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This is the best book to understand design of pneumatic and hydraulics. Every design must be go through it

This is the best book to understand design of pneumatic and hydraulics. Every design must be go through it

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SECTION 25

SYSTEMS DESIGN

Valves in Hydraulic Systems 25.1

Hydraulic-System Reservoir and Heat

Exchanger Selection and Sizing 25.12

Choosing Gaskets for Industrial

Hydraulic Piping Systems 25.19

Computing Friction Loss in Industrial

Hydraulic System Piping 25.26

Hydraulic-Cylinder Clearance for

Damping End-of-Stroke Forces 25.29

Hydraulic System Pump and Driver

Selection 25.32

Hydraulic Piston Acceleration,

Deceleration, Force, Flow, and Size

Determination 25.36

Hydropneumatic Accumulator Design

for High Force Levels 25.39

Membrane Vibration in Hydraulic

Pressure-Measuring Devices 25.41

Power Savings Achievable in Industrial

Hydraulic Systems 25.42

Pneumatic-Circuit Analysis Using

Various Equations and Coefficients

25.44

Orifices in Pneumatic Systems 25.49

Labyrinth Shaft Seal Leakage

Determination 25.58

Systems without Fluid Shock 25.67

Pipe-Wall Thickness for Hydraulic

Systems with Fluid Shock 25.68

Allowable Stress in Hydraulic System

Piping 25.68

Hydraulic Fluid Compressibility and

System Bulk Modulus 25.69

Selection of Fluids for Oil Hydraulic and

Control Systems 25.69

Effect of Trapped Air on Hydraulic

System Bulk Modulus 25.71

Surge Pressure in Hydraulic Cylinders

25.72

Reservoir 25.72

Required Volume of Bladder-Type

Accumulator 25.73

Determining Hydraulic Accumulator

Demand Volume 25.74

Effective Force Developed by a DoubleActing Hydraulic Cylinder 25.74

Hydraulic Cylinder Oil Consumption and

Extension Time 25.75

Hydraulic Cylinder Power Output 25.76

Selecting Hydraulic Motors and Pumps

by Using Manufacturers Size Tables

25.76

VALVES IN HYDRAULIC SYSTEMS

A pilot-operated solenoid-energized spool control valve in a hydraulic system has

the dimensions, operating pressures, and performance given in Table 1. Pilot supply

pressure is 100 lb / in2 (689 kPa); main supply pressure is 500 lb / in2 (3445 kPa).

Find the maximum velocity of this valve, its acceleration time, and the total response time. Next, using the same dimensions and main operating pressure, find

25.1

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25.2

DESIGN ENGINEERING

Diameter, in

Mass, lb-sec2/in

Stroke, in

Land length, in

Radial clearance, in

Coefficient of friction

Solenoid force, lb (initial; final)

Back pressure, lb / in2

Supply pressure, lb / in2

Differential pressure, lb / in2

Port area, in2

Flow coefficient

Viscosity, CP

Density, lb-sec2/in4

Pilot Spool

Main spool

d 0.25

m 0.0002

s 0.375

FSOL 1; 8.5

p 100

p 70 (approx)

a0 0.05

0.6

80

0.000,085

D 2.5

M 0.05

S 1.5

L 6.0

C 0.0003

FR 0.04

pB 20

P 500

P 450 (approx)

AM 1.2

0.6

80

0.000,085

the same unknowns when the pilot pressure is made equal to the main operating

pressure i.e., 500 lb / in2 (3445 kPa). As a further modification, a small actuating

piston is placed at each end of the main spool, Fig. 3, to increase the longitudinal

velocity for a given pilot-fluid flow rate. Trial and error would normally be used

to calculate the most effective diameter for the actuating piston. In this procedure

we will use a diameter dx 1.4 in (3.56 cm) for this small actuating piston. If the

dimensions and operating pressures are unchanged, analyze the valve for the same

unknowns as above.

Calculation Procedure:

The forces acting on the main spool at maximum velocity are: Pilot backpressure,

pB; viscous damping force, DV; and radial jet force Prad , Fig. 2. From the equation,

Pas 2FrAMP

where the symbols are as given, Table 2. Then, Pax 2(0.04)(0.6)(1.2)(450) 26

lb (115.6 N). converting to pressure by dividing by the area of the main spool valve

end, we have 26 / 4.9 5.3 lb / in2 (36.5 kPa).

2. Compute the combined hydrodynamic resistance of the valve

Provisionally, estimate that DV is equivalent to 3.2 lb / in2 (22 kPa) and PB pilotvalve backpressure 20 lb / in2 (138.8 kPa). The combined hydrodynamic resistance is then the sum of: Radial pressure, lb / in2 (kPa) Viscous drag, lb / in2 (kPa)

Pilot-valve backpressure, lb / in2 (kPa). Or combined hydrodynamic resistance

5.3 3.2 20 28.5 lb / in2 (196.4 kPa).

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25.3

Spool

Dimensions

and Mass

Solenoid

Forces

Drag

Forces

Pilot

Actuating

piston

Diameter, in

dx

ap

As

Mass, lb-sec2/in

Stroke: Intermediate

Full

Sa

lp

Initial, lb

Gradient, lb/in

Final, lb

FSOL

Ratio, A/B

pB

pB

pB

dV

DV

Radial jet, lb

Prad

Prad

Coefficient of friction

FR

FR

Pax

Pzx

F ma

F Ma

Axial jet, lb

Acceleration force, lb

Oil

pressure,

flow, and

port size

Main

valve

Pressure:

Supply, psi

Pilot downstream, psi

Differential, psi

Port area, in2(effective orifice)

Flow coefficient (0.55 to 0.70)

Viscosity, centipoise

p1

p1

p1

a0

AM

V0

ta

Ta

Ta

vp

(after energization)

Flow rate, in3/sec

Oil velocity, in/sec (through port)

Oil mass flow, lb-sec/in

Oil-jet deflection angle, deg

Valve

response

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25.4

DESIGN ENGINEERING

The pilot-valve pressure differential, delta P 100 28.5 71.5 lb / in2 (492.6

kPa). Hence, the valve flow rate is, using the equation below

q ao

2p

where q flow, in3 / s (mL / s); flow factor, dimensionless, ranging from 0.55

to 0.70 depending on valve type; ao cross-sectional area, in2 (cm2); of the minimum port openingusually the drilled port hole; p p p1 differential

pressure, lb / in2 (kPa) measured across the pilot inlet and outlet ports; p fluid

mass density, lb-s2 / in4, normally 0.000085 for oil. Substituting, q 0.6

(0.5)[(2)(71.5) / 0.000085)]0.5 40 in3 / s (656 mL / s), using a value of 0.6 for

this valve.

4. Determine the maximum velocity of the main spool and the viscous damping

force

The maximum velocity of the main spool, Fig. 1, V (flow rate, in3 / s / (area of

spool end, in2) 40 / 4.9 8.2 in / s (20.8 cm / s). Knowing the velocity, we can

find the damping force, DV, from

DV

DLV

C 6.9 106

spool velocity, in / s (cm / s); mu absolute viscosity, centipoise; C spool-to-bore

radial clearance, in (cm). If the temperature varies more than 30 to 50 degrees, it

is nearly impossible to compute the viscous resistance. Substituting, DV

2.5(6)(8.2)(80) / (0.0003)(6.9 106) 3.05 lb / in2 (21 kPa). Thus, the provisional

estimate of DV 3.2 was close enough (within 4.9 percent) and recalculation is

not necessary.

5. Find the accelerating pressure and acceleration time of the spool

The forces acting upon the spool during acceleration are: pR, Pax, DV, and F, where

F Ma. Assuming a mean value for initial port opening AM 0.4 in2 (2.58 cm2),

then from

Pas 2AMP cos

where normally varies from 70 degrees at initial opening to 90 degrees at full

opening. In calculations, use the axial jet pressure during initial opening, and the

axial component of radial pressure during the remainder of travel. Substituting,

Pax 2(0.6)(0.4)(450)(0.26) 56 lb (248.1 N). Then 56 / 4.9 11.4 lb / in2 (78.5

kPa), 75 deg; cos 0.26.

Viscous drag will be the average: DV 3.2 / 2 1.6 lb / in2 (11 kPa). Backpressure is still pB 20 lb / in2 (137.8 kPa). So the total is 11.4 1.6 20 33 lb /

in2 (227.4 kPa).

Therefore, accelerating pressure 100 33 67 lb / in2 (461.6 kPa). Converting to force, we have 67 (4.9) 328 lb (1441.2 N). The acceleration time, ta

s MV / F 0.05 (8.2) / 328 0.0013 s.

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25.5

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25.6

DESIGN ENGINEERING

6. Determine the main spool displacement and the energization time interval

The displacement of the main spool during the acceleration period is negligible,

being less than 1 percent of the total stroke. Time for the total stroke of 1.5 in (3.8

cm) is 1.5 / 8.2 0.182 s, and the time interval from energization of the solenoid

to completion of the main valve stroke, T 0.190 s.

7. Analyze the valve with the higher pilot pressure

Much larger flow will pass through the pilot valve because of the higher pressure.

Maximum velocity period: Pax 5.3 lb / in2 (36.5 kPa), the same as before; DV

7.7 lb / in2 (53.1 kPa)a higher estimate, proportional to the anticipated velocity;

pB 20.0 lb / in2 (137.8 kPa), the same as before. The total is 33.0 lb / in2 (227.5

kPa).

The new P 467 lb / in2 (3217.6 kPa), and Q 4.7 (467)0.5 102 in3 / s

(1671.5 mL / s); V 102 / 4.9 20.8 in / s (52.1 cm / s); DV 1.82 (20.8) 37.8

lb (168.1 N) 7.75 lb / in2 (53.4 kPa), which proves out the assumption of 7.7 lb

/ in2 (53.1 kPa).

Accelerating time, ta (0.05)(20.8) / (2280) 0.0005 s. The 1.5-in (3.81-cm)

stroke takes 1.5 / 20.8 0.072 s. Total time 0.081 s.

The flow rate of the pilot oil is more important than pressure intensity in obtaining a fast-acting valve. A slightly larger pilot valve and enlarged porting have

a marked effect on the operational speed of the main valve.

Note that increasing the pilot pressure fivefold, from 100 lb / in2 to 500 lb / in2

(689 kPa to 3445 kPa) only doubles the speed of response, from 0.19 s to 0.08 s.

Increasing the port area can result in an nearly proportional gain in speed, and no

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HYDRAULIC AND PNEUMATIC SYSTEMS DESIGN

25.7

0.375-in (9.52-mm) pilot spool are not much greater than those for a 0.25-in (6.35mm) spool. The increase in capacity is 50 percent without the additional heat losses

entailed by an increase in pressure.

8. Analyze the valve fitted with actuating pistons

For the valve, Fig. 3, with the small actuating pistons, taking the summation of the

viscous drag, DV, and inserting the known optimum values in parentheses after

the computed values, we have:

DV

8.2 4.9 4 80

0.0003 6l9 106 1.4

2.5 6

2 1.5

1.4

12800

15

3

2075 1.4 1.4

ap

2k2

2(p pB)

we have

ap

3(26 60.5)

1.62 in (10.45 sq cm) [1.59 in2; 10.26 cm2 ]

2(100 20)

With optimum ap 1.59 cu in (26.06 mL), piston velocity using

q ao

a a

v k1

is

2 p

k2

k3

2

p

3

p

k21k2 k21k3

3

a2p

ap

vp 4.6

80

(26 59)

2.53

4.0

15.0 in / s

(38.1 cm / s)

The total time, T 0.100 0.009 0.109 s. Using a pilot pressure of 500 pst

(3445 kPa), V 20.8 in / s (52.8 cm / s) and d 1.06 in (2.69 cm). Then:

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25.8

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25.9

DV

0.0003 6.9 106 1.06

ap

15

3 258 lb

1.06

3(26 258)

0.886 in2

2(500 20)

dz 1.06 in

vp 4.6

0.784 0.61

480

284

55 in / s

T 0.036 s

Table 3 and Fig. 4 depict the effect of actuating-piston area upon the spool shifting

velocity and shifting time.

Related Calculations. Pilot-operated flow-control valves are probably the most

common valves used in industrial hydraulic systems. Speed of response of these

valves is important during the design and operation of any hydraulic system. The

procedure given here analyzes the speed of response of a typical valve in terms of

the fluid flow rate, characteristic force-vs-airgap curve of the solenoid; shape, size,

clearance, and displacement of each spool; and the fluid viscosity.

The method given in this procedure relates the above parameters for the valve

in Fig. 1. and can be applied to any other pilot-operated spool valve. And the

procedure includes a special technique for a large spool valve, Fig. 3, actuated by

a small auxiliary piston.

In the sequence of operation of solenoid-energized pilot-operated spool valve,

here is what happens. The solenoid is energized, the pilot spool moves quickly to

the full open position, Fig. 5, and the main spool is shifted at a rate determined by

the amount of fluid that can move through the pilot ports against these five resisting

forces: (1) pilot system backpressure, lb / in2 (kPa); (2) viscous damping force, lb

(N); (3) radial jet force, lb (N); (4) axial jet force, lb (N); (5) acceleration force, lb

(N).

Pilot

pressure p,

psi

Main valve

diameter,

in

Maximum

valve

velocity,

without

piston

in/sec

100

500

2.50

2.50

8.2

20.8

Total

shift

time

T,

sec

Maximum

valve

velocity,

with

piston in

sec

Piston

diameter,

in

Total

shift

time

T,

sec

0.190

0.081

15.0

55.0

1.425

1.06

0.109

0.036

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25.10

DESIGN ENGINEERING

SI Values

in./sec cm/sec

5

12.7

10

25.4

15

38.1

20

50.8

25

63.5

FIGURE 4 Effect of varying piston diameter.

in.2

1

2

3

4

5

cm2

6.45

12.9

19.4

25.8

32.3

FIGURE 5 Before energization and after full stroke of a solenoid-energized spool valve.

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HYDRAULIC AND PNEUMATIC SYSTEMS DESIGN

25.11

position. This chart is for a 0.25-in (0.635-cm) diameter closed-center pilot spool

controlling flow to a 2.5-in (6.35-cm) main spool.

Pilot pressure chosen for this procedure is 100 lb / in2 (689 kPa), which is less

than the main supply pressure. A separate supply for the pilot is required. There

are no hard and fast rules for establishing pilot pressures, but if possible keep the

pressure in the range of a few hundred lb / in2 (kPa) if this range will do the job,

to avoid possible distortion or leakage in the pilot system.

In analyzing any pilot-operated valves, some simplifying assumptions must be

made; otherwise there is no practical mathematical solution. For one, assume that

the backpressure of the pilot system, set by the pilot exhaust valve, is constant.

Ignore line resistance because the connecting lines are short. Neglect viscous damping except at the full-velocity portion of the stroke. Then the five dynamic resistances can be handled with the simple equations presented in this procedure.

The pilot-system backpressure is usually 5 to 7 percent of the pilot pressure, p.

Select the higher value if the operating pressures are over 200 lb / in2 (1378 kPa),

because it adds a margin of safety that compensates for spool rubbing friction. The

friction is from metal-to-metal contact at points where the oil film is partially destroyed.

Above 400-lb / in2 (2756 kPa) operating pressure, a separate pilot supply usually

is provided. Pilot pressure in these instances ought to be at least 7 percent of the

main operating pressure to ensure adequate force to move the main spool.

This procedure is the work of Louis Dodge, Hydraulics Consultant, as reported

in Product Engineering magazine.

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25.12

DESIGN ENGINEERING

EXCHANGER SELECTION AND SIZING

(1) Determine if a first-pass reservoir choice, Fig. 7, can dissipate enough heat

to keep oil temperature below 120F (48.9C) in a 70-F (21.1-C) ambient (50-F

[27.8-C]) temperature difference, TD. The source of heat is a 20-gal / min (1.26-L -

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HYDRAULIC AND PNEUMATIC SYSTEMS DESIGN

25.13

hydraulic working unit, including the piping, is not helping to dissipate heat. Reservoir tank size is small with a cooling surface of 21 ft2 (1.95 m2), based on a

reservoir volume of twice pump flowor 2 20 40 gal (75.8 L). System

pressure 750 lb / in2 (5167.5 kPa); overall heat transfer coefficient, k 5 Btu / ft2

hr F (28.4 W / m2 C), a conservative value. (2) The return flow of the hydraulic

fluid in another industrial hydraulic system must be cooled continuously to 125F

(51.7C). The hottest uncooled drain temperature of the fluid is 140F (60.0C).

