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The 1987 Philippine Constitution

- April 23, 1986 President Corazon Aquino issued Proclamation No. 9, the law governing the
Constitutional Commission of 1986. The law provided for the organization of a Constitutional
Commission and detailed of its operation and established procedure of the submission of the
proposed constitution and electorate in plebiscite.
- October 12, 1986. The Constitutional Commission approved the proposed new constitution after 133
days of work with 44 voting in favor, while two voted against it.
- On October 15, 1986. The Constitutional Commission held its final session to sign 109-page draft
Constitution. On the same day, the draft in its original form in English and Filipinos was presented to
the President.
- February 2, 1987. The electorate in the plebiscite held for the purpose ratified the draft of
State Distinguished from Government
- Many political science writers regard these two terms identical. It is the considered view that the acts
of the government (within the prescribed limits of the delegation of powers) are the acts of the state.
Legally, however, under the contract of agency, government is the agent through which the will of
the state is carried out. The state cannot exist without the government but it is possible to have a ___
without a state.
Concept of Constitution
- According to Judge Cooley, a constitution is a body of rules and maxims in accordance with which
the power of sovereignty is habitually exercised.
Purpose or Function of the Constitution
1. To prescribe the permanent framework of the system of the government assigned to the different
departments their respective powers and duties, and established certain fixed principles on which the
government is founded and;
2. To promote public welfare, this involves the safety, prosperity, health, and happiness of the people.
Kinds of Constitution
1. Written or rigid is one, the provisions of which have been reduced or writing and embodied in one or
more instruments at a particular time. Example: Philippine and U.S. Constitutions
2. Unwritten or flexible is one which has not been committed to writing at any specific time but is the
collective product and accumulation of customary rules, judicial decisions, dicta of legislative and enactments
of fundamental character written but scattered in various records without having any compact form in writing.
Requisites of a Good Written Constitution
1. Broad because it must be an organization of the government for the whole State.
2. Brief because its nature requires that only its great outlines should be marked. Its important objects
and the ingredients which compose those objects be reduced.
Two Steps amending or revising the Constitution
1. Proposal may be made by
a. Congress
b. Constitutional Convention
c. Peoples initiative
2. Ratification this means the submission of the draft constitution to the electorate. A proposal made by
the peoples initiative at least 12% of the entire electorate and 3% must come from every legislative district.

- The term preamble comes from the Latin word preambulare which means to walk before.
Strictly speaking, preamble is not an integral part of the Constitution. Its true office is to expound on
the scope and nature, the extent and application of the powers actually conferred by the constitution.
The Philippine Territorial Jurisdiction compromises:
1. Terrestrial jurisdiction over bodies of land
2. Fluvial jurisdiction over maritime and interior waters
3. Aerial jurisdiction over atmosphere
The United Nations International Convention in Geneva defined the five kinds of water in relation to the
territorial jurisdiction of the archipelago state:
1. Internal Water water around connecting and those that are in between the islands regardless of their
breadth and dimensions.
2. Territorial Sea is a belt of water outside the archipelagic baseline and adjacent to the archipelagic
waters. The archipelagic state has a right to establish the breadth territorial sea not exceeding 12 nautical miles
measured from the baseline.
3. Contiguous Zone beyond the territorial sea, may extend to not more than 24 nautical miles from the
archipelagic baselines. The state may exercise, in the contiguous zone, control necessary to prevent and punish
infringements of its customs, fiscal, immigration and sanitary laws and regulations with the territory or
territorial sea.
4. Exclusive Economic Zone which beyond and adjacent to the territorial sea may not extend more than
200 nautical miles from the archipelagic baselines. The archipelagic State has sovereign rights in the EEZ to
explore, manage and exploit all the natural resources living and non-living in the waters, the soil and subsoil.
5. Continental Shelf is the seabed and subsoil of the marine area to extend beyond its territorial sea
throughout the natural prolongation of the territory to the outer.
Seabed is the land holding the sea beyond the seashore
Subsoil is the soil below the surface soil including mineral and natural resources
Insular shelves are relatively shallow beds of sea bottom bordering the land mass, the outer edge of
which sink considerably until the great ocean are reached.
Section 1. The Philippine is a democratic and republican state. Sovereignty resides in the people and all
government authority emanates from them.
A republican government by representatives chosen by the people at large. The essence therefore, a republican
state is indirect rule. The people established the government to govern them. Its officers from the highest to the
lowest servants of the people and not their masters. They can only exercise powers delegated to them by the
people who remain as the ultimate source of political power and authority.
Section 2. The Philippine renounces war as the instrument of national policy, adopts the generally accepted
principles of international law of the land and adheres to the policy of peace, equality, justice, freedom,
cooperation, and amity with all nations.
Renunciation of war as an instrument of national policy is the first aspect of the declaration. Its accordance with
the principle of United Nations Charter binding all members to retain in the international relations or use of

