.e. sdharmyasama, vaidharmyasama, utkarasama & apakarasama); Point of defeat
(nigrahasthna) & its kinds Hurting the proposition (pratijhni), Shifting of proposition
(pratijntara), Opposing the proposition (pratijvirodha), Renouncing the proposition
(pratijsannysa), Admission of an opinion (matnuj).
3 weeks/12 hrs.

Note :

[D]

The definitions and concepts are to be taken only from the Nyyastra, Nyyakoa by
Bhimacharya Jhalkikar and A History of Indian Logic by S. C. Vidyabhushan, Chapter II of
Section II. The illustrations and examples must be taken from day to day life and
philosophical examples must be abandoned.
Suggested Projects

1. Group discussion on various social and political issues using the technique of debate.
2. Dialogue writing and presentation on various issues using the technique of debate.
3. Application of debate with examples from day to day life.
4. Power Point Presentation on the course content.
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4 YEAR UNDERGRADUATE PROGRAMME IN SANSKRIT


5. Any project which is connected with the practical aspect of this course.

[E]

Recommended Books

Essential Readings :
Vidyabhushan, Satish Chandra, A History of Indian Logic, MLBD, Delhi, 1962. (Chapter III of
Section I & Chapter II of Section II only)
Jhalkikar, Bhimacharya, Nyyakoa, Bhandarkar Oriental Research Institute, Poona, 1997 (reprint of
fourth edition)
Athalye & Bodas, Tarkasagraha, Mumbai, 1920. (only introduction & exposition of anumna)
Shastri , Kuppuswami, A Primer of Indian Logic, Madras, 1951 (only introduction & exposition of
anumna).
Tarkasagraha of Annabhaa (with Dipika), (Ed. & Tr. in Hindi), Kanshiram & Sandhya Rathore,
MLBD, Delhi 2007.
Further Readings :
1.
Bagchi, S. S. Inductive Logic : A Critical Study of Tarka & Its Role in Indian Logic, Darbhanga,
1951.
2.
Chatterjee, S. C. & D. M. Datta - Introduction to Indian Philosophy, Calcutta University, Calcutta,
1968 (Hindi Translation also).
3.
Chatterjee, S. C. The Nyya Theory of Knowledge, Calcutta, 1968.
4.
Hiriyanna, M. - Outline of Indian Philosophy, London, 1956 (also Hindi Translation).
5.
Jha, Harimohan Bhratya Darana Paricaya, Vol. I (Nyya Darana), Darbhanga.
6.
Matilal, B. K. The Character of Logic in India, Oxford, 1998.
7.
Radhakrishnan, S. - Indian Philosophy, Oxford University Press, Delhi, 1990.

70

4 YEAR UNDERGRADUATE PROGRAMME IN SANSKRIT

Applied Courses in Sanskrit


Paper 1 Art of Balanced Living
[A]

Prescribed Course
Self-presentation
Concentration
Refinement of Behaviour
Project/Presentation

08 hrs.
08 hrs.
08 hrs.
12 hrs.

[B] Course Objectives


This course aims to get the students acquainted with theories of art of living inherent in Sanskrit literature
and apply them to live a better life. It also intends to make students work on human resource management for
giving better results.
[C]

Unit-wise Division
Unit 1
(Self-presentation)
Method of Self-presentation : Hearing (ravaa), Reflection (manana) & meditation (nididhysana)
(Bhadrayakopaniad, 2.4.5)
4 weeks/8 hrs.
Unit 2
(Concentration)
Concept of Yoga : (Yogastra, 1.2)
Restriction of fluctuations by practice (abhysa) and passionlessness (vairgya) :(Yogastra, 1.12-16)
Eight aids to Yoga (agayoga) : (Yogastra, 2.29, 30,32, 46, 49, 50; 3.1-4).
Yoga of action (kriyyoga) : (Yogastra, 2.1)
Four distinct means of mental purity (cittaprasdana) leading to oneness : (Yogastra, 1.33)
4 weeks/8hrs.
Unit 3
(Refinement of Behavior)
Methods of Improving Behavior : jna-yoga, dhyna-yoga, karma-yoga and bhakti-yoga (especially
karma-yoga)
Karma : A natural impulse, essentials for life journey, co-ordination of the world, an ideal duty and a
metaphysical dictate (Gt, 3.5, 8, 10-16, 20 & 21 )
4 weeks/8 hrs.