Flow of the hydraulic fluid through the system is 12 gal / min (0.76 L / s); the cooling-water inlet temperature 65F (18.3C); outlet temperature 85F (29.4C);

k 90 Btu / hr-ft2 F (511.2 W / m2 C). Use a counterflow, single-pass heat exchanger, Fig. 8, in this analysis. (3) Lastly, calculate the temperature of a standard

60-gal (227.4 L) reservoir after 5 hr of operation. Pump discharge is 20 gal / min

(1.26 L / s) at 750 lb / in2 (5.17 MPa). Cooling surface is 28 ft2 (0.792 sq m). An

attached heat-dissipating working unit weighs W 800 lb (362.2 kg) and its effective surface area A 5.5 ft2 (0.156 m2). With an initial system oil temperature,

Toil 70F (21.1C), and an ambient temperature, Tair 50F (10.0C), the initial

temperature-over-ambient, Tp 70 50 20F(11.1C). The estimated median

value of k 4 Btu / ft2 hr F(22.7 W / sq m C). The 60 gallons of oil weigh 444

lb (201.6 kg).

Calculation Procedure:

Find the total heat generated in the system using the equation

EL 1.48 Q P(1 )

where the symbols are as given below. Substituting

EL 1.48(20 gal / min)(750 lb / in2)(1 0.60) 8880 Btu / hr (2601.1 W).

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25.14

DESIGN ENGINEERING

Use the equation

T EL / kA

max D

and solve for the required area, A. Or, A 8880 / (50 5) 35.5 ft2 (3.3 m2).

Since this reservoir has only 21 ft2 (1.95 m2) of cooling surface, the tank area is

not large enough to dissipate the heat generated. Hence, a larger reservoir cooling

area must be provided for this installation.

3. Determine the heat-transfer area and cooling-water flow rate required

Use the equation

Eexch Toil Qoil 210

Twater Qwater 500

to find the heat exchanger heat load. Substituting, we have Eexch (140 125)

(12)(210) 37,800 Btu / hr (11.1 kW). The maximum temperature difference,

Tmax 125 65 60F (51.7C). Minimum temperature difference Tmin

140 85 55F (30.6C). Log-mean temperature difference, computed as shown

elsewhere in this handbook (see index) is Tmean 57.5 (31.9C). Figure 9 shows

the oil and water temperature changes in a generalized manner.

Find the required heat-transfer area from

Eexch kATmeanBtu / hr

solving for A. Or A 37,800 / (90 57.5) 7.3 ft2 (0.68 m2).

for heat exchanger in Fig. 8.

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HYDRAULIC AND PNEUMATIC SYSTEMS DESIGN

25.15

To find the required cooling-water flow rate, use Qwater Eexch / (500 gal / min),

where 500 a constant to convert gal / min to gph. Substituting, Qwater 38,800 /

(500 20) 3.78 gal / min (0.2385 L / s).

Refer to manufacturers catalogs for the size of a heat exchanger with the proper

surface area. Be certain to check the heat exchanger pressure rating if the system

pressure exceeds 150 lb / in2 (1033.5 kPa).

4. Find the heat exchanger heat load

Use the same relation as in step 1, above, to find EL 8880 Btu / hr (2601.1 W).

5. Compute the heating variables for the fluid and reservoir

The heat balance for the oil and attached heat dissipating working unit are given

by cW 0.4(444) 0.1(800) 257.6 Btu / F (489.4 kJ / C). For the tank and

working unit, the kA 4(28 5.5) 134 Btu / hrF (254.6 kJ / hrC).

6. Determine the temperature above ambient for the hydraulic fluid

Use the equation

TD

EL

t

t

(1 ekA/cW ) (initTD)ekA/cW

kA

TD

8880

(1 e134/2575 ) 20 e134/2575

134

The maximum operating temperature over ambient, maxTD EL / kA 8880 /

134 66.3F (19C). Then, the oil temperature 50 66.3 116.3F (46.8C).

Based on these results, no heat exchanger is required.

Note that the result of this calculation depends on the correct evaluation of k,

which depends on air circulation around the reservoir and attached heat-dissipating

unit. The influence of the initial temperature difference is minor. Practical experience with system design is most important.

Related Calculations. The highest recommended temperature for oil in a conventional hydraulic systems reservoir is 120F (48.9C). The procedure presented

above shows ways to prevent the oil temperature from exceeding that level. There

are certain exceptions to the rule given above. Some conventional hydraulic systems

are designed to operate at 150F (65.6C). So-called super-systems with special

fluids and seals can operate at 500F (260C), and higher. But for any level of

operating temperature, the same heat-transfer principles apply.

In designing a fluid systems heat-transfer, after youve established the basic

system and reservoir design, follow the simple heat-balance method given above.

If the reservoirs peak temperature calculated this way is less than 120F (48.9C)

(or some other desired temperature), no further work is necessary. Thats why a

heat exchanger was not required in step 6, above. If the calculated reservoir temperature is higher than desired, you have two alternatives: (1) improve heat dissipation by modifying the reservoir tank, components, or piping; (2) add a heat

exchanger, using the rating method given in this procedure.

Most of the heat in industrial hydraulic systems comes from in-the-system components. Exceptions are systems in hot environments or adjacent to heat-producing

equipment, but the same heat-balance principles apply.

Heat is generated whenever hydraulic oil is throttled or otherwise restricted.

Examples of heat-producing devices include pressure regulators, relief valves, un-

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25.16

DESIGN ENGINEERING

dersize piping, dirty or undersize filters, leakage points, and areas of turbulence

anywhere in the system.

A good measure of internally generated heat loss is the difference between

pump input power, Btu / hr (W), and system useful work, Btu / hr (W). The energy

loss, EL Ein(1 ) where system efficiency.

Figure 10 shows a typical duty cycle in an industrial hydraulic system. The

utilization pressure, measured at the inlet to the working device (fluid motor or

cylinder) will always be lower than the source pump pressure, depending on the

amount of throttling or other regulation required in the system.

The difference in energiespumped vs utilizedmust be absorbed during transients and eventually dissipated by the system. An approximate measure of overall

system efficiency, , is the ratio of the mean effective pressure, Fig. 10, to pump

pressure, where the mean effective pressure is calculated from the area under the

curve, Fig. 10, divided by the time base.

Figure 11 compares reservoir tank temperature for two different pumps: (1) a

fixed-delivery pump, with constant flow and pressure and a full-flow relief valve

for bypass flow during idling of the workload, and (2) a variable-delivery pump,

with pressure and flow automatically varied to match load requirements.

Note that in the constant-pressure system, Fig. 11, the greatest rate of heat

generation is during idling of the workload; all the flow is throttled back to the

reservoir and does no useful work. By comparison, the variable-delivery pump does

not waste energy at idle because the flow is automatically reduced to nearly zero.

Both Fig. 10 and 11 indicate that savings in energy are possible if only the

needed oil is pumped. Excess capacity is forced back to the reservoir through the

relief valve, and the energy is converted to waste heat. Auxiliary pumps are great

offenders if they are operated when not needed. Additional useful guides for reservoir selection and sizing are given below.

SI Values

psi

250

500

750

1000

MPa

1.72

3.44

5.17

6.89

showing the mean effective pressure, system pressure, and pump

discharge pressure.

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HYDRAULIC AND PNEUMATIC SYSTEMS DESIGN

25.17

SI Values

F

C

50

10

100

37.8

150

65.6

FIGURE 11 Proper pump choice can conserve energy and reduce system temperature.

Plan for a reservoir capacity that can feed the pump system for two or three

minutes, neglecting any return flow. With a tank that big, several related requirements usually are met automatically: (1) There will be enough reserve fluid to fill

the hydraulic system at startup without exposing the filter and strainer; (2) A fairly

stable oil level will be maintained despite normal fluctuations in flow; (3) Enough

hydraulic fluid will be available to sustain the system while the rotating parts coast

to a stop during emergency shutdown if a return line breaks; (4) Thermal capacity

will be available to absorb unexpected heat for short periods or to store heat during

idle periods in a cold environment; (5) Enough surface area (reservoir tank walls)

is available for natural cooling during normal operation.

If the reservoir tank volume in gallons (L) is less than twice pump flow in gallons

per min (L / min)that is, if the tank can be pumped dry in less than 2

minutesadd a heat exchanger to the system circuit to avoid excessive temperature

fluctuations. For any size reservoir tank, specify an oil-level indicator or sight glass,

in addition to whatever automatic level controls are provided.

When designing a reservoir tank, include each device shown in Fig. 7 to provide

reliable service for the system. The suction-line filter should be 12 to 34 in (1.3 to

1.9 cm) above the tank bottom. Strainer oil flow capacity should be two to four

times the pump capacity. A vacuum gage on the pump suction will show if the

strainer is clogged. A permanent-magnet filter can be specified as a drain plug or

mounted on the baffle plate in a region of concentrated return oil flow.

The main return oil flow should discharge below the reservoir oil level about

one inch (2.5 cm) above the tank bottom. Backpressure in the return line will be

5 to 10 lb / in2 (34.5 to 68.9 kPa), or higher. Atmospheric return lines, including

seal-leakage lines, are at zero pressure and should be discharged above the hydraulic

oil level.

If the atmospheric lines have high flow and a high air content, they should be

discharged above the oil level into a chute sloping gradually (5 to 10 degrees) into

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25.18

DESIGN ENGINEERING

the tank fluid. The chute slows and fans out the flow, enabling the oil to free itself

of air. This is important, because oil saturated with air and operating at high pressures will run 25 percent hotter than air-free oil. This is caused partly by the heat

of compression of the air and partly by its low thermal conductivity.

Internal baffles between the return pipe and pump inlet will slow the fluid circulation, help settle out dirt particles, give air the chance to escape, and allow

dissipation of heat. The top of the baffle should be submerged about 30 percent

below the surface of the fluid.

Keep the hydraulic oil temperature between 120 and 150F (54 and

66C)preferably at the lower value for oil viscosities from 100 to 300 SSU based

on 100F (38C). Temperatures up to 160F (71C) are permissible if the hydraulic

fluid viscosity is from 300 to 750 SSU, based on 100F (38C). Higher operating

temperatures require special design.

Tank walls should be thin to permit good thermal conductivity. Make them

approximately 116 in (0.16 cm) for tank capacities up to 25 gal (95 L); 18 in (0.32

cm) for capacities up to 100 gal (379 L); 14 in (0.64 cm) for 100 gal (379 L) or

more. Use slightly heavier plate for the bottom. Give the top plate four times wall

thickness to assure vibration-free operation and to hold alignment of pump and

motor shafts. Specify a thermometer to be mounted on the tank top where the

operator can see it.

Avoid designing industrial hydraulic system machines with integral tanks. It is

better to have a separate reservoir, accessible from all sides. Small reservoir tanks

can even be mounted on castors. Tanks within the machine frame are troublesome

to maintain; be sure to work out maintenance details of such a tank before committing yourself to the design.

Equip the reservoir tank with cleanout doors and slope the bottom toward the

doors. Provide a drain cock or discharge valve at the low point of the bottom and

at other low points if needed for complete drainage. Put a manhole cover on the

tank top for removing filters and strainers. Design a connection for hooking to a

portable filtration unit.

If the reservoir tank is made of cast iron, dont paint the interior surface. Be

sure that all grit and core sand are removed before putting the tank into service.

Surfaces must be sandblasted.

This procedure is the work of Louis dodge, Hydraulics Consultant, as reported

in Product Engineering magazine. SI values were added by the handbook editor.

Heat-transfer terminology and symbols

Heat loss and efficiency

System efficiency, Eused / Ein, %

Eused Energy utilized in system, Btu / hr (W)

Ein Pump input power, Btu / hr (W)

EL Heat loss generated in system, Btu / hr (W)

EA Heat absorbed by oil, tank and components, Btu / hr (W)

ED Heat dissipated to atmosphere or coolant, Btu / hr (W)

Eexch Heat exchanger load, Btu / hr (W)

Fluid conditions and flow

t

Q

P

TD

T

Operating time, hr

Flow, gal / min (L / s)

Pump gage pressure, lb / in2 (kPa)

Temperature-over-ambient for oil, F: TD Toil Tair (values are mean) (C)

Heat exchanger only: Twater Tout Tin; Toil Tin Tout; Tmean log-mean

T, oil-to-water (C)

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HYDRAULIC AND PNEUMATIC SYSTEMS DESIGN

25.19

Equation constants

c

k

W

A

e

Overall heat-transfer coefficient, Btu / sq ft-hr-F (W / m2 C)

Combined weight of oil and system components, lb (kg)

Surface area for dissipating heat, sq ft (sq m)

Base for natural logs 2.718

Summation sign. cW effective cW for all of system components

c, Btu / lb-F: (kJ / kg C) Oil, 0.40; aluminum, 0.18; iron, 0.11; copper, 0.09

k, Btu / sq ft-hr-F: (W mm / m2 C)

2 to 5Tank inside machine or with inhibited air circulation

5 to 10Steel tank in normal air

10 to 13Tank with good air circulation (guided air current)

25 to 60Forced air cooling or oil-to-air heat exchanger

80 to 100Oil-to-water heat exchanger (k values increase slightly with temperature)

HYDRAULIC PIPING SYSTEMS

Choose a suitable gasket to seal industrial hydraulic fluid at 1200 lb / in2 (8.27 MPa)

and 180F (82.2C). Flanges are 1.5-in (3.8-cm) raised-face, 600-lb (2668.8-N)

weld-neck type made from Type 304 stainless steel. There are four bolts, 0.75-in

(1.9-cm) 10 NC, made from ASTM A193 grade B7 alloy steel. Hydrotest pressure

is specified as 2.5 times operating pressure.

Calculation Procedure:

1. Determine the total bolt force and torque for these flanges

Assuming that torque wrenches will be used to check this installation, as is almost

universally done today, select the bolt-stress method to calculate the total bolt force.

This method uses the equation,

Fb NbSb Ab

where the symbols are as given below.

Material

Rubber

Vegetable fiber

Rubberized cloth

Compressed asbestos**

Metal types

Max Pi T

Max Temp, F

15,000

40,000

125,000

250,000

250,000

300

250

400

850

depends on metal

**Or acceptable substitute.

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25.20

DESIGN ENGINEERING

From Table 5, the stress area for 3 / 3-10 NC bolt is 0.3340 sq in. (2.15 sq cm).

The bolt material specified can easily take a stress of 30,000 lb / in2 (206.7 MPa)

without yielding. This can be verified from

Fb 16,000Db / Ab

which gives Fb (16,000)(0.75 / 0.3340) 36,000 lb (160.1 kN).

From the bolt-stress equation, Fb 4(30,000)(0.3340) 40,080 lb (178.3 kN).

The torque required to produce this stress level at installation is given by,

T 0.2DbSb Ab

Or, T 0.2(0.75)(30,000)(0.3340) / 12 125 ft-lb (169.4 Nm). This torque will be

specified on the system assembly drawings so it is used during construction.

2. Choose a suitable gasket material

The pressure-temperature relation for this installation is 1200 180 216,000 in

USCS units and 6798 in SI units. This, from Table 4, suggests choosing a compressed-asbestos (or acceptable substitute) type gasket. This would be compatible

with industrial hydraulic fluid.

The gasket area is 4.73 sq in. (30.5 sq cm), calculated from an outside diameter

of 278 in (7.07 cm), the same as the OD of the raised flange, per ASA-B16.5, and

an ID of 1.5 in (3.8 cm). The seating stress is computed from

Fine Threads

Coarse Threads

Nominal dia, in

0.125

0.138

0.164

0.190

0.216

(No.

(No.

(No.

(No.

(No.