force against territorial integrity or political independence of any state. The declaration refers only to the
declaration of the Philippines of aggressive war, not in defense of her national honor and integrity.
Section 3. Civil authority is, at all times, supreme over the military. The Armed forces of the Philippines is the
protector of the people and the State. Its goal is to secure the sovereignty of the State and in the integrity of the
national territory.
The idea of the supremacy of the civilian authority, the highest of such authority being the president, over the
military has always been recognized in our jurisdiction by implication from express provision of the 1935
Constitution and by practice.
Section 6. The separation of the State shall be inviolable.
The principle of the separation of the Church and the State being inviolable is implied from the constitutional
prohibitions that no law shall be made respecting an establishment of religion and that no public money shall
be appropriated, applied, paid or employed, directly or indirectly, for use, benefit, or support of any sect, church
domination, sectarian institution or system of religion.
Bill of Rights defined as a declaration and enumeration of a persons rights and privileges, which the
Constitution designed to protect against violations by the government or by an individual or group of
Classes of Rights
1. Natural Right possessed by every citizen conferred upon him by God as a human being.
Ex: right to live, tight to live
2. Constitutional Right rights conferred and protected by the Constitution part of the fundamental law cannot
be modified or taken away by the law making body.
3. Statutory Right it is provided by laws promulgated by the law making body. It can be abolished by the same
Classes of Constitutional Rights
1. Civil Right right which the law enforces to private individual for the purposes of security, happiness and
2. Political Right right to the citizen to participate directly or indirectly in the establishment of administration
of the government.
3. Social and Economic Right it is intended to insure the well-being and economic security of the individual.
Right of the Accused intended to protect persons of any crime. They of law nor shall any person be denied the
equal protection of the law.
Due Process
- Concept of due process of the law which hears before it condemns and proceeds upon inquiry before
rendering judgment. Under constitution, a person may be deprived by the state of his life, liberty, or
property provided due process of law is observed.
Kinds of Due Process of Law
1. Procedural due process of law
2. Substantive due process of law are the (civil) rights intended for the protection of a person accused of
any time. Example: right against self-discrimination, right to have a legal counsel.