[D]
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Suggested Projects
Group discussion on various aspects of Art of living.
Presentation on various practical aspects.
Application of theory with examples from day to day life.
Power Point Presentation on the course content.
Any project which is connected with the practical aspect of this course.
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4 YEAR UNDERGRADUATE PROGRAMME IN SANSKRIT


Paper 2 Indian Perspectives on Personality Development
[A]

Prescribed Course
Concept of Personality
Constructs of Personality
Disposition of Personality
Project/Presentation

06 hrs.
06 hrs.
12 hrs.
12 hrs.

[B] Course Objectives


This course aims to get the students acquainted with methods of personality development inherent in Sanskrit
literature and apply them to become a better human being. It also intends to make students improve their
personality for excellent outcomes in life.
[C]
Unit-wise Division
Unit 1
(Concept of Personality )
Historical Perspective : gveda, 1.164.37;
: Chndogyopaniad,VI. 2.3, VI.8.6, VIII.1.4
: Bhadrayakopaniad, II.5.18-19
3 weeks/6hrs.
Unit 2
(Constructs of Personality)
Jva as Core and Eight-fold Nature as Cover;
Ketraja as Core and Ketra as Cover; and
Akara as Core and Kara as Cover;
(Gt; 2.11-14; 2.15-25, 27, 29, 30, 31-38, 47; 13.1-2, 19-26;15.7-11,16-19)
3 weeks/6hrs.
Unit 3
(Disposition of Personality)
Causes of Binding Behavior (Gt : 2.62-63, 66-67; 3.37-39, 40-41; 6.21)
Measures for Concern-free behavior :
i. Control of Senses and Mind (Gt : 2.68; 3.41-43; 6.20-23)
ii. Right Faith (Gt : 9.3, 22, 23-28, 30-34; 17.3, 5-6)
iii. Recognition of Svadharma - Inner Urge; (Gt : 2.31,41-44; 3.4, 5, 8, 9, 27-30, 33-34; 4.1822; 5.11-12; 7.15, 18, 20- 23, 27-29)
iv. Channelizing Innate Urges on Social Lines : (Gt ; 18.41-62)
v. Sublimation of Svadharma to Svabhva : (Gt ; 2.40, 62-65; 3.22-25; 6.37-45; 8.16-19, 25,
48-56)
6 weeks/12 hrs.
[D]
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Suggested Projects
Group discussion on various aspects of personality development.
Presentation on various aspects of personality development.
Application of theory with examples from day to day life.
Power Point Presentation on the course content.
Any project which is connected with the practical aspect of this course.
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Paper 3 Arts and Fine Arts
[A]

Prescribed Course
A Historical Survey of Gupta Art (Circa 325-650 A.D.)
Painting
Music and Dance
Project / Presentation

08 hrs.
08 hrs.
08 hrs.
12 hrs.

[B] Course Objectives


This course aims to give the students the basic idea of Indian Arts. Students are expected to apply the
theoretical aspects in the practical application of Arts. The course also intends to give a philosophical insight
of Indian Arts.
[C]

Unit-wise Division
Unit 1
A Historical Survey of Gupta Art (Circa 325-650 A.D.)
A Historical Survey of Gupta Art (Circa, 325-650 A.D.) with special reference to the works of
Klidsa and Babhaa.
4 weeks/8 hrs.
Unit 2
Painting
Concept of Beauty - Saundarya
Six Constituents of Painting ; namely,
i. Appraisal of forms,
ii. Correct proportion,
iii. Maintaining of proper aesthetic interest,
iv.
Beauty of touches,
v. Realism, and
vi.
Proper use of colours.
4 weeks/8hrs.
Unit 3
Music and Dancing
Concept of Music - Sagta,
Concept of Instrument Vdya
Concept of Dance - Ntya,
Concept of Rhythm Tla,
Inter-relation among Painting, Dancing and Music

4 weeks/8 hrs.
Note : It is expected to understand the concepts in the light of Viudharmottara Pura; Part-III, Chapter
36-43, Citrastra; and Classical Indian Dance in Literature & The Arts, Kapila Vatsyayan, Sangeet Natak
Academy, New Delhi (Chapter I, pp. 5-22, Chapter V pp.333-344) only selected portions.
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4 YEAR UNDERGRADUATE PROGRAMME IN SANSKRIT

[D]

Suggested Projects
1. Group discussion on various concerns pertaining to arts.
2. Presentation on various issues.
3. Application of theory with examples from day to day life specially contemporary arts including films,

classical music, semi-classical music, light music & various dance-forms.


4. Power Point Presentation on the course content.
5.

[E]

Any project which is connected with the practical aspect of this course.
Recommended Books
The Citrastram of the Visudharmottarapura, Ed & Tr. by Parul Dave Mukherji, Indira Gandhi
National Centre For Arts, 2001
Agrawal, V. S., Gupta Art : A History of Indian Art in The Gupta Period, Prithvi Prakashan,
Varanasi, 1977.