1

4

5

16

3

8

7

16

1

2

1

2

9

16

5

8

3

4

7

8

1

118

114

138

112

5)

6)

8)

10)

12)

Threads

per in

Stress area,

sq in

Threads

per in

Stress area,

sq in

40

32

32

24

24

20

18

16

14

13

12

12

11

10

9

8

7

7

6

6

0.0079

0.0090

0.0139

0.0174

0.0240

0.0317

0.0522

0.0773

0.1060

0.1416

0.1374

0.1816

0.2256

0.3340

0.4612

0.6051

0.7627

0.9684

1.1538

1.4041

44

40

36

32

28

28

24

24

20

20

0.0082

0.0101

0.0146

0.0199

0.0257

0.0362

0.0579

0.0876

0.1185

0.1597

18

18

16

14

12

12

12

12

12

0.2026

0.2555

0.3724

0.5088

0.6624

0.8549

0.0721

1.3137

1.5799

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HYDRAULIC AND PNEUMATIC SYSTEMS DESIGN

25.21

Sg Fb / Ag

Or, Sg 40,080 / 4.73 8470 lb / in2 (58.4 MPa).

Table 6 shows this stress will easily seat the selected compressed-asbestos (or

acceptable substitute) gasket. Tentatively choose asbestos (or acceptable substitute)

with CR (neoprene) binder for oil resistance; thickness 132 in (0.079 cm).

3. Determine the hydrostatic end force for the chosen gasket

The mean area acted upon by the pressure in the hydraulic line is defined by a

diameter of (2.875 1.5) / 2 3.74 sq in (24.1 sq cm). Selecting a safety factor

of 1.5 from Table 8, the end force is calculated and balanced against the total bolt

force by the equation,

Fb KPt Am

Or,

Thus, there is no end-force balance problem with bolts stressed to 30,000 lb / in2

(206.7 MPa).

4. Select a suitable surface finish for the flange

Table 6 shows that a concentric-serrated surface finish on the flange is best. Economy may dictate a conventional spiral-serrated surface, which Table 6 shows will

work in this case.

5. Prepare the final specification for the gasket

Include in the specifications the material type, dimensions, and bolt-torque data

computed in step 1, above. For greater torque-wrench accuracy, specify uniform fit

on all bolts and lubrication before installation.

Related Calculations. While the procedure given here is directed at industrial

hydraulic systems, the steps and data are valid for choosing gaskets for any piping

system: steam, condensate, oil, fuel, etc. Just be certain that the pressures and

temperatures are within the ranges in the tables and equations presented here.

Three main design factors govern the selection of a gasket materialwhether

sheet packing, metal, or a combination of materials. These factors are:

Fluid compatability at the pressure-temperature condition being designed for

must be checked first. Refer to data available from gasket manufacturersthere is

much of it available free to designers.

The pressure-temperature combination determines whether the gasket material

is inherently strong enough to resist blow-out. One rule-of-thumb criterion is the

product of operating pressure, Pi, and operating temperature, T. Table 4 lists values

of this product for several basic types of gasket material. These figures are based

on experience, test data, and analysis of current technical literature.

The total bolt force at installation must be sufficient to: (1) flow the gasket

surface into the flange surface to make an effective seal; (2) prevent the internal

pressure from opening the flanges. This demands careful matching of gasket material, seating area, bolt selection, and flange-surface finish. The procedure presented here gives a logical way to achieve the right balance among these factors

for the majority of gasket joint applications.

Where asbestos is the recommended gasket material in this procedure, the designer must review the environmental aspects of the design. Acceptable substitute

materials may be required by local environmental regulations. Hence, these regulations must be carefully studied before a final design choice is made.

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25.22

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N

O

N

M

E

T

A

L

Folded

Flat

Flat

Flat

Flat

Vegetable-fiber sheet

Fluorocarbon (TFE)

Virgin

Glass-filled

Flat

Flat

Flat

Flat

Rubberized cloth

CR binder

Rubber sheet

SBR (75 Durometer)

CR (60 Durometer)

Compressed asbestos**

SBR binder

Material

Type (see

Table IV)

64

32

1

16

1

8

1

64

1

32

1

16

1

8

3

32

1

64

32

1

16

1

8

1

64

1

32

1

16

1

8

2-ply

3-ply

4-ply

all

32 and up

32 and up

Thickness,

in

14,000

6,500

3,700

1,600

14,000

11,000

6,000

3,000

1,600

3,000

2,000

1,600

1,200

3,750

2,500

2,000

1,500

2,500

2,100

1,800

750

200

175

Minimum seating

stress, lb/in2

80 rms

(164 in only)

Concentricserrated

(all other

thicknesses)

Concentricserrated

1st choice

All

other

types

All

other

types

2nd

choice

Flange-surface finish

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25.23

A

S

B

E

S

T

O

S

M

E

T

A

L

M

E

T

A

L

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25.24

Spiral-wound

Stainless

**Or acceptable substitute.

Corrugated

jacket

Plain

metal

jacket

3,000

to

30,000

500

2,500

4,000

6,000

6,000

7,500

10,000

1

8

only

0.125

and

0.175

2,000

2,500

3,000

3,500

4,000

25,000

35,000

55,000

65,000

75,000

500

1,000

2,500

3,500

4,500

6,000

20,000

45,000

68,750

81,250

93,750

1

8

only

All

thicknesses

Profile

(18-in pitch)

Corrugated

and

corded

964

only

132

and

116

Corrugated

jacketmetal

filler

Flat

Lead

Aluminum

Copper

Carbon steel

Nickel

Monel

Stainless

Metal (asbestos-filler)

Aluminum

Copper

Carbon steel

Stainless

Monel

Stamped metals

Lead

Aluminum

Copper

Carbon steel

Monel

Stainless

Machined metals

Aluminum

Copper

Carbon steel

Monel

Stainless

Flat metals

Aluminum

Copper

Carbon steel

Monel

Stainless

80 rms

or

less

150 to

200

rms

80 rms

or

less

Concentricserrated

150

to

200

rms

Concentricserrated

150

to

200

rms

80

rms

or

less

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25.25

*Or acceptable substitute.

Spiral-wound

Profile

Corrugated and

corded*

with an interleaving cushion of asbestos or fluorocarbon

plastic strip. Ratio of metal to filler can be closely controlled to vary seating stress over wide range. Well suited to

fluctuating-temperature applications.

into the corrugations on both faces; aluminized for nonsticking. Well-suited to rough or warped flanges.

Heavy solid metal with concentric V-shape contact ridges that

provide multiple seating surfaces. Each ridge is 0.010 in

wide. For N ridges, effective arera is then: mean contact dia 0.010 N. Seating stress increases with decrease

in pitch.

Corrugated metal or asbestos core enclosed by a corrugatedmetal jacket and top washer. Better than flat gaskets for

rough flangescorrugations give greater resilience.

combines easy compression with resistance to high pressure.

Temperature resistance depends on jacket material chosen.

Corrugated jacket:

metal-filled

asbestos-filled*

and wavy flanges with low bolting loads.

Folded

Description

Simplest gasket form; available in wide variety of materials for

different conditions of fluid media, temperature and pressure; most easily manufactured for nonsymmetrical shapes.

Cross-section

Flat

25.26

DESIGN ENGINEERING

Corporation, as reported in Product Engineering magazine.

HYDRAULIC SYSTEM PIPING

(1) Determine the friction loss for hydraulic-system fluid having a viscosity of 110

centistokes at 120F (48.9C) when flowing through a 1-in ID (25.4 mm) pipe 50

ft (15.2 m) long at a velocity of 20 ft / s (6.1 m / s); specific gravity 0.88. (2) Find

the pressure loss for a light hydraulic oil having a viscosity of 32 centistokes at

100F (37.8C) when flowing through a 100-ft (30.5-m) long 2-in (50.8-mm) ID

commercial steel pipe at a velocity of 30 ft / s (9.1 m / s); specific gravity 0.88.

Calculation Procedure:

Use the relation

R

92,900 VD

VD

7,740

12

v

v

piping, ft / s (m / s); D pipe diameter, in (mm); v kinematic viscosity of hydraulic fluid, centistokes. Substituting, R (7740)(20)(1) / 110 1407.3.

2. Determine the relative roughness of the piping

Since the Reynolds number for this piping is less than 2000, roughness of the pipe

does not enter into the calculation. See Fig. 12.

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25.28

DESIGN ENGINEERING

Use Fig. 12 and the Reynolds number. Since R is less than 2000, friction

factor 64 / R 64 / 1407.3 0.045.

4. Compute the pressure loss in the piping

Use the relation p 0.0808 (L / D) V 2(s), where p pressure loss in piping,

lb / in2 (kPa); L pipe length, ft (m); s specific gravity of the hydraulic fluid;

other symbols as before. Substituting, p 0.0808 (0.045)(50)(400)(0.88) 63.99

lb / in2; say 64 lb / in2 (440.9 kPa).

5. Find the Reynolds number for the second hydraulic fluid

Use the same equation as in step 1, R (7740)(30)(2) / 32 14,512.5.

6. Determine the relative roughness of the pipe

Use Fig. 13, entering at the pipe diameter at the bottom and projecting vertically

upwards to the commercial steel pipe curve to read the relative roughness, e / D as

0.0009.

7. Find the friction factor,

Enter Fig. 12 at Reynolds number and relative roughness to read 0.03.

8. Compute the friction loss in the piping

Using the same equation as in step 4, we have p (0.0808)

(0.03)(100)(900)(0.88) / 2 95.99 lb / in2 (661.4 kPa).

Related Calculations. Viscosity-temperature curves are shown for typical hydraulic oils in Fig. 14. The Herschel relationship, which expresses the viscositytemperature function between two viscosities, , and, 0, existing at temperatures

T and T0, is

0

T0

T

The above relationship holds for only a relatively restricted range of temperatures and should not be extrapolated beyond the range of validity. The table, which

is part of Fig. 14, gives exponents for the hydraulic oils shown in the chart, covering

a temperature range of 70 to 130F (21 to 54C). As a fair approximation, the

viscosity of oils most commonly used in hydraulic work changes with the third

power of the temperature gradient within the normal operating range. With a commonly encountered temperature gradient of about 2:1 between cold start and maximum operating temperature, viscosities vary as 8:1.

A graph representing the value of the friction factor, , as a function of the

Reynolds number, R, is often called the Stanton chart, after its developer, who was

the first to employ this representation of the friction factor.

A chart taking advantage of the functional relationships established by research

was drawn up by Lewis F. Moody, and is reproduced in Fig. 12 in a form convenient

for the user of this handbook. In Fig. 12, the friction factor, , is shown as a function

of the Reynolds number, R, and the relative roughness, e / D, e being a linear quantity in feet or meters representing the absolute roughness. An auxiliary chart is

given in Fig. 13, from which e / D can be taken for any size and type of pipe.

The procedure given here is valid for industrial hydraulic systems used in hydraulic presses; drilling, boring, and honing machines; planers; grinders; milling,

transfer, and broaching machines; die-casting and plastic molding machines; hy-

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HYDRAULIC AND PNEUMATIC SYSTEMS DESIGN

25.29

SI Values

in.

mm

1

25.4

2

50.8

3

76.2

4

101.6

5

127.0

6

152.4

FIGURE 13 Relative roughness as a function of pipe diameter for various types of piping.

draulic steering mechanisms in ships, aircraft, trucks, etc. In each instance, the basic

approach given here is valid.

This procedure is the work of Walter Ernst, Hydraulic Consulting Engineer. SI

values were added by the handbook editor.

DAMPING END-OF-STROKE FORCES

An undamped hydraulic cylinder, Fig. 15, is fitted with an annular clearance in the

cavity of the cylinder cap, Fig. 16, as a flow restriction. The cylinder is then pro-

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HYDRAULIC AND PNEUMATIC SYSTEMS DESIGN

25.31

FIGURE 15 Undamped cylinder experiences shock forces at, and during, reversal of mass.

restriction for dashpot. Hydraulic fluid then escapes at outlet port.

64 lb-s2 / ft (95.3 kg-s2 / m), a length, L 4 in (10.16 cm), a dashpot radius of R

1 in (2.54 cm), a dashpot capacity of 12.5 cu in (204.8 cu cm), a coefficient of

discharge, CD 0.62, and a pressure differential, P, of 30 lb / in2 (206.7 kPa).

What annular clearance is needed when handling hydraulic fluid with a specific

gravity of 0.85?

Calculation Procedure:

Use the relation, F MV2 / 2L, where F mean dashpot resistance, lb (N); other

symbols as given above. Substituting, F (64)(1.1)2(12) / (2)(4) 116.2 lb (516.9

N).

2. Compute the piston acceleration and deceleration

Use the relation, a F / M, where a piston acceleration or deceleration, ft / s2;

other symbols as given earlier. Substituting, a F / M 116.2 / 64 1.816 ft / s2

(0.55 m / s2).

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25.32

DESIGN ENGINEERING

Use the relation, T 2 V / a, where T stopping time, sec; other symbols as before.

Substituting, T (2)(1.1) / 1.81 1.22 s.

4. Find the liquid discharge from the cylinder

Use the relation, QD 0.26 B / T, where QD cylinder liquid discharge, gal / min

(L / s); B dashpot capacity, cu in (cu cm); other symbols as before. Substituting,

QD 0.26(12.5) / (1.22) 2.66 gal / min (0.168 L / s).

5. Calculate the annular clearance needed

Use the relation, Z QG(S)0.5 / [238(RCD)(P)0.5 ] where Z annular clearance

required, in (cm); QG liquid discharge, gal / min (L / s); S specific gravity of

the hydraulic fluid handled; R radius of dashpot, in (cm); other symbols as before.

Substituting, Z (2.66)(0.92) / (238)(1)(0.62)(5.47) 0.00303 in (0.0077 cm).

Related Calculations. The hydraulic shock absorber, also called a dashpot,

limits axial piston velocity where and when desired by trapping oil ahead of the

piston, then releasing it through a restriction, slowly and with predetermined control. In this procedure we assumed that at the start of dashpot action inertia forces

alone are dissipated through the ejection of dashpot oil. Hence, the kinetic energy

of the moving parts equals the work done during penetration of the dashpot.

The assumed value of the coefficient of discharge, CD, may be checked against

the Reynolds number of the calculated flow and adjusted if it deviates too much

from what experience shows as reasonable. Use the previous calculation procedure

to check the Reynolds number. For Reynolds numbers below 100, CD may vary

from 0.1 to 0.7.

Hydraulic damping and shockless reversal can be obtained with flow-restriction

or pressure-reducing devices. These include servo-controlled variable pumps, flowcontrol valves, cylinder modifiers (orifices, special pistons), and other power cutouts

and reducers.

This procedure is the work of Louis Dodge, Hydraulics Consultant, as reported

in Product Engineering magazine. SI values were added by the handbook editor.

SELECTION

Choose the pump and the driver horsepower for a rubber-tired tractor bulldozer

having four-wheel drive. The hydraulic system must propel the vehicle, operate the

dozer, and drive the winch. Each main wheel will be driven by a hydraulic motor

at a maximum wheel speed of 59.2 r / min and a maximum torque of 30,000 lb in

(3389.5 N m). The wheel speed at maximum torque will be 29.6 r / min; maximum

torque at low speed will be 74,500 lb in (8417.4 N m). The tractor speed must

be adjustable in two ways: for overall forward and reverse motion and for turning,

where the outside wheels turn at a faster rate than do the inside ones. Other operating details are given in the appropriate design steps below.

Calculation Procedure:

Usual output requirements include speed, torque, force, and power for each function

of the system, through the full capacity range.

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HYDRAULIC AND PNEUMATIC SYSTEMS DESIGN

25.33

First analyze the propel power requirements. For any propel condition, hp

Tn / 63,000, where hp horsepower required; T torque, lb in, at n r / min. Thus

at maximum speed, hp (30,000)(59.2) / 63,000 28.2 horsepower (21.0 kW). At

maximum torque, hp 74,500 29.6 / 63,000 35.0 (26.1 kW); at maximum

speed and maximum torque, hp (74,500)(59.2) / 63,000 70.0 (52.2 kW).

The drive arrangement for a bulldozer generally uses hydraulic motors geared

down to wheel speed. Choose a 3000-r / min step-variable type of motor for each

wheel of the vehicle. Then each motor will operate at either of two displacements.