3. Section 1. No person shall be deprived of life, liberty or property without due process.
Section 2. The right of the people to be secured in their persons, houses papers and effects against unreasonable
searches and seizures of whatever nature and for any purposes shall be issued except upon probable casue to be
determined personally by the judge after the examination under oath or affirmation of the complaint and the
witness he may produced, and particularly describing the place to be searched and the persons or things to be
Search Warrant -is an order in writing in the name of the people of the Philippines, signed by a judge, directed
to the officer, commanding him to search for a personal property and bring it before the court.
Warrant of Arrest -is an order in writing, issued in the name of the people of the Philippines, signed by the
judge, directed to the police officer, commanding him to arrest a person, that he may be bound to answer for the
offense committed.
Requisites for a Valid Search Warrant of Arrest
1. Probable cause
2. To be determined personally by the judge
3. After examination under oath or affirmation of the complaint and his witness.
4. Particularly describing the place to be searched and the persons or things to be seized.
Rules in the Court of Arrest
1. When the presence of an arresting officer, the person to be arrested has committed, is actually
committing or is about to commit an offense.
2. When an offense has in fact just been committed and he has personal knowledge of facts including that
the person to be arrested has committed it and
3. When the person to be arrested is a prisoner who has escaped from a penal establishment of place where
he is serving final judgment or temporarily confined while his case is pending or has escaped while
being transferred from one confinement to another.
Section 3.
1. Right to privacy of the communication
2. Any evidence obtained in violation of the preceding section shall be inadmissible for any purpose in any
Right to privacy is considered as the right to be left alone. It has also been defined, as the right of a person to be
free from unwarranted interference by the public in matters which the public is not necessarily concerned.
Section 9. Private property shall not be taken for public use without just compensation.
Eminent domain -is power of the state to take private property for public purpose upon payment of just
compensation to its owner.
Just compensation -is the fair mark value of the property at the time of the raking.
Right of the Accused in Criminal Cases
1. The adequate legal assistance
2. To be informed of this right to remain silent
3. Right against the use of torture, violence or any means which violates the free will.
4. To be heard himself and counsel
5. To bail and against the excessive bail
6. To be informed of the nature and cause of the accusation against him
7. To speedy, impartial and public trial
8. To meet the witness face to face
9. Right against self-discrimination

10. Right against double jeopardy

Section 21. No expost facto law or bill shall be enacted.
An expost facto law is one which operating retrospectively an act done before the passage of the law and punish
such an aggravates a crime makes it greater when it was committed, changes the punishment and inflicts greater
punishment and alters the legal rules of evidence and receives less testimony than the law required at the time of
commission of the offenses, in order to convict the offender.
A bill attainder is a legislative act, which inflicts punishment without a judicial trial.
Section 1. The following are the citizens of the Philippines:
1. Those who are citizens of the Philippines at the time of the adoption of this Constitution.
2. Those whose fathers and mothers are citizens of the Philippines
3. Those born before January 17, 1873 of Filipino mothers, who elect Philippine citizenship upon reaching
the age of maturity, and
4. Those who are naturalized in accordance with the law.
Meaning of citizenship
-Citizenship is a term denoting membership of a citizen in political society, which membership implies,
reciprocally, as duty of allegiance on the part of the member and duty of protection on the part of state.
General Ways of Acquiring Citizenship
1. Involuntary method -by birth because of blood relationship or place of birth, and
2. Voluntary method -by naturalization, except in case of collective naturalization of the inhabitants of a
territory which takes place when it is ceded by one to another as a result of the conquest or treaty.
Citizenship by Birth
There are two principles or rules that govern citizenship by birth, namely:
1. Jus Sanguinis -relationship by blood is the basis of the acquisition of citizenship under this rule. The
child follows the citizenship of both parents or one of them. This is predominating principles of the
2. Jus Soli or Jus Loci -place of birth as the basis for acquiring citizenship under this rule.
Ways of Acquiring Citizenship through Naturalization
1. By the judgment of the court -the foreigner who wants to become a Filipino Citizen must first apply for
naturalization with the proper Regional Trial Court. He must have all the qualifications as provided by
law and must comply with all the procedures and conditions prescribed.
2. By direct act of Congress -in this case, our law making body simply enacts an act directly conferring
citizenship on a foreigner.
- Suffrage may be exercise by all citizens of the Philippines not otherwise disqualified by law who
are at least eighteen years of age, and who shall have resided in the Philippines for at least one
year in the place wherein they proposed to vote for at least six months immediately preceding the
election. No literacy, property and other substantive requirement shall be imposed on the
exercise of suffrage.
Meaning of Suffrage
Suffrage is the right and obligation to vote of qualified citizens in the election of certain national and local
officers of the government and in the decision of public questions submitted to the people.

