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Source: HANDBOOK OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING CALCULATIONS

SECTION 25

HYDRAULIC AND PNEUMATIC


SYSTEMS DESIGN

Determining Response Time of PilotOperated Solenoid-Energized Spool


Valves in Hydraulic Systems 25.1
Hydraulic-System Reservoir and Heat
Exchanger Selection and Sizing 25.12
Choosing Gaskets for Industrial
Hydraulic Piping Systems 25.19
Computing Friction Loss in Industrial
Hydraulic System Piping 25.26
Hydraulic-Cylinder Clearance for
Damping End-of-Stroke Forces 25.29
Hydraulic System Pump and Driver
Selection 25.32
Hydraulic Piston Acceleration,
Deceleration, Force, Flow, and Size
Determination 25.36
Hydropneumatic Accumulator Design
for High Force Levels 25.39
Membrane Vibration in Hydraulic
Pressure-Measuring Devices 25.41
Power Savings Achievable in Industrial
Hydraulic Systems 25.42
Pneumatic-Circuit Analysis Using
Various Equations and Coefficients
25.44

Air Flow Through Close-Clearance


Orifices in Pneumatic Systems 25.49
Labyrinth Shaft Seal Leakage
Determination 25.58

Pipe-Wall Thickness for Hydraulic


Systems without Fluid Shock 25.67
Pipe-Wall Thickness for Hydraulic
Systems with Fluid Shock 25.68
Allowable Stress in Hydraulic System
Piping 25.68
Hydraulic Fluid Compressibility and
System Bulk Modulus 25.69
Selection of Fluids for Oil Hydraulic and
Control Systems 25.69
Effect of Trapped Air on Hydraulic
System Bulk Modulus 25.71
Surge Pressure in Hydraulic Cylinders
25.72

Sizing a Hydraulic System Fluid


Reservoir 25.72
Required Volume of Bladder-Type
Accumulator 25.73
Determining Hydraulic Accumulator
Demand Volume 25.74
Effective Force Developed by a DoubleActing Hydraulic Cylinder 25.74
Hydraulic Cylinder Oil Consumption and
Extension Time 25.75
Hydraulic Cylinder Power Output 25.76
Selecting Hydraulic Motors and Pumps
by Using Manufacturers Size Tables
25.76

DETERMINING RESPONSE TIME OF PILOTOPERATED SOLENOID-ENERGIZED SPOOL


VALVES IN HYDRAULIC SYSTEMS
A pilot-operated solenoid-energized spool control valve in a hydraulic system has
the dimensions, operating pressures, and performance given in Table 1. Pilot supply
pressure is 100 lb / in2 (689 kPa); main supply pressure is 500 lb / in2 (3445 kPa).
Find the maximum velocity of this valve, its acceleration time, and the total response time. Next, using the same dimensions and main operating pressure, find
25.1
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HYDRAULIC AND PNEUMATIC SYSTEMS DESIGN


25.2

DESIGN ENGINEERING

TABLE 1 Dimensions and Operating Conditions*

Diameter, in
Mass, lb-sec2/in
Stroke, in
Land length, in
Radial clearance, in
Coefficient of friction
Solenoid force, lb (initial; final)
Back pressure, lb / in2
Supply pressure, lb / in2
Differential pressure, lb / in2
Port area, in2
Flow coefficient
Viscosity, CP
Density, lb-sec2/in4

Pilot Spool

Main spool

d 0.25
m 0.0002
s 0.375

FSOL 1; 8.5

p 100
p 70 (approx)
a0 0.05
0.6
80
0.000,085

D 2.5
M 0.05
S 1.5
L 6.0
C 0.0003
FR 0.04

pB 20
P 500
P 450 (approx)
AM 1.2
0.6
80
0.000,085

*SI values given in calculation procedure.

the same unknowns when the pilot pressure is made equal to the main operating
pressure i.e., 500 lb / in2 (3445 kPa). As a further modification, a small actuating
piston is placed at each end of the main spool, Fig. 3, to increase the longitudinal
velocity for a given pilot-fluid flow rate. Trial and error would normally be used
to calculate the most effective diameter for the actuating piston. In this procedure
we will use a diameter dx 1.4 in (3.56 cm) for this small actuating piston. If the
dimensions and operating pressures are unchanged, analyze the valve for the same
unknowns as above.

Calculation Procedure:

1. Compute the axial force on the main spool of this valve


The forces acting on the main spool at maximum velocity are: Pilot backpressure,
pB; viscous damping force, DV; and radial jet force Prad , Fig. 2. From the equation,
Pas 2FrAMP
where the symbols are as given, Table 2. Then, Pax 2(0.04)(0.6)(1.2)(450) 26
lb (115.6 N). converting to pressure by dividing by the area of the main spool valve
end, we have 26 / 4.9 5.3 lb / in2 (36.5 kPa).
2. Compute the combined hydrodynamic resistance of the valve
Provisionally, estimate that DV is equivalent to 3.2 lb / in2 (22 kPa) and PB pilotvalve backpressure 20 lb / in2 (138.8 kPa). The combined hydrodynamic resistance is then the sum of: Radial pressure, lb / in2 (kPa) Viscous drag, lb / in2 (kPa)
Pilot-valve backpressure, lb / in2 (kPa). Or combined hydrodynamic resistance
5.3 3.2 20 28.5 lb / in2 (196.4 kPa).

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25.3

HYDRAULIC AND PNEUMATIC SYSTEMS DESIGN

TABLE 2 Valve Symbology*

Spool
Dimensions
and Mass

Solenoid
Forces

Drag
Forces

Pilot

Actuating
piston

Diameter, in

dx

Cross-sectional area, in2

ap

As

Mass, lb-sec2/in

Stroke: Intermediate

Full

Sa

Engagement (length in contact), in

lp

Land length, in (total)

Spool-to-bore radial clearance, in

Initial, lb

Gradient, lb/in

Final, lb

FSOL

Ratio, A/B

Back pressure, psi

pB

pB

pB

Viscous drag, lb (or psi)

dV

DV

Radial jet, lb

Prad

Prad

Coefficient of friction

FR

FR

Pax

Pzx

F ma

F Ma

Axial jet, lb
Acceleration force, lb
Oil
pressure,
flow, and
port size

Main
valve

Pressure:
Supply, psi
Pilot downstream, psi
Differential, psi
Port area, in2(effective orifice)
Flow coefficient (0.55 to 0.70)
Viscosity, centipoise

p1

p1

p1

a0

AM

V0

Acceleration time, sec

ta

Ta

Ta

Shifting velocity, in/sec

vp

Shifting time, sec


(after energization)

Oil density, lb-sec2/in4


Flow rate, in3/sec
Oil velocity, in/sec (through port)
Oil mass flow, lb-sec/in
Oil-jet deflection angle, deg
Valve
response

*SI values given in calculation procedure.

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25.4

DESIGN ENGINEERING

3. Calculate the pilot-valve flow rate


The pilot-valve pressure differential, delta P 100 28.5 71.5 lb / in2 (492.6
kPa). Hence, the valve flow rate is, using the equation below
q ao

2p

where q flow, in3 / s (mL / s); flow factor, dimensionless, ranging from 0.55
to 0.70 depending on valve type; ao cross-sectional area, in2 (cm2); of the minimum port openingusually the drilled port hole; p p p1 differential
pressure, lb / in2 (kPa) measured across the pilot inlet and outlet ports; p fluid
mass density, lb-s2 / in4, normally 0.000085 for oil. Substituting, q 0.6
(0.5)[(2)(71.5) / 0.000085)]0.5 40 in3 / s (656 mL / s), using a value of 0.6 for
this valve.
4. Determine the maximum velocity of the main spool and the viscous damping
force
The maximum velocity of the main spool, Fig. 1, V (flow rate, in3 / s / (area of
spool end, in2) 40 / 4.9 8.2 in / s (20.8 cm / s). Knowing the velocity, we can
find the damping force, DV, from
DV

DLV
C 6.9 106

where D spool diameter, in (cm); L length of spool lands, in (cm); V main


spool velocity, in / s (cm / s); mu absolute viscosity, centipoise; C spool-to-bore
radial clearance, in (cm). If the temperature varies more than 30 to 50 degrees, it
is nearly impossible to compute the viscous resistance. Substituting, DV
2.5(6)(8.2)(80) / (0.0003)(6.9 106) 3.05 lb / in2 (21 kPa). Thus, the provisional
estimate of DV 3.2 was close enough (within 4.9 percent) and recalculation is
not necessary.
5. Find the accelerating pressure and acceleration time of the spool
The forces acting upon the spool during acceleration are: pR, Pax, DV, and F, where
F Ma. Assuming a mean value for initial port opening AM 0.4 in2 (2.58 cm2),
then from
Pas 2AMP cos
where normally varies from 70 degrees at initial opening to 90 degrees at full
opening. In calculations, use the axial jet pressure during initial opening, and the
axial component of radial pressure during the remainder of travel. Substituting,
Pax 2(0.6)(0.4)(450)(0.26) 56 lb (248.1 N). Then 56 / 4.9 11.4 lb / in2 (78.5
kPa), 75 deg; cos 0.26.
Viscous drag will be the average: DV 3.2 / 2 1.6 lb / in2 (11 kPa). Backpressure is still pB 20 lb / in2 (137.8 kPa). So the total is 11.4 1.6 20 33 lb /
in2 (227.4 kPa).
Therefore, accelerating pressure 100 33 67 lb / in2 (461.6 kPa). Converting to force, we have 67 (4.9) 328 lb (1441.2 N). The acceleration time, ta
s MV / F 0.05 (8.2) / 328 0.0013 s.

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FIGURE 1 Typical solenoid-energized pilot-operated spool valve.

HYDRAULIC AND PNEUMATIC SYSTEMS DESIGN

25.5
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25.6

DESIGN ENGINEERING

FIGURE 2 Jet-force drag in pilot-operated spool valves.

6. Determine the main spool displacement and the energization time interval
The displacement of the main spool during the acceleration period is negligible,
being less than 1 percent of the total stroke. Time for the total stroke of 1.5 in (3.8
cm) is 1.5 / 8.2 0.182 s, and the time interval from energization of the solenoid
to completion of the main valve stroke, T 0.190 s.
7. Analyze the valve with the higher pilot pressure
Much larger flow will pass through the pilot valve because of the higher pressure.
Maximum velocity period: Pax 5.3 lb / in2 (36.5 kPa), the same as before; DV
7.7 lb / in2 (53.1 kPa)a higher estimate, proportional to the anticipated velocity;
pB 20.0 lb / in2 (137.8 kPa), the same as before. The total is 33.0 lb / in2 (227.5
kPa).
The new P 467 lb / in2 (3217.6 kPa), and Q 4.7 (467)0.5 102 in3 / s
(1671.5 mL / s); V 102 / 4.9 20.8 in / s (52.1 cm / s); DV 1.82 (20.8) 37.8
lb (168.1 N) 7.75 lb / in2 (53.4 kPa), which proves out the assumption of 7.7 lb
/ in2 (53.1 kPa).
Accelerating time, ta (0.05)(20.8) / (2280) 0.0005 s. The 1.5-in (3.81-cm)
stroke takes 1.5 / 20.8 0.072 s. Total time 0.081 s.
The flow rate of the pilot oil is more important than pressure intensity in obtaining a fast-acting valve. A slightly larger pilot valve and enlarged porting have
a marked effect on the operational speed of the main valve.
Note that increasing the pilot pressure fivefold, from 100 lb / in2 to 500 lb / in2
(689 kPa to 3445 kPa) only doubles the speed of response, from 0.19 s to 0.08 s.
Increasing the port area can result in an nearly proportional gain in speed, and no

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HYDRAULIC AND PNEUMATIC SYSTEMS DESIGN

25.7

additional pressure is necessary, saving on pumping costs. Costs of producing a


0.375-in (9.52-mm) pilot spool are not much greater than those for a 0.25-in (6.35mm) spool. The increase in capacity is 50 percent without the additional heat losses
entailed by an increase in pressure.
8. Analyze the valve fitted with actuating pistons
For the valve, Fig. 3, with the small actuating pistons, taking the summation of the
viscous drag, DV, and inserting the known optimum values in parentheses after
the computed values, we have:
DV

8.2 4.9 4 80
0.0003 6l9 106 1.4

2.5 6
2 1.5
1.4

12800
15
3
2075 1.4 1.4

60.5 lb (269.1 N) [59.0 lb optimum; 262.4 N]

Introducing the value of DV in the equation,


ap

3k3 3(Pax DV)

2k2
2(p pB)

we have
ap

3(26 60.5)
1.62 in (10.45 sq cm) [1.59 in2; 10.26 cm2 ]
2(100 20)

d 1.44 in (3.66 cm) [1.425 in, 3.62 cm].


With optimum ap 1.59 cu in (26.06 mL), piston velocity using
q ao

a a

v k1

is

2 p
k2

k3

2
p

3
p

k21k2 k21k3
3
a2p
ap

vp 4.6

80
(26 59)

2.53
4.0

15.0 in / s

(38.1 cm / s)

The total time, T 0.100 0.009 0.109 s. Using a pilot pressure of 500 pst
(3445 kPa), V 20.8 in / s (52.8 cm / s) and d 1.06 in (2.69 cm). Then:

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FIGURE 3 Piston-operated solenoid-energized spool valve.

HYDRAULIC AND PNEUMATIC SYSTEMS DESIGN

25.8
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HYDRAULIC AND PNEUMATIC SYSTEMS DESIGN


25.9

HYDRAULIC AND PNEUMATIC SYSTEMS DESIGN

DV

20.8 4.9 4.80


0.0003 6.9 106 1.06

ap

15
3 258 lb
1.06

3(26 258)
0.886 in2
2(500 20)

dz 1.06 in
vp 4.6

0.784 0.61
480

284

55 in / s

T 0.036 s
Table 3 and Fig. 4 depict the effect of actuating-piston area upon the spool shifting
velocity and shifting time.
Related Calculations. Pilot-operated flow-control valves are probably the most
common valves used in industrial hydraulic systems. Speed of response of these
valves is important during the design and operation of any hydraulic system. The
procedure given here analyzes the speed of response of a typical valve in terms of
the fluid flow rate, characteristic force-vs-airgap curve of the solenoid; shape, size,
clearance, and displacement of each spool; and the fluid viscosity.
The method given in this procedure relates the above parameters for the valve
in Fig. 1. and can be applied to any other pilot-operated spool valve. And the
procedure includes a special technique for a large spool valve, Fig. 3, actuated by
a small auxiliary piston.
In the sequence of operation of solenoid-energized pilot-operated spool valve,
here is what happens. The solenoid is energized, the pilot spool moves quickly to
the full open position, Fig. 5, and the main spool is shifted at a rate determined by
the amount of fluid that can move through the pilot ports against these five resisting
forces: (1) pilot system backpressure, lb / in2 (kPa); (2) viscous damping force, lb
(N); (3) radial jet force, lb (N); (4) axial jet force, lb (N); (5) acceleration force, lb
(N).

TABLE 3 Effect of Adding Actuating Pistons*

Pilot
pressure p,
psi

Main valve
diameter,
in

Maximum
valve
velocity,
without
piston
in/sec

100
500

2.50
2.50

8.2
20.8

Total
shift
time
T,
sec

Maximum
valve
velocity,
with
piston in
sec

Piston
diameter,
in

Total
shift
time
T,
sec

0.190
0.081

15.0
55.0

1.425
1.06

0.109
0.036

*SI values given in calculation procedure.

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HYDRAULIC AND PNEUMATIC SYSTEMS DESIGN


25.10

DESIGN ENGINEERING

SI Values
in./sec cm/sec
5
12.7
10
25.4
15
38.1
20
50.8
25
63.5
FIGURE 4 Effect of varying piston diameter.

in.2
1
2
3
4
5

cm2
6.45
12.9
19.4
25.8
32.3

FIGURE 5 Before energization and after full stroke of a solenoid-energized spool valve.

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HYDRAULIC AND PNEUMATIC SYSTEMS DESIGN

25.11

Figure 6 shows a time-displacement chart for the spool as it shifts to a new


position. This chart is for a 0.25-in (0.635-cm) diameter closed-center pilot spool
controlling flow to a 2.5-in (6.35-cm) main spool.
Pilot pressure chosen for this procedure is 100 lb / in2 (689 kPa), which is less
than the main supply pressure. A separate supply for the pilot is required. There
are no hard and fast rules for establishing pilot pressures, but if possible keep the
pressure in the range of a few hundred lb / in2 (kPa) if this range will do the job,
to avoid possible distortion or leakage in the pilot system.
In analyzing any pilot-operated valves, some simplifying assumptions must be
made; otherwise there is no practical mathematical solution. For one, assume that
the backpressure of the pilot system, set by the pilot exhaust valve, is constant.
Ignore line resistance because the connecting lines are short. Neglect viscous damping except at the full-velocity portion of the stroke. Then the five dynamic resistances can be handled with the simple equations presented in this procedure.
The pilot-system backpressure is usually 5 to 7 percent of the pilot pressure, p.
Select the higher value if the operating pressures are over 200 lb / in2 (1378 kPa),
because it adds a margin of safety that compensates for spool rubbing friction. The
friction is from metal-to-metal contact at points where the oil film is partially destroyed.
Above 400-lb / in2 (2756 kPa) operating pressure, a separate pilot supply usually
is provided. Pilot pressure in these instances ought to be at least 7 percent of the
main operating pressure to ensure adequate force to move the main spool.
This procedure is the work of Louis Dodge, Hydraulics Consultant, as reported
in Product Engineering magazine.