At maximum vehicle loads, the higher displacement is used to provide maximum

torque at low speed; at light loads, where a higher speed is desired, the lower

displacement, producing reduced torque, is used.

Determine from a manufacturers engineering data the motor specifications. For

each of these motors the specifications might be: maximum displacement, 2.1 in3 /

r (34.4 cm3 / r); rated pressure, 6000 lb / in2 (41,370.0 kPa); rated speed, 3000 r /

min; power output at rated speed and pressure, 90.5 horsepower (67.5 kW); torque

at rated pressure, 1900 lb in (214.7 N m).

The gear reduction ratio GR between each motor and wheel (output torque

required, lb in) / (input torque, lb in, gear reduction efficiency). Assuming a 92

percent gear reduction efficiency, a typical value, we find GR 74,500 / (1900

0.92) 42.6:1. Hence, the maximum motor speed wheel speed GR 59.2

42.6 2520 r / min. At full torque the motor speed is, by the same relation, 29.6

42.6 1260 r / min.

The required oil flow for the four motors is, at 1260 r / min, in3 / r 4 motors

(r / min) / (231 in3 / gal) 2.1 4 1260 / 231 45.8 gal / min (2.9 L / s). With

a 10 percent leakage allowance, the required flow 50 gal / min (3.2 L / s), closely,

or 50 / 4 12.5 gal / min (0.8 L / s) per motor.

As computed above, the power output per motor is 35 horsepower (26.1 kW).

Thus, the four motors will have a total output of 4(35) 140 horsepower (104.4

kW).

2. Determine the linear auxiliary power requirements

The dozer uses a linear power output. Two hydraulic cylinders each furnish a maximum force of 10,000 lb (44,482.2 N) to the dozer at a maximum speed of 10 in /

s (25.4 cm / s). Assuming that the maximum operating pressure of the system is

3500 lb / in2 (24,132.5 kPa), we see that the piston are a required per cylinder is:

force developed, lb / operating pressure, lb / in2 10,000 / 3500 2.86 in2 (18.5

cm2), or about a 2-in (5.1-cm) cylinder bore. With a 2-in (5.1-cm) bore, the operating pressure could be reduced in the inverse ratio of the piston areas. Or, 2.86 /

(22 / 4) p / 3500, where p cylinder operating pressure, lb / in2. Hence, p 3180

lb / in2, say 3200 lb / in2 (22,064.0 kPa).

By using a 2-in (5.1-cm) bore cylinder, the required oil flow, gal, to each cylinder (cylinder volume, in3)(stroke length, in) / (231 in3 / gal) (22 / 4)(10) / 231

0.1355 gal / s, or 0.1355 gal / s, or 0.1355 (60 s / min) 8.15 gal / min (0.5 L / s),

or 16.3 gal / min (1.0 L / s) for two cylinders. The power input to the two cylinders

is hp 16.3(3200) / 1714 30. / 4 horsepower (22.7 kW).

3. Determine rotary auxiliary power requirements

The winch will be turned by one hydraulic motor. This winch must exert a maximum line pull of 20,000 lb (88,964.4 N) at a maximum linear speed of 280 ft / min

(1.4 m / s) with a maximum drum torque of 200,000 lb in (22,597.0 N m) at a

drum speed of 53.5 r / min.

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25.34

DESIGN ENGINEERING

Compute the drum horsepower from hp Tn / 63,000, where the symbols are

the same as in step 1. Or, hp (200,000)(53.5) / 63,000 170 horsepower (126.8

kW).

Choose a hydraulic motor having these specifications: displacement 6 in3 / r

(98.3 cm3 / r); rated pressure 6000 lb / in2 (41,370.0 kPa); rated speed 2500 r /

min; output torque at rated pressure 5500 lb in (621.4 N m); power output at

rated speed and pressure 218 horsepower (162.6 kW). This power output rating

is somewhat greater than the computed rating, but it allows some overloading.

The gear reduction ratio GR between the hydraulic motor and winch drum, based

on the maximum motor torque, is GR (output torque required, lb in) / (torque at

rated pressure, lb in, reduction gear efficiency) 20,000 / (5500 0.92) 39.5:

1. Hence, by using this ratio, the maximum motor speed 53.5 39.5 2110

r / min. Oil flow rate to the motor in3 / r (r / min) / 231 6 2110 / 231 54.8

gal / min (3.5 L / s), without leakage. With 5 percent leakage, flow rate 1.05(54.8)

57.2 gal / min (3.6 L / s).

4. Categorize the required power outputs

List the required outputs and the type of motion requiredrotary or linear. Thus:

propel rotary; dozer linear; winch rotary.

5. Determine the total number of simultaneous functions

There are two simultaneous functions: (a) propel motors and dozer cylinders; ( b)

propel motors at slow speed and drive winch.

For function a, maximum oil flow 50 16.3 66.3 gal / min (4.2 L / s);

maximum propel motor pressure 6000 lb / in2 (41,370.0 kPa); maximum dozer

cylinder pressure 3200 lb / in2 (22,064.0 kPa). Data for function a came from

previous steps in this calculation procedure.

For function b, the maximum oil flow need not be computed because it will be

less than for function a.

6. Determine the number of series nonsimultaneous functions

These are the dozer, propel, and winch functions.

7. Determine the number of parallel simultaneous functions

These are the propel and dozer functions.

8. Establish function priority

The propel and dozer functions have priority over the winch function.

9. Size the piping and valves

Table 9 lists the normal functions required in this machine and the type of valve

that would be chosen for each function. Each valve incorporates additional functions: The step variable selector valve has a built-in check valve; the propel directional valve and winch directional valve have built-in relief valves and motor overload valves; the dozer directional valve has a built-in relief valve and a fourth

position called float. In the float position, all ports are interconnected, allowing the

dozer blade to move up or down as the ground contour varies.

10. Determine the simultaneous power requirements

These are: Horsepower for propel and dozer (gal / min)(pressure, lb / in2) / 1714

for the propel and dozer functions, or (50)(6000) / 1714 (16.3)(3200) / 1714

205.4 horsepower (153.2 kW). Winch horsepower, by the same relation, is

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HYDRAULIC AND PNEUMATIC SYSTEMS DESIGN

25.35

(57.2)(6000) / 1714 200 horsepower (149.1 kW). Since the propel-dozer functions

do not operate at the same time as the winch, the prime mover power need be only

205.4 horsepower (153.2 kW).

11. Plan the specific circuit layouts

To provide independent simultaneous flow to each of the four propel motors, plus

the dozer cylinders, choose two split-flow piston-type pumps having independent

outlet ports. Split the discharge of each pump into three independent flows. Two

pumps rated at 66.3 / 2 33.15 gal / min (2.1 L / s) each at 6000 lb / in2 (41,370.0

kPa) will provide the needed oil. Figure 17 shows a schematic of the piping, valves

and motors for this bulldozer, while Fig. 18 shows the valving.

When the vehicle is steered, additional flow is required by the outside wheels.

Design the circuit so oil will flow from three pump pistons to each wheel motor.

Four pistons of one split-flow pump are connected through check valves to all four

motors. With this arrangement, oil will flow to the motors with the least resistance.

To make use of all or part of the oil from the propel-dozer circuits for the winch

circuit, the outlet series ports of the propel and dozer valves are connected into the

winch circuit, since the winch circuit is inoperative only when both the propel and

and motors for bulldozer.

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25.36

DESIGN ENGINEERING

the dozer are operating. When only the propel function is in operation, the winch

is able to operate slowly but at full torque.

12. Investigate adjustment of the winch gear ratio

As computed in step 3, the winch gear ratio is based on torque. Now, because a

known gal / min (gallons per minute) is available for the winch motor from the

propel and dozer circuits when these are not in use, the gear ratio can be based on

the motor speed resulting from the available gal / min.

Flow from the propel and dozer circuit 66.3 gal / min (4.2 L / s); winch motor

speed 2450 r / min; required winch drum speed 53.5 r / min. Thus, GR

2450 / 53.5 45.8:1.

With the proposed circuit, the winch gear reduction should be increased

from 39.5:1 to 45.8:1. The winch circuit pressure can be reduced to (39.5 / 45.8)

(6000) 5180 lb / in2 (35,716.1 kPa). The required size of the winch oil tubing can

be reduced to 0.219 in (5.6 mm).

13. Select the prime mover horsepower

Using a mechanical efficiency of 89 percent, we see that the prime mover for the

pumps should be rated at 205.4 / 0.89 230 horsepower (171.5 kW). The prime

mover chosen for vehicles of this type is usually a gasoline or diesel engine. Figure

19 shows the final tractor-dozer hydraulic circuits.

Related Calculations. The method presented here is also valid for fixed equipment using a hydraulic system, such as presses, punches, and balers. Other applications for which the method can be used include aircraft, marine, and on-highway

vehicles. Use the method presented in an earlier section of this handbook to

determine the required size of the connecting tubing.

The procedure presented above is the work of Wes Master, reported in Product

Engineering.

DECELERATION, FORCE, FLOW, AND SIZE

DETERMINATION

What net acceleration force is needed by a horizontal cylinder having a 10,000-lb

(4500kg) load and 500-lb (2.2-kN) friction force, if 1500 lb / in2 (gage) (10,341 kPa)

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HYDRAULIC AND PNEUMATIC SYSTEMS DESIGN

25.37

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25.38

DESIGN ENGINEERING

is available at the cylinder port, there is zero initial piston velocity, and a 100-ft /

min (30.5-m / min) terminal velocity is reached after 3-in (76.2-mm) travel at constant acceleration with the rod extending? Determine the required piston diameter

and maximum fluid flow needed.

What pressure will stop a piston and load within 2 in (50.8 mm) at constant

deceleration if the cylinder is horizontal, the rod is extending, the load is 5000 lb

(2250 kg), there is a 500-lb (2224-N) friction force, the driving pressure at the head

end is 800 lb / in2 (gage) (5515.2 kPa), and the initial velocity is 80 ft / min (24.4

m / min)? The rod diameter is 1 in (25.4 mm), and the piston diameter is 1.5 in

(38.1 mm).

Calculation Procedure:

Use the relation FA Ma M V / t, where FA net accelerating force, lb (N);

M mass, slugs or lb s2 / ft (N s2 / m); a linear acceleration, ft / s2(m / s2), assumed constant; V velocity change during acceleration, ft / s (m / s); t time

to reach terminal velocity, s. Substituting for this cylinder, we find M 10,000 /

32.17 310.85 slugs.

Next S 3 in / (12 in / ft) 0.25 ft (76.2 mm). Also V (100 ft / min) / (60

s / min) 1.667 ft / s (0.51 m / s). Then FA 0.5(310.85)(1.667)2 / 0.25 1727.6 lb

(7684.4 N).

2. Determine the piston area and diameter

Add the friction force and compute the piston area and diameter thus: F FA

FF, where F sum of forces acting on piston, i.e., pressure, friction, inertia,

load, lb; FF friction force, lb. Substituting gives F 1727.6 500 2227.6

lb (9908.4 N).

Find the piston area from A F / P, where P fluid gage pressure available

at the cylinder port, lb / in2. Or, A 2227.6 / 1500 1.485 in2 (9.58 cm2). The

piston diameter D, then, is D (4A / )0.5 1.375 in (34.93 mm).

3. Compute the maximum fluid flow required

The maximum fluid flow Q required is Q VA / 231, where Q maximum flow,

gal / min; V terminal velocity of the piston, in / s; A piston area, in2. Substituting,

we find Q (100 12)(1.485) / 231 7.7 gal / min (0.49 L / s).

4. Determine the effective driving force for the piston with constant deceleration

The driving force from pressure at the head end is FD [fluid pressure, lb / in2

(gage)](piston area, in2). Or, FD 800(1.5)2 / 4 1413.6 lb (6287.7 N). However,

there is a friction force of 500 lb (2224 N) resisting this driving force. Therefore,

the effective driving force is FED 1413.6 500 913.6 lb (4063.7 N).

5. Compute the decelerating forces acting

The mass, in slugs, is M FA / 32.17, from the equation in step 1. By substituting,

M 5000 / 32.17 155.4 slugs.

Next, the linear piston travel during deceleration is S 2 in / (12 in / ft)

0.1667 ft (50.8 mm). The velocity change is V 80 / 60 1.333 ft / s (0.41 m /

s) during deceleration.

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HYDRAULIC AND PNEUMATIC SYSTEMS DESIGN

25.39

The decelerating force FA 0.5M(V 2) / S for the special case when the velocity is zero at the start of acceleration or the end of deceleration. Thus FA

0.5(155.4)(1.333)2 / 0.1667 828.2 lb (3684 N).

The total decelerating force is F FA FED 827.2 913.6 1741.8 lb

(7748 N).

6. Find the cushioning pressure in the annulus

The cushioning pressure is Pc F / A, where A differential area piston area

rod area, both expressed in in2. For this piston, A (1.5)2 / 4 (1.0)2 / 4 0.982

in2 (6.34 cm2). Then P F / A 1741.8 / 0.982 1773.7 lb / in2 (gage) (12,227.9

kPa).

Related Calculations. Most errors in applying hydraulic cylinders to accelerate

or decelerate loads are traceable to poor design or installation. In the design area,

miscalculation of acceleration and / or deceleration is a common cause of problems

in the field. The above procedure for determining acceleration and deceleration

should eliminate one source of design errors.

Rod buckling can also result from poor design. A basic design rule is to allow

a compressive stress in the rod of 10,000 to 20,000 lb / in2 (68,940 to 137,880 kPa)

as long as the effective rod length-to-diameter ratio does not exceed about 6:1 at

full extension. A firmly guided rod can help prevent buckling and allow at least

four times as much extension.

With rotating hydraulic actuators, the net accelerating, or decelerating torque in

lb ft (N m) is given by TA J MK2 rad / s2 0.1047 MK N / T WK 2

N / (307) t, where J mass moment of inertia, slugs ft2, or lb s2 ft;

angular acceleration (or deceleration), rad / s2; K radius of gyration, ft; N r /

min change during acceleration or deceleration; other symbols as given earlier.

For the special case where the r / min is zero at the start of acceleration or end

of deceleration, TA 0.0008725MK2 (N)2 / revs; in this case, revs total revolutions average r / min t / 60 0.5 NT / 60; t 120(revs / t). For the

linear piston and cylinder where the piston velocity at the start of acceleration is

zero, or at the end of deceleration is zero, t S / average velocity S / (0.5

V).

High water base fluids (HWBF) are gaining popularity in industrial fluid power

cylinder applications because of lower cost, greater safety, and biodegradability.

Cylinders function well on HWBF if the cylinder specifications are properly prepared for the specific application. Some builders of cylinders and pumps offer

designs that will operate at pressures up to several thousand pounds per square

inch, gage. Most builders, however, recommend a 1000-lb / in2 (gage) (6894-kPa)

limit for cylinders and pumps today.

Robotics is another relatively recent major application for hydraulic cylinders.

There is nothing quite like hydrostatics for delivering high torque or force in

cramped spaces.

This procedure is the work of Frank Yeaple, Editor, Design Engineering, as

reported in that publication.

FOR HIGH FORCE LEVELS

Design a hydropneumatic spring to absorb the mechanical shock created by a 300lb (136.4-kg) load traveling at a velocity of 20 ft / s (6.1 m / s). Space available to

stop the load is limited to 4 in (10.2 cm).

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25.40

DESIGN ENGINEERING

Calculation Procedure:

Figure 20 shows a typical hydropneumatic accumulator which functions as a spring.

The spring is a closed system made up of a single-acting cylinder (or sometimes a

rotary actuator) and a gas-filled accumulator. As the load drives the piston, fluid

(usually oil) compresses the gas in the flexible rubber bladder. Once the load is

removed, either partially or completely, the gas pressure drives the piston back for

the return cycle.

The flow-control valve limits the speed of the compression and return strokes.

In custom-designed springs, flow-control valves are often combinations of check

valves and fixed or variable orifices. Depending on the orientation of the check

valve, the compression speed can be high with low return speed, or vice versa.

Within the pressure limits of the components, speed and stroke length can be varied

by changing the accumulator precharge. Higher precharge pressure gives shorter

strokes, slower compression speed, and faster return speed.