Nature of Suffrage
1. A mere privilege -suffrage is not a natural right of the citizens, but merely privilege given or withheld by
the law making power subject to constitutional limitations.
2. A politician right -in the sense of the right conferred by the constitution, suffrage is classified as a
political right, enabling every citizen to participate in the process of government to assure that it derives
its powers from the consent of governed. The principle is that of one man, one vote.
Scope of Suffrage
1. Election it is by which the people choose their officials for definite and fixed periods and to whom
they entrust, for the time as their representatives, the exercise of power of government.
2. Plebiscite it is the name given to vote the people expressing their choice for or against a purposed law
or enactment submitted to them.
3. Referendum it is the submission of a law or part thereof passed by the national or local legislative
body to the voting citizens of the country for their ratification or rejection.
4. Initiative it is the process whereby people directly proposed and enact laws.
5. Recall it is the method by which a public officer may be removed from office during his tenure or
before the expiration of his term by a vote of the people after registration of a petition signed by a
required percentage qualified voters.
Qualifications of Voters
He must be
1. A citizen (male/female) of the Philippines
2. Not otherwise qualified by law
3. At least 18 years of age; and
4. Have resided in the Philippines for at least 6 months preceding the election
Section 3. The Congress shall have a system for securing the secretary and sanctity of the ballot as well as a
system for absentee voting qualified Filipinos abroad.
The Congress shall also design a procedure for the disabled and illiterate to vote without the assistance of other
persons. Until then, they shall allowed to vote under the existing laws such rules in the Commission on
Elections may promulgate to protect the secrecy of the ballot.
Legislative Power the authority under the Constitution to make laws and to alter laws.
Laws refer to statutes, which are the written enactments of the legislative governing the relations of the people
among themselves and between them and the government and its agencies.
Classification of Powers of Congress
1. General Legislative Power power to enact laws intended as rules of conduct to govern the relations
among individuals and the state
2. Specific Power power which the Constitution expressly directs or authorizes in case two or more
candidates have an equal and highest number of votes, to confirm certain appointments by the President
to promote social justice, to declare the existence of a state war, to impose taxes, to impeach, to act as
constituent assembly
3. Implied Power that which is essential or necessary to the effective exercise the power expressly
granted like the power to conduct inquiry and investigation in aid of investigation, to punish for
contempt, to determine the rules of its proceedings
4. Inherent Power power which is possessed can be exercised by every government because it exists as
an attribute of sovereignty.

The Senate
Composition of Senate it is composed of 24 senators who are elected at large by qualified voters as may be
provided by law.
Term of office 6 years
Qualifications of a Senator:
1. A natural born citizen of the Philippines
2. At least 35 years of age on the date of the election day
3. Able to read and write
4. A registered voter
5. A resident of the Philippines for not less than 2 years immediately proceeding the election day
Maximum term a senator is disqualified to serve for more than 2 consecutive terms but can still run for
reelection after a break or interval
Registered Voter one who has all the qualifications for a voter and none of the disqualifications provided by
law and who has registered himself in the list of voters.
Residence the place where one has his true permanent home and to which whenever absent, he has the
intention of returning
The House of Representatives
Composition and election/selection composed of not more than 250 members popularly known as Congress
elected from legislative or congressional districts and through party-list system
Term of office 3 years
Qualifications of the Representatives
1. A natural born citizen of the Philippines
2. At least 25 years of age on the election day
3. Able to read and write
4. Except for party-list representative, a registered voter
5. A resident thereof, for a period not less than 1 year preceding the election day
Composition/Election/Selection and Classification of Members
1. The Constitution limits to 250 the maximum numbers the House of Representatives may have
2. The House of Representatives shall be elected legislative districts and through party-list system pf
registered national and sectoral parties or organization. The party-list representative shall constitute 20%
of the number of representatives in the Lower House including those under the party-list
3. The members of the House of Representatives may be classified into district, party-list and sectoral
Kinds of Members of Congress
1. Regular Election
2. Special Election
Compensation Php160,000.00 to Php180,000.00 annually. Any increase in their salary effect only after the
expiration of full term of the members approving such increase
Steps in the Passage of the Bill
1. Frist reading
2. Referral to appropriate committee
3. Second reading
4. Debates
5. Printing the distributions
6. Third reading
7. Referral to the House
8. Submission to join bicameral committee
9. Submission to the President


