analisis de tranque de relave Jeyapalan 1981

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analisis de tranque de relave Jeyapalan 1981

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OF MINE TAILINGS DAMS

By Jey K. Jeyapalan, 1 J. Michael Duncan, 2 Members, ASCE,

and H. Bolton Seed, 2 F. ASCE

ABSTRACT: A characteristic common to most tailings dam failures is that the

mine tailings tend to liquefy and flow over substantial distances, with potential

for extensive damage to property and life. In order to be able to assess the

potential for damage in case of such failure, it is necessary to be able to predict

the characteristics of the flow and the possible extent of flood movement. This

paper presents analytical procedures for making such evaluations. The behavior

of tailings materials during flow is represented by a Bingham plastic rheological

model in these analysis procedures. It is apparent from the analyses that the

flow of phosphate tailings would be expected to be turbulent but flows for

other types of tailings would be expected to be laminar. The procedures described are applicable for flow of tailings on horizontal and sloping planes and

in prismatic valleys. The analyses can be performed using dimensionless charts

in the case of flow on planes, and a computer program in the case of flow in

prismatic valleys.

INTRODUCTION

which have received no significant engineering attention are scattered

throughout the United States and other parts of the world. Because of

the poor quality of construction and maintenance, many of these dams

have failed, and the existence of these potentially hazardous impoundments is of considerable concern to the public and to the mining industries. A characteristic common to most tailings dam failures is that

the mine tailings tend to liquefy and flow over substantial distances,

with the potential for extensive damage to property and life. Failures of

El Cobre Dam, Chile (1965), at Aberfan, Wales (1966), and the Mochikoshi Dam, Japan (1978) are examples of such catastrophic dam incidents. In these four incidents, 350 lives were lost, and the loss of property was approx $150 million.

In order to be able to assess the potential for damage should a failure

occur, it is necessary to predict the characteristics of the flow and the

possible extent of flood movement. Reporting suitable procedures for

'Asst. Prof, of Civ. Engrg., Texas A&M Univ., College Station, Tex.

2

Prof. of Civ. Engrg., Univ. of Calif., Berkeley, Calif.

Note.Discussion open until July 1, 1983. Separate discussions should be submitted for the individual papers in this symposium. To extend the closing date

one month, a written request must be filed with the ASCE Manager of Technical

and Professional Publications. The manuscript for this paper was submitted for

review and possible publication on September 1, 1981. This paper is part of the

Journal of Geotechnical Engineering, Vol. 109, No. 2, February, 1983. ASCE,

ISSN 0733-9410/83/0002-0150/$01.00. Proc. No. 17714.

150

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that the possibility of a flow failure occurring at a tailings dam is a direct

function of the type of construction method used at the mining operation. It is well-recognized by the geotechnical engineers that the upstream method of construction results in the weakest tailing impoundment structure. The analysis procedures reviewed in the following

sections of this paper are applicable once an overall instability of the

dam develops.

There are a number of different approaches to preparing inundation

maps for dams that store water. The flow resulting from the breach of

such a dam is turbulent. Therefore, boundary resistance must be included in the analyses using the empirical Manning's relationship. There

are computer programs commercially available for determining inundation areas, based on this approach, e.g., Gradually Varied Flow Profile

Program (GVFP) (3) and Fread (2). Unfortunately, these analysis techniques cannot be used for analyses of flow failure of most mine tailings

because the nature of the flow of liquified tailings is typically laminar,

as will be studied.

Problems of debris and sediment flows, as recognized by engineers

and geologists, have some similarities with the flow of mine tailings.

Morgenstern (13) proposed a visco-frictional steady state uniform flow

model for the flow of submarine sediments. However, because the flow

profile in the case of liquefied tailings dams changes rather rapidly during the initial stages of the flow, Morgenstern's work cannot be used

effectively for tailings flow analyses. Johnson (10) and later Johnson and

Hampton (11) reported studies of subaerial and subaqueous debris flows

in various prismatic channel geometries. However, because their results

apply only to uniform steady state conditions, they are not useful for

studying tailings dam failures in which the initial unsteady nature of the

flow and the final freezing aspects of the flow are important.