The kinetic energy that must be absorbed by the spring is given by Ek

12WV2 / 2g, where Ek kinetic energy that must be absorbed, in lb; W weight

of load, lb; V load velocity, ft / s; g acceleration due to gravity, 32.2 ft / s2.

From the given data, Ek 12(300)(20)2 / 2(32.2) 22,360 in lb (2526.3 N m).

2. Find the final pressure of the gas in the accumulator

To find the final pressure of the gas in the accumulator, first we must assume an

accumulator size and pressure rating. Then we check the pressure developed and

the piston stroke. If they are within the allowable limits for the application, the

assumptions were correct. If the limits are exceeded, we must make new assumptions and check the values again until a suitable design is obtained.

For this application, based on the machine layout, assume that a 2.5-in (6.35cm) cylinder with a 60-in3 (983.2-cm3) accumulator is chosen and that both are

rated at 2000 lb / in2 (13,788 kPa) with a 1000-lb / in2 (abs) (6894-kPa) precharge.

Check that the final loaded pressure and volume are suitable for the load.

/n

The final load pressure p2 lb / in2 (abs) (kPa) is found from p(n1)

2

p2(n1) / n{[Ek(n 1) / ( p1v1)] 1}, where p1 precharge pressure of the accumulator,

lb / in2 (abs) (kPa); n the polytropic gas constant 1.4 for nitrogen, a popular

/ 1.4

charging gas; v1 accumulator capacity, in3 (cm3). Substituting gives p(1.41)

2

(1.41) / 1.4

2

1000

{[22,360(1.4 1) / (1000 60)] 1} 1626 lb / in (abs) (11,213.1

kPa). Since this is within the 2000-lb / in2 (abs) limit selected, the accumulator is

acceptable from a pressure standpoint.

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HYDRAULIC AND PNEUMATIC SYSTEMS DESIGN

25.41

Use the relation v2 v2( p1 / p2)1 / n, where v2 final volume of the accumulator,

in3; v1 initial volume of the accumulator, in3; other symbols as before. Substituting, we get v2 60(1000 / 1626)1 / 1.4 42.40 in3 (694.8 cm3).

4. Compute the piston stroke under load

Use the relation L 4(v1 v2)D2, where L length of stroke under load, in; D

piston diameter, in. Substituting yields L 4(60 42.40) / ( 2.52) 3.58 in

(9.1 cm). Since this is within the allowable travel of 4 in (10 cm), the system is

acceptable.

Related Calculations. Hydropneumatic accumulators have long been used as

shock dampers and pulsation attenuators in hydraulic lines. But only recently have

they been used as mechanical shock absorbers, or springs.

Current applications include shock absorption and seat-suspension systems for

earth-moving and agricultural machinery, resetting mechanisms for plows, mill-roll

loading, and rock-crusher loading. Potential applications include hydraulic hammers

and shake tables.

In these relatively high-force applications, hydropneumatic springs have several

advantages over mechanical springs. First, they are smaller and lighter, which can

help reduce system costs. Second, they are not limited by metal fatigue, as mechanical springs are. Of course, their life is not infinite, for it is limited by wear

of rod and piston seals.

Finally, hydropneumatic springs offer the inherent ability to control load speeds.

With an orifice check valve or flow-control valve between actuator and accumulator,

cam speed can be varied as needed.

One reason why these springs are not more widely used is that they are not

packaged as off-the-shelf items. In the few cases where packages exist, they are

often intended for other uses. Thus, package dimensions may not be those needed

for spring applications, and off-the-shelf springs may not have all the special system

parameters needed. But it is not hard to select individual off-the-shelf accumulators

and actuators for a custom-designed system. The procedure given here is an easy

method for calculating needed accumulator pressures and volumes. It is the work

of Zeke Zahid, Vice President and General Manager, Greer Olaer Products Division,

Greer Hydraulics, Inc., as reported in Machine Design.

PRESSURE-MEASURING DEVICES

A pressure-measuring device for an industrial hydraulic system is to be constructed

of a 0.005-in (0.0127-cm) thick alloy steel circular membrane stretched over a

chamber opening, as shown in Fig. 21. The membrane is subjected to a uniform

tension of 2000 lb (8900 N) and then secured in position over a 6-in (15.24-cm)

diameter opening. The steel has a modulus of elasticity of 30,000,000 lb / in2 (210.3

GPa) and weights 0.3 lb / in3 (1.1 N / cm3). Vibration of the membrane due to pressure in the chamber is to be picked up by a strain gage mechanism; in order to

calibrate the device, it is required to determine the fundamental mode of vibration

of the membrane.

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25.42

DESIGN ENGINEERING

Calculation Procedure:

Weight of the membrane per unit area, w wu t, where the weight per unit

volume, wu 0.3 lb / in3 (1.1 N / cm3); membrane thickness, t 0.005 in (0.0127

cm). Hence, w 0.3 0.005 0.0015 lb / in2 (0.014 N / cm2).

2. Compute the uniform tension per unit length of the membrane boundary

Uniform tension per unit length of the membrane boundary, S F / L, where the

uniformly applied tensile force, F 2000 lb (8900 N); length of the membrane

boundary, L d 6 in (15.24 cm). Thus, S 2000 / 6 333 lb / in (584 N / cm).

3. Compute the area of the membrane

The area of the membrane, A d 2 / 4 (6)2 / 4 28.27 in2 (182.4 cm2).

4. Compute the frequency of the fundamental mode of vibration in the

membrane

From Marks Standard Handbook for Mechanical Engineers, 9th edition, McGrawHill, Inc., the frequency of the fundamental mode of vibration of the membrane,

( / 2)[(gS) / (wA)]1 / 2 , where the membrane shape constant for a circle,

4.261; gravitational acceleration, g 32.17 12 386 in / s2 (980 cm / s2); other

values as before. Then, (4.261 / 2) [(386 333) / (0.0015 28.27)]1 / 2 1181

Hz.

Related Calculations. To determine the value for S in step 2 involves a philosophy similar to that for the hoop stress formula for thin-wall cylinders, i.e., the

uniform tension per unit length of the membrane boundary depends on tensile forces

created by uniformly stretching the membrane in all directions. Therefore, for symmetrical shapes other than a circle, such as those presented in Marks M. E. Handbook, the value for L in the equation for S as given in this procedure is the length

of the longest line of symmetry of the geometric shape of the membrane. The shape

constant and other variable values change accordingly.

HYDRAULIC SYSTEMS

An industrial hydraulic system can be designed with three different types of controls. At a flow rate of 100 gal / min (6.31 L / s), the pressure drop across the controls

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HYDRAULIC AND PNEUMATIC SYSTEMS DESIGN

25.43

is as follows: Control A, 500 lb / in2 (3447 kPa); control B, 100 lb / in2 (6894 kPa);

control C, 2000 lb / in2 (13,788 kPa). Determine the power loss and the cost of this

loss for each control if the cost of electricity is 15 cents per kilowatthour. How

much more can be spent on a control if it operates 3000 h / year?

Calculation Procedure:

The horsepower lost during pressure drop through a hydraulic control is given by

horsepower 5.82(104)Q P, where Q flow rate through the control, gal / min;

P pressure loss through the control. Substituting for each control and using the

letter subscript to identify it, we find horsepowerA 5.82(104)(100)(500) 29.1

horsepower (21.7 kW); horsepowerB 5.82(104)(100)(1000) 5.82 horsepower

(43.4 kW); horsepowerc 5.82(104)(100)(2000) 116.4 horsepower (86.8 kW).

2. Find the cost of the pressure loss in each control

The cost in dollars per hour wasted w kW($ / kWh) horsepower(0.746)($ /

kWh). Substituting and using a subscript to identify each control, we get wA

21.7($0.15) $3.26; wB 43.4($0.15) $6.51; wc 86.8($0.15) $13.02.

The annual loss for each control with 3000-h operation is wA,an 3000($3.26)

$9780; wB,an 3000($6.51) $19,530; wC,an 3000($13.02) $39,060.

3. Determine the additional amount that can be spent on a control

Take one of the controls as the base or governing control, and use it as the guide

to the allowable extra cost. Using control C as the base, we can see that it causes

an annual loss of $39,060. Hence, we could spend up to $39,060 for a more expensive control which would provide the desired function with a smaller pressure

(and hence, money) loss.

The time required to recover the extra money spent for a more efficient control

can be computed easily from ($39,060 loss with new control, $), where the losses

are expressed in dollars per year.

Thus, if a new control costs $2500 and control C costs $1000, while the new

control reduced the annual loss to $20,060, the time to recover the extra cost of

the new control would be ($2500 $1000) / ($39,060 $20,060) 0.08 year, or

less than 1 month. This simple application shows the importance of careful selection

of energy control devices.

And once the new control is installed, it will save $39,060 $20,060 $19,000

per year, assuming its maintenance cost equals that of the control it replaces.

Related Calculations. This approach to hydraulic system savings can be applied to systems serving industrial plants, aircraft, ships, mobile equipment, power

plants, and commercial installations. Further, the approach is valid for any type of

hydraulic system using oil, water, air, or synthetic materials as the fluid.

With greater emphasis in all industries on energy conservation, more attention

is being paid to reducing unnecessary pressure losses in hydraulic systems. Dualpressure pumps are finding wider use today because they offer an economical way

to provide needed pressures at lower cost. Thus, the alternative control considered

above might be a dual-pressure pump, instead of a throttling valve.

Other ways that pressure (and energy) losses are reduced is by using accumulators, shutting off the pump between cycles, modular hydraulic valve assemblies,

variable-displacement pumps, electronic controls, and shock absorbers. Data in this

procedure are from Product Engineering magazine, edited by Frank Yeaple.

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25.44

DESIGN ENGINEERING

EQUATIONS AND COEFFICIENTS

The pneumatic system in Fig. 22 has been designed for use in an industrial application; the flow rate through this system is 250 scfm (7.075 cu m / min). As part of

the design, the hand valve, pressure reducer, and air motor have already been specified and catalog performance data assembled for them. The only unknown is the

size and capacity of the control valve. Before this valve can be specified, the minimum acceptable value for the flow factor, F, must be determined for each component in the system. Find this value for each unit in this decision.

Calculation Procedure:

Obtain from the component manufacturers the flow coefficients and defining equations and tabulate them as shown in Table 10. Use the symbols given as part of

the table. For this procedure, the National Bureau of Standards (NBS) flow factor

F is used as the standard flow coefficient. However, any other standard flow coefficient the handbook user would like to use will work equally well. Equations based

on the NBS flow factor F are the most accurate and there are many published

design techniques to simplify their use.

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25.45

Component

Hand valve

Flow

coefficient

Defining equation

CV 1.26

CV

Pressure reducer

D0 0.25

D0

Q 60

1360

P P

33P

GTU

Control valve

F unknown

F

Air motor

Symbols

Q

q

V

P

p

P

r

G

T

A

Dc

M

W

Cv , K,

F, Do

Q

PU 8/5

1

r (r 0.43 r 0.71)

r (1 r)(3 r)

1

air flow in standard units, scfm (14.7 lb / in2 (abs), 68F) (cu m / min)

air flow at actual conditions, cfm. Q q( P / 14.7)(528 / T ) (cu m / min)

velocity, fps (average through valve)

pressure in absolute units, psia (subscript D downstream, U upstream) (kPa)

gage pressure, psi (kPa)

pressure drop, psi (kPa)

pressure ratio PD/PU

density, lb/ft3 (kg/m3)

specific gravity, gas/air

absolute temperature, deg R deg F 460

Inlet pipe area, in2 (cm2)

diameter of equivalent sharp-edge orifice, in (coefficient of discharge CD 0.6)

molecular weight, lb (M 29 lb for air) (kg)

water weight flow, lb/sec (kg/sec)

typical flow coefficients (also called flow constants and flow factors) in a flow

equation

The procedure given her shows how to convert to F from CV and D0. This will

be done for each component of the pneumatic system.

2. Convert each known flow coefficient to the flow factor, F

Use the conversion equations in Table 11, correlating them with the given values

in Table 10. Thus:

Hand valve: F 0.556CV 0.556 1.26 0.7

Reducer: F 10D20 10 (0.25)2 0.625

Control valve: Calculate the control-valve flow factor F from the known flow

and pressure at P4 and the calculated pressure at P3, Fig. 21. Do this by starting

at the supply pressure P1 3014.7 lb / in2 (abs) (20.77 MPa), and knowing that

the flow is 250 scfm (7.075 cu m / min), find P2 and P3 by substitution in the

NBS flow equationEquation 9 in Table 12for each component in the system

thus:

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r 0.5

K r 0.75

4.5

1460

A2

F2

A2

534 2

F

A2

724 2

F

450

23.1

26.9

NOTE: The K factor varies with r and A and you must know

which values the manufacturer used to derive his published

K. For example, if K was derived at r 0.75 and valve inlet

pipe area A 0.2, then F 23.1 0.2/K 4.62/K.

A

K 1/4

A2

C2V

A2

1725 2

CV

A2

2330 2

CV

48.3

1.641

A2

D 40

A2

5.36 4

D0

A2

7.29 4

D0

r 1.0

A

K 1/4

21.2

41.5

1.521

0.556CV

A

K 1/4

r 0.5

10D 20

38.2

1.456

K

r 0.75

1.8F

0.316F

0.236CV

r 1.0

18.0D 02

CV

CV

DO

DO

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25.46

1r

K

K K factor

10

Q 38.1 PU A

Q FPU8/5r(1 r)(3 r)

CG gas-flow coefficient

GTU/520

0.6

U

CV valve-flow coefficient

CV capacity factor

CV flow coefficient

Q FPU4/31 r 2

2

D

0.443

2

D

CV valve coefficient

CG

2

U

2

U

P( PU PD)

(coeff of discharge CD 0.6)

U

2

D

GTU/520

Q 60

2

D

Q

PU4/3

2g

P

V 2

1 r

Q

1

2

D

2

D

GTU

P( P P )

GT

Q 60

1360 P P

GT

Q 60

1390 P P

MT

Q 60

5180 P P

GT

Q 60

963 P P

33 P

Q 60

963

2.32

60

0.443

963

Q

C

60 V

GT

P P

1360

Q

C

60

GT

P P

1390

Q

C

60

GT

P

P

5180

Q

C

60

MT

P P

963

Q

C

60

GT

(Q scfm-standard ft3/min)

Eq no

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25.47

25.48

DESIGN ENGINEERING

Hand valve:

F

Q

PU8 / 5

1

r(1 r)(3

r)

min); F 0.7; r P2 / P1. Solve for r by trial and error. The abbreviated list of

values in Table 13 for r (1 r) (3 r) will help.

For this hand valve, r 0.995. Therefore, P3 0.995 3014.7 2999.63 lb

/ in2 (abs) ((20.67 MPa). Then, P 3014.7 2999.6 15.1 lb / in2 (abs) (105.0

kPa).

Reducer: Determine P3 in the same way. This gives r 0.994; P3 0.994

3000 2982 lb / in2 (abs) (20.5 MPa); P 3000 2982 18 lb / in2 (124 kPa).

Control valve: Compute the minimum flow factor F for the control valve from

F

Q

PU8 / 5

1

r(1 r)(3

r)

where Q 250 scfm (7.075 cu m / min); PV P3 2982 lb / in2 (abs) (20.5 MPa);

r P4 / P3 600 / 2982 0.201.

Note: The value r 0.201 is less than the critical flow ratio of r 0.5; therefore,

F by definition is Q / PV 250 / 2982 0.0838. A valve manufacturer will accept

a flow coefficient such as F as a specification for minimum flow because the coefficient completely defines flow and pressure drop.

3. Find the flow coefficient for the relief valve

The relief valve (A / [K]0.5 0.021) is not part of the flow path. However, you can

convert its flow coefficient to F and compute the valves relieving capacity. The

pressure ratio r is less than 0.5 because the valve discharges to atmosphere. Hence,

the conversion equation is

F 26.9

A

0.565

K

TABLE 13 Computed r

Values

r

r (1 r)(3 r)

0.5

0.7

0.8

0.9

0.92

0.94

0.96

0.98

0.99

0.995

1.000

0.625

0.483

0.352

0.189

0.153

0.116

0.0784

0.0396

0.0199

0.0100

0.0000

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HYDRAULIC AND PNEUMATIC SYSTEMS DESIGN

25.49

The maximum flow is then Q F PV 0.565 3000 1695 scfm (47.96 cvu

m / min). The relieving capacity is 1695 / 250 6.78 times the system design capacity.