Section 1. The executive power shall be vested in the President of the Philippines
Executive Power defined as the power of the administer
Section 2. No person may be elected as President unless he is natural born citizen of the Philippines
Qualifications of the President and Vice President
1. Natural born citizen of the Philippines
2. Registered voter
3. Able to read and write
4. At least 40 years of age
5. Resident of the Philippines for at least 10 years
Section 3. There shall be Vice President who shall have the same qualifications and term of office and be
elected with and in the same manner as the President
Reasons for Prohibition against RE-election of the President
1. A President seeking a second term is vulnerable to constant political pressure from those whose support
he must preserve and has to devote his time and energy to consolidate this political support.
2. A President who seeks a second term is under terrific handicap in the performance of his function.
3. A President seeking re-election will even use public funds for the purpose even to the extent of making
the government bankrupt.
4. The prohibition also widens the basic leadership
5. The ban will put an end or at least hamper the establishment of political dynasties
6. The six year term will give the President a reasonable time within which to implement his plans and
programs of government.
7. A term, no matter how long, is short for a good President.
Powers of the President
1. Appointing Power
2. Power to revoke any appointments
3. Power to control over all executive departments, etc
4. Military Power
5. Power to grant reprieve, communications and pardons
6. Power to contact guarantee foreign loans
7. Power to enter into treaties or international agreement
8. Budgetary power
9. Power to address the Congress
Section 1. The Judicial Power shall be vested upon the Supreme Court and in such lower courts as may be
established by law.
Meaning of Judicial Power is the power to apply to contests and disputes concerning legally recognized rights
or duties between the private person or between individual litigants in case properly brought before the judicial
Scope of Judicial Power
1. Adjucatory power it includes the duties:
A. To settle actual controversies involving rights which are legally demandable and enforceable
B. To determine whether there has been a grave abused of discretion amounting to lack or recess
jurisdiction on the part of any branch or instrumentality of the government.

2. Power of Judicial Review

A. To pass upon the validity or constitutionality of the laws of the state and acts upon the other
departments of the government
B. To interpret them
C. To render binding judgement
D. Incidental Powers it likewise includes the incidental powers necessary to the effective
discharge of the judicial functions.
Section 4. The SUPREME COURT shall composed of the Chief Justice and 14 Associate Justices. It may sit en
banc or in its discretion, in divisions of three, five, seven members. Any vacancy shall be filled within 90 days
from the occurrence thereof.
Qualifications for Members of the Supreme Court and Any Lower Collegiate Court
1. He must be a natural born citizen of the Philippines (naturalized citizen may not be appointed)
2. He must be at least 40 years of age
3. He must have, for 15 years, been a judge of a lower court or engaged in the practice of law in the
4. He must be a person of proven competence, integrity, probity, and independence
Independent Constitutional Bodies
The Three Constitutional Commissions are:
1. Commission on Civil Service
2. Commission on Audit
3. Commission on Election
Common features:
1. They are multi-headed bodies
2. They are recognized as independent by the Constitution.
3. Their powers and functions are defined in the Constitution.
4. The Commissioners are required to be natural born citizens of the Philippines.
5. Their term of office is staggered with two years interval
6. The Commissioner appointed is intelligible for appointment for a period beyond the maximum tenure of
7 years.
7. Appointment of any vacancy is only for the unexpired portion of the term of the predecessor.
8. The commissioners cannot be appointed or designated in the temporary or acting predecessor.
9. The commissioners are removable only by impeachment.
The Civil Service Commission
It is composed of a Chairman and 2 Commissioners. It is envisioned to enhance its independence on the theory
that will be more resistant to political pressure or influence than a body headed by a single individual. Their
terms of office are 7 years only without reappointment.
Qualifications of Members
1. They must be natural born citizen of the Philippines
2. They must be at least 35 years of age at the time of appointment
3. They must be persons with proven capacity for public administration
4. They must not have been candidates for any elective positions in the elections immediately preceding
their appointment.