FIGURE 6 Time-displacement graph for solenoid-energized pilot-operated spool valve.

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HYDRAULIC AND PNEUMATIC SYSTEMS DESIGN


25.12

DESIGN ENGINEERING

HYDRAULIC-SYSTEM RESERVOIR AND HEAT


EXCHANGER SELECTION AND SIZING
(1) Determine if a first-pass reservoir choice, Fig. 7, can dissipate enough heat
to keep oil temperature below 120F (48.9C) in a 70-F (21.1-C) ambient (50-F
[27.8-C]) temperature difference, TD. The source of heat is a 20-gal / min (1.26-L -

FIGURE 7 Well-designed hydraulic-system reservoir and circuit diagram for it.

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HYDRAULIC AND PNEUMATIC SYSTEMS DESIGN

25.13

/ s) constant-delivery pump operating in a 60-percent overall efficiency system. The


hydraulic working unit, including the piping, is not helping to dissipate heat. Reservoir tank size is small with a cooling surface of 21 ft2 (1.95 m2), based on a
reservoir volume of twice pump flowor 2 20 40 gal (75.8 L). System
pressure 750 lb / in2 (5167.5 kPa); overall heat transfer coefficient, k 5 Btu / ft2
hr F (28.4 W / m2 C), a conservative value. (2) The return flow of the hydraulic
fluid in another industrial hydraulic system must be cooled continuously to 125F
(51.7C). The hottest uncooled drain temperature of the fluid is 140F (60.0C).
Flow of the hydraulic fluid through the system is 12 gal / min (0.76 L / s); the cooling-water inlet temperature 65F (18.3C); outlet temperature 85F (29.4C);
k 90 Btu / hr-ft2 F (511.2 W / m2 C). Use a counterflow, single-pass heat exchanger, Fig. 8, in this analysis. (3) Lastly, calculate the temperature of a standard
60-gal (227.4 L) reservoir after 5 hr of operation. Pump discharge is 20 gal / min
(1.26 L / s) at 750 lb / in2 (5.17 MPa). Cooling surface is 28 ft2 (0.792 sq m). An
attached heat-dissipating working unit weighs W 800 lb (362.2 kg) and its effective surface area A 5.5 ft2 (0.156 m2). With an initial system oil temperature,
Toil 70F (21.1C), and an ambient temperature, Tair 50F (10.0C), the initial
temperature-over-ambient, Tp 70 50 20F(11.1C). The estimated median
value of k 4 Btu / ft2 hr F(22.7 W / sq m C). The 60 gallons of oil weigh 444
lb (201.6 kg).

Calculation Procedure:

1. Find the total heat generated in the system


Find the total heat generated in the system using the equation
EL 1.48 Q P(1 )
where the symbols are as given below. Substituting
EL 1.48(20 gal / min)(750 lb / in2)(1 0.60) 8880 Btu / hr (2601.1 W).

FIGURE 8 Single-pass shell-and-tube heat exchanger for industrial hydraulic system.

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HYDRAULIC AND PNEUMATIC SYSTEMS DESIGN


25.14

DESIGN ENGINEERING

2. Compute the required reservoir cooling area


Use the equation
T EL / kA

max D

and solve for the required area, A. Or, A 8880 / (50 5) 35.5 ft2 (3.3 m2).
Since this reservoir has only 21 ft2 (1.95 m2) of cooling surface, the tank area is
not large enough to dissipate the heat generated. Hence, a larger reservoir cooling
area must be provided for this installation.
3. Determine the heat-transfer area and cooling-water flow rate required
Use the equation
Eexch Toil Qoil 210
Twater Qwater 500

to find the heat exchanger heat load. Substituting, we have Eexch (140 125)
(12)(210) 37,800 Btu / hr (11.1 kW). The maximum temperature difference,
Tmax 125 65 60F (51.7C). Minimum temperature difference Tmin
140 85 55F (30.6C). Log-mean temperature difference, computed as shown
elsewhere in this handbook (see index) is Tmean 57.5 (31.9C). Figure 9 shows
the oil and water temperature changes in a generalized manner.
Find the required heat-transfer area from
Eexch kATmeanBtu / hr
solving for A. Or A 37,800 / (90 57.5) 7.3 ft2 (0.68 m2).

FIGURE 9 Hydraulic oil and cooling water temperature plot


for heat exchanger in Fig. 8.

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HYDRAULIC AND PNEUMATIC SYSTEMS DESIGN

25.15

To find the required cooling-water flow rate, use Qwater Eexch / (500 gal / min),
where 500 a constant to convert gal / min to gph. Substituting, Qwater 38,800 /
(500 20) 3.78 gal / min (0.2385 L / s).
Refer to manufacturers catalogs for the size of a heat exchanger with the proper
surface area. Be certain to check the heat exchanger pressure rating if the system
pressure exceeds 150 lb / in2 (1033.5 kPa).
4. Find the heat exchanger heat load
Use the same relation as in step 1, above, to find EL 8880 Btu / hr (2601.1 W).
5. Compute the heating variables for the fluid and reservoir
The heat balance for the oil and attached heat dissipating working unit are given
by cW 0.4(444) 0.1(800) 257.6 Btu / F (489.4 kJ / C). For the tank and
working unit, the kA 4(28 5.5) 134 Btu / hrF (254.6 kJ / hrC).
6. Determine the temperature above ambient for the hydraulic fluid
Use the equation
TD

EL
t
t
(1 ekA/cW ) (initTD)ekA/cW
kA

TD

8880
(1 e134/2575 ) 20 e134/2575
134

Substituting, we have TD 62.8F (17.1C).


The maximum operating temperature over ambient, maxTD EL / kA 8880 /
134 66.3F (19C). Then, the oil temperature 50 66.3 116.3F (46.8C).
Based on these results, no heat exchanger is required.
Note that the result of this calculation depends on the correct evaluation of k,
which depends on air circulation around the reservoir and attached heat-dissipating
unit. The influence of the initial temperature difference is minor. Practical experience with system design is most important.
Related Calculations. The highest recommended temperature for oil in a conventional hydraulic systems reservoir is 120F (48.9C). The procedure presented
above shows ways to prevent the oil temperature from exceeding that level. There
are certain exceptions to the rule given above. Some conventional hydraulic systems
are designed to operate at 150F (65.6C). So-called super-systems with special
fluids and seals can operate at 500F (260C), and higher. But for any level of
operating temperature, the same heat-transfer principles apply.
In designing a fluid systems heat-transfer, after youve established the basic
system and reservoir design, follow the simple heat-balance method given above.
If the reservoirs peak temperature calculated this way is less than 120F (48.9C)
(or some other desired temperature), no further work is necessary. Thats why a
heat exchanger was not required in step 6, above. If the calculated reservoir temperature is higher than desired, you have two alternatives: (1) improve heat dissipation by modifying the reservoir tank, components, or piping; (2) add a heat
exchanger, using the rating method given in this procedure.
Most of the heat in industrial hydraulic systems comes from in-the-system components. Exceptions are systems in hot environments or adjacent to heat-producing
equipment, but the same heat-balance principles apply.
Heat is generated whenever hydraulic oil is throttled or otherwise restricted.
Examples of heat-producing devices include pressure regulators, relief valves, un-

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HYDRAULIC AND PNEUMATIC SYSTEMS DESIGN


25.16

DESIGN ENGINEERING

dersize piping, dirty or undersize filters, leakage points, and areas of turbulence
anywhere in the system.
A good measure of internally generated heat loss is the difference between
pump input power, Btu / hr (W), and system useful work, Btu / hr (W). The energy
loss, EL Ein(1 ) where system efficiency.
Figure 10 shows a typical duty cycle in an industrial hydraulic system. The
utilization pressure, measured at the inlet to the working device (fluid motor or
cylinder) will always be lower than the source pump pressure, depending on the
amount of throttling or other regulation required in the system.
The difference in energiespumped vs utilizedmust be absorbed during transients and eventually dissipated by the system. An approximate measure of overall
system efficiency, , is the ratio of the mean effective pressure, Fig. 10, to pump
pressure, where the mean effective pressure is calculated from the area under the
curve, Fig. 10, divided by the time base.
Figure 11 compares reservoir tank temperature for two different pumps: (1) a
fixed-delivery pump, with constant flow and pressure and a full-flow relief valve
for bypass flow during idling of the workload, and (2) a variable-delivery pump,
with pressure and flow automatically varied to match load requirements.
Note that in the constant-pressure system, Fig. 11, the greatest rate of heat
generation is during idling of the workload; all the flow is throttled back to the
reservoir and does no useful work. By comparison, the variable-delivery pump does
not waste energy at idle because the flow is automatically reduced to nearly zero.
Both Fig. 10 and 11 indicate that savings in energy are possible if only the
needed oil is pumped. Excess capacity is forced back to the reservoir through the
relief valve, and the energy is converted to waste heat. Auxiliary pumps are great
offenders if they are operated when not needed. Additional useful guides for reservoir selection and sizing are given below.

SI Values
psi
250
500
750
1000

MPa
1.72
3.44
5.17
6.89

FIGURE 10 Typical duty cycle for industrial hydraulic system


showing the mean effective pressure, system pressure, and pump
discharge pressure.

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HYDRAULIC AND PNEUMATIC SYSTEMS DESIGN


HYDRAULIC AND PNEUMATIC SYSTEMS DESIGN

25.17

SI Values
F
C
50
10
100
37.8
150
65.6
FIGURE 11 Proper pump choice can conserve energy and reduce system temperature.

Plan for a reservoir capacity that can feed the pump system for two or three
minutes, neglecting any return flow. With a tank that big, several related requirements usually are met automatically: (1) There will be enough reserve fluid to fill
the hydraulic system at startup without exposing the filter and strainer; (2) A fairly
stable oil level will be maintained despite normal fluctuations in flow; (3) Enough
hydraulic fluid will be available to sustain the system while the rotating parts coast
to a stop during emergency shutdown if a return line breaks; (4) Thermal capacity
will be available to absorb unexpected heat for short periods or to store heat during
idle periods in a cold environment; (5) Enough surface area (reservoir tank walls)
is available for natural cooling during normal operation.
If the reservoir tank volume in gallons (L) is less than twice pump flow in gallons
per min (L / min)that is, if the tank can be pumped dry in less than 2
minutesadd a heat exchanger to the system circuit to avoid excessive temperature
fluctuations. For any size reservoir tank, specify an oil-level indicator or sight glass,
in addition to whatever automatic level controls are provided.
When designing a reservoir tank, include each device shown in Fig. 7 to provide
reliable service for the system. The suction-line filter should be 12 to 34 in (1.3 to
1.9 cm) above the tank bottom. Strainer oil flow capacity should be two to four
times the pump capacity. A vacuum gage on the pump suction will show if the
strainer is clogged. A permanent-magnet filter can be specified as a drain plug or
mounted on the baffle plate in a region of concentrated return oil flow.
The main return oil flow should discharge below the reservoir oil level about
one inch (2.5 cm) above the tank bottom. Backpressure in the return line will be
5 to 10 lb / in2 (34.5 to 68.9 kPa), or higher. Atmospheric return lines, including
seal-leakage lines, are at zero pressure and should be discharged above the hydraulic
oil level.
If the atmospheric lines have high flow and a high air content, they should be
discharged above the oil level into a chute sloping gradually (5 to 10 degrees) into

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HYDRAULIC AND PNEUMATIC SYSTEMS DESIGN


25.18

DESIGN ENGINEERING

the tank fluid. The chute slows and fans out the flow, enabling the oil to free itself
of air. This is important, because oil saturated with air and operating at high pressures will run 25 percent hotter than air-free oil. This is caused partly by the heat
of compression of the air and partly by its low thermal conductivity.
Internal baffles between the return pipe and pump inlet will slow the fluid circulation, help settle out dirt particles, give air the chance to escape, and allow
dissipation of heat. The top of the baffle should be submerged about 30 percent
below the surface of the fluid.
Keep the hydraulic oil temperature between 120 and 150F (54 and
66C)preferably at the lower value for oil viscosities from 100 to 300 SSU based
on 100F (38C). Temperatures up to 160F (71C) are permissible if the hydraulic
fluid viscosity is from 300 to 750 SSU, based on 100F (38C). Higher operating
temperatures require special design.
Tank walls should be thin to permit good thermal conductivity. Make them
approximately 116 in (0.16 cm) for tank capacities up to 25 gal (95 L); 18 in (0.32
cm) for capacities up to 100 gal (379 L); 14 in (0.64 cm) for 100 gal (379 L) or
more. Use slightly heavier plate for the bottom. Give the top plate four times wall
thickness to assure vibration-free operation and to hold alignment of pump and
motor shafts. Specify a thermometer to be mounted on the tank top where the
operator can see it.
Avoid designing industrial hydraulic system machines with integral tanks. It is
better to have a separate reservoir, accessible from all sides. Small reservoir tanks
can even be mounted on castors. Tanks within the machine frame are troublesome
to maintain; be sure to work out maintenance details of such a tank before committing yourself to the design.
Equip the reservoir tank with cleanout doors and slope the bottom toward the
doors. Provide a drain cock or discharge valve at the low point of the bottom and
at other low points if needed for complete drainage. Put a manhole cover on the
tank top for removing filters and strainers. Design a connection for hooking to a
portable filtration unit.
If the reservoir tank is made of cast iron, dont paint the interior surface. Be
sure that all grit and core sand are removed before putting the tank into service.
Surfaces must be sandblasted.
This procedure is the work of Louis dodge, Hydraulics Consultant, as reported
in Product Engineering magazine. SI values were added by the handbook editor.
Heat-transfer terminology and symbols
Heat loss and efficiency
System efficiency, Eused / Ein, %
Eused Energy utilized in system, Btu / hr (W)
Ein Pump input power, Btu / hr (W)
EL Heat loss generated in system, Btu / hr (W)
EA Heat absorbed by oil, tank and components, Btu / hr (W)
ED Heat dissipated to atmosphere or coolant, Btu / hr (W)
Eexch Heat exchanger load, Btu / hr (W)
Fluid conditions and flow
t
Q
P
TD
T

Operating time, hr
Flow, gal / min (L / s)
Pump gage pressure, lb / in2 (kPa)
Temperature-over-ambient for oil, F: TD Toil Tair (values are mean) (C)
Heat exchanger only: Twater Tout Tin; Toil Tin Tout; Tmean log-mean
T, oil-to-water (C)

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HYDRAULIC AND PNEUMATIC SYSTEMS DESIGN


HYDRAULIC AND PNEUMATIC SYSTEMS DESIGN

25.19

Equation constants
c
k
W
A
e

Specific heat (mean value), Btu / lb-F (kJ / kg C)


Overall heat-transfer coefficient, Btu / sq ft-hr-F (W / m2 C)
Combined weight of oil and system components, lb (kg)
Surface area for dissipating heat, sq ft (sq m)
Base for natural logs 2.718
Summation sign. cW effective cW for all of system components

Typical values for c and k


c, Btu / lb-F: (kJ / kg C) Oil, 0.40; aluminum, 0.18; iron, 0.11; copper, 0.09
k, Btu / sq ft-hr-F: (W mm / m2 C)
2 to 5Tank inside machine or with inhibited air circulation
5 to 10Steel tank in normal air
10 to 13Tank with good air circulation (guided air current)
25 to 60Forced air cooling or oil-to-air heat exchanger
80 to 100Oil-to-water heat exchanger (k values increase slightly with temperature)

CHOOSING GASKETS FOR INDUSTRIAL


HYDRAULIC PIPING SYSTEMS
Choose a suitable gasket to seal industrial hydraulic fluid at 1200 lb / in2 (8.27 MPa)
and 180F (82.2C). Flanges are 1.5-in (3.8-cm) raised-face, 600-lb (2668.8-N)
weld-neck type made from Type 304 stainless steel. There are four bolts, 0.75-in
(1.9-cm) 10 NC, made from ASTM A193 grade B7 alloy steel. Hydrotest pressure
is specified as 2.5 times operating pressure.

Calculation Procedure:

1. Determine the total bolt force and torque for these flanges
Assuming that torque wrenches will be used to check this installation, as is almost
universally done today, select the bolt-stress method to calculate the total bolt force.
This method uses the equation,
Fb NbSb Ab
where the symbols are as given below.

TABLE 4 Pressure-Temperature Value for Gasket Materials*

Material
Rubber
Vegetable fiber
Rubberized cloth
Compressed asbestos**
Metal types

Max Pi T

Max Temp, F

15,000
40,000
125,000
250,000
250,000

300
250
400
850
depends on metal

*SI values given in procedure.