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4 YEAR UNDERGRADUATE PROGRAMME IN SANSKRIT


Paper 4

Acting and Script Writing


(Abhinaya evam Paakathlekhana)

[A]

Prescribed Course

Section

A Acting (Abhinaya)

16 hrs.

Section

B Script Writing (Paakathlekhana)

08 hrs.

Projects / Presentations

12 hrs.

[B]Course Objectivess
The acting is connected with the practical aspect of the play and depends on actor while script writing is
closely related with society and this paper aims at teaching the theoretical aspect of this art.The training of
composition and presentation of drama can further enhance ones natural talent. This paper deals with the
rules of presentation of play (acting) and dramatic composition (script writing) and aims at sharpening the
dramatic talent of the students.
[C]

Unit-wise Division
Section A
( Acting)

Unit 1

a.

Persons competent for presentation (acting) : kuala (skilful), vidagdha (learned),


pragalbha (bold in speech), jitaram (inured to hard-work) .

b.

Types of presentation: Romantic, comedy, action, tragedy.

c.

nya-prayokt-gaa (members of theatrical group) : stradhra (director),


nyakra(playwright), naa (actor) kulava(musician), bharata, nartaka (dancer),
vidaka (jester) etc.

Unit 2

(i.) Assignment of role :


a. general principles of distribution
b. role of minor characters
c. role of women characters
d. special cases of assigning of role
(ii.) kinds of roles: anurpa (natural), virpa (unnatural), rpnusari (imitative)
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4 YEAR UNDERGRADUATE PROGRAMME IN SANSKRIT


Unit 3 Definition of abhinaya and its types:
a. gika (gestures): aga, upga and pratyaga
b. vcika(oral): svara, sthna, vara, kku, bh .
c. sttvika(representaion of the sttvikabhva)
d. hrya: pusta, alakra, agaracan, sajiva (dresses and make-up)
Section B
(Script Writing )
Unit 1

Types of dramatic production:


sukumra (delicate), viddha (energetic).
Nature (vastu) of plot : dhikrika (principal), prsagika (subsidiary), dsya (presentable),
schya (restricted scenes).

Unit 2

Division of Plot
a.

Source of plot: prakhyta (legendary), utpdya (invented), mira (mixed);

b.

Object of plot- krya (dharma, artha, kma);

c.

Elements of plot- Five kinds of arthapraktis (caustations), kryvasth (stages of the


action of actor); sandhis (junctures) and their sub-divisions (segments)

d.
Unit 3

Unit 4

arthopakepaka (interludes);

Dialogue writing: kinds of savda( dialogue)


a.

sarvarvya or praka (aloud)

b.

arvya or svagata (aside)

c.

niyatarvya : janntika (personal address), apavrita (confidence)

d.

kabhita (conversation with imaginary person).

a.

Duration of play

b.

Three Unities : Time, Actions and place.

c.

Starting of a play : prvaraga ragadvra, nnd,


prastvan, prarocan, cr, mahcr

[D]

Suggested Projects
Students may identify the qualities and duties of members of theatrical group in various dramas
studied by them.
Prepare assignments on classical aspects of script writing and acting dramas studied by the student.
Prepare skit or play on current social issues.
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4 YEAR UNDERGRADUATE PROGRAMME IN SANSKRIT


Act on any skit.
Prepare dialogue on any legendary or current plot.
Group discussion by students on classical aspects of script writing and acting.
Demonstrate the skill of dialogue-making based on social issues or plots.
Any project which is connected with the practical aspects of this course.
[F] Recommended Books
Section 'A'

Acting

Unit -1

based on1/12-16 and 35 chap. of Nyatra

Unit - 2

based on 35 chap. of Nyatra

Unit - 3

based on 8,14,21,22 chap. of Nyatra


Ghosh, M.M.: Nyatra of Bharatamuni.

Section B :
Units 1

Script Writing (Paakathlekhana)


:

Units 1-4 :

based on 35/47-56 of Nyatra


based on first and third chap. of Daarpaka
Hass: The Daarpaka : A Treatise on Hindu Dramaturgy
Adyarangacharya, Introduction to Bharats Nyatra,
chap.5, 6 & 9

[F]

Further Readings and Bibliography


Ghosh, M.M., Nystra of Bharatamuni, vol-1, Manisha Granthalaya, Calcutta, 1967.
Hass, The Daarpaka : A Treatise on Hindu Dramaturgy, Columbia University, NewYork , 1912.
Adyarangachrya, Introduction to Bharatas Nyatra, Popular Prakashan Bombay, 1966.

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