The term civil service means that professionalized body of men or women who have made the government
service of a lifetime career. The scope of this are every branch, subdivisions and instrumentality of the
government including every government-owned or controlled corporation with original chapter
Composition of Commission on Election
It is composed of a Chairman and 6 Commissioners. The 1973 Constitution increased in the membership in the
membership from three in the 1973 Charter to nine on the theory that it would make it more difficult for the
Commission to become the captive of any group or any person who might be interested in the commission
deciding or taking action one way or another.
Qualification of the Members
1. They must be natural born citizens of the Philippines
2. They must be at least 35 years of age at the time of the appointment
3. They must be at least holders of college degree
4. They must not have been candidates for any elective position immediately preceding elections
The Commission on Audit
Composition on Commission on Audit
It is composed of a Chairman and 2 Commissioners. It is designed to make it more resistant to pressures from
the legislative and executive branches and other offices of the government.
Qualification of the Members
1. They must be natural born citizens of the Philippines
2. They must be at least 35 years of age at the time of election
3. They must be certified public accountants with no less than 10 years of experience
4. They must not have been candidates for any elective position in the elections preceding heir
General Provisions
Section 1. The territorial an political subdivisions of the Republic of the Philippines are the provinces, cities,
municipalities, and barangays. There shall be autonomous regions in Mindanao and the Cordilleras as
hereinafter provided.
Local Government
Local government refers to a political subdivision of a nation or state, is constituted by law and has substantial
control of local affairs which officials elected or otherwise locally selected.
Local Government Units
1. Province
2. City
3. Municipality
4. Barangay
5. Autonomous Region
These are also called the Political Subdivisions of the Country
Powers of Local Government
The power of the local government are:
1. To have continuous succession in its corporate name
2. To sue and be sued
3. To use corporate seal

4. To acquire and convey real or personal properties

5. To enter into a contract, and
6. To exercise such other powers as granted to corporations subject to limitations provided by laws.
ARTICLE XI Accountability of the Public Officers
Section 1. Public officer is a public trust.
Public Office is defined as the right, authority, and duty created and conferred by law in a given period either
fixed by law or enduring at the pleasure of the supporting power
Public Officer is the individual invested with some portion of the sovereign functions of the government of
the benefit of the public
Nature of Public Office
1. It is a public trust because it renders service to the public
2. It is not a property for the holder of the office may not claim invested right.
3. It is not a contract because one has no right to sue the government for the recovery of damages.
The principle of the public accountability is emphasized in this section. All public officers and servants must
consider their positions as sacred trusts and not as a means for achieving of power and wealth.
Section 2. Nature of Impeachment
Impeachment has been defined as a method of national inquest into the conduct of public men. It aims to protect
from official delinquencies or malfeasance.
Officials Removable by Impeachment
1. The President and Vice President
2. Members of the Supreme Court
3. Members of the Constitutional Commissions
4. The Ombudsman
Grounds for Imreachment
1. Culpable violation of the constitution
2. Treason. Example: a Filipino imposes war in the Philippines
3. Bribery (either direct or indirect)
4. Graft and Corruption
5. Betrayal of Public Trust new ground for Impeachment
Section 3. Initiating and Trial for Impeachment
The House of Representatives has the SOLE POWER TO INITIATE all cases of impeachment. The Senate has
the SOLE POWER TO TRY all the cases of Impeachment.
Procedure in Impeachment cases
1. Filing a verified complaint in the House of Representatives
2. Trial by the Senate
The members are required to be under oath or affirmation
3. Requirement for conviction
To convict an officer, at least 2/3 of all members of the Senate agreeing are necessary.
The only penalty to impose in an officer is limited to removal from the office and disqualification to hold any
office under the Republic of the Philippines. If a criminal offense has been committed, the party is still liable to
prosecution, trial, and punishment.
The power of the President to grant reprieves, commutations, and pardons does not extend to cases of