Hutchinson and Bhandari (8) studied the causes of mudflows and concluded that the build-up of high pore water pressure is the primary

mechanism of such mudslides. No detailed analyses of the flow characteristics of mudflows are reported in their work. Okuda, et al. (15,

16,17) carried out extensive field instrumentation of debris flows in motion on the eastern slopes of Mount Yake in the North Japan Alps. They

used an automatic measurement system to record flow velocities, dynamic impact forces, and discharge magnitudes. Most of the debris

flows they studied ranged from boulder to clay sizes, which is a much

wider range of grain-size distribution than that for mine tailings. Therefore, the results cannot be directly applied to the behavior of mine

tailings.

Bruckl and Scheidegger (1) applied Nye's (14) approach of treating

mudflows as a problem in plasticity. They characterized the mud as a

Mohr-Coulomb material, and solved the flow of mud on a constant slope

using Prandtl's solution of the plastostatic equations (Hill, (7)). Inertial

and viscous effects were not included in their study; for this reason, the

approach of using plasticity solutions cannot be applied to the case of

flow of liquefied tailings. Scheidegger (19) and later Korner (12) also considered the problems of predicting the potential reach and velocity of

catastrophic landslides. Most of their work treated the debris as a sliding

151

solid mass, and, therefore, the results cannot be applied to the flow of

saturated liquefied tailings.

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for analysis of the flow of mine tailings. It is known that the characteristics of flow in an open channel vary with the velocity of flow. When

the velocity is below a certain critical value, the flow remains laminar,

and when the velocity is above the critical value, the flow is found to

become turbulent. The change from laminar to turbulent flow results in

a large increase in the flow resistance and also in a change in the manner

in which friction loss varies with mean velocity. A Reynolds number of

the order of 2,000 is accepted as the critical value, above which the flow

becomes turbulent in the case of Newtonian fluids.

The flow behavior of liquefied mine tailings is better approximated by

that of a Bingham Plastic Fluid, which has a yield stress Ty and a plastic

viscosity T)P, as shown in Fig. 1. The Reynolds number for this type of

material can be expressed by

R-2^

(i)

= hydraulic radius; g = acceleration due to gravity, and t\a = apparent

viscosity. Because the apparent viscosity is a function of the shearing

rate as shown in Fig. 2, it is expressed by the relationship

T\a=\

+ 1* . . .

7

(2)

published experimental data and proposed the chart shown in Fig. 3 for

determining the transition conditions for Bingham plastic fluids. In this

152

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chart, the critical Reynold's number, RcriHcai, for transition from turbulent

to laminar flow is expressed in terms of the Hedstrom number where

H = the Hedstrom number = - JL

8$

4 1 .

3 3 '

(3)

(4)

(5)

oundary

^boundary

numbers R and H are computed; if these values define a point below

the critical line given in Fig. 3, the flow is laminar.

Typical ranges of various parameters, such as flow velocities, depths

of flow, total unit weights, yield strengths, and plastic viscosities for

liquefied mine tailings are given in Table 1. The probable values for

maximum and minimum values of the dimensionless parameters, Reynolds number, and Hedstrom number, are also listed in Table 1. The

resulting values for phosphate tailings and other types of tailings are

plotted on Fig. 3.

It is apparent from this plot that the flow of phosphate tailings would

153

106

ESTIMATED RANGE FOR^

PHOSPHATE TAILINGS

105

TURBULENT

10"

= 10 3

9

LAMINAR

OTHER LIQUEFIED TAILINGS

ioi

10 2

10 3

1011

HEDSTROM NUMBER

10 5

10 6

be expected to be laminar. Flow characteristics differ considerably for

laminar flow and turbulent flow. In laminar flow, the boundary layer

is deep, the frictional force is independent of the boundary characteristics, and is proportional to the flow velocity. In turbulent flow, the

boundary layer is shallow, the frictional force is dependent on the

boundary roughness, and increases with the square of the velocity.

Thus, the analysis procedure for the flow characteristics in the laminar

regime (most tailings) will be different from those applicable for turbulent flow (phosphate tailings).