**Or acceptable substitute.

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HYDRAULIC AND PNEUMATIC SYSTEMS DESIGN


25.20

DESIGN ENGINEERING

From Table 5, the stress area for 3 / 3-10 NC bolt is 0.3340 sq in. (2.15 sq cm).
The bolt material specified can easily take a stress of 30,000 lb / in2 (206.7 MPa)
without yielding. This can be verified from
Fb 16,000Db / Ab
which gives Fb (16,000)(0.75 / 0.3340) 36,000 lb (160.1 kN).
From the bolt-stress equation, Fb 4(30,000)(0.3340) 40,080 lb (178.3 kN).
The torque required to produce this stress level at installation is given by,
T 0.2DbSb Ab
Or, T 0.2(0.75)(30,000)(0.3340) / 12 125 ft-lb (169.4 Nm). This torque will be
specified on the system assembly drawings so it is used during construction.
2. Choose a suitable gasket material
The pressure-temperature relation for this installation is 1200 180 216,000 in
USCS units and 6798 in SI units. This, from Table 4, suggests choosing a compressed-asbestos (or acceptable substitute) type gasket. This would be compatible
with industrial hydraulic fluid.
The gasket area is 4.73 sq in. (30.5 sq cm), calculated from an outside diameter
of 278 in (7.07 cm), the same as the OD of the raised flange, per ASA-B16.5, and
an ID of 1.5 in (3.8 cm). The seating stress is computed from

TABLE 5 Stress Areas for Flange Bolts*

Fine Threads

Coarse Threads
Nominal dia, in
0.125
0.138
0.164
0.190
0.216

(No.
(No.
(No.
(No.
(No.
1
4
5
16
3
8
7
16
1
2
1
2
9
16
5
8
3
4
7
8
1
118
114
138
112

5)
6)
8)
10)
12)

Threads
per in

Stress area,
sq in

Threads
per in

Stress area,
sq in

40
32
32
24
24
20
18
16
14
13
12
12
11
10
9
8
7
7
6
6

0.0079
0.0090
0.0139
0.0174
0.0240
0.0317
0.0522
0.0773
0.1060
0.1416
0.1374
0.1816
0.2256
0.3340
0.4612
0.6051
0.7627
0.9684
1.1538
1.4041

44
40
36
32
28
28
24
24
20
20

0.0082
0.0101
0.0146
0.0199
0.0257
0.0362
0.0579
0.0876
0.1185
0.1597

18
18
16
14
12
12
12
12
12

0.2026
0.2555
0.3724
0.5088
0.6624
0.8549
0.0721
1.3137
1.5799

*SI values given in procedure.

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HYDRAULIC AND PNEUMATIC SYSTEMS DESIGN


HYDRAULIC AND PNEUMATIC SYSTEMS DESIGN

25.21

Sg Fb / Ag
Or, Sg 40,080 / 4.73 8470 lb / in2 (58.4 MPa).
Table 6 shows this stress will easily seat the selected compressed-asbestos (or
acceptable substitute) gasket. Tentatively choose asbestos (or acceptable substitute)
with CR (neoprene) binder for oil resistance; thickness 132 in (0.079 cm).
3. Determine the hydrostatic end force for the chosen gasket
The mean area acted upon by the pressure in the hydraulic line is defined by a
diameter of (2.875 1.5) / 2 3.74 sq in (24.1 sq cm). Selecting a safety factor
of 1.5 from Table 8, the end force is calculated and balanced against the total bolt
force by the equation,
Fb KPt Am
Or,
Thus, there is no end-force balance problem with bolts stressed to 30,000 lb / in2
(206.7 MPa).
4. Select a suitable surface finish for the flange
Table 6 shows that a concentric-serrated surface finish on the flange is best. Economy may dictate a conventional spiral-serrated surface, which Table 6 shows will
work in this case.
5. Prepare the final specification for the gasket
Include in the specifications the material type, dimensions, and bolt-torque data
computed in step 1, above. For greater torque-wrench accuracy, specify uniform fit
on all bolts and lubrication before installation.
Related Calculations. While the procedure given here is directed at industrial
hydraulic systems, the steps and data are valid for choosing gaskets for any piping
system: steam, condensate, oil, fuel, etc. Just be certain that the pressures and
temperatures are within the ranges in the tables and equations presented here.
Three main design factors govern the selection of a gasket materialwhether
sheet packing, metal, or a combination of materials. These factors are:
Fluid compatability at the pressure-temperature condition being designed for
must be checked first. Refer to data available from gasket manufacturersthere is
much of it available free to designers.
The pressure-temperature combination determines whether the gasket material
is inherently strong enough to resist blow-out. One rule-of-thumb criterion is the
product of operating pressure, Pi, and operating temperature, T. Table 4 lists values
of this product for several basic types of gasket material. These figures are based
on experience, test data, and analysis of current technical literature.
The total bolt force at installation must be sufficient to: (1) flow the gasket
surface into the flange surface to make an effective seal; (2) prevent the internal
pressure from opening the flanges. This demands careful matching of gasket material, seating area, bolt selection, and flange-surface finish. The procedure presented here gives a logical way to achieve the right balance among these factors
for the majority of gasket joint applications.
Where asbestos is the recommended gasket material in this procedure, the designer must review the environmental aspects of the design. Acceptable substitute
materials may be required by local environmental regulations. Hence, these regulations must be carefully studied before a final design choice is made.

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HYDRAULIC AND PNEUMATIC SYSTEMS DESIGN

25.22
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N
O
N
M
E
T
A
L
Folded
Flat
Flat

Flat

Flat

Vegetable-fiber sheet
Fluorocarbon (TFE)
Virgin

Glass-filled

Asbestos cloth (impreg.)**

Flat

Flat

Flat
Flat

Rubberized cloth

CR binder

Rubber sheet
SBR (75 Durometer)
CR (60 Durometer)
Compressed asbestos**
SBR binder

Material

Type (see
Table IV)

TABLE 6 Minimum Seating Stresses for Typical Gasket Materials*

64
32
1
16
1
8
1
64
1
32
1
16
1
8
3
32
1

64
32
1
16
1
8
1
64
1
32
1
16
1
8
2-ply
3-ply
4-ply
all

32 and up
32 and up

Thickness,
in

14,000
6,500
3,700
1,600
14,000
11,000
6,000
3,000
1,600

3,000
2,000
1,600
1,200
3,750
2,500
2,000
1,500
2,500
2,100
1,800
750

200
175

Minimum seating
stress, lb/in2

80 rms
(164 in only)
Concentricserrated
(all other
thicknesses)

Concentricserrated

1st choice

All
other
types

All
other
types

2nd
choice

Flange-surface finish

HYDRAULIC AND PNEUMATIC SYSTEMS DESIGN

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25.23

A
S
B
E
S
T
O
S

M
E
T
A
L

M
E
T
A
L

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25.24

Spiral-wound

Stainless

*SI values given in procedure.


**Or acceptable substitute.

Corrugated
jacket

Plain
metal
jacket

3,000
to
30,000

500
2,500
4,000
6,000
6,000
7,500
10,000

1
8
only

0.125
and
0.175

2,000
2,500
3,000
3,500
4,000

25,000
35,000
55,000
65,000
75,000

500
1,000
2,500
3,500
4,500
6,000

20,000
45,000
68,750
81,250
93,750

1
8
only

All
thicknesses

Profile
(18-in pitch)

Corrugated
and
corded

964
only

132
and
116

Corrugated
jacketmetal
filler

Flat

Same as stamped metals

Lead
Aluminum
Copper
Carbon steel
Nickel
Monel
Stainless

Metal (asbestos-filler)
Aluminum
Copper
Carbon steel
Stainless
Monel

Stamped metals
Lead
Aluminum
Copper
Carbon steel
Monel
Stainless
Machined metals
Aluminum
Copper
Carbon steel
Monel
Stainless

Flat metals
Aluminum
Copper
Carbon steel
Monel
Stainless

80 rms
or
less

150 to
200
rms

80 rms
or
less

Concentricserrated

150
to
200
rms

Concentricserrated

150
to
200
rms

80
rms
or
less

HYDRAULIC AND PNEUMATIC SYSTEMS DESIGN

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25.25
*Or acceptable substitute.

Spiral-wound

Profile

Corrugated and
corded*

Interlocked plies of preformed metal strip are spiral-wound


with an interleaving cushion of asbestos or fluorocarbon
plastic strip. Ratio of metal to filler can be closely controlled to vary seating stress over wide range. Well suited to
fluctuating-temperature applications.

Deeply corrugated metal with twisted asbestos cord cemented


into the corrugations on both faces; aluminized for nonsticking. Well-suited to rough or warped flanges.
Heavy solid metal with concentric V-shape contact ridges that
provide multiple seating surfaces. Each ridge is 0.010 in
wide. For N ridges, effective arera is then: mean contact dia 0.010 N. Seating stress increases with decrease
in pitch.

Corrugated metal or asbestos core enclosed by a corrugatedmetal jacket and top washer. Better than flat gaskets for
rough flangescorrugations give greater resilience.

Asbestos filler enclosed partially or totally by metal jacket;


combines easy compression with resistance to high pressure.
Temperature resistance depends on jacket material chosen.

Plain metal jacket

Corrugated jacket:
metal-filled
asbestos-filled*

Fabric-based gaskets especially designed for extremely rough


and wavy flanges with low bolting loads.

Folded

Description
Simplest gasket form; available in wide variety of materials for
different conditions of fluid media, temperature and pressure; most easily manufactured for nonsymmetrical shapes.

Cross-section

Flat

Type (see Table 4)

TABLE 7 Typical Gasket Cross-Sections

HYDRAULIC AND PNEUMATIC SYSTEMS DESIGN

HYDRAULIC AND PNEUMATIC SYSTEMS DESIGN


25.26

DESIGN ENGINEERING

TABLE 8 Safety Factors for Gasketed Joints

This procedure is the work of J. J. Whalen, Staff Engineer, Johns-Manville


Corporation, as reported in Product Engineering magazine.

COMPUTING FRICTION LOSS IN INDUSTRIAL


HYDRAULIC SYSTEM PIPING
(1) Determine the friction loss for hydraulic-system fluid having a viscosity of 110
centistokes at 120F (48.9C) when flowing through a 1-in ID (25.4 mm) pipe 50
ft (15.2 m) long at a velocity of 20 ft / s (6.1 m / s); specific gravity 0.88. (2) Find
the pressure loss for a light hydraulic oil having a viscosity of 32 centistokes at
100F (37.8C) when flowing through a 100-ft (30.5-m) long 2-in (50.8-mm) ID
commercial steel pipe at a velocity of 30 ft / s (9.1 m / s); specific gravity 0.88.
Calculation Procedure:

1. Find the Reynolds number for the hydraulic fluid


Use the relation
R

92,900 VD
VD
7,740
12
v
v

where R Reynolds number, dimensionless; V hydraulic fluid velocity in the


piping, ft / s (m / s); D pipe diameter, in (mm); v kinematic viscosity of hydraulic fluid, centistokes. Substituting, R (7740)(20)(1) / 110 1407.3.
2. Determine the relative roughness of the piping
Since the Reynolds number for this piping is less than 2000, roughness of the pipe
does not enter into the calculation. See Fig. 12.

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FIGURE 12 Stanton diagram is useful in hydraulic-system calculations.

HYDRAULIC AND PNEUMATIC SYSTEMS DESIGN

25.27
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HYDRAULIC AND PNEUMATIC SYSTEMS DESIGN


25.28

DESIGN ENGINEERING

3. Find the friction factor for the piping


Use Fig. 12 and the Reynolds number. Since R is less than 2000, friction
factor 64 / R 64 / 1407.3 0.045.
4. Compute the pressure loss in the piping
Use the relation p 0.0808 (L / D) V 2(s), where p pressure loss in piping,
lb / in2 (kPa); L pipe length, ft (m); s specific gravity of the hydraulic fluid;
other symbols as before. Substituting, p 0.0808 (0.045)(50)(400)(0.88) 63.99
lb / in2; say 64 lb / in2 (440.9 kPa).
5. Find the Reynolds number for the second hydraulic fluid
Use the same equation as in step 1, R (7740)(30)(2) / 32 14,512.5.
6. Determine the relative roughness of the pipe
Use Fig. 13, entering at the pipe diameter at the bottom and projecting vertically
upwards to the commercial steel pipe curve to read the relative roughness, e / D as
0.0009.
7. Find the friction factor,
Enter Fig. 12 at Reynolds number and relative roughness to read 0.03.
8. Compute the friction loss in the piping
Using the same equation as in step 4, we have p (0.0808)
(0.03)(100)(900)(0.88) / 2 95.99 lb / in2 (661.4 kPa).
Related Calculations. Viscosity-temperature curves are shown for typical hydraulic oils in Fig. 14. The Herschel relationship, which expresses the viscositytemperature function between two viscosities, , and, 0, existing at temperatures
T and T0, is
0

T0
T

The above relationship holds for only a relatively restricted range of temperatures and should not be extrapolated beyond the range of validity. The table, which
is part of Fig. 14, gives exponents for the hydraulic oils shown in the chart, covering
a temperature range of 70 to 130F (21 to 54C). As a fair approximation, the
viscosity of oils most commonly used in hydraulic work changes with the third
power of the temperature gradient within the normal operating range. With a commonly encountered temperature gradient of about 2:1 between cold start and maximum operating temperature, viscosities vary as 8:1.
A graph representing the value of the friction factor, , as a function of the
Reynolds number, R, is often called the Stanton chart, after its developer, who was
the first to employ this representation of the friction factor.
A chart taking advantage of the functional relationships established by research
was drawn up by Lewis F. Moody, and is reproduced in Fig. 12 in a form convenient
for the user of this handbook. In Fig. 12, the friction factor, , is shown as a function
of the Reynolds number, R, and the relative roughness, e / D, e being a linear quantity in feet or meters representing the absolute roughness. An auxiliary chart is
given in Fig. 13, from which e / D can be taken for any size and type of pipe.
The procedure given here is valid for industrial hydraulic systems used in hydraulic presses; drilling, boring, and honing machines; planers; grinders; milling,
transfer, and broaching machines; die-casting and plastic molding machines; hy-

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HYDRAULIC AND PNEUMATIC SYSTEMS DESIGN

25.29

SI Values
in.
mm
1
25.4
2
50.8
3
76.2
4
101.6
5
127.0
6
152.4
FIGURE 13 Relative roughness as a function of pipe diameter for various types of piping.

draulic steering mechanisms in ships, aircraft, trucks, etc. In each instance, the basic
approach given here is valid.
This procedure is the work of Walter Ernst, Hydraulic Consulting Engineer. SI
values were added by the handbook editor.

HYDRAULIC-CYLINDER CLEARANCE FOR


DAMPING END-OF-STROKE FORCES
An undamped hydraulic cylinder, Fig. 15, is fitted with an annular clearance in the
cavity of the cylinder cap, Fig. 16, as a flow restriction. The cylinder is then pro-

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FIGURE 14 Viscosity-temperature curves for typical hydraulic oils.

HYDRAULIC AND PNEUMATIC SYSTEMS DESIGN

25.30
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25.31

FIGURE 15 Undamped cylinder experiences shock forces at, and during, reversal of mass.

FIGURE 16 Annular clearance in cavity of cylinder serves as flow


restriction for dashpot. Hydraulic fluid then escapes at outlet port.

vided with a piston having a velocity of 1.1 ft / s (0.34 m / s) having a mass, M, of


64 lb-s2 / ft (95.3 kg-s2 / m), a length, L 4 in (10.16 cm), a dashpot radius of R
1 in (2.54 cm), a dashpot capacity of 12.5 cu in (204.8 cu cm), a coefficient of
discharge, CD 0.62, and a pressure differential, P, of 30 lb / in2 (206.7 kPa).
What annular clearance is needed when handling hydraulic fluid with a specific
gravity of 0.85?
Calculation Procedure:

1. Find the mean dashpot resistance


Use the relation, F MV2 / 2L, where F mean dashpot resistance, lb (N); other
symbols as given above. Substituting, F (64)(1.1)2(12) / (2)(4) 116.2 lb (516.9
N).
2. Compute the piston acceleration and deceleration
Use the relation, a F / M, where a piston acceleration or deceleration, ft / s2;
other symbols as given earlier. Substituting, a F / M 116.2 / 64 1.816 ft / s2
(0.55 m / s2).

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25.32

DESIGN ENGINEERING

3. Determine the stopping time of the piston


Use the relation, T 2 V / a, where T stopping time, sec; other symbols as before.
Substituting, T (2)(1.1) / 1.81 1.22 s.
4. Find the liquid discharge from the cylinder
Use the relation, QD 0.26 B / T, where QD cylinder liquid discharge, gal / min
(L / s); B dashpot capacity, cu in (cu cm); other symbols as before. Substituting,
QD 0.26(12.5) / (1.22) 2.66 gal / min (0.168 L / s).
5. Calculate the annular clearance needed
Use the relation, Z QG(S)0.5 / [238(RCD)(P)0.5 ] where Z annular clearance
required, in (cm); QG liquid discharge, gal / min (L / s); S specific gravity of
the hydraulic fluid handled; R radius of dashpot, in (cm); other symbols as before.
Substituting, Z (2.66)(0.92) / (238)(1)(0.62)(5.47) 0.00303 in (0.0077 cm).
Related Calculations. The hydraulic shock absorber, also called a dashpot,
limits axial piston velocity where and when desired by trapping oil ahead of the
piston, then releasing it through a restriction, slowly and with predetermined control. In this procedure we assumed that at the start of dashpot action inertia forces
alone are dissipated through the ejection of dashpot oil. Hence, the kinetic energy
of the moving parts equals the work done during penetration of the dashpot.
The assumed value of the coefficient of discharge, CD, may be checked against
the Reynolds number of the calculated flow and adjusted if it deviates too much
from what experience shows as reasonable. Use the previous calculation procedure
to check the Reynolds number. For Reynolds numbers below 100, CD may vary
from 0.1 to 0.7.
Hydraulic damping and shockless reversal can be obtained with flow-restriction
or pressure-reducing devices. These include servo-controlled variable pumps, flowcontrol valves, cylinder modifiers (orifices, special pistons), and other power cutouts
and reducers.
This procedure is the work of Louis Dodge, Hydraulics Consultant, as reported
in Product Engineering magazine. SI values were added by the handbook editor.