Related Calculations. During the design of any series of pneumatic systems

it is wise to standardize the flow coefficient that will be used. Then the results will

be consistent for all systems designed. The NBS coefficient given here is an acceptable and valid design value for pneumatic systems used in industrial machines,

aircraft, ships, etc.

This procedure is the work of Dominic Lapera, Chief Engineer, Kemp Aero

Products, and Franklin D. Yeaple, Associate Editor, Product Engineering magazine.

SI values were added by the handbook editor.

ORIFICES IN PNEUMATIC SYSTEMS

(1) Find the mass rate of flow of air through a capillary orifice, Fig. 23, when the

pressure drop is small, 0.32 in H2O (0.81 cm)[1.67 psf], and the following conditions prevail: length, L 0.25 in (0.685 cm); diameter, D 0.0625 in (0.158 cm);

air density 0.0743 lb / cu ft (1.19 kg / cu m); and viscosity 4.79 107 lb / s /

ft2 (229.35 Pas 107). (2) Find the air flow through a capillary with a larger

pressure drop for these conditions: diameter, D 0.0156 in (0.0396 cm); length,

L 0.135 in (0.342 cm); air temperature 200F (93.3C); air viscosity the

same as in (1) above: P1 21 lb / in2 (abs) (144.7 kPa); P2 14.7 lb / in2 (abs)

(101.3 kPa); flow is isentropic (n 1.4); coefficient of specific heat at constant

pressure, cp 0.24 Btu / lbF (1004.2 J / kgC).

Calculation Procedure:

Use the equation

V K2g(P1 P2) /

where the symbols are as given below. Then

V K64.4 1.67 / 0.0743

V 37.9K ft / s

(11.55 K m / s)

coefficient.

2. Determine the Reynolds number for the flow situation

Use the relations,

W VA

Re WD / Ag

VAD / Ag

VD / g

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HYDRAULIC AND PNEUMATIC SYSTEMS DESIGN

25.51

Substituting,

Re (0.0743 37.9K 0.0625) /

(12 4.79 107 32.2)

950K

Now we must make one or more trial solutions using the correction chart in Fig.

25 to determine the actual Reynolds number for this orifice. We will try different

values of K to see what Reynolds number each will yield. Thus:

First trial: Let K 0.5; then R 950 0.5 475. Figure 25 shows that for

D / 2L 0.0625 / 0.54 0.116, and K 0.5, Re 180. This is a wrong guess.

Second trial: Try K 0.7; then Re 950 0.7 665. Figure 25 shows Re

900. Again, this is a wrong guess. Third trial: Try K 0.65, then Re 950

0.65 617.5; Fig. 25 shows Re 600, which is close enough to the computed

617.5, value within 3 percent.

3. Find the velocity and mass flow rate for the orifice

From step 1, the velocity, V 37.9 K 37.9 0.65 24.63 ft / s (7.5 m / s). The

mass rate of flow, W 0.0743 (24.63)( )(0.0625)2 / (4 144) 0.000039 lb / s

(0.0000018 kg / s).

4. Find the Reynolds number for flow through the larger orifice

Use the following two relations and substitute as shown below

W

223.8AP1

cp

T1

Re

P2

P1

2/n

P2

P1

(n) / n

W(2C) 223.8P1

Ag

R

cp

T1

(2)

P2

P1

2/n

P2

P1

(n1) / n

2C

(2)

g

(3)

223.8 21 144

.24

660

14.7

21

2 / 1.4

14.7

21

(1.41) / 1.4

0.0156

4900K

12 32.2

Proceed as in step 2, above, with D / 2L 0.0156 / 0.27 0.05777. Using Fig. 25,

assume values for K, as before. First trial: K 0.5; Re 4900 0.5 2450.

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25.52

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25.53

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25.54

DESIGN ENGINEERING

From Fig. 25, Re 350, which is a wrong guess. Second trial: Try K 0.6; then

Re 700, from Fig. 25; wrong again. Third trial: Try K 0.715; then Re 3503.5;

Fig. 25 shows Re 3550, which is close enough, within 1.3 percent.

Substituting in the first equation above W 0.55 104 lb / s (0.2497 kg

4

10 kg / s).

Related Calculations. When a restriction is too long for pure orifice flow analysis, and too short for line flow analysis, as is the case for many short capillary

orifices and close-clearance labyrinths, Figs. 23 and 24, considered in this procedure, empirical solutions must be used. Published test results which agree well with

computed data are summarized on a mean-value basis in Figs. 25 and 26.

The basic equation selected for the analysis in this procedure is

V K2gH

V K2g(P1 P2) /

(1)

Another equation could have been selected but this is adequate. In this equation,

the variables are: V velocity; K empirical coefficient, Figs. 24 and 25; H

head loss (P1 P2) / , where P1 inlet pressure, psf (kPa); P2 outlet pressure,

psf (kPa); fluid density in suitable units. This is basically the equation for

incompressible flow through an orifice.

The devices discussed in this procedure are not pure orifices. Neither are they

long tubes. The correction charts in Figs. 25 and 26, based on actual tests, take

care of discrepancies. Another equation could have been chosen for tubes, and the

method would still work, except that a different set of correction charts would be

needed.

Flow of compressible fluids also can be calculated with this method. If the

density change from inlet to outlet is slight, then assume the gas is incompressible

and continue to use Equation 1, above. If there is considerable expansion, then

substitute the following conventional equation for polytropic compressible flow:

W

KA2 P1

R

2gJ

cp

T1

P2

P1

2/n

P2

P1

(n1) / n

(2)

Units for Equation 2 are given below. Use Fig. 25 for the value of coefficient K.

In the case of a labyrinth seal, special versions of Equation 2 have been developed.

These accompany the sketches of labyrinths in Fig. 24. The seal coefficient, m, is

plotted in Fig. 27 for all common values of the length-clearance ratio L / C.

the Reynolds number is the heart of this method. Here is a convenient form for

round orifices and capillaries:

Re WD / Ag

(3A)

Re W(D d) /Ag

(3B)

Re W(2C) /Ag

(3C)

Equations 3B and 3C were derived using the concept of hydraulic radius, RH,

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25.56

DESIGN ENGINEERING

number. Hydraulic radius is:

RH

wetted perimeter

(4)

RH (D d ) / 4, and 4RH D d, or 2C, where C is the radial clearance.

For slots, A CZ, perimeter 2(C Z) approximately 2Z. Thus, RH 2C,

where C is the clearance.

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HYDRAULIC AND PNEUMATIC SYSTEMS DESIGN

25.57

Note: There is some disagreement among experts here. For instance, Crane Technical Paper 410 (Crane Company), pp 14, states that the hydraulic radius for a

very thin slot is equal to the narrower dimension, C. Thus, the equivalent diameter

would be 4C, instead of 2C. Equations 3B and 3C would be affected by this change.

To use this method, solve Equation 1 or 2 first, yielding velocity V in terms of

the unknown coefficient K. Convert to mass flow W with the equations provided

above. Then solve for the Reynolds number using Equation 3. It will contain the

unknown coefficient K.

Solve for the coefficient K by trial and error, as shown above. Then calculate

the Reynolds number. Check the value against that in Figs. 25 or 26 for the given

value of (D d) / L. If its wrong, try another value for K. Three or four guesses

should get the desired result. Knowing K, you can calculate the desired velocity

and mass flow.

Accuracy of this method is as good as that for simple orifices or pipes, but the

same chances for inaccuracy exist. Remember that poor surface finish, slight rounding of the edges, inaccurate dimensions, and many other physical variations will

affect the results greatly. It is better to build and test a model, where possible.

This procedure is the work of Andrew Lenkei, Project Engineer, Research Department, Worthington Corporation, as reported in Product Engineering magazine.

SI values were added by the handbook editor.

Symbols

A Flow area, ft2 (m2)

C Radial clearance, ft (m)

cp coefficient of specific heat at constant pressure, Btu / lbF (kJ / kg C)

d Minor diameter of annular orifice, ft (m)

D Major diameter of annular orifice, ft (m)

g gravitational constant, 32.2 ft / s2

H Head, ft (m)

FIGURE 28 Positive-clearance seal for centrifugal pumps and other liquid-handling applications has the lowest cost.

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25.58

K

J

L

m

n

N

Lp

P

R

RH

Re

T

V

ln

Z

DESIGN ENGINEERING

Mechanical equivalent of heat, 778 ft lb / btu

Flow length; also labyrinth groove axial distance, ft (m)

seal configuration factor

Polytropic exponent (n k 1.4 for air in isentropic process)

Number of sealing points

Pitch of sealing points, ft (m)

Pressure, psf (kPa)

Gas constant (53.3 for air)

Hydraulic radius (RH flow area / wetted perimeter)

Reynolds number, W (D d ) / A g

Temperature, R

Fluid velocity, ft / s (m / s)

Absolute viscosity, lb s / ft2

Mass rate of flow lb / s (kg / s)

Density, lb / ft3 (kg / m3)

Loge (m)

Slot width, ft

Subscripts

1 First term

2 Second term

n nth term

DETERMINATION

(1) Determine the fluid leakage through the sleeve seal in Fig. 28 when the known

pressure drop through the seal, HT 300 lb / in2 693 ft (2067 kPa; 211.2 m);

shaft diameter, D 10 in (25.4 cm); total axial length of shaft seal, L 2 in (5.08

cm); radial clearance, C 0.020 in (0.050 cm); Reynolds number NR 2 105

CV; velocity through the seal clearance is assumed to be V 180 ft/s (54.9 m/

s), which is 85 percent of the free discharge velocity of 2g 693)0.5 . (2) Find the

fluid leakage through the non-interlocking labyrinth seal, Fig. 30, when the known

pressure drop, and diameter are the same as in (1) above, and L 0.125 in (0.32

cm); C 0.02 in (0.0508 cm); n 8 stages; velocity through the seal 35 percent

of free discharge.

Calculation Procedure:

Use the relation NR 2 105 CV (2 105)(0.020 / 12)(180) 6 104.

2. Calculate the friction factor for this seal

Use the relation, friction factor, 0.316 / (NR)0.25 for turbulent flow. Substituting,

0.316 / (6 104)0.25 0.02019.

3. Find the fluid velocity through the seal

Use the velocity relation in Fig. 28. Or, V ([62.4 693] / [1.5 0.02019 2 /

2 0.02])0.5 131.27 ft / s (40.0 m / s).

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HYDRAULIC AND PNEUMATIC SYSTEMS DESIGN

25.59

gases. Requires split assembly but has low leakage.

between Figs. 28 and 29; seals liquid and gas; no split

necessary.

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25.60

DESIGN ENGINEERING

Use the relation, fluid flow through seal, Q VA, where Q flow, ft3 / s (m3 / s);

A seal area, ft2. The value of A ()(10)(0.02) / 144 0.00436 ft2 (0.000405

m2). Then, fluid flow Q VA 131.27 (.00436) 0.572 ft3 / s (0.053 m3 / s).

5. Determine the flow through the non-interlocking seal

Follow the same steps as above. Thus, V 0.35 (2 g 693)0.5 72.78 ft / s (22.18

m / s). The NR 2 105 (0.02 / 12 72.78) 2.266 104. Then, 0.316 /

(2.266 104)0.25 0.02575. Further, V ([62.4 693] / [1.5 0.025 {0.125 /

2} 0.02 1.0 7])0.5 71.0 ft / s (21.6 m / s). Finally, Q 71 0.00436

0.3095 ft3 / s (0.02876 m3 / s).

Related Calculations. Shaft seals are primarily used to reduce leakage of fluid

from a hydraulic system. The greater the obstruction to fluid flow, the more efficient

the seal. While ten basic seal designs are shown in these procedures, there are

hundreds of variants.

The majority of labyrinth seals are machined of bronze or a similar alloy. Seals

can be made accurately; they are mechanically strong and they can withstand high

temperatures. However, the metal selected for the seal must not gall or melt during

wear-in. There must be no residue or distortion to lessen the effectiveness of the

seal.

There is a limit to the complexity of the seal. Tests show a diminishing advantage

beyond a certain number of stages, particularly where the shaft does not stay centered according to calculations. In such cases, simpler labyrinths are as good as the

more serpentine, and much less expensive.

The tapered teeth in Figs. 32 and 34 are considered the most efficient for sealing

gas or air. Usually the teeth are rings inserted into the seal sleeve and staked. They

are tapered to an edge of about 0.0120 in (0.0254 cm) at the shaft diameter, and

no clearance is allowed. The tips are quickly ground off when the machine begins

to operate. Water lubrication can be used to prevent excessive heating during wearin.

In the hydraulic field, it is conventional practice to set minimum and maximum

limits for the clearance, C, between the shaft and seal, Fig. 28. The clearance values

depend on the strength of the rotating shaft and its deflection. Tests prove that the

speed of the shaft has no effect on the performance of the seal. Typical recommended clearances are shown in Fig. 31.

The head loss and flow equations used in this procedure are approximate and

cannot take the place of actual seal tests. These equations show trends accurately,

however, and are workable once you apply correction factors for your own designs.

In any seal, the effective total resistance to flow, measured in feet (meters) of

lost head, is the sum of three types of unit resistance: (1) turbulent conversion of

initial static pressure to velocity; (2) wall friction; (3) turbulence caused by abrupt

changes of section in the flow path.

The first two, HV and HF, are explained in the symbols and equations listed

below. For the third type of resistance, which includes both the entrance loss, HE,

and the head loss for one or more stages, HS, the explanation is: The first abrupt

change in section is at the entrance, and head loss according to the conventional

entrance equation is HE 0.5 V2 / 2g. The succeeding changes in section depend

on the number of edges in each labyrinth. In Fig. 29, there are four edges per stage

and a rough estimate of head loss HS 4 0.5 V 2 / 2g. For Fig. 30 and 32, there

are two edges per stage, and the relationship is HS 1.0 V2 / 2g. The summation

is

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HYDRAULIC AND PNEUMATIC SYSTEMS DESIGN

SI Values

in.

cm

.012

0.030

0

.014

0.0355

0

.016

0.406

0

.018

0.0457

0

.020

0.0508

0

0.022

0.0588

0.024

0.0609

.026

0.0660

0

.028

0.0711

0

.030

0.0762

0

.032

0.0812

0

.034

0.0863

0

.036

0.0914

0

FIGURE 31 Recommended clearances for

3

4

5

6

7

10

11

12

13

14

15

seals

25.61

in.

cm

7.62

10.16

12.7

15.24

17.78

8

20.32

9

22.86

25.4

27.94

30.48

33.02

35.56

38.10

in Figs. 28, 29, and 30.

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25.62

DESIGN ENGINEERING

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HYDRAULIC AND PNEUMATIC SYSTEMS DESIGN

25.63

for shaft seals.

HT HV HF HE HS

(1)

where the value of HS is explained in the symbols and equations panel below.

To express Equation 1 in terms of velocity, insert the known expressions for

head loss given in the equations and symbols panel. This useful relationship results:

HT [V2 / 2g][1 L / 2C 0.5 a (n 1)]

(2)

where a 2 for the seal in Fig. 29, and a 1 for the seals in Figs. 30 and 32.

Equation 2 applies to gases and liquids. For gases, the accuracy is problematical

because velocity and density change from one point in the seal to the next point

in the seal, and outside of it. To accommodate these changes you have to assume

average values during flow through the seal.

Leakage flow through the seal at any given point, for gas or liquid, is simply

the average velocity, V, at that point, times the cross-sectional area, A, of the seal.

The relationship is Q VA.

For gases, accurate predictions of leakage flow using a particular equation are

not possible unless the design of the seal happens to match the conditions of the

test upon which the flow equation is based. There are many more published flow

equations than are discussed here. Variations in calculated leakage flow might exceed 2:1. However, for first approximations, the equations in this procedure will

suffice.