Section 4. Anti-graft as Sandiganbayan

The Sandiganbayan was a special court created by the Batasang Pambansa under the 1973 Constitution.
Section 5. Office of the Ombudsman to be known as Tanodbayan.
Tanodbayan is a coined term in Filipino, which literally means guardians of the nation. It is categorized like
the three Constitutional Commissions as independent. It is known as the office of the Special Prosecutor.
Section 8. Qualification of Ombudsman Deputies
They must be:
1. The natural born citizen of the Philippines
2. At least 40 years of age at the time of the appointment
3. Person with recognized probity and independence
4. Members of the Philippine Bar
5. Not have been a candidate for any elective office in the preceding election
Lands of the public domain are classified into agricultural, forest, or timber, mineral lands, and national parks.
Agricultural lands of the public domain may be further classified the law according to the use to which they
may be devoted. Alienable lands of the public domain shall be limited to agricultural lands. Private corporations
may not hold such alienable lands of the public domain except by lease, for period not exceeding 25 years,
renewable for not more than 25 years, and not exceeding 1000 hectares area. Citizens of the Philippines may
lease not more than 500 hectares and acquire not more than 12 hectares thereof by purchase, homestead or
The Congress shall give highest priority to the enactment of measures that protect and enhance the right of all
people to human dignity, reduce social, economic and political inequalities and remove cultural inequalities by
equitable diffusing wealth and political power of the common good.
To this end, state shall regulate the acquisition, ownership, use, and disposition of property and its increments.
The promotion of social justice shall include the commitment to create economic opportunities based on
freedom of initiative and self-reliance.
The state shall afford full protection to labor, local overseas, organized and unorganized, and promote full
employment opportunities for all.
It shall guarantee the rights of all workers to self-organization, collective bargaining and negotiations, and
peaceful concerted activities, including the right to strike in accordance with the law. They shall be entitled to
security of tenure, humane conditions of work, and a living wage. They shall also participate in policy and
decision-making processes affecting their rights and benefits ad may be provided by law.
Human Rights
There is hereby created an independent office called the Commission of Human Rights. The Commission shall
be composed of Chairman and 4 members who must be natural-born citizens of the Philippines and a majority
of whom shall be Members of the Bar. The term of office and other qualifications and disabilities of the
Members of the Commission is constituted, the existing Presidential Committee on Human Rights shall
continue to exercise its present functions and power.
All educational institutions shall include the study of the Constitution as part of the curricula. They shall
inculcate patriotism and nationalism, foster love humanity, respect for human rights, appreciation of the role of
national heroes in the historical development of the country, teach the rights and duties of citizenship,

strengthen ethical and spiritual values, develop moral character and personal discipline, encourage critical and
creative thinking, broaden scientific and technological knowledge, and promote vocational efficiency.
The State recognizes the Filipino family as the foundation of the nation. Accordingly, it shall strengthen its
solidarity and actively promote its total development.
Requisites of a Valid Marriage
Legal capacity of the contracting parties
Consent freely given
Authority of the solemnizing officer
Marriage License
Public ceremony
Marriage, as an inviolable social institution, is the foundation of the family and shall be protected by the State.