HYDRAULIC SYSTEM PUMP AND DRIVER


SELECTION
Choose the pump and the driver horsepower for a rubber-tired tractor bulldozer
having four-wheel drive. The hydraulic system must propel the vehicle, operate the
dozer, and drive the winch. Each main wheel will be driven by a hydraulic motor
at a maximum wheel speed of 59.2 r / min and a maximum torque of 30,000 lb in
(3389.5 N m). The wheel speed at maximum torque will be 29.6 r / min; maximum
torque at low speed will be 74,500 lb in (8417.4 N m). The tractor speed must
be adjustable in two ways: for overall forward and reverse motion and for turning,
where the outside wheels turn at a faster rate than do the inside ones. Other operating details are given in the appropriate design steps below.
Calculation Procedure:

1. Determine the propulsion requirements of the system


Usual output requirements include speed, torque, force, and power for each function
of the system, through the full capacity range.

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HYDRAULIC AND PNEUMATIC SYSTEMS DESIGN

25.33

First analyze the propel power requirements. For any propel condition, hp
Tn / 63,000, where hp horsepower required; T torque, lb in, at n r / min. Thus
at maximum speed, hp (30,000)(59.2) / 63,000 28.2 horsepower (21.0 kW). At
maximum torque, hp 74,500 29.6 / 63,000 35.0 (26.1 kW); at maximum
speed and maximum torque, hp (74,500)(59.2) / 63,000 70.0 (52.2 kW).
The drive arrangement for a bulldozer generally uses hydraulic motors geared
down to wheel speed. Choose a 3000-r / min step-variable type of motor for each
wheel of the vehicle. Then each motor will operate at either of two displacements.
At maximum vehicle loads, the higher displacement is used to provide maximum
torque at low speed; at light loads, where a higher speed is desired, the lower
displacement, producing reduced torque, is used.
Determine from a manufacturers engineering data the motor specifications. For
each of these motors the specifications might be: maximum displacement, 2.1 in3 /
r (34.4 cm3 / r); rated pressure, 6000 lb / in2 (41,370.0 kPa); rated speed, 3000 r /
min; power output at rated speed and pressure, 90.5 horsepower (67.5 kW); torque
at rated pressure, 1900 lb in (214.7 N m).
The gear reduction ratio GR between each motor and wheel (output torque
required, lb in) / (input torque, lb in, gear reduction efficiency). Assuming a 92
percent gear reduction efficiency, a typical value, we find GR 74,500 / (1900
0.92) 42.6:1. Hence, the maximum motor speed wheel speed GR 59.2
42.6 2520 r / min. At full torque the motor speed is, by the same relation, 29.6
42.6 1260 r / min.
The required oil flow for the four motors is, at 1260 r / min, in3 / r 4 motors
(r / min) / (231 in3 / gal) 2.1 4 1260 / 231 45.8 gal / min (2.9 L / s). With
a 10 percent leakage allowance, the required flow 50 gal / min (3.2 L / s), closely,
or 50 / 4 12.5 gal / min (0.8 L / s) per motor.
As computed above, the power output per motor is 35 horsepower (26.1 kW).
Thus, the four motors will have a total output of 4(35) 140 horsepower (104.4
kW).
2. Determine the linear auxiliary power requirements
The dozer uses a linear power output. Two hydraulic cylinders each furnish a maximum force of 10,000 lb (44,482.2 N) to the dozer at a maximum speed of 10 in /
s (25.4 cm / s). Assuming that the maximum operating pressure of the system is
3500 lb / in2 (24,132.5 kPa), we see that the piston are a required per cylinder is:
force developed, lb / operating pressure, lb / in2 10,000 / 3500 2.86 in2 (18.5
cm2), or about a 2-in (5.1-cm) cylinder bore. With a 2-in (5.1-cm) bore, the operating pressure could be reduced in the inverse ratio of the piston areas. Or, 2.86 /
(22 / 4) p / 3500, where p cylinder operating pressure, lb / in2. Hence, p 3180
lb / in2, say 3200 lb / in2 (22,064.0 kPa).
By using a 2-in (5.1-cm) bore cylinder, the required oil flow, gal, to each cylinder (cylinder volume, in3)(stroke length, in) / (231 in3 / gal) (22 / 4)(10) / 231
0.1355 gal / s, or 0.1355 gal / s, or 0.1355 (60 s / min) 8.15 gal / min (0.5 L / s),
or 16.3 gal / min (1.0 L / s) for two cylinders. The power input to the two cylinders
is hp 16.3(3200) / 1714 30. / 4 horsepower (22.7 kW).
3. Determine rotary auxiliary power requirements
The winch will be turned by one hydraulic motor. This winch must exert a maximum line pull of 20,000 lb (88,964.4 N) at a maximum linear speed of 280 ft / min
(1.4 m / s) with a maximum drum torque of 200,000 lb in (22,597.0 N m) at a
drum speed of 53.5 r / min.

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25.34

DESIGN ENGINEERING

Compute the drum horsepower from hp Tn / 63,000, where the symbols are
the same as in step 1. Or, hp (200,000)(53.5) / 63,000 170 horsepower (126.8
kW).
Choose a hydraulic motor having these specifications: displacement 6 in3 / r
(98.3 cm3 / r); rated pressure 6000 lb / in2 (41,370.0 kPa); rated speed 2500 r /
min; output torque at rated pressure 5500 lb in (621.4 N m); power output at
rated speed and pressure 218 horsepower (162.6 kW). This power output rating
is somewhat greater than the computed rating, but it allows some overloading.
The gear reduction ratio GR between the hydraulic motor and winch drum, based
on the maximum motor torque, is GR (output torque required, lb in) / (torque at
rated pressure, lb in, reduction gear efficiency) 20,000 / (5500 0.92) 39.5:
1. Hence, by using this ratio, the maximum motor speed 53.5 39.5 2110
r / min. Oil flow rate to the motor in3 / r (r / min) / 231 6 2110 / 231 54.8
gal / min (3.5 L / s), without leakage. With 5 percent leakage, flow rate 1.05(54.8)
57.2 gal / min (3.6 L / s).
4. Categorize the required power outputs
List the required outputs and the type of motion requiredrotary or linear. Thus:
propel rotary; dozer linear; winch rotary.
5. Determine the total number of simultaneous functions
There are two simultaneous functions: (a) propel motors and dozer cylinders; ( b)
propel motors at slow speed and drive winch.
For function a, maximum oil flow 50 16.3 66.3 gal / min (4.2 L / s);
maximum propel motor pressure 6000 lb / in2 (41,370.0 kPa); maximum dozer
cylinder pressure 3200 lb / in2 (22,064.0 kPa). Data for function a came from
previous steps in this calculation procedure.
For function b, the maximum oil flow need not be computed because it will be
less than for function a.
6. Determine the number of series nonsimultaneous functions
These are the dozer, propel, and winch functions.
7. Determine the number of parallel simultaneous functions
These are the propel and dozer functions.
8. Establish function priority
The propel and dozer functions have priority over the winch function.
9. Size the piping and valves
Table 9 lists the normal functions required in this machine and the type of valve
that would be chosen for each function. Each valve incorporates additional functions: The step variable selector valve has a built-in check valve; the propel directional valve and winch directional valve have built-in relief valves and motor overload valves; the dozer directional valve has a built-in relief valve and a fourth
position called float. In the float position, all ports are interconnected, allowing the
dozer blade to move up or down as the ground contour varies.
10. Determine the simultaneous power requirements
These are: Horsepower for propel and dozer (gal / min)(pressure, lb / in2) / 1714
for the propel and dozer functions, or (50)(6000) / 1714 (16.3)(3200) / 1714
205.4 horsepower (153.2 kW). Winch horsepower, by the same relation, is

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25.35

TABLE 9 Hydraulic-System Valving and Piping

(57.2)(6000) / 1714 200 horsepower (149.1 kW). Since the propel-dozer functions
do not operate at the same time as the winch, the prime mover power need be only
205.4 horsepower (153.2 kW).
11. Plan the specific circuit layouts
To provide independent simultaneous flow to each of the four propel motors, plus
the dozer cylinders, choose two split-flow piston-type pumps having independent
outlet ports. Split the discharge of each pump into three independent flows. Two
pumps rated at 66.3 / 2 33.15 gal / min (2.1 L / s) each at 6000 lb / in2 (41,370.0
kPa) will provide the needed oil. Figure 17 shows a schematic of the piping, valves
and motors for this bulldozer, while Fig. 18 shows the valving.
When the vehicle is steered, additional flow is required by the outside wheels.
Design the circuit so oil will flow from three pump pistons to each wheel motor.
Four pistons of one split-flow pump are connected through check valves to all four
motors. With this arrangement, oil will flow to the motors with the least resistance.
To make use of all or part of the oil from the propel-dozer circuits for the winch
circuit, the outlet series ports of the propel and dozer valves are connected into the
winch circuit, since the winch circuit is inoperative only when both the propel and

FIGURE 17 Schematic of the piping, valves,


and motors for bulldozer.

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25.36

DESIGN ENGINEERING

FIGURE 18 Valving for bulldozer.

the dozer are operating. When only the propel function is in operation, the winch
is able to operate slowly but at full torque.
12. Investigate adjustment of the winch gear ratio
As computed in step 3, the winch gear ratio is based on torque. Now, because a
known gal / min (gallons per minute) is available for the winch motor from the
propel and dozer circuits when these are not in use, the gear ratio can be based on
the motor speed resulting from the available gal / min.
Flow from the propel and dozer circuit 66.3 gal / min (4.2 L / s); winch motor
speed 2450 r / min; required winch drum speed 53.5 r / min. Thus, GR
2450 / 53.5 45.8:1.
With the proposed circuit, the winch gear reduction should be increased
from 39.5:1 to 45.8:1. The winch circuit pressure can be reduced to (39.5 / 45.8)
(6000) 5180 lb / in2 (35,716.1 kPa). The required size of the winch oil tubing can
be reduced to 0.219 in (5.6 mm).
13. Select the prime mover horsepower
Using a mechanical efficiency of 89 percent, we see that the prime mover for the
pumps should be rated at 205.4 / 0.89 230 horsepower (171.5 kW). The prime
mover chosen for vehicles of this type is usually a gasoline or diesel engine. Figure
19 shows the final tractor-dozer hydraulic circuits.
Related Calculations. The method presented here is also valid for fixed equipment using a hydraulic system, such as presses, punches, and balers. Other applications for which the method can be used include aircraft, marine, and on-highway
vehicles. Use the method presented in an earlier section of this handbook to
determine the required size of the connecting tubing.
The procedure presented above is the work of Wes Master, reported in Product
Engineering.

HYDRAULIC PISTON ACCELERATION,


DECELERATION, FORCE, FLOW, AND SIZE
DETERMINATION
What net acceleration force is needed by a horizontal cylinder having a 10,000-lb
(4500kg) load and 500-lb (2.2-kN) friction force, if 1500 lb / in2 (gage) (10,341 kPa)

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HYDRAULIC AND PNEUMATIC SYSTEMS DESIGN

25.37

FIGURE 19 Final tractor-dozer hydraulic circuits.

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25.38

DESIGN ENGINEERING

is available at the cylinder port, there is zero initial piston velocity, and a 100-ft /
min (30.5-m / min) terminal velocity is reached after 3-in (76.2-mm) travel at constant acceleration with the rod extending? Determine the required piston diameter
and maximum fluid flow needed.
What pressure will stop a piston and load within 2 in (50.8 mm) at constant
deceleration if the cylinder is horizontal, the rod is extending, the load is 5000 lb
(2250 kg), there is a 500-lb (2224-N) friction force, the driving pressure at the head
end is 800 lb / in2 (gage) (5515.2 kPa), and the initial velocity is 80 ft / min (24.4
m / min)? The rod diameter is 1 in (25.4 mm), and the piston diameter is 1.5 in
(38.1 mm).

Calculation Procedure:

1. Find the needed accelerating force


Use the relation FA Ma M V / t, where FA net accelerating force, lb (N);
M mass, slugs or lb s2 / ft (N s2 / m); a linear acceleration, ft / s2(m / s2), assumed constant; V velocity change during acceleration, ft / s (m / s); t time
to reach terminal velocity, s. Substituting for this cylinder, we find M 10,000 /
32.17 310.85 slugs.
Next S 3 in / (12 in / ft) 0.25 ft (76.2 mm). Also V (100 ft / min) / (60
s / min) 1.667 ft / s (0.51 m / s). Then FA 0.5(310.85)(1.667)2 / 0.25 1727.6 lb
(7684.4 N).
2. Determine the piston area and diameter
Add the friction force and compute the piston area and diameter thus: F FA
FF, where F sum of forces acting on piston, i.e., pressure, friction, inertia,
load, lb; FF friction force, lb. Substituting gives F 1727.6 500 2227.6
lb (9908.4 N).
Find the piston area from A F / P, where P fluid gage pressure available
at the cylinder port, lb / in2. Or, A 2227.6 / 1500 1.485 in2 (9.58 cm2). The
piston diameter D, then, is D (4A / )0.5 1.375 in (34.93 mm).
3. Compute the maximum fluid flow required
The maximum fluid flow Q required is Q VA / 231, where Q maximum flow,
gal / min; V terminal velocity of the piston, in / s; A piston area, in2. Substituting,
we find Q (100 12)(1.485) / 231 7.7 gal / min (0.49 L / s).
4. Determine the effective driving force for the piston with constant deceleration
The driving force from pressure at the head end is FD [fluid pressure, lb / in2
(gage)](piston area, in2). Or, FD 800(1.5)2 / 4 1413.6 lb (6287.7 N). However,
there is a friction force of 500 lb (2224 N) resisting this driving force. Therefore,
the effective driving force is FED 1413.6 500 913.6 lb (4063.7 N).
5. Compute the decelerating forces acting
The mass, in slugs, is M FA / 32.17, from the equation in step 1. By substituting,
M 5000 / 32.17 155.4 slugs.
Next, the linear piston travel during deceleration is S 2 in / (12 in / ft)
0.1667 ft (50.8 mm). The velocity change is V 80 / 60 1.333 ft / s (0.41 m /
s) during deceleration.

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25.39

The decelerating force FA 0.5M(V 2) / S for the special case when the velocity is zero at the start of acceleration or the end of deceleration. Thus FA
0.5(155.4)(1.333)2 / 0.1667 828.2 lb (3684 N).
The total decelerating force is F FA FED 827.2 913.6 1741.8 lb
(7748 N).
6. Find the cushioning pressure in the annulus
The cushioning pressure is Pc F / A, where A differential area piston area
rod area, both expressed in in2. For this piston, A (1.5)2 / 4 (1.0)2 / 4 0.982
in2 (6.34 cm2). Then P F / A 1741.8 / 0.982 1773.7 lb / in2 (gage) (12,227.9
kPa).
Related Calculations. Most errors in applying hydraulic cylinders to accelerate
or decelerate loads are traceable to poor design or installation. In the design area,
miscalculation of acceleration and / or deceleration is a common cause of problems
in the field. The above procedure for determining acceleration and deceleration
should eliminate one source of design errors.
Rod buckling can also result from poor design. A basic design rule is to allow
a compressive stress in the rod of 10,000 to 20,000 lb / in2 (68,940 to 137,880 kPa)
as long as the effective rod length-to-diameter ratio does not exceed about 6:1 at
full extension. A firmly guided rod can help prevent buckling and allow at least
four times as much extension.
With rotating hydraulic actuators, the net accelerating, or decelerating torque in
lb ft (N m) is given by TA J MK2 rad / s2 0.1047 MK N / T WK 2
N / (307) t, where J mass moment of inertia, slugs ft2, or lb s2 ft;
angular acceleration (or deceleration), rad / s2; K radius of gyration, ft; N r /
min change during acceleration or deceleration; other symbols as given earlier.
For the special case where the r / min is zero at the start of acceleration or end
of deceleration, TA 0.0008725MK2 (N)2 / revs; in this case, revs total revolutions average r / min t / 60 0.5 NT / 60; t 120(revs / t). For the
linear piston and cylinder where the piston velocity at the start of acceleration is
zero, or at the end of deceleration is zero, t S / average velocity S / (0.5
V).
High water base fluids (HWBF) are gaining popularity in industrial fluid power
cylinder applications because of lower cost, greater safety, and biodegradability.
Cylinders function well on HWBF if the cylinder specifications are properly prepared for the specific application. Some builders of cylinders and pumps offer
designs that will operate at pressures up to several thousand pounds per square
inch, gage. Most builders, however, recommend a 1000-lb / in2 (gage) (6894-kPa)
limit for cylinders and pumps today.
Robotics is another relatively recent major application for hydraulic cylinders.
There is nothing quite like hydrostatics for delivering high torque or force in
cramped spaces.
This procedure is the work of Frank Yeaple, Editor, Design Engineering, as
reported in that publication.

HYDROPNEUMATIC ACCUMULATOR DESIGN


FOR HIGH FORCE LEVELS
Design a hydropneumatic spring to absorb the mechanical shock created by a 300lb (136.4-kg) load traveling at a velocity of 20 ft / s (6.1 m / s). Space available to
stop the load is limited to 4 in (10.2 cm).