One way to improve the accuracy of these calculations is to use trial and error.

Assume a Reynolds number, calculate friction factor, compute leakage flow, check,

out the assumed Reynolds number, correct it if necessary, and try again. Figure 35

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25.64

DESIGN ENGINEERING

gives viscosity values for calculating the Reynolds number for fluids and gases used

in hydraulic and pneumatic systems.

This procedure is the work of Louis Dodge, Hydraulics Consultant, as reported

in Product Engineering magazine. SI values were added by the handbook editor.

Another approach to labyrinth seal design is given by V. L. Peickii, Director of

Research & Engineering, and Dan A. Christensen, Research Engineer, National Seal

Division, Federal-Mogul-Bower Bearings Inc., writing in the same publication

where they note:

Labyrinth or positive-clearance seals are so specialized that no standard types

or designs have evolved. Design is usually controlled by the tolerable leak-rate,

from which one can calculate gap clearances and number of elements required, Fig.

36.

The number of rings to limit leakage to a given flow can be found from:

N

where N

W

A

C

D

P

Number of rings

Permissible leakage, lb / sec (kg / sec)

C D, cross-sectional area, in2 (cm2)

Clearance, in (cm)

Diameter, in (cm)

Absolute pressure, lb / in2 (abs) (kPa)

In this equation, to find N12 for a leakage from pressure level P1 to a lower pressure

level, P2, the N for each must be found; then N12 N1 N2.

The leakage flow rate can be found from:

W 25 KA

P1

P2

1

V1

P1

N Logn

P2

P1

V1 Initial specific volume, ft3 / lb (m3 / kg)

K Experimental coefficient

For interlocking labyrinths, K 55 approximately, if the velocity is effectively

throttled between labyrinths. It is independent of clearance in the usual range. For

non-interlocking labyrinths, K varies with the ratio of labyrinth spacing divided by

radial clearance. For a ratio of 5, K 100; for a ratio of 50, K 60.

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HYDRAULIC AND PNEUMATIC SYSTEMS DESIGN

FIGURE 35a

25.65

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25.66

DESIGN ENGINEERING

SI Values

deg F

30

40

50

70

100

150

200

300

400

500

700

1000

deg C

1.1

4.4

10.0

21.1

37.8

65.6

93.3

148.9

204.4

260.0

371.1

537.8

FIGURE 35b

ft2/sec

4

50 10

40

30

20

15

10 104

7

5

4

3

2

1.5

1 104

0.7

0.5

0.4

0.3

0.2

0.15

0.1 104

0.07

0.05

0.04

0.03

0.02 104

m2/sec

4

4.5 10

3.7

2.8

1.9

1.4

0.92 104

0.65

0.46

0.37

0.28

0.19

0.14

0.09 104

0.065

0.046

0.037

0.028

0.018

0.014

0.009 104

0.006

0.0046

0.0037

0.0028

0.0018 104

(Continued ).

which empirical formulas have been derived.

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HYDRAULIC AND PNEUMATIC SYSTEMS DESIGN

25.67

A area of annular clearance, ft2 DC (m2)

C radial clearance, in (cm)

D diameter of shaft, in (cm)

friction factor (dimensionless)

64 / NR for laminar flow (NR 2320)

0.316 / N0.25

for turbulent flow

R

HS head loss for one stage, ft (m)

HS 2V2 / 2g for Fig 2 (4 edges)

HS V2 / 2g for Figs 3 and 4 (2 edges)

HS Hs (n 1)

HV velocity head, ft V2 / 2g (m)

L V2

HF friction head loss, ft

(m)

2C 2g

HT total head loss of all stages, ft (m)

HT HE HS HV HF

L total axial length of shaft seal, in (cm)

n number of seals or teeth

n 1 number of stages or spaces

NR Reynolds number, dimensionless

NR 2CV / 12 v 2 105 CV for 80F

water

Q flow, ft3 / sec VA (m2 / sec)

V fluid velocity, ft / sec (m / sec)

v kinematic viscosity, ft2 / sec (m2 / sec)

SYSTEMS WITHOUT FLUID SHOCK

Determine the minimum wall thickness for an oil hydraulic system pipe having an

outside diameter of 1.5 in (3.8 cm) conveying oil at a static pressure of 1200 psi

(8268 kPa) at a velocity of 10 fps (3.0 m / s). The pipe is steel having an allowable

stress of 85,000 psi (585.7 MPa).

Calculation Procedure:

Use the equation t pD / 2S, where t minimum allowable thickness of pipe wall,

in (cm); p design working pressure, psi (kPa); D outside diameter of pipe, in

(cm); S allowable tensile strength of the pipe material, psi (kPa). For this pipe,

t 1200(1.5) / 2(85,000) 0.011 in (0.027 cm).

2. Compare the computed wall thickness with JIC recommendations

For 1200 psi (8268 kPa), defined as medium high pressure by JIC Hydraulic Standards for Industrial Equipment, this Standard recommends a minimum pipe wall

thickness of 0.095 in (0.24 cm). Since the computed wall thickness is less, the

minimum recommended thickness should be used.

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25.68

DESIGN ENGINEERING

Solving for the stress, S pD / 2t 1200(1.5) / 2(0.095) 9475 psi (65.3 MPa).

SYSTEMS WITH FLUID SHOCK

What pipe-wall thickness is required for an oil hydraulic system operating at 1200

psi (8268 kPa) and fitted with a quick-closing valve if the pipe diameter is 2 in

(5.1 cm), fluid velocity is 10 fpm (3.0 m / s), and allowable pipe stress is 85,000

psi (585.7 MPa)?

Calculation Procedure:

Under average conditions in hydraulic systems, the pressure rise in psi (kPa) is Pr

50 V, where V fluid velocity, fpm. Thus, Pr 50(10) 500 psi (3445 kPa).

2. Find the surge pressure in the pipe

Total the static pressure and the pressure rise caused by the quick-closing valve

being closed. Or, 1200 500 1700 psi (11.7 MPa).

3. Compute the pipe wall thickness by using the pipe surge pressure

Thus, using the same symbols as in the previous calculation procedure, t 1700(2)/

2(85,000) 0.02 in (0.05 cm).

PIPING

The surge pressure in a 0.75-in (1.9-cm) diameter, 0.109-in (0.028-cm) thick steel

hydraulic pipe is 6700 psi (46.2 MPa). What is the recommended stress in this pipe

if a factor of safety of 4 is suggested by the JIC for this pressure range? Allowable

stress for the pipe is 85,000 psi (585.7 MPa). Is the pipe acceptable for this service?

Calculation Procedure:

Use the relation S pD / 2t. Or, 6700(0.75) / 2(0.109) 23,050 psi (158.8 MPa).

2. Find the recommended stress

Recommended stress allowable stress / factor of safety, or 85,000 / 4 recommended stress 21,250 psi (146.4 MPa).

3. Compare actual and recommended stresses

The actual stress, 23,050 psi, is greater than the recommended stress, 21,250 psi

(146.4 MPa). Since the actual stress exceeds the maximum recommended stress,

the pipe is not suitable for this service.

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25.69

SYSTEM BULK MODULUS

Determine the bulk modulus of a hydraulic system fluid with a compressibility

factor of 4.28 106 psi (29.5 106 kPa when the fluid is 100 percent saturated

with air at 68F (20C) and 0 psig (0 kPa) if the fluid flows through tubing having

a compressibility factor of 1.8 107 psi (12.4 107 kPa).

Calculation Procedure:

For any system es e et, where e is the compressibility, psi (kPa); s, , and t

refer, respectively, to the compressibility of the system (s), fluid (), and tubing (t).

For this system, s 4.28 106 1.8 107 4.46 106 psi (30.7 106

kPa).

2. Compute the system bulk modulus

For any oil hydraulic system, Bs 1 / es, where Bs system bulk modulus, psi

(kPa). For this sytem, Bs 1 / 4.4610-6 220,000 psi (1516 MPa).

Related Calculations. Properties of hydraulic fluids are available from the fluid

manufacturers. The properties usually considered in oil hydraulic system design are

the flash point, fire point, autoignition temperature, pour point, boiling point, maximum long-term bulk temperature, coefficient of thermal expansion, specific heat,

bulk modulus, thermal conductivity, specific gravity, resistivity, dielectric strength,

and dielectric constant.

AND CONTROL SYSTEMS

Choose a suitable hydraulic fluid for an industrial hydraulic system operating at

4000 psi (27.6 MPa). Evaluate each factor of importance in the choice of the fluid.

The system contains a hydraulic cylinder having a 20-in (50.8-cm) stroke and a

piston speed of 20 in / s (50.8 cm / s).

Calculation Procedure:

Fluid viscosity and density, together, determine the fluid pressure loss for a given

flow rate through pipes and hydraulic equipment. Pressure loss through a sharpedged orifice is nearly independent of viscosity variations if the critical velocity of

the fluid is exceeded. For a given temperature and pressure in an oil hydraulic

system, the viscosity is usually considered constant. Use a viscosity index (VI) plot

to compare the sensitivity to temperature change of two or more hydraulic fluids.

The steeper the VI slope, the more sensitive the fluid is to temperature changes that

will increase, or decrease, the viscosity of the fluid. Viscosity changes within a

hydraulic system can alter the predicted performance of system components if the

actual viscosity is overlooked. Many designers choose a fluid having a viscosity

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25.70

DESIGN ENGINEERING

smaller, and 15 ft / s (4.57 m / s) for larger pipes. A velocity of 20 ft / s (6.1 m / s) is

seldom exceeded in control valves and other restrictions, except in safety and relief

valves, where the velocity may reach 100 ft / s (30.5 m / s). Velocities of 5 to 7 ft /

s (1.5 to 2.1 m / s) are sometimes used in short, straight suction lines conveying

low-viscosity hydraulic fluids.

2. Determine the fluid density

Fluid density influences the flow rate, pressure drop, and natural frequency of the

system. This natural frequency is proportional to the square root of the moving

mass of the system fluid. Where piping system vibration is excessive, use of a

hydraulic fluid of different density may alleviate or eliminate the problem.

3. Analyze the fluid vapor pressure

If the vapor pressure of a hydraulic fluid is too high at normal operating temperatures, gas pockets may form in areas of low pressure in the system, such as pump

intakes. Water-base hydraulic fluids tend to have higher vapor pressures than other

types of hydraulic fluids. Hence, system operating temperatures must be kept low

for water-base hydraulic fluids to prevent vapor binding and loss of fluid. Nonwater-base hydraulic fluids, including silicones, have lower vapor pressures than do

water-base fluids.

4. Determine the hydraulic fluid air solubility

High solubility of air in the hydraulic fluid is undesirable because the air or other

gas dissolved at the reservoir conditions of temperature and absolute pressure may

leave the solution at a lower pressure, say, than pressure existing at the pump inlet.

Pump cavitation can result. If the reservoir is pressurized, the problem is even

greater because more air can be dissolved, coming out of the solution in another

part of the system. Remember that air solubility in many hydraulic fluids is directly

proportional to the absolute pressure of the system. Therefore, choose that fluid

having the lowest, or relatively low, air solubility.

5. Analyze the effect of bulk modulus on the system

Bulk modulusthe reciprocal of compressibilityis similar in concept to a mechanical spring rate, and it measures the pressure change needed to cause a given

percent volume change. Inaccurate positioning of pistons and varying speed (rpm)

of hydraulic motors can result from this volume change. The higher the bulk modulus, the stiffer the hydraulic system and the higher its resonant frequency. A fastresponding servosystem requires a fluid with a high bulk modulus.

Some hydraulic fluids have an elasticity (compressibility) of 0.5 percent per

1000-psi (6890-kPa) pressure change up to 1000 psi (6890 kPa), and about 0.25

percent per 1000-psi (6890-kPa) pressure change at 50,000 psi (344.5 MPa). Fluid

compressibility can cause jump, chatter, or gallop of the piston rod of a hydraulic

cylinder serving a varying load. Characteristics of this jump are affected by the

type of load, type of guidance, mass of the moving parts, type of circuit used to

suppress the jump, and other factors. Approximate the jump amplitude and frequency by applying the compressibility factor of 0.5 percent per 1000 psi (6890

kPa) to the length of the oil column, which is usually assumed equal to the maximum stroke length if the connecting pipes are not unusually long or large in

comparison to the cylinder dimensions. For this, or any cylinder, jump J in (cm)

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HYDRAULIC AND PNEUMATIC SYSTEMS DESIGN

25.71

0.005PS / 1000, where P fluid pressure, psi (kPa) and S stroke length, in

(cm). Thus, J 0.005(4000)(2) / 1000 0.40 in (1 cm).

Also, the period of the jump is n J / V, where V piston speed, in / s (cm / s).

Then n 0.40 / 20 0.02 s. Frequency V / J, of 20 / 0.4 50 Hz. In some

machine tools the jump length may be twice the calculated value if there are sudden

periodic variations of the load. The usual solution to a jumpy feed is an increase

of the cylinder bore or replacement of the cylinder with a screw feed.

Some fluids meeting stringent safety requirements sacrifice one or more performance qualities. Well-known fire-resistant fluids are water, water-glycol, water-oil

emulsions, phosphate esters, and chlorinated hydrocarbons.

With water-base fluids, care must be taken to prevent water loss because the

water is the principal fire-resistant part of the mixture. Water loss in water-glycol

fluids increases the fluid viscosity; in the oil-emulsion type, it decreases the viscosity and (if noticed in time) can warn of dangerous conditions.

SYSTEM BULK MODULUS

The fluid in a hydraulic system contains 25 percent free air under atmospheric

conditions. What is the bulk modulus of the system if the operating pressure is

1500 psia (103.3 MPa) and the total enclosed volume is 10 in3 (163.9 cm3)? Bulk

modulus of the oil is 300,000 psi (2067 MPa).

Calculation Procedure:

The volume of air in the system at atmospheric conditions, in cubic inches (cubic

centimeters), Vaa Vs / F, where Vs system volume, in3 (cm3) and F percent

free air in the system at atmospheric conditions. Then Vaa 10(0.25) 2.5 in3

(16.1 cm3).

At the system operating pressure, air volume Va VaaPaa / Pa, where Va air

volume at operating pressure, in3 (cm3) and Pa operating pressure, psia (kPa).

For this system, Va 2.5(14.7) / 1500 0.0245 in3 (0.40 cm3). Also, bulk modulus

of the air Ba 1500 psia (10.3 kPa).

2.

Voil Vs Va 10.000 0.0245 9.9755 in3 (163.5 cm3)

Set up the ratios: Vs / Bs Voil / Boil Va / Ba. Then 10 /Bs 9.9755 / 300,000

0.0245 / 1500; Bs 201,674 psi (1389s MPa). Note: The effects of trapped air must

be considered in all high-pressure hydraulic systems fitted with servomotors and

positive-displacement pumps.

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25.72

DESIGN ENGINEERING

What surge pressure is developed in a hydraulic cylinder when moving an 8000-lb

(3632-kg) load at 1.8 ft / s (0.548 m / s) if the control valve closes in 0.09 s, system

operating pressure is 500 psi (3445 kPa), and the piston has an effective area of 15

in2 (96.8 cm2)? Friction load during stopping equals the force developed by the

trapped oil after the control valve closes.

Calculation Procedure:

Use the relation a dv / dt, where a piston acceleration, ft / s2 (cm / s2), dv

piston velocity, ft / s (m / s), and dt valve closing time, s. Thus, a 1.8 / 0.09

20 ft / s2 (6.09 m / s2).

2. Find the force developed by the piston

Use F ma, where F piston force, lb (N) and m piston acceleration, ft / s2

(m / s2). Then F 8000(20 / 32.2) 4968 lb (22,062 N). In this computation 32.2

ft / s2 is the acceleration due to gravity at sea level.

3. Compute the surge pressure

Use the relation for surge pressure Ps F / A, where A piston area, in2 (cm2).

Or, Ps 4968 / 15 331.2 psi (2.28 MPa).

RESERVOIR

Design a fluid reservoir for a hydraulic system fitted with a 50-gpm (3.2-L / s), 1000psi (6890-kPa) pump.