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25.40

DESIGN ENGINEERING

Calculation Procedure:

1. Determine the kinetic energy which the spring must absorb


Figure 20 shows a typical hydropneumatic accumulator which functions as a spring.
The spring is a closed system made up of a single-acting cylinder (or sometimes a
rotary actuator) and a gas-filled accumulator. As the load drives the piston, fluid
(usually oil) compresses the gas in the flexible rubber bladder. Once the load is
removed, either partially or completely, the gas pressure drives the piston back for
the return cycle.
The flow-control valve limits the speed of the compression and return strokes.
In custom-designed springs, flow-control valves are often combinations of check
valves and fixed or variable orifices. Depending on the orientation of the check
valve, the compression speed can be high with low return speed, or vice versa.
Within the pressure limits of the components, speed and stroke length can be varied
by changing the accumulator precharge. Higher precharge pressure gives shorter
strokes, slower compression speed, and faster return speed.
The kinetic energy that must be absorbed by the spring is given by Ek
12WV2 / 2g, where Ek kinetic energy that must be absorbed, in lb; W weight
of load, lb; V load velocity, ft / s; g acceleration due to gravity, 32.2 ft / s2.
From the given data, Ek 12(300)(20)2 / 2(32.2) 22,360 in lb (2526.3 N m).
2. Find the final pressure of the gas in the accumulator
To find the final pressure of the gas in the accumulator, first we must assume an
accumulator size and pressure rating. Then we check the pressure developed and
the piston stroke. If they are within the allowable limits for the application, the
assumptions were correct. If the limits are exceeded, we must make new assumptions and check the values again until a suitable design is obtained.
For this application, based on the machine layout, assume that a 2.5-in (6.35cm) cylinder with a 60-in3 (983.2-cm3) accumulator is chosen and that both are
rated at 2000 lb / in2 (13,788 kPa) with a 1000-lb / in2 (abs) (6894-kPa) precharge.
Check that the final loaded pressure and volume are suitable for the load.
/n

The final load pressure p2 lb / in2 (abs) (kPa) is found from p(n1)
2
p2(n1) / n{[Ek(n 1) / ( p1v1)] 1}, where p1 precharge pressure of the accumulator,
lb / in2 (abs) (kPa); n the polytropic gas constant 1.4 for nitrogen, a popular
/ 1.4
charging gas; v1 accumulator capacity, in3 (cm3). Substituting gives p(1.41)
2
(1.41) / 1.4
2
1000
{[22,360(1.4 1) / (1000 60)] 1} 1626 lb / in (abs) (11,213.1
kPa). Since this is within the 2000-lb / in2 (abs) limit selected, the accumulator is
acceptable from a pressure standpoint.

FIGURE 20 Typical hydropneumatic accumulator. (Machine Design.)

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HYDRAULIC AND PNEUMATIC SYSTEMS DESIGN

25.41

3. Determine the final volume of the accumulator


Use the relation v2 v2( p1 / p2)1 / n, where v2 final volume of the accumulator,
in3; v1 initial volume of the accumulator, in3; other symbols as before. Substituting, we get v2 60(1000 / 1626)1 / 1.4 42.40 in3 (694.8 cm3).
4. Compute the piston stroke under load
Use the relation L 4(v1 v2)D2, where L length of stroke under load, in; D
piston diameter, in. Substituting yields L 4(60 42.40) / ( 2.52) 3.58 in
(9.1 cm). Since this is within the allowable travel of 4 in (10 cm), the system is
acceptable.
Related Calculations. Hydropneumatic accumulators have long been used as
shock dampers and pulsation attenuators in hydraulic lines. But only recently have
they been used as mechanical shock absorbers, or springs.
Current applications include shock absorption and seat-suspension systems for
earth-moving and agricultural machinery, resetting mechanisms for plows, mill-roll
loading, and rock-crusher loading. Potential applications include hydraulic hammers
and shake tables.
In these relatively high-force applications, hydropneumatic springs have several
advantages over mechanical springs. First, they are smaller and lighter, which can
help reduce system costs. Second, they are not limited by metal fatigue, as mechanical springs are. Of course, their life is not infinite, for it is limited by wear
of rod and piston seals.
Finally, hydropneumatic springs offer the inherent ability to control load speeds.
With an orifice check valve or flow-control valve between actuator and accumulator,
cam speed can be varied as needed.
One reason why these springs are not more widely used is that they are not
packaged as off-the-shelf items. In the few cases where packages exist, they are
often intended for other uses. Thus, package dimensions may not be those needed
for spring applications, and off-the-shelf springs may not have all the special system
parameters needed. But it is not hard to select individual off-the-shelf accumulators
and actuators for a custom-designed system. The procedure given here is an easy
method for calculating needed accumulator pressures and volumes. It is the work
of Zeke Zahid, Vice President and General Manager, Greer Olaer Products Division,
Greer Hydraulics, Inc., as reported in Machine Design.

MEMBRANE VIBRATION IN HYDRAULIC


PRESSURE-MEASURING DEVICES
A pressure-measuring device for an industrial hydraulic system is to be constructed
of a 0.005-in (0.0127-cm) thick alloy steel circular membrane stretched over a
chamber opening, as shown in Fig. 21. The membrane is subjected to a uniform
tension of 2000 lb (8900 N) and then secured in position over a 6-in (15.24-cm)
diameter opening. The steel has a modulus of elasticity of 30,000,000 lb / in2 (210.3
GPa) and weights 0.3 lb / in3 (1.1 N / cm3). Vibration of the membrane due to pressure in the chamber is to be picked up by a strain gage mechanism; in order to
calibrate the device, it is required to determine the fundamental mode of vibration
of the membrane.

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25.42

DESIGN ENGINEERING

FIGURE 21 Membrane for pressure-measuring device.

Calculation Procedure:

1. Compute the weight of the membrane per unit area


Weight of the membrane per unit area, w wu t, where the weight per unit
volume, wu 0.3 lb / in3 (1.1 N / cm3); membrane thickness, t 0.005 in (0.0127
cm). Hence, w 0.3 0.005 0.0015 lb / in2 (0.014 N / cm2).
2. Compute the uniform tension per unit length of the membrane boundary
Uniform tension per unit length of the membrane boundary, S F / L, where the
uniformly applied tensile force, F 2000 lb (8900 N); length of the membrane
boundary, L d 6 in (15.24 cm). Thus, S 2000 / 6 333 lb / in (584 N / cm).
3. Compute the area of the membrane
The area of the membrane, A d 2 / 4 (6)2 / 4 28.27 in2 (182.4 cm2).
4. Compute the frequency of the fundamental mode of vibration in the
membrane
From Marks Standard Handbook for Mechanical Engineers, 9th edition, McGrawHill, Inc., the frequency of the fundamental mode of vibration of the membrane,
( / 2)[(gS) / (wA)]1 / 2 , where the membrane shape constant for a circle,
4.261; gravitational acceleration, g 32.17 12 386 in / s2 (980 cm / s2); other
values as before. Then, (4.261 / 2) [(386 333) / (0.0015 28.27)]1 / 2 1181
Hz.
Related Calculations. To determine the value for S in step 2 involves a philosophy similar to that for the hoop stress formula for thin-wall cylinders, i.e., the
uniform tension per unit length of the membrane boundary depends on tensile forces
created by uniformly stretching the membrane in all directions. Therefore, for symmetrical shapes other than a circle, such as those presented in Marks M. E. Handbook, the value for L in the equation for S as given in this procedure is the length
of the longest line of symmetry of the geometric shape of the membrane. The shape
constant and other variable values change accordingly.

POWER SAVINGS ACHIEVABLE IN INDUSTRIAL


HYDRAULIC SYSTEMS
An industrial hydraulic system can be designed with three different types of controls. At a flow rate of 100 gal / min (6.31 L / s), the pressure drop across the controls

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25.43

is as follows: Control A, 500 lb / in2 (3447 kPa); control B, 100 lb / in2 (6894 kPa);
control C, 2000 lb / in2 (13,788 kPa). Determine the power loss and the cost of this
loss for each control if the cost of electricity is 15 cents per kilowatthour. How
much more can be spent on a control if it operates 3000 h / year?

Calculation Procedure:

1. Compute the horsepower lost in each control


The horsepower lost during pressure drop through a hydraulic control is given by
horsepower 5.82(104)Q P, where Q flow rate through the control, gal / min;
P pressure loss through the control. Substituting for each control and using the
letter subscript to identify it, we find horsepowerA 5.82(104)(100)(500) 29.1
horsepower (21.7 kW); horsepowerB 5.82(104)(100)(1000) 5.82 horsepower
(43.4 kW); horsepowerc 5.82(104)(100)(2000) 116.4 horsepower (86.8 kW).
2. Find the cost of the pressure loss in each control
The cost in dollars per hour wasted w kW($ / kWh) horsepower(0.746)($ /
kWh). Substituting and using a subscript to identify each control, we get wA
21.7($0.15) $3.26; wB 43.4($0.15) $6.51; wc 86.8($0.15) $13.02.
The annual loss for each control with 3000-h operation is wA,an 3000($3.26)
$9780; wB,an 3000($6.51) $19,530; wC,an 3000($13.02) $39,060.
3. Determine the additional amount that can be spent on a control
Take one of the controls as the base or governing control, and use it as the guide
to the allowable extra cost. Using control C as the base, we can see that it causes
an annual loss of $39,060. Hence, we could spend up to $39,060 for a more expensive control which would provide the desired function with a smaller pressure
(and hence, money) loss.
The time required to recover the extra money spent for a more efficient control
can be computed easily from ($39,060 loss with new control, $), where the losses
are expressed in dollars per year.
Thus, if a new control costs $2500 and control C costs $1000, while the new
control reduced the annual loss to $20,060, the time to recover the extra cost of
the new control would be ($2500 $1000) / ($39,060 $20,060) 0.08 year, or
less than 1 month. This simple application shows the importance of careful selection
of energy control devices.
And once the new control is installed, it will save $39,060 $20,060 $19,000
per year, assuming its maintenance cost equals that of the control it replaces.
Related Calculations. This approach to hydraulic system savings can be applied to systems serving industrial plants, aircraft, ships, mobile equipment, power
plants, and commercial installations. Further, the approach is valid for any type of
hydraulic system using oil, water, air, or synthetic materials as the fluid.
With greater emphasis in all industries on energy conservation, more attention
is being paid to reducing unnecessary pressure losses in hydraulic systems. Dualpressure pumps are finding wider use today because they offer an economical way
to provide needed pressures at lower cost. Thus, the alternative control considered
above might be a dual-pressure pump, instead of a throttling valve.
Other ways that pressure (and energy) losses are reduced is by using accumulators, shutting off the pump between cycles, modular hydraulic valve assemblies,
variable-displacement pumps, electronic controls, and shock absorbers. Data in this
procedure are from Product Engineering magazine, edited by Frank Yeaple.

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25.44

DESIGN ENGINEERING

PNEUMATIC-CIRCUIT ANALYSIS USING VARIOUS


EQUATIONS AND COEFFICIENTS
The pneumatic system in Fig. 22 has been designed for use in an industrial application; the flow rate through this system is 250 scfm (7.075 cu m / min). As part of
the design, the hand valve, pressure reducer, and air motor have already been specified and catalog performance data assembled for them. The only unknown is the
size and capacity of the control valve. Before this valve can be specified, the minimum acceptable value for the flow factor, F, must be determined for each component in the system. Find this value for each unit in this decision.

Calculation Procedure:

1. Tabulate the known flow coefficients and their defining equations


Obtain from the component manufacturers the flow coefficients and defining equations and tabulate them as shown in Table 10. Use the symbols given as part of
the table. For this procedure, the National Bureau of Standards (NBS) flow factor
F is used as the standard flow coefficient. However, any other standard flow coefficient the handbook user would like to use will work equally well. Equations based
on the NBS flow factor F are the most accurate and there are many published
design techniques to simplify their use.

FIGURE 22 Pneumatic circuit for industrial application.

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25.45

HYDRAULIC AND PNEUMATIC SYSTEMS DESIGN

TABLE 10 Flow Coefficients and Defining Equations

Component
Hand valve

Flow
coefficient

Defining equation

CV 1.26
CV

Pressure reducer

D0 0.25
D0

Q 60
1360

P P

33P

GTU

Control valve

F unknown
F

Air motor
Symbols
Q
q
V
P
p
P
r

G
T
A
Dc
M
W
Cv , K,
F, Do

Q
PU 8/5

1
r (r 0.43 r 0.71)

r (1 r)(3 r)
1

Q scfm; P 600 lb / in2 (abs) (given)

air flow in standard units, scfm (14.7 lb / in2 (abs), 68F) (cu m / min)
air flow at actual conditions, cfm. Q q( P / 14.7)(528 / T ) (cu m / min)
velocity, fps (average through valve)
pressure in absolute units, psia (subscript D downstream, U upstream) (kPa)
gage pressure, psi (kPa)
pressure drop, psi (kPa)
pressure ratio PD/PU
density, lb/ft3 (kg/m3)
specific gravity, gas/air
absolute temperature, deg R deg F 460
Inlet pipe area, in2 (cm2)
diameter of equivalent sharp-edge orifice, in (coefficient of discharge CD 0.6)
molecular weight, lb (M 29 lb for air) (kg)
water weight flow, lb/sec (kg/sec)
typical flow coefficients (also called flow constants and flow factors) in a flow
equation

The procedure given her shows how to convert to F from CV and D0. This will
be done for each component of the pneumatic system.
2. Convert each known flow coefficient to the flow factor, F
Use the conversion equations in Table 11, correlating them with the given values
in Table 10. Thus:
Hand valve: F 0.556CV 0.556 1.26 0.7
Reducer: F 10D20 10 (0.25)2 0.625
Control valve: Calculate the control-valve flow factor F from the known flow
and pressure at P4 and the calculated pressure at P3, Fig. 21. Do this by starting
at the supply pressure P1 3014.7 lb / in2 (abs) (20.77 MPa), and knowing that
the flow is 250 scfm (7.075 cu m / min), find P2 and P3 by substitution in the
NBS flow equationEquation 9 in Table 12for each component in the system
thus:

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r 0.5

K r 0.75

4.5

1460

A2
F2
A2
534 2
F
A2
724 2
F
450

23.1

26.9

NOTE: The K factor varies with r and A and you must know
which values the manufacturer used to derive his published
K. For example, if K was derived at r 0.75 and valve inlet
pipe area A 0.2, then F 23.1 0.2/K 4.62/K.

A
K 1/4

A2
C2V
A2
1725 2
CV
A2
2330 2
CV

48.3

1.641

A2
D 40
A2
5.36 4
D0
A2
7.29 4
D0

r 1.0

A
K 1/4

21.2

41.5

1.521

0.556CV

A
K 1/4

r 0.5

10D 20

38.2

1.456

K
r 0.75

1.8F

0.316F

0.236CV

r 1.0

18.0D 02

CV

CV

DO

DO

TABLE 11 Conversion Equations

HYDRAULIC AND PNEUMATIC SYSTEMS DESIGN

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25.46

1r
K

K K factor

10
Q 38.1 PU A

F NBS flow factor (#2 better)

Q FPU8/5r(1 r)(3 r)

CG gas-flow coefficient

GTU/520

F NBS flow factor (#1)

0.6
U

CV flow coefficient (Eq 2 Eq 6)

CV valve-flow coefficient

CV capacity factor

CV flow coefficient

Q FPU4/31 r 2

2
D

0.443

2
D

CV valve coefficient

CG

2
U

2
U

P( PU PD)

Do equivalent sharp-edged orifice


(coeff of discharge CD 0.6)
U

2
D

GTU/520
Q 60

(2.32)0.443 P 0.443 P U0.6

2
D

Q
PU4/3

2g

P
V 2

1 r
Q
1

P 8/5 r(1 r)(3 r)

2
D

2
D

GTU

r(r 0.43 r 0.71)

P( P P )
GT
Q 60

1360 P P
GT
Q 60

1390 P P
MT
Q 60

5180 P P
GT
Q 60

963 P P

33 P

Q 60

963

Flow coefficient defined

2.32
60

0.443

963
Q
C
60 V

GT
P P
1360
Q
C
60
GT
P P
1390
Q
C
60
GT
P
P
5180
Q
C
60
MT
P P
963
Q
C
60
GT

Q 33 D 2o PUr(r 0.43 r 0.71)

Equation for flow (sub-critical)


(Q scfm-standard ft3/min)

Eq no

TABLE 12 Typical Air-Flow Equations (Taken from Catalogs)

HYDRAULIC AND PNEUMATIC SYSTEMS DESIGN

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25.47

HYDRAULIC AND PNEUMATIC SYSTEMS DESIGN


25.48

DESIGN ENGINEERING

Hand valve:
F

Q
PU8 / 5

1
r(1 r)(3
r)

where PV P1 3014.7 lb / in2 (abs) (20.77 MPa); Q 250 scfm (7.075 cu m /


min); F 0.7; r P2 / P1. Solve for r by trial and error. The abbreviated list of
values in Table 13 for r (1 r) (3 r) will help.
For this hand valve, r 0.995. Therefore, P3 0.995 3014.7 2999.63 lb
/ in2 (abs) ((20.67 MPa). Then, P 3014.7 2999.6 15.1 lb / in2 (abs) (105.0
kPa).
Reducer: Determine P3 in the same way. This gives r 0.994; P3 0.994
3000 2982 lb / in2 (abs) (20.5 MPa); P 3000 2982 18 lb / in2 (124 kPa).
Control valve: Compute the minimum flow factor F for the control valve from
F

Q
PU8 / 5

1
r(1 r)(3
r)

where Q 250 scfm (7.075 cu m / min); PV P3 2982 lb / in2 (abs) (20.5 MPa);
r P4 / P3 600 / 2982 0.201.
Note: The value r 0.201 is less than the critical flow ratio of r 0.5; therefore,
F by definition is Q / PV 250 / 2982 0.0838. A valve manufacturer will accept
a flow coefficient such as F as a specification for minimum flow because the coefficient completely defines flow and pressure drop.
3. Find the flow coefficient for the relief valve
The relief valve (A / [K]0.5 0.021) is not part of the flow path. However, you can
convert its flow coefficient to F and compute the valves relieving capacity. The
pressure ratio r is less than 0.5 because the valve discharges to atmosphere. Hence,
the conversion equation is
F 26.9

A
0.565
K

TABLE 13 Computed r

Values
r

r (1 r)(3 r)

0.5
0.7
0.8
0.9
0.92
0.94
0.96
0.98
0.99
0.995
1.000

0.625
0.483
0.352
0.189
0.153
0.116
0.0784
0.0396
0.0199
0.0100
0.0000

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HYDRAULIC AND PNEUMATIC SYSTEMS DESIGN

25.49

The maximum flow is then Q F PV 0.565 3000 1695 scfm (47.96 cvu
m / min). The relieving capacity is 1695 / 250 6.78 times the system design capacity.
Related Calculations. During the design of any series of pneumatic systems
it is wise to standardize the flow coefficient that will be used. Then the results will
be consistent for all systems designed. The NBS coefficient given here is an acceptable and valid design value for pneumatic systems used in industrial machines,
aircraft, ships, etc.
This procedure is the work of Dominic Lapera, Chief Engineer, Kemp Aero
Products, and Franklin D. Yeaple, Associate Editor, Product Engineering magazine.
SI values were added by the handbook editor.

AIR FLOW THROUGH CLOSE-CLEARANCE


ORIFICES IN PNEUMATIC SYSTEMS
(1) Find the mass rate of flow of air through a capillary orifice, Fig. 23, when the
pressure drop is small, 0.32 in H2O (0.81 cm)[1.67 psf], and the following conditions prevail: length, L 0.25 in (0.685 cm); diameter, D 0.0625 in (0.158 cm);
air density 0.0743 lb / cu ft (1.19 kg / cu m); and viscosity 4.79 107 lb / s /
ft2 (229.35 Pas 107). (2) Find the air flow through a capillary with a larger
pressure drop for these conditions: diameter, D 0.0156 in (0.0396 cm); length,
L 0.135 in (0.342 cm); air temperature 200F (93.3C); air viscosity the
same as in (1) above: P1 21 lb / in2 (abs) (144.7 kPa); P2 14.7 lb / in2 (abs)
(101.3 kPa); flow is isentropic (n 1.4); coefficient of specific heat at constant
pressure, cp 0.24 Btu / lbF (1004.2 J / kgC).
Calculation Procedure:

1. Compute the air velocity through the capillary


Use the equation
V K2g(P1 P2) /
where the symbols are as given below. Then
V K64.4 1.67 / 0.0743
V 37.9K ft / s

(11.55 K m / s)

Thus, the fluid velocity, V, ft / s (m / s) is a function of K, the dimensionless orifice


coefficient.
2. Determine the Reynolds number for the flow situation
Use the relations,
W VA
Re WD / Ag
VAD / Ag
VD / g

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FIGURE 23 Three typical orifices and their associated analysis equations.

HYDRAULIC AND PNEUMATIC SYSTEMS DESIGN

25.50
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HYDRAULIC AND PNEUMATIC SYSTEMS DESIGN

25.51

Substituting,
Re (0.0743 37.9K 0.0625) /
(12 4.79 107 32.2)
950K

Now we must make one or more trial solutions using the correction chart in Fig.
25 to determine the actual Reynolds number for this orifice. We will try different
values of K to see what Reynolds number each will yield. Thus:
First trial: Let K 0.5; then R 950 0.5 475. Figure 25 shows that for
D / 2L 0.0625 / 0.54 0.116, and K 0.5, Re 180. This is a wrong guess.
Second trial: Try K 0.7; then Re 950 0.7 665. Figure 25 shows Re
900. Again, this is a wrong guess. Third trial: Try K 0.65, then Re 950
0.65 617.5; Fig. 25 shows Re 600, which is close enough to the computed
617.5, value within 3 percent.
3. Find the velocity and mass flow rate for the orifice
From step 1, the velocity, V 37.9 K 37.9 0.65 24.63 ft / s (7.5 m / s). The
mass rate of flow, W 0.0743 (24.63)( )(0.0625)2 / (4 144) 0.000039 lb / s
(0.0000018 kg / s).
4. Find the Reynolds number for flow through the larger orifice
Use the following two relations and substitute as shown below
W

223.8AP1


cp
T1

Re

P2
P1

2/n

P2
P1

(n) / n

W(2C) 223.8P1

Ag
R


cp
T1

(2)

P2
P1

2/n

P2
P1

(n1) / n

2C
(2)
g

(3)

223.8 21 144

53.3 4.79 107


.24
660

14.7
21

2 / 1.4


14.7
21

(1.41) / 1.4

0.0156
4900K
12 32.2

5. Determine the mass rate of flow for the larger orifice


Proceed as in step 2, above, with D / 2L 0.0156 / 0.27 0.05777. Using Fig. 25,
assume values for K, as before. First trial: K 0.5; Re 4900 0.5 2450.

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FIGURE 24 Three more orifices and their associated analysis equations.

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25.52
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FIGURE 25 Reynolds number and K values for symmetrical orifice restrictions.

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25.53
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25.54

DESIGN ENGINEERING

From Fig. 25, Re 350, which is a wrong guess. Second trial: Try K 0.6; then
Re 700, from Fig. 25; wrong again. Third trial: Try K 0.715; then Re 3503.5;
Fig. 25 shows Re 3550, which is close enough, within 1.3 percent.
Substituting in the first equation above W 0.55 104 lb / s (0.2497 kg
4
10 kg / s).
Related Calculations. When a restriction is too long for pure orifice flow analysis, and too short for line flow analysis, as is the case for many short capillary
orifices and close-clearance labyrinths, Figs. 23 and 24, considered in this procedure, empirical solutions must be used. Published test results which agree well with
computed data are summarized on a mean-value basis in Figs. 25 and 26.
The basic equation selected for the analysis in this procedure is
V K2gH
V K2g(P1 P2) /

(1)

Another equation could have been selected but this is adequate. In this equation,
the variables are: V velocity; K empirical coefficient, Figs. 24 and 25; H
head loss (P1 P2) / , where P1 inlet pressure, psf (kPa); P2 outlet pressure,
psf (kPa); fluid density in suitable units. This is basically the equation for
incompressible flow through an orifice.
The devices discussed in this procedure are not pure orifices. Neither are they
long tubes. The correction charts in Figs. 25 and 26, based on actual tests, take
care of discrepancies. Another equation could have been chosen for tubes, and the
method would still work, except that a different set of correction charts would be
needed.
Flow of compressible fluids also can be calculated with this method. If the
density change from inlet to outlet is slight, then assume the gas is incompressible
and continue to use Equation 1, above. If there is considerable expansion, then
substitute the following conventional equation for polytropic compressible flow:
W

KA2 P1
R

2gJ

cp
T1


P2
P1

2/n

P2
P1

(n1) / n

(2)

Units for Equation 2 are given below. Use Fig. 25 for the value of coefficient K.
In the case of a labyrinth seal, special versions of Equation 2 have been developed.
These accompany the sketches of labyrinths in Fig. 24. The seal coefficient, m, is
plotted in Fig. 27 for all common values of the length-clearance ratio L / C.
the Reynolds number is the heart of this method. Here is a convenient form for
round orifices and capillaries:
Re WD / Ag

(3A)

For annular orifices, a different version is needed:


Re W(D d) /Ag

(3B)

Re W(2C) /Ag

(3C)

And for slots:

Equations 3B and 3C were derived using the concept of hydraulic radius, RH,

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FIGURE 26 Reynolds number and K values for eccentric restrictions.

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25.55
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25.56

DESIGN ENGINEERING

FIGURE 27 Seal configuration coefficient m vs L/C for labyrinth restrictions.

where 4RH is known to be roughly equivalent to diameter in figuring the Reynolds


number. Hydraulic radius is:
RH

area of flowing fluid


wetted perimeter

(4)

For annular orifices, A (D2 d 2) / 4 and perimeter (D d). Thus, radius


RH (D d ) / 4, and 4RH D d, or 2C, where C is the radial clearance.
For slots, A CZ, perimeter 2(C Z) approximately 2Z. Thus, RH 2C,
where C is the clearance.

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HYDRAULIC AND PNEUMATIC SYSTEMS DESIGN

25.57

Note: There is some disagreement among experts here. For instance, Crane Technical Paper 410 (Crane Company), pp 14, states that the hydraulic radius for a
very thin slot is equal to the narrower dimension, C. Thus, the equivalent diameter
would be 4C, instead of 2C. Equations 3B and 3C would be affected by this change.
To use this method, solve Equation 1 or 2 first, yielding velocity V in terms of
the unknown coefficient K. Convert to mass flow W with the equations provided
above. Then solve for the Reynolds number using Equation 3. It will contain the
unknown coefficient K.
Solve for the coefficient K by trial and error, as shown above. Then calculate
the Reynolds number. Check the value against that in Figs. 25 or 26 for the given
value of (D d) / L. If its wrong, try another value for K. Three or four guesses
should get the desired result. Knowing K, you can calculate the desired velocity
and mass flow.
Accuracy of this method is as good as that for simple orifices or pipes, but the
same chances for inaccuracy exist. Remember that poor surface finish, slight rounding of the edges, inaccurate dimensions, and many other physical variations will
affect the results greatly. It is better to build and test a model, where possible.
This procedure is the work of Andrew Lenkei, Project Engineer, Research Department, Worthington Corporation, as reported in Product Engineering magazine.
SI values were added by the handbook editor.
Symbols
A Flow area, ft2 (m2)
C Radial clearance, ft (m)
cp coefficient of specific heat at constant pressure, Btu / lbF (kJ / kg C)
d Minor diameter of annular orifice, ft (m)
D Major diameter of annular orifice, ft (m)
g gravitational constant, 32.2 ft / s2
H Head, ft (m)

FIGURE 28 Positive-clearance seal for centrifugal pumps and other liquid-handling applications has the lowest cost.

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25.58
K
J
L
m
n
N
Lp
P
R
RH
Re
T
V

ln
Z

DESIGN ENGINEERING

Orifice coefficient (dimensionless)


Mechanical equivalent of heat, 778 ft lb / btu
Flow length; also labyrinth groove axial distance, ft (m)
seal configuration factor
Polytropic exponent (n k 1.4 for air in isentropic process)
Number of sealing points
Pitch of sealing points, ft (m)
Pressure, psf (kPa)
Gas constant (53.3 for air)
Hydraulic radius (RH flow area / wetted perimeter)
Reynolds number, W (D d ) / A g
Temperature, R
Fluid velocity, ft / s (m / s)
Absolute viscosity, lb s / ft2
Mass rate of flow lb / s (kg / s)
Density, lb / ft3 (kg / m3)
Loge (m)
Slot width, ft

Subscripts
1 First term
2 Second term
n nth term

LABYRINTH SHAFT SEAL LEAKAGE


DETERMINATION
(1) Determine the fluid leakage through the sleeve seal in Fig. 28 when the known
pressure drop through the seal, HT 300 lb / in2 693 ft (2067 kPa; 211.2 m);
shaft diameter, D 10 in (25.4 cm); total axial length of shaft seal, L 2 in (5.08
cm); radial clearance, C 0.020 in (0.050 cm); Reynolds number NR 2 105
CV; velocity through the seal clearance is assumed to be V 180 ft/s (54.9 m/
s), which is 85 percent of the free discharge velocity of 2g 693)0.5 . (2) Find the
fluid leakage through the non-interlocking labyrinth seal, Fig. 30, when the known
pressure drop, and diameter are the same as in (1) above, and L 0.125 in (0.32
cm); C 0.02 in (0.0508 cm); n 8 stages; velocity through the seal 35 percent
of free discharge.
Calculation Procedure:

1. Compute the Reynolds number for the sleeve seal


Use the relation NR 2 105 CV (2 105)(0.020 / 12)(180) 6 104.
2. Calculate the friction factor for this seal
Use the relation, friction factor, 0.316 / (NR)0.25 for turbulent flow. Substituting,
0.316 / (6 104)0.25 0.02019.
3. Find the fluid velocity through the seal
Use the velocity relation in Fig. 28. Or, V ([62.4 693] / [1.5 0.02019 2 /
2 0.02])0.5 131.27 ft / s (40.0 m / s).

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25.59

FIGURE 29 Interlocking labyrinths seal liquids and


gases. Requires split assembly but has low leakage.

FIGURE 30 Non-interlocking seal is a compromise


between Figs. 28 and 29; seals liquid and gas; no split
necessary.

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25.60

DESIGN ENGINEERING

4. Compute the fluid flow through the seal


Use the relation, fluid flow through seal, Q VA, where Q flow, ft3 / s (m3 / s);
A seal area, ft2. The value of A ()(10)(0.02) / 144 0.00436 ft2 (0.000405
m2). Then, fluid flow Q VA 131.27 (.00436) 0.572 ft3 / s (0.053 m3 / s).
5. Determine the flow through the non-interlocking seal
Follow the same steps as above. Thus, V 0.35 (2 g 693)0.5 72.78 ft / s (22.18
m / s). The NR 2 105 (0.02 / 12 72.78) 2.266 104. Then, 0.316 /
(2.266 104)0.25 0.02575. Further, V ([62.4 693] / [1.5 0.025 {0.125 /
2} 0.02 1.0 7])0.5 71.0 ft / s (21.6 m / s). Finally, Q 71 0.00436
0.3095 ft3 / s (0.02876 m3 / s).
Related Calculations. Shaft seals are primarily used to reduce leakage of fluid
from a hydraulic system. The greater the obstruction to fluid flow, the more efficient
the seal. While ten basic seal designs are shown in these procedures, there are
hundreds of variants.
The majority of labyrinth seals are machined of bronze or a similar alloy. Seals
can be made accurately; they are mechanically strong and they can withstand high
temperatures. However, the metal selected for the seal must not gall or melt during
wear-in. There must be no residue or distortion to lessen the effectiveness of the
seal.
There is a limit to the complexity of the seal. Tests show a diminishing advantage
beyond a certain number of stages, particularly where the shaft does not stay centered according to calculations. In such cases, simpler labyrinths are as good as the
more serpentine, and much less expensive.
The tapered teeth in Figs. 32 and 34 are considered the most efficient for sealing
gas or air. Usually the teeth are rings inserted into the seal sleeve and staked. They
are tapered to an edge of about 0.0120 in (0.0254 cm) at the shaft diameter, and
no clearance is allowed. The tips are quickly ground off when the machine begins
to operate. Water lubrication can be used to prevent excessive heating during wearin.
In the hydraulic field, it is conventional practice to set minimum and maximum
limits for the clearance, C, between the shaft and seal, Fig. 28. The clearance values
depend on the strength of the rotating shaft and its deflection. Tests prove that the
speed of the shaft has no effect on the performance of the seal. Typical recommended clearances are shown in Fig. 31.
The head loss and flow equations used in this procedure are approximate and
cannot take the place of actual seal tests. These equations show trends accurately,
however, and are workable once you apply correction factors for your own designs.
In any seal, the effective total resistance to flow, measured in feet (meters) of
lost head, is the sum of three types of unit resistance: (1) turbulent conversion of
initial static pressure to velocity; (2) wall friction; (3) turbulence caused by abrupt
changes of section in the flow path.
The first two, HV and HF, are explained in the symbols and equations listed
below. For the third type of resistance, which includes both the entrance loss, HE,
and the head loss for one or more stages, HS, the explanation is: The first abrupt
change in section is at the entrance, and head loss according to the conventional
entrance equation is HE 0.5 V2 / 2g. The succeeding changes in section depend
on the number of edges in each labyrinth. In Fig. 29, there are four edges per stage
and a rough estimate of head loss HS 4 0.5 V 2 / 2g. For Fig. 30 and 32, there
are two edges per stage, and the relationship is HS 1.0 V2 / 2g. The summation
is

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HYDRAULIC AND PNEUMATIC SYSTEMS DESIGN


HYDRAULIC AND PNEUMATIC SYSTEMS DESIGN

SI Values
in.
cm
.012
0.030
0
.014
0.0355
0
.016
0.406
0
.018
0.0457
0
.020
0.0508
0
0.022
0.0588
0.024
0.0609
.026
0.0660
0
.028
0.0711
0
.030
0.0762
0
.032
0.0812
0
.034
0.0863
0
.036
0.0914
0
FIGURE 31 Recommended clearances for

3
4
5
6
7

10
11
12
13
14
15
seals

25.61

in.
cm
7.62
10.16
12.7
15.24
17.78
8
20.32
9
22.86
25.4
27.94
30.48
33.02
35.56
38.10
in Figs. 28, 29, and 30.

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HYDRAULIC AND PNEUMATIC SYSTEMS DESIGN


25.62

DESIGN ENGINEERING

FIGURE 32 Tapered-tooth seal for low-leakage applications.

FIGURE 33 Sleeve seals find wide application.

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25.63

FIGURE 34 Different types of labyrinths


for shaft seals.