Calculation Procedure:

Usual design practice is to choose a reservoir capacity of 2 to 3 times the pump

capacity in gallons per minute (liters per second). Such a reservoir will supply the

pump for 2 to 3 min, neglecting any return flow. Assume, in this design, a factor

of 3 for the reservoir size. Then the reservoir capacity 3(50) 150 gal (569 L).

A reservoir of this capacity will have enough capacity for start-ups, a stable oil

level, a reserve for pipeline breaks, and enough surface area for natural cooling

during normal operation. When the reservoir capacity is less than 2 times the pump

capacity in gallons per minute (liters per minute), a heat exchanger will be needed

to avoid excessive temperature changes. Where possible, reservoirs are built in

rectangular form.

2. Choose the suction-line strainer capacity

The strainer flow capacity should be 2 to 4 times the pump capacity. Assume a

safety factor of 3 for the strainer. Then strainer capacity 3(50) 150 gpm (569

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HYDRAULIC AND PNEUMATIC SYSTEMS DESIGN

25.73

L / min). The strainer should be 0.5 to 0.75 in (1.3 to 1.9 cm) above the reservoir

bottom to avoid overloading the strainer with residue.

3. Select the location of the main return pipe

The main return pipe should discharge below the surface of the oil in the reservoir.

Usual practice is to locate the main return pipe 1 in (2.54 cm) above the reservoir

bottom. This provides a backpressure of 5 to 10 psi (34 to 69 kPa).

4. Locate the atmospheric return lines

Arrange the atmospheric return lines and all other zero-pressure leakage lines so

they discharge above the reservoir oil level. Where the flow rate and air contact are

high (defined as a flow rate of more than one-half the pump capacity with many

visible air bubbles), discharge the oil above the reservoir level onto a chute that

slopes at 5 to 10 into the reservoir fluid. This is important because high-pressure

oil saturated with air will be 25 percent hotter than air-free oil.

5. Determine the baffle submergence

Locate internal baffles between the submerged return line and the pump suction

line. The top of the baffles should be 30 percent below the surface of the reservoir

fluid. In a 60-in (152-cm) reservoir, the top of the baffles should be 0.3(60) 18

in (45.7 cm) below the normal oil level.

6. Select the breather air filter capacity

Atmospheric pressure should exist in the reservoir at all times, regardless of whether

the oil level is rising or falling. To permit easy airflow into and out of the reservoir,

choose an air filter having an air capacity, in cubic feet per minute (liters per

second), of twice the pump capacity in gallons per minute (liters per second). Thus,

in this reservoir, the air-filter capacity would be 2(50) 100 cfm (2830 L / min).

7. Pick the operating temperature and viscosity

Maintain the oil temperature between 120 and 150F (48.8 and 65.6C) during

system operation. Oil viscosity can range between 100 and 300 SSU at 100F

(37.8C) if the operating oil temperature is about 120F (48.8C). Oil temperatures

up to 160F (71.1C) are permissible if the oil viscosity ranges from 300 to 750

SSU at 100F (37.7C). Fit legs to the bottom of the reservoir to allow full air

circulation around all surfaces.

8. Choose the reservoir wall thickness

For reservoir capacities up to 25 gal (95 L), use 0.0625-in (0.158-cm) thick walls;

0.125 in (0.31 cm) for capacities up to 100 gal (379 L); and 0.25 in (0.635 cm)

for capacities of more than 100 gal (379 L). The top, or cover, of the reservoir

should be 4 times as thick as the walls to ensure vibration-free operation and to

hold the pump and motor in alignment. Figure 7 shows the various components

discussed in this calculation procedure.

ACCUMULATOR

Determine the volume of a bladder-type accumulator having a gas-to-oil volume

ratio of 3-to-1 when fully charged if the gas expansion coefficient n 1.25, system

oil demand V 6 in3 (98.4 mL), and the allowable pressure drop is 5 percent.

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25.74

DESIGN ENGINEERING

Calculation Procedure:

1. Determine the volume of the gas side at the highest system operating pressure

Use the relation HHP / VLP VHP / (VHP V) (1 x)1 / n, where VHP gas-side

volume at highest operating pressure, in3 (cm3); VLP gas-side volume at lowest

operating pressure, in3 (cm3); x liquid-side pressure drop, expressed as the ratio

(PHP PLP) / PHP, where PHP and PLP, psi (kPa), are the highest, and lowest, operating pressures of the system, respectively. For this system, then, VHP / (VHP 6)

(1 0.05)1 / 1.25 144 in3 (2362 mL).

2. Compute the total chamber volume

In any accumulator, total volume gas volume oil volume. Since the gas-to-oil

volume ratio is 3-to-1, the total volume of this accumulator VACC 144 144 / 3

192 in3 (3149 mL). Expressing this on the gas-to-oil ratio basis gives VACC

1.33VHP 1.33(144) 192 in3 (3149 mL).

Related Calculations. The gas exponent n 1.25, used in this calculation, is

for a polytropic expansion. For most applications where air or nitrogen is used in

the accumulator, and where the pressure changes less than 25 percent during operation, use of this exponent does not introduce significant errors in the results.

Where greater accuracy is desired, assume isothermal compression, with n 1, for

the charging cycle, and adiabatic expansion, n 1.4, for the discharge cycle. The

gas-to-oil volume of 3 to 1 used in this calculation is a typical value for oil industrial

hydraulic systems.

DEMAND VOLUME

Determine the demand volume of a gas-filled accumulator of any type if the expansion is adiabatic (n 1.4) and the pressure drop is 900 psi (6201 kPa) in a

3000-psi (20.7-MPa) system. Gas-side volume at the highest operating pressure is

600 in3 (9840 mL).

Calculation Procedure:

Use the relation (PLP / PHP)1 / n / [1 (PLP / PHP)1 / n], where the symbols are as given

in the previous calculation procedure. Thus, (2100 / 3000)1 / 1.4 / [1 (2100 /

300)1 / 1.4] 3.44.

2.

V VHP / m 600 / 3.44 174.4 (2860 mL)

A double-acting hydraulic cylinder has a 3-in (7.6-cm) bore and a 1-in (2.54-cm)

diameter piston rod. Determine the force developed during rod extension and retraction if the oil pump delivers fluid to the cylinder inlet at 1000 psi (6890 kPa).

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HYDRAULIC AND PNEUMATIC SYSTEMS DESIGN

25.75

Calculation Procedure:

The piston area, AP d2 / 4, where d piston diameter, in (cm). Then, AP

(3)2 / 4 7.06 in2 (45.5 cm2).

2. Compute the effective area of the cylinder rod end

The rod end effective area piston area rod area. Area of the rod Arod

d2rod / 4 (1)2 / 4 0.785 in2 (5.1 cm2). Then, rod effective area 7.060 0.785

6.275 in2 (40.5 cm2).

3. Calculate the extension and retraction forces

The extension force Fe PA; the retraction force Fr PAeffective, where P system

pressure, psi (kPa) and Fe and Fr extension and retraction forces, respectively,

lb (N). Then Fe 1200(7.06) 8472 lb (37.7 kN); Fr 1200(6.275) 7530 lb

(33.5 kN). Thus, the retraction force is 8472 7530 942 lb (4190 N) less than

the extension force. When choosing a double-acting cylinder for a specific application, use the rod-end force to compute the maximum retractive load the cylinder

can handle.

EXTENSION TIME

Determine the oil consumption and extension time of a 3-in (7.6-cm) bore, doubleacting hydraulic cylinder having a 1-in (2.54-cm) diameter piston if oil is supplied

to the cylinder at a flow rate of 5 gpm (0.32 L / s). The length of rod stroke is 18

in (45.7 cm).

Calculation Procedure:

The piston-end volume VP APL, where L stroke length, in (cm). Then the

piston-end volume VP [(3)2](18) / 4 127.2 in3 (2086 mL). The rod-end volume

Vrod (AP Arod)L (7.06 0.785)18 113-in3 (1853-mL) retraction volume.

2. Determine the oil gallonage (L / s) per stroke

Since 1 gal (3.79 L) of oil occupies 231 in3 (3788 mL), extension gallonage for

one stroke extension volume, in3 / 231 127.2 / 231 0.55 gal (2.1 L) per stroke.

Likewise, retraction gallonage for one stroke retraction volume, in3 / 231

113 / 231 0.489 gal (1.85 L) per stroke.

3. Calculate rod extension and retraction time

The time required to extend, or retract, the rod T extension or retraction gallonage, L / gpm (L / s), flow to the cylinder. For this cylinder, Te 0.551 / 5 0.110min extension time for a full stroke of 18 in (45.7 cm). The retraction time Tr

0.489 / 5 0.098 min for a full stroke of 18 in (45.7 cm).

Where time is a factor in the application of hydraulic cylinders, use the longest

time required for a stroke. In a double-acting cylinder this is the extension time.

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25.76

DESIGN ENGINEERING

Determine the oil pressure required, oil flow rate, and power output of a 4-in (10.2cm) diameter hydraulic cylinder which lifts a 5000-lb (2270-kg) load at 25 ft / min

(0.127 m / s) if the load carriage and piston weigh 25 lb (11.4 kg).

Calculation Procedure:

The required oil pressure P psi (kPa) 2L / AP, where L total load, lb (kg) and

AP area of hydraulic piston, in2 (cm2). Thus, P 2(5000 500) / 0.7854(4)2

875 psi (6029 kPa).

2. Determine the oil flow rate

Use the relation Q 6SAP / 231, where S lift speed, ft / min (m / s). Then Q 6

(25)(0.7854)(42) / 231 8.16 gpm (0.51 L / s).

3. Calculate the power output of the cylinder

Use the relation power output, ft lb / min (W), Wo LS 5500(25) 137,500

ft lb / min (3108 W) 4.16 hp (3.1 kW).

BY USING MANUFACTURERS SIZE TABLES

Select a hydraulic motor and pump to operate a hoist having a normal cable pull

of 15,000 lb (6810 kg) at 220 ft / min (1.12 m / s), an overload pull of 22,500 lb

(10,215 kg) at 100 ft / min (0.51 m / s), and a light-line pull of 25 percent of normal

cable pull at 400 ft / min (2 m / s). The radius of the cable drum is 13 in (33 cm),

the gear reduction ratio to drum is 14.7 to 1, and the gear reduction efficiency is

89 percent.

Calculation Procedure:

Past experience or advice from a component manufacturer indicates this application

should employ a closed circuit with a variable-delivery, reversible pump to give

accurate control of start, stop, reverse, acceleration, deceleration, and variable speed

of the hoist. Either a fixed- or variable-displacement motor may be used, but a

fixed-displacement motor will be chosen here so that all controls will be centered

in the pump. This permits a more compact arrangement of the controls.

2. Determine the size of the hydraulic motor

Size, as used here, refers to the displacement constant, in cubic inches (cubic centimeters or milliliters), of the motor. This constant is a factor in the horsepower

(kilowatts) and torque output of the motor. Use of the constant simplifies motor

selection.

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HYDRAULIC AND PNEUMATIC SYSTEMS DESIGN

25.77

The hydraulic motor for this hoist should be large enough to handle all the loads

expected without a gear change. This will simplify the entire installation. To eliminate changing gears, the motor will have to run at its maximum speed and develop

the maximum torque even though these two conditions (speed and torque) will not

occur simultaneously.

The rpm of the drum at the light-line pull of 400 ft / min (2 m / s) (12 ft / min)/

(2R), where R drum radius, in (cm). With a 14.7-to-1 gear reduction between

the drum and motor, the maximum rpm of the hydraulic motor is 14.7(58.8) 864

rpm.

Consult a tabulation of standard hydraulic motor sizes published by the manufacturer whose motor you expect to use. Table 14 shows the sizes of motors available from one large manufacturer. Review of this table shows that the maximum

required rpm (864) of the hoist motor is within the maximum rpm range of all units

through size 15 (900 rpm).

Next, the maximum torque T of the motor drum torque, in lb / efficiency (gear

reduction). Or, T (13 in)(22,500 lb) / 0.89(14.7) 22,357 in lb (2526 N m).

Since this maximum torque is an overload condition, an operating pressure is selected near the maximum level allowed for this pump, 2500 psi (17.2 MPa), by the

manufacturer. The motor, or B-end, pressure, size number, and torque are related

by S T / 0.63P, where S motor size number of displacement constant, in3 (cm3

or mL), and P maximum allowable pump pressure, psi (kPa). For this application,

S 22,357 / 0.63(2500) 14.19.

From Table 14, the nearest size number is 15. Recalculate the maximum pressure

by using the size number 15. Or, P T / 0.63S 22,357 / 0.63(15) 2366 psi

(16.3 MPa).

Now compute the torque for the normal load of 15,000 lb (6810 kg). Then check

to see that the pressure is not too high, i.e., greater than 2500 psi (17.2 MPa) for

continuous operation. Use the same procedure as above. Or, T (13 in)(15,000

lb) / 0.89(14.7) 14,905 in lb (1684 N m); P 14,905 / 0.63(15) 1577 psi

(10.86 MPa).

The operating pressure is well below the maximum allowable continuous operating pressure and is therefore satisfactory. If the actual operating pressure at the

normal load is higher than the maximum allowable continuous operating pressure,

select a motor having a higher allowable operating pressure. Do this by referring

Size number

Maximum rpm

Maximum torque

(intermittent) in lb

Moment of inertia,

lb in2

114

212

5

10

15

20

35

50

75

150

300

1750

1450

1200

1000

900

825

720

650

580

480

400

2,350

4,700

9,450

18,900

28,300

37,800

66,000

94,500

141,000

283,000

566,000

150

200

570

1,970

4,040

6,700

18,000

34,000

70,000

237,000

809,000

Copyright 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved.

Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website.

25.78

DESIGN ENGINEERING

to the tabulation of motor sizes and pressures in the manufacturers catalog. Note

that the maximum intermittent torque tabulated for size 15 motor (28,300 in lb

[3198 N m]) exceeds the maximum load torque of 22,357 in lb (2526 N m). Be

sure to check that the maximum-load torque does not exceed the maximum allowable torque. Load conditionscontinuous or intermittentshould also agree. Never

try to match a continuous load to a maximum allowable intermittent load because

the motor will be overloaded. Figure 37 shows the performance of this hoist, using

the motor and pump analyzed in this calculation procedure.

3. Determine the size of the hydraulic pump

The pump chosen must have sufficient capacity to drive the hydraulic motor at

speeds up to the maximum allowable. And the pump must also develop the maximum operating pressure, even though the two conditions (speed and pressure) do

not occur simultaneously.

First determine the theoretical displacement by using the size number from the

relation: motor, or B-end, displacement 4.35S in3 / r (cm3 / r). Assume a 98 percent

volumetric efficiency each for the pump and the motor. Then the volume of oil V

in3 / r (cm3 / r) required at a given rpm is V rpm(displacement, in3 / r) / (pump efficiency)(motor efficiency). Or, V 865(65.2) / 0.98(0.98) 58,723 in3 / r (963,065

cm3 / r). This is the oil volume required at 865 rpm of the motor.

Assume that the pump is driven by an electric motor at an input speed of 875

rpm. Then the displacement d per revolution for the pump is 58,723 / 875 67.1

in3 / r (1101 cm3 / r).

Pump size number S d / 4.52, where 4.52 is a constant for the pump, or Aend. Then S 67.1 / 4.52 14.84. The nearest pump size from Table 15 is 15.

horsepower (kilowatts) limiting device.

Copyright 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved.

Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website.

HYDRAULIC AND PNEUMATIC SYSTEMS DESIGN

25.79

Size number

Rated rpm

Maximum gpm

Maximum hp

(intermittent)

114

212

5

10

15

20

35

50

75

150

300

1200

1200

1200

900

720

600

600

514

514

450

400

28

56

112

170

200

230

400

500

750

1300

2300

50

100

200

300

350

400

700

900

1300

2300

4000

This pump will handle maximum intermittent horsepowers up to 350 hp (261 kW).

The reason why a hydraulic pump and motor capable of handling up to 350 hp

(261 kW) are necessary to handle this installation involving a maximum of only

100-hp (75-kW) output is that various power outputs are required at different operating speeds.

Copyright 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved.

Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website.

Copyright 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved.

Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website.

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