HT HV HF HE HS

(1)

where the value of HS is explained in the symbols and equations panel below.
To express Equation 1 in terms of velocity, insert the known expressions for
head loss given in the equations and symbols panel. This useful relationship results:
HT [V2 / 2g][1 L / 2C 0.5 a (n 1)]

(2)

where a 2 for the seal in Fig. 29, and a 1 for the seals in Figs. 30 and 32.
Equation 2 applies to gases and liquids. For gases, the accuracy is problematical
because velocity and density change from one point in the seal to the next point
in the seal, and outside of it. To accommodate these changes you have to assume
average values during flow through the seal.
Leakage flow through the seal at any given point, for gas or liquid, is simply
the average velocity, V, at that point, times the cross-sectional area, A, of the seal.
The relationship is Q VA.
For gases, accurate predictions of leakage flow using a particular equation are
not possible unless the design of the seal happens to match the conditions of the
test upon which the flow equation is based. There are many more published flow
equations than are discussed here. Variations in calculated leakage flow might exceed 2:1. However, for first approximations, the equations in this procedure will
suffice.
One way to improve the accuracy of these calculations is to use trial and error.
Assume a Reynolds number, calculate friction factor, compute leakage flow, check,
out the assumed Reynolds number, correct it if necessary, and try again. Figure 35

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25.64

DESIGN ENGINEERING

gives viscosity values for calculating the Reynolds number for fluids and gases used
in hydraulic and pneumatic systems.
This procedure is the work of Louis Dodge, Hydraulics Consultant, as reported
in Product Engineering magazine. SI values were added by the handbook editor.
Another approach to labyrinth seal design is given by V. L. Peickii, Director of
Research & Engineering, and Dan A. Christensen, Research Engineer, National Seal
Division, Federal-Mogul-Bower Bearings Inc., writing in the same publication
where they note:
Labyrinth or positive-clearance seals are so specialized that no standard types
or designs have evolved. Design is usually controlled by the tolerable leak-rate,
from which one can calculate gap clearances and number of elements required, Fig.
36.
The number of rings to limit leakage to a given flow can be found from:
N
where N
W
A
C
D
P

(40 P 2600) (W/ A) / 540 (W / A) P


Number of rings
Permissible leakage, lb / sec (kg / sec)
C D, cross-sectional area, in2 (cm2)
Clearance, in (cm)
Diameter, in (cm)
Absolute pressure, lb / in2 (abs) (kPa)

In this equation, to find N12 for a leakage from pressure level P1 to a lower pressure
level, P2, the N for each must be found; then N12 N1 N2.
The leakage flow rate can be found from:

W 25 KA

P1
P2
1
V1
P1
N Logn

P2
P1

where W Flow rate, lb / hr (kg / hr)


V1 Initial specific volume, ft3 / lb (m3 / kg)
K Experimental coefficient
For interlocking labyrinths, K 55 approximately, if the velocity is effectively
throttled between labyrinths. It is independent of clearance in the usual range. For
non-interlocking labyrinths, K varies with the ratio of labyrinth spacing divided by
radial clearance. For a ratio of 5, K 100; for a ratio of 50, K 60.

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HYDRAULIC AND PNEUMATIC SYSTEMS DESIGN

FIGURE 35a

25.65

Viscosities for various hydraulic-system fluids.

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HYDRAULIC AND PNEUMATIC SYSTEMS DESIGN


25.66

DESIGN ENGINEERING

SI Values
deg F
30
40
50
70
100
150
200
300
400
500
700
1000

deg C
1.1
4.4
10.0
21.1
37.8
65.6
93.3
148.9
204.4
260.0
371.1
537.8

FIGURE 35b

ft2/sec
4
50 10
40
30
20
15
10 104
7
5
4
3
2
1.5
1 104
0.7
0.5
0.4
0.3
0.2
0.15
0.1 104
0.07
0.05
0.04
0.03
0.02 104

m2/sec
4
4.5 10
3.7
2.8
1.9
1.4
0.92 104
0.65
0.46
0.37
0.28
0.19
0.14
0.09 104
0.065
0.046
0.037
0.028
0.018
0.014
0.009 104
0.006
0.0046
0.0037
0.0028
0.0018 104

(Continued ).

FIGURE 36 Typical labyrinth seal for


which empirical formulas have been derived.

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HYDRAULIC AND PNEUMATIC SYSTEMS DESIGN

25.67

Equations and Symbols


A area of annular clearance, ft2 DC (m2)
C radial clearance, in (cm)
D diameter of shaft, in (cm)
friction factor (dimensionless)
64 / NR for laminar flow (NR 2320)
0.316 / N0.25
for turbulent flow
R
HS head loss for one stage, ft (m)
HS 2V2 / 2g for Fig 2 (4 edges)
HS V2 / 2g for Figs 3 and 4 (2 edges)
HS Hs (n 1)
HV velocity head, ft V2 / 2g (m)
L V2
HF friction head loss, ft
(m)
2C 2g
HT total head loss of all stages, ft (m)
HT HE HS HV HF
L total axial length of shaft seal, in (cm)
n number of seals or teeth
n 1 number of stages or spaces
NR Reynolds number, dimensionless
NR 2CV / 12 v 2 105 CV for 80F
water
Q flow, ft3 / sec VA (m2 / sec)
V fluid velocity, ft / sec (m / sec)
v kinematic viscosity, ft2 / sec (m2 / sec)

PIPE-WALL THICKNESS FOR HYDRAULIC


SYSTEMS WITHOUT FLUID SHOCK
Determine the minimum wall thickness for an oil hydraulic system pipe having an
outside diameter of 1.5 in (3.8 cm) conveying oil at a static pressure of 1200 psi
(8268 kPa) at a velocity of 10 fps (3.0 m / s). The pipe is steel having an allowable
stress of 85,000 psi (585.7 MPa).
Calculation Procedure:

1. Determine the minimum wall thickness


Use the equation t pD / 2S, where t minimum allowable thickness of pipe wall,
in (cm); p design working pressure, psi (kPa); D outside diameter of pipe, in
(cm); S allowable tensile strength of the pipe material, psi (kPa). For this pipe,
t 1200(1.5) / 2(85,000) 0.011 in (0.027 cm).
2. Compare the computed wall thickness with JIC recommendations
For 1200 psi (8268 kPa), defined as medium high pressure by JIC Hydraulic Standards for Industrial Equipment, this Standard recommends a minimum pipe wall
thickness of 0.095 in (0.24 cm). Since the computed wall thickness is less, the
minimum recommended thickness should be used.

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25.68

DESIGN ENGINEERING

3. Check the actual pipe stress by using the thickness equation


Solving for the stress, S pD / 2t 1200(1.5) / 2(0.095) 9475 psi (65.3 MPa).

PIPE-WALL THICKNESS FOR HYDRAULIC


SYSTEMS WITH FLUID SHOCK
What pipe-wall thickness is required for an oil hydraulic system operating at 1200
psi (8268 kPa) and fitted with a quick-closing valve if the pipe diameter is 2 in
(5.1 cm), fluid velocity is 10 fpm (3.0 m / s), and allowable pipe stress is 85,000
psi (585.7 MPa)?
Calculation Procedure:

1. Determine the pressure rise caused by the quick-closing valve


Under average conditions in hydraulic systems, the pressure rise in psi (kPa) is Pr
50 V, where V fluid velocity, fpm. Thus, Pr 50(10) 500 psi (3445 kPa).
2. Find the surge pressure in the pipe
Total the static pressure and the pressure rise caused by the quick-closing valve
being closed. Or, 1200 500 1700 psi (11.7 MPa).
3. Compute the pipe wall thickness by using the pipe surge pressure
Thus, using the same symbols as in the previous calculation procedure, t 1700(2)/
2(85,000) 0.02 in (0.05 cm).

ALLOWABLE STRESS IN HYDRAULIC SYSTEM


PIPING
The surge pressure in a 0.75-in (1.9-cm) diameter, 0.109-in (0.028-cm) thick steel
hydraulic pipe is 6700 psi (46.2 MPa). What is the recommended stress in this pipe
if a factor of safety of 4 is suggested by the JIC for this pressure range? Allowable
stress for the pipe is 85,000 psi (585.7 MPa). Is the pipe acceptable for this service?
Calculation Procedure:

1. Compute the actual stress in the pipe


Use the relation S pD / 2t. Or, 6700(0.75) / 2(0.109) 23,050 psi (158.8 MPa).
2. Find the recommended stress
Recommended stress allowable stress / factor of safety, or 85,000 / 4 recommended stress 21,250 psi (146.4 MPa).
3. Compare actual and recommended stresses
The actual stress, 23,050 psi, is greater than the recommended stress, 21,250 psi
(146.4 MPa). Since the actual stress exceeds the maximum recommended stress,
the pipe is not suitable for this service.

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HYDRAULIC AND PNEUMATIC SYSTEMS DESIGN

25.69

HYDRAULIC FLUID COMPRESSIBILITY AND


SYSTEM BULK MODULUS
Determine the bulk modulus of a hydraulic system fluid with a compressibility
factor of 4.28 106 psi (29.5 106 kPa when the fluid is 100 percent saturated
with air at 68F (20C) and 0 psig (0 kPa) if the fluid flows through tubing having
a compressibility factor of 1.8 107 psi (12.4 107 kPa).
Calculation Procedure:

1. Determine the system compressibility


For any system es e et, where e is the compressibility, psi (kPa); s, , and t
refer, respectively, to the compressibility of the system (s), fluid (), and tubing (t).
For this system, s 4.28 106 1.8 107 4.46 106 psi (30.7 106
kPa).
2. Compute the system bulk modulus
For any oil hydraulic system, Bs 1 / es, where Bs system bulk modulus, psi
(kPa). For this sytem, Bs 1 / 4.4610-6 220,000 psi (1516 MPa).
Related Calculations. Properties of hydraulic fluids are available from the fluid
manufacturers. The properties usually considered in oil hydraulic system design are
the flash point, fire point, autoignition temperature, pour point, boiling point, maximum long-term bulk temperature, coefficient of thermal expansion, specific heat,
bulk modulus, thermal conductivity, specific gravity, resistivity, dielectric strength,
and dielectric constant.

SELECTION OF FLUIDS FOR OIL HYDRAULIC


AND CONTROL SYSTEMS
Choose a suitable hydraulic fluid for an industrial hydraulic system operating at
4000 psi (27.6 MPa). Evaluate each factor of importance in the choice of the fluid.
The system contains a hydraulic cylinder having a 20-in (50.8-cm) stroke and a
piston speed of 20 in / s (50.8 cm / s).

Calculation Procedure:

1. Consider the viscosity of the fluid


Fluid viscosity and density, together, determine the fluid pressure loss for a given
flow rate through pipes and hydraulic equipment. Pressure loss through a sharpedged orifice is nearly independent of viscosity variations if the critical velocity of
the fluid is exceeded. For a given temperature and pressure in an oil hydraulic
system, the viscosity is usually considered constant. Use a viscosity index (VI) plot
to compare the sensitivity to temperature change of two or more hydraulic fluids.
The steeper the VI slope, the more sensitive the fluid is to temperature changes that
will increase, or decrease, the viscosity of the fluid. Viscosity changes within a
hydraulic system can alter the predicted performance of system components if the
actual viscosity is overlooked. Many designers choose a fluid having a viscosity

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25.70

DESIGN ENGINEERING

permitting pipeline velocities of 12 ft / s (3.66 m / s) for pipes 1 in (2.54 cm), or


smaller, and 15 ft / s (4.57 m / s) for larger pipes. A velocity of 20 ft / s (6.1 m / s) is
seldom exceeded in control valves and other restrictions, except in safety and relief
valves, where the velocity may reach 100 ft / s (30.5 m / s). Velocities of 5 to 7 ft /
s (1.5 to 2.1 m / s) are sometimes used in short, straight suction lines conveying
low-viscosity hydraulic fluids.
2. Determine the fluid density
Fluid density influences the flow rate, pressure drop, and natural frequency of the
system. This natural frequency is proportional to the square root of the moving
mass of the system fluid. Where piping system vibration is excessive, use of a
hydraulic fluid of different density may alleviate or eliminate the problem.
3. Analyze the fluid vapor pressure
If the vapor pressure of a hydraulic fluid is too high at normal operating temperatures, gas pockets may form in areas of low pressure in the system, such as pump
intakes. Water-base hydraulic fluids tend to have higher vapor pressures than other
types of hydraulic fluids. Hence, system operating temperatures must be kept low
for water-base hydraulic fluids to prevent vapor binding and loss of fluid. Nonwater-base hydraulic fluids, including silicones, have lower vapor pressures than do
water-base fluids.
4. Determine the hydraulic fluid air solubility
High solubility of air in the hydraulic fluid is undesirable because the air or other
gas dissolved at the reservoir conditions of temperature and absolute pressure may
leave the solution at a lower pressure, say, than pressure existing at the pump inlet.
Pump cavitation can result. If the reservoir is pressurized, the problem is even
greater because more air can be dissolved, coming out of the solution in another
part of the system. Remember that air solubility in many hydraulic fluids is directly
proportional to the absolute pressure of the system. Therefore, choose that fluid
having the lowest, or relatively low, air solubility.
5. Analyze the effect of bulk modulus on the system
Bulk modulusthe reciprocal of compressibilityis similar in concept to a mechanical spring rate, and it measures the pressure change needed to cause a given
percent volume change. Inaccurate positioning of pistons and varying speed (rpm)
of hydraulic motors can result from this volume change. The higher the bulk modulus, the stiffer the hydraulic system and the higher its resonant frequency. A fastresponding servosystem requires a fluid with a high bulk modulus.
Some hydraulic fluids have an elasticity (compressibility) of 0.5 percent per
1000-psi (6890-kPa) pressure change up to 1000 psi (6890 kPa), and about 0.25
percent per 1000-psi (6890-kPa) pressure change at 50,000 psi (344.5 MPa). Fluid
compressibility can cause jump, chatter, or gallop of the piston rod of a hydraulic
cylinder serving a varying load. Characteristics of this jump are affected by the
type of load, type of guidance, mass of the moving parts, type of circuit used to
suppress the jump, and other factors. Approximate the jump amplitude and frequency by applying the compressibility factor of 0.5 percent per 1000 psi (6890
kPa) to the length of the oil column, which is usually assumed equal to the maximum stroke length if the connecting pipes are not unusually long or large in
comparison to the cylinder dimensions. For this, or any cylinder, jump J in (cm)

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HYDRAULIC AND PNEUMATIC SYSTEMS DESIGN

25.71

0.005PS / 1000, where P fluid pressure, psi (kPa) and S stroke length, in
(cm). Thus, J 0.005(4000)(2) / 1000 0.40 in (1 cm).
Also, the period of the jump is n J / V, where V piston speed, in / s (cm / s).
Then n 0.40 / 20 0.02 s. Frequency V / J, of 20 / 0.4 50 Hz. In some
machine tools the jump length may be twice the calculated value if there are sudden
periodic variations of the load. The usual solution to a jumpy feed is an increase
of the cylinder bore or replacement of the cylinder with a screw feed.

6. Investigate the hydraulic fluids fire resistance


Some fluids meeting stringent safety requirements sacrifice one or more performance qualities. Well-known fire-resistant fluids are water, water-glycol, water-oil
emulsions, phosphate esters, and chlorinated hydrocarbons.
With water-base fluids, care must be taken to prevent water loss because the
water is the principal fire-resistant part of the mixture. Water loss in water-glycol
fluids increases the fluid viscosity; in the oil-emulsion type, it decreases the viscosity and (if noticed in time) can warn of dangerous conditions.

EFFECT OF TRAPPED AIR ON HYDRAULIC


SYSTEM BULK MODULUS
The fluid in a hydraulic system contains 25 percent free air under atmospheric
conditions. What is the bulk modulus of the system if the operating pressure is
1500 psia (103.3 MPa) and the total enclosed volume is 10 in3 (163.9 cm3)? Bulk
modulus of the oil is 300,000 psi (2067 MPa).

Calculation Procedure:

1. Determine the air volume and bulk modulus


The volume of air in the system at atmospheric conditions, in cubic inches (cubic
centimeters), Vaa Vs / F, where Vs system volume, in3 (cm3) and F percent
free air in the system at atmospheric conditions. Then Vaa 10(0.25) 2.5 in3
(16.1 cm3).
At the system operating pressure, air volume Va VaaPaa / Pa, where Va air
volume at operating pressure, in3 (cm3) and Pa operating pressure, psia (kPa).
For this system, Va 2.5(14.7) / 1500 0.0245 in3 (0.40 cm3). Also, bulk modulus
of the air Ba 1500 psia (10.3 kPa).
2.

Compute the volume of oil in the system


Voil Vs Va 10.000 0.0245 9.9755 in3 (163.5 cm3)

3. Compute the system bulk modulus


Set up the ratios: Vs / Bs Voil / Boil Va / Ba. Then 10 /Bs 9.9755 / 300,000
0.0245 / 1500; Bs 201,674 psi (1389s MPa). Note: The effects of trapped air must
be considered in all high-pressure hydraulic systems fitted with servomotors and
positive-displacement pumps.

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25.72

DESIGN ENGINEERING

SURGE PRESSURE IN HYDRAULIC CYLINDERS


What surge pressure is developed in a hydraulic cylinder when moving an 8000-lb
(3632-kg) load at 1.8 ft / s (0.548 m / s) if the control valve closes in 0.09 s, system
operating pressure is 500 psi (3445 kPa), and the piston has an effective area of 15
in2 (96.8 cm2)? Friction load during stopping equals the force developed by the
trapped oil after the control valve closes.

Calculation Procedure:

1. Determine the piston acceleration


Use the relation a dv / dt, where a piston acceleration, ft / s2 (cm / s2), dv
piston velocity, ft / s (m / s), and dt valve closing time, s. Thus, a 1.8 / 0.09
20 ft / s2 (6.09 m / s2).
2. Find the force developed by the piston
Use F ma, where F piston force, lb (N) and m piston acceleration, ft / s2
(m / s2). Then F 8000(20 / 32.2) 4968 lb (22,062 N). In this computation 32.2
ft / s2 is the acceleration due to gravity at sea level.
3. Compute the surge pressure
Use the relation for surge pressure Ps F / A, where A piston area, in2 (cm2).
Or, Ps 4968 / 15 331.2 psi (2.28 MPa).

SIZING A HYDRAULIC SYSTEM FLUID


RESERVOIR
Design a fluid reservoir for a hydraulic system fitted with a 50-gpm (3.2-L / s), 1000psi (6890-kPa) pump.

Calculation Procedure:

1. Determine the required reservoir capacity


Usual design practice is to choose a reservoir capacity of 2 to 3 times the pump
capacity in gallons per minute (liters per second). Such a reservoir will supply the
pump for 2 to 3 min, neglecting any return flow. Assume, in this design, a factor
of 3 for the reservoir size. Then the reservoir capacity 3(50) 150 gal (569 L).
A reservoir of this capacity will have enough capacity for start-ups, a stable oil
level, a reserve for pipeline breaks, and enough surface area for natural cooling
during normal operation. When the reservoir capacity is less than 2 times the pump
capacity in gallons per minute (liters per minute), a heat exchanger will be needed
to avoid excessive temperature changes. Where possible, reservoirs are built in
rectangular form.
2. Choose the suction-line strainer capacity
The strainer flow capacity should be 2 to 4 times the pump capacity. Assume a
safety factor of 3 for the strainer. Then strainer capacity 3(50) 150 gpm (569

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25.73

L / min). The strainer should be 0.5 to 0.75 in (1.3 to 1.9 cm) above the reservoir
bottom to avoid overloading the strainer with residue.
3. Select the location of the main return pipe
The main return pipe should discharge below the surface of the oil in the reservoir.
Usual practice is to locate the main return pipe 1 in (2.54 cm) above the reservoir
bottom. This provides a backpressure of 5 to 10 psi (34 to 69 kPa).
4. Locate the atmospheric return lines
Arrange the atmospheric return lines and all other zero-pressure leakage lines so
they discharge above the reservoir oil level. Where the flow rate and air contact are
high (defined as a flow rate of more than one-half the pump capacity with many
visible air bubbles), discharge the oil above the reservoir level onto a chute that
slopes at 5 to 10 into the reservoir fluid. This is important because high-pressure
oil saturated with air will be 25 percent hotter than air-free oil.
5. Determine the baffle submergence
Locate internal baffles between the submerged return line and the pump suction
line. The top of the baffles should be 30 percent below the surface of the reservoir
fluid. In a 60-in (152-cm) reservoir, the top of the baffles should be 0.3(60) 18
in (45.7 cm) below the normal oil level.
6. Select the breather air filter capacity
Atmospheric pressure should exist in the reservoir at all times, regardless of whether
the oil level is rising or falling. To permit easy airflow into and out of the reservoir,
choose an air filter having an air capacity, in cubic feet per minute (liters per
second), of twice the pump capacity in gallons per minute (liters per second). Thus,
in this reservoir, the air-filter capacity would be 2(50) 100 cfm (2830 L / min).
7. Pick the operating temperature and viscosity
Maintain the oil temperature between 120 and 150F (48.8 and 65.6C) during
system operation. Oil viscosity can range between 100 and 300 SSU at 100F
(37.8C) if the operating oil temperature is about 120F (48.8C). Oil temperatures
up to 160F (71.1C) are permissible if the oil viscosity ranges from 300 to 750
SSU at 100F (37.7C). Fit legs to the bottom of the reservoir to allow full air
circulation around all surfaces.
8. Choose the reservoir wall thickness
For reservoir capacities up to 25 gal (95 L), use 0.0625-in (0.158-cm) thick walls;
0.125 in (0.31 cm) for capacities up to 100 gal (379 L); and 0.25 in (0.635 cm)
for capacities of more than 100 gal (379 L). The top, or cover, of the reservoir
should be 4 times as thick as the walls to ensure vibration-free operation and to
hold the pump and motor in alignment. Figure 7 shows the various components
discussed in this calculation procedure.

REQUIRED VOLUME OF BLADDER-TYPE


ACCUMULATOR
Determine the volume of a bladder-type accumulator having a gas-to-oil volume
ratio of 3-to-1 when fully charged if the gas expansion coefficient n 1.25, system
oil demand V 6 in3 (98.4 mL), and the allowable pressure drop is 5 percent.

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25.74

DESIGN ENGINEERING

Calculation Procedure:

1. Determine the volume of the gas side at the highest system operating pressure
Use the relation HHP / VLP VHP / (VHP V) (1 x)1 / n, where VHP gas-side
volume at highest operating pressure, in3 (cm3); VLP gas-side volume at lowest
operating pressure, in3 (cm3); x liquid-side pressure drop, expressed as the ratio
(PHP PLP) / PHP, where PHP and PLP, psi (kPa), are the highest, and lowest, operating pressures of the system, respectively. For this system, then, VHP / (VHP 6)
(1 0.05)1 / 1.25 144 in3 (2362 mL).
2. Compute the total chamber volume
In any accumulator, total volume gas volume oil volume. Since the gas-to-oil
volume ratio is 3-to-1, the total volume of this accumulator VACC 144 144 / 3
192 in3 (3149 mL). Expressing this on the gas-to-oil ratio basis gives VACC
1.33VHP 1.33(144) 192 in3 (3149 mL).
Related Calculations. The gas exponent n 1.25, used in this calculation, is
for a polytropic expansion. For most applications where air or nitrogen is used in
the accumulator, and where the pressure changes less than 25 percent during operation, use of this exponent does not introduce significant errors in the results.
Where greater accuracy is desired, assume isothermal compression, with n 1, for
the charging cycle, and adiabatic expansion, n 1.4, for the discharge cycle. The
gas-to-oil volume of 3 to 1 used in this calculation is a typical value for oil industrial
hydraulic systems.

DETERMINING HYDRAULIC ACCUMULATOR


DEMAND VOLUME
Determine the demand volume of a gas-filled accumulator of any type if the expansion is adiabatic (n 1.4) and the pressure drop is 900 psi (6201 kPa) in a
3000-psi (20.7-MPa) system. Gas-side volume at the highest operating pressure is
600 in3 (9840 mL).
Calculation Procedure:

1. Determine the pressure ratio m


Use the relation (PLP / PHP)1 / n / [1 (PLP / PHP)1 / n], where the symbols are as given
in the previous calculation procedure. Thus, (2100 / 3000)1 / 1.4 / [1 (2100 /
300)1 / 1.4] 3.44.
2.

Compute the accumulator demand volume


V VHP / m 600 / 3.44 174.4 (2860 mL)

EFFECTIVE FORCE DEVELOPED BY A DOUBLEACTING HYDRAULIC CYLINDER


A double-acting hydraulic cylinder has a 3-in (7.6-cm) bore and a 1-in (2.54-cm)
diameter piston rod. Determine the force developed during rod extension and retraction if the oil pump delivers fluid to the cylinder inlet at 1000 psi (6890 kPa).

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25.75

Calculation Procedure:

1. Determine the effective area of the piston


The piston area, AP d2 / 4, where d piston diameter, in (cm). Then, AP
(3)2 / 4 7.06 in2 (45.5 cm2).
2. Compute the effective area of the cylinder rod end
The rod end effective area piston area rod area. Area of the rod Arod
d2rod / 4 (1)2 / 4 0.785 in2 (5.1 cm2). Then, rod effective area 7.060 0.785
6.275 in2 (40.5 cm2).
3. Calculate the extension and retraction forces
The extension force Fe PA; the retraction force Fr PAeffective, where P system
pressure, psi (kPa) and Fe and Fr extension and retraction forces, respectively,
lb (N). Then Fe 1200(7.06) 8472 lb (37.7 kN); Fr 1200(6.275) 7530 lb
(33.5 kN). Thus, the retraction force is 8472 7530 942 lb (4190 N) less than
the extension force. When choosing a double-acting cylinder for a specific application, use the rod-end force to compute the maximum retractive load the cylinder
can handle.

HYDRAULIC CYLINDER OIL CONSUMPTION AND


EXTENSION TIME
Determine the oil consumption and extension time of a 3-in (7.6-cm) bore, doubleacting hydraulic cylinder having a 1-in (2.54-cm) diameter piston if oil is supplied
to the cylinder at a flow rate of 5 gpm (0.32 L / s). The length of rod stroke is 18
in (45.7 cm).

Calculation Procedure:

1. Compute the volume of each end of the cylinder


The piston-end volume VP APL, where L stroke length, in (cm). Then the
piston-end volume VP [(3)2](18) / 4 127.2 in3 (2086 mL). The rod-end volume
Vrod (AP Arod)L (7.06 0.785)18 113-in3 (1853-mL) retraction volume.
2. Determine the oil gallonage (L / s) per stroke
Since 1 gal (3.79 L) of oil occupies 231 in3 (3788 mL), extension gallonage for
one stroke extension volume, in3 / 231 127.2 / 231 0.55 gal (2.1 L) per stroke.
Likewise, retraction gallonage for one stroke retraction volume, in3 / 231
113 / 231 0.489 gal (1.85 L) per stroke.
3. Calculate rod extension and retraction time
The time required to extend, or retract, the rod T extension or retraction gallonage, L / gpm (L / s), flow to the cylinder. For this cylinder, Te 0.551 / 5 0.110min extension time for a full stroke of 18 in (45.7 cm). The retraction time Tr
0.489 / 5 0.098 min for a full stroke of 18 in (45.7 cm).
Where time is a factor in the application of hydraulic cylinders, use the longest
time required for a stroke. In a double-acting cylinder this is the extension time.

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25.76

DESIGN ENGINEERING

HYDRAULIC CYLINDER POWER OUTPUT


Determine the oil pressure required, oil flow rate, and power output of a 4-in (10.2cm) diameter hydraulic cylinder which lifts a 5000-lb (2270-kg) load at 25 ft / min
(0.127 m / s) if the load carriage and piston weigh 25 lb (11.4 kg).

Calculation Procedure:

1. Compute the required oil pressure


The required oil pressure P psi (kPa) 2L / AP, where L total load, lb (kg) and
AP area of hydraulic piston, in2 (cm2). Thus, P 2(5000 500) / 0.7854(4)2
875 psi (6029 kPa).
2. Determine the oil flow rate
Use the relation Q 6SAP / 231, where S lift speed, ft / min (m / s). Then Q 6
(25)(0.7854)(42) / 231 8.16 gpm (0.51 L / s).
3. Calculate the power output of the cylinder
Use the relation power output, ft lb / min (W), Wo LS 5500(25) 137,500
ft lb / min (3108 W) 4.16 hp (3.1 kW).

SELECTING HYDRAULIC MOTORS AND PUMPS


BY USING MANUFACTURERS SIZE TABLES
Select a hydraulic motor and pump to operate a hoist having a normal cable pull
of 15,000 lb (6810 kg) at 220 ft / min (1.12 m / s), an overload pull of 22,500 lb
(10,215 kg) at 100 ft / min (0.51 m / s), and a light-line pull of 25 percent of normal
cable pull at 400 ft / min (2 m / s). The radius of the cable drum is 13 in (33 cm),
the gear reduction ratio to drum is 14.7 to 1, and the gear reduction efficiency is
89 percent.

Calculation Procedure:

1. Decide on the type of hydraulic circuit to use


Past experience or advice from a component manufacturer indicates this application
should employ a closed circuit with a variable-delivery, reversible pump to give
accurate control of start, stop, reverse, acceleration, deceleration, and variable speed
of the hoist. Either a fixed- or variable-displacement motor may be used, but a
fixed-displacement motor will be chosen here so that all controls will be centered
in the pump. This permits a more compact arrangement of the controls.
2. Determine the size of the hydraulic motor
Size, as used here, refers to the displacement constant, in cubic inches (cubic centimeters or milliliters), of the motor. This constant is a factor in the horsepower
(kilowatts) and torque output of the motor. Use of the constant simplifies motor
selection.

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25.77

The hydraulic motor for this hoist should be large enough to handle all the loads
expected without a gear change. This will simplify the entire installation. To eliminate changing gears, the motor will have to run at its maximum speed and develop
the maximum torque even though these two conditions (speed and torque) will not
occur simultaneously.
The rpm of the drum at the light-line pull of 400 ft / min (2 m / s) (12 ft / min)/
(2R), where R drum radius, in (cm). With a 14.7-to-1 gear reduction between
the drum and motor, the maximum rpm of the hydraulic motor is 14.7(58.8) 864
rpm.
Consult a tabulation of standard hydraulic motor sizes published by the manufacturer whose motor you expect to use. Table 14 shows the sizes of motors available from one large manufacturer. Review of this table shows that the maximum
required rpm (864) of the hoist motor is within the maximum rpm range of all units
through size 15 (900 rpm).
Next, the maximum torque T of the motor drum torque, in lb / efficiency (gear
reduction). Or, T (13 in)(22,500 lb) / 0.89(14.7) 22,357 in lb (2526 N m).
Since this maximum torque is an overload condition, an operating pressure is selected near the maximum level allowed for this pump, 2500 psi (17.2 MPa), by the
manufacturer. The motor, or B-end, pressure, size number, and torque are related
by S T / 0.63P, where S motor size number of displacement constant, in3 (cm3
or mL), and P maximum allowable pump pressure, psi (kPa). For this application,
S 22,357 / 0.63(2500) 14.19.
From Table 14, the nearest size number is 15. Recalculate the maximum pressure
by using the size number 15. Or, P T / 0.63S 22,357 / 0.63(15) 2366 psi
(16.3 MPa).
Now compute the torque for the normal load of 15,000 lb (6810 kg). Then check
to see that the pressure is not too high, i.e., greater than 2500 psi (17.2 MPa) for
continuous operation. Use the same procedure as above. Or, T (13 in)(15,000
lb) / 0.89(14.7) 14,905 in lb (1684 N m); P 14,905 / 0.63(15) 1577 psi
(10.86 MPa).
The operating pressure is well below the maximum allowable continuous operating pressure and is therefore satisfactory. If the actual operating pressure at the
normal load is higher than the maximum allowable continuous operating pressure,
select a motor having a higher allowable operating pressure. Do this by referring

TABLE 14 Hydraulic Motor Sizes

Size number

Maximum rpm

Maximum torque
(intermittent) in lb

Moment of inertia,
lb in2

114
212
5
10
15
20
35
50
75
150
300

1750
1450
1200
1000
900
825
720
650
580
480
400

2,350
4,700
9,450
18,900
28,300
37,800
66,000
94,500
141,000
283,000
566,000

150
200
570
1,970
4,040
6,700
18,000
34,000
70,000
237,000
809,000

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25.78

DESIGN ENGINEERING

to the tabulation of motor sizes and pressures in the manufacturers catalog. Note
that the maximum intermittent torque tabulated for size 15 motor (28,300 in lb
[3198 N m]) exceeds the maximum load torque of 22,357 in lb (2526 N m). Be
sure to check that the maximum-load torque does not exceed the maximum allowable torque. Load conditionscontinuous or intermittentshould also agree. Never
try to match a continuous load to a maximum allowable intermittent load because
the motor will be overloaded. Figure 37 shows the performance of this hoist, using
the motor and pump analyzed in this calculation procedure.
3. Determine the size of the hydraulic pump
The pump chosen must have sufficient capacity to drive the hydraulic motor at
speeds up to the maximum allowable. And the pump must also develop the maximum operating pressure, even though the two conditions (speed and pressure) do
not occur simultaneously.
First determine the theoretical displacement by using the size number from the
relation: motor, or B-end, displacement 4.35S in3 / r (cm3 / r). Assume a 98 percent
volumetric efficiency each for the pump and the motor. Then the volume of oil V
in3 / r (cm3 / r) required at a given rpm is V rpm(displacement, in3 / r) / (pump efficiency)(motor efficiency). Or, V 865(65.2) / 0.98(0.98) 58,723 in3 / r (963,065
cm3 / r). This is the oil volume required at 865 rpm of the motor.
Assume that the pump is driven by an electric motor at an input speed of 875
rpm. Then the displacement d per revolution for the pump is 58,723 / 875 67.1
in3 / r (1101 cm3 / r).
Pump size number S d / 4.52, where 4.52 is a constant for the pump, or Aend. Then S 67.1 / 4.52 14.84. The nearest pump size from Table 15 is 15.

FIGURE 37 Performance chart of a hoist using a hydraulic pump with an automatic


horsepower (kilowatts) limiting device.

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25.79

TABLE 15 Hydraulic Pump Sizes

Size number

Rated rpm

Maximum gpm

Maximum hp
(intermittent)

114
212
5
10
15
20
35
50
75
150
300

1200
1200
1200
900
720
600
600
514
514
450
400

28
56
112
170
200
230
400
500
750
1300
2300

50
100
200
300
350
400
700
900
1300
2300
4000

This pump will handle maximum intermittent horsepowers up to 350 hp (261 kW).
The reason why a hydraulic pump and motor capable of handling up to 350 hp
(261 kW) are necessary to handle this installation involving a maximum of only
100-hp (75-kW) output is that various power outputs are required at different operating speeds.

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