ANALYSES FOR LAMINAR FLOW (TAILINGS OTHER THAN PHOSPHATE)

Bingham plastic fluid characteristics, it is useful to express the fluid resistance to viscous forces in the form of a total boundary shear stress,

which opposes the flow. This boundary resistance term can be computed using a dimensionless friction factor, /, expressed as follows:

r

;

'boundary

"

7^

(6)

"

average flow velocity. Hedstrom (5) proposed the follow-

in which U =

154

Probable

Probable

minimum value maximum value

(2)

(3)

(4)

(D

Phosphate tailings total unit weight, in pounds

80

100

per cubic ft

yield strength, in pounds

4.0 X 10~4

4.0 x 10~2

per square foot

plastic viscosity, in pounds

2.0 x KT4

2.0 x 10~2

per second per square foot

flow depth, in feet

2

5

flow velocity, in feet per

5

50

second

Reynolds number

4.0 x 104

2.0 x 105

3

Hedstrom number

8.0 x 10

1.0 x 105

Other tailings

total unit weight, in pounds

110

90

per cubic foot

yield strength, in pounds

20

150

per square foot

plastic viscosity, in pounds

2

100

per second per square foot

flow depth, in feet

5

50

flow velocity, in feet per

5

20

second

Reynolds number

10

300

Hedstrom number

100

350

Type of tailings

Parameter

fluids:

16 8H_16H^ I

~ R + 3R 2 3R8 ' f

(7)

This highly nonlinear implicit relationship for the frictional factor can

be represented in the form of a chart as shown in Fig. 4. The friction

factors increase rapidly with increasing values of the Hedstrom number

and with decreasing values of the Reynolds number. When the yield

strength of the fluid is zero, H is also zero, and the chart gives friction

factors that apply to Newtonian fluids expressed by the relation

1

(8)

Flow on Planar Surfaces.For purposes of analyzing the configuration of a flow slide released from a tailings deposit, the deposit may be

represented schematically as a body of fluid material with a vertical face

as shown in Fig. 5(a). The configuration at some time t after the initiation

of flow will have the general form shown in Fig. 5(b).

The one-dimensional momentum conservation equation for flow of

such a viscous fluid in a wide rectangular sloping channel is

155

vA3 V l

10* -

V5

^ X \ \

\6

NEWTONIAN-'

FLUID

1

2

3

1

5

\7

0,1

1.0

He = 1 0 " 1

He = 10

He - 1 0 1

He = 1 0 2

He = 1 0 3

He = lO* 1

\ \

\

X\

10"'

He - 0 ,

10

REYNOLDS NUMBER

100

1000

du*

du*

dc*

+ u*- + 2c* + 5g(Sf-s

=0

0)

W

dt*

dx*

dx*

"'

and the mass conservation equation is

. du*

dc*

dc*

c* - + 2 + 2u* = 0

dx*

dt*

dx*

(9)

(10)

(a)

(b)

| TAILINGS DEPOSIT

H 0 (LIQUEFIED WITH

BINGHAM FLOW

CHARACTERISTICS)

Tfism

~w

H,

156

are given in Henderson (6). The terms s^and s0 are referred to as friction

slope and bed slope, in which

s = sin p

(lid)

and

/=^

(H6)

angle. The Chezy coefficient is related to the friction factor by the

relation

? =J

(12)

and for laminar flow of Newtonian fluids of viscosity i\, the friction factor is given by

,

/ =

I6

R

where

(13

u*hy

R=

>

(14)

ng

2TIH*

S

(15)

I=W

redefining the viscosity as an equivalent linear viscosity i\a given by

% = Up + ^

(16)

with maximum velocity, u*, and flow depth, h*, is given by

2u*

"

'

( 1 7

>

Using Eqs. 16 and 17, the friction slope in Eq. 15 can be written for

Bingham fluids as

<18>

* - & + $

equations can be written using s0 and s^ from Eqs. llfl and 18, as

du*

du*

dc* 2-n.M*? T?

- + u* + 2c* - + -2- 2 + -* - 6gsin Hp = 0

at*

dx*

dx*

yh*

yh*

K(19)

du*

dc*

dC*

and c*- + 2 + 2u* - = 0

dx*

dt*

dx*

v(20)

'

'

157

X*

x=~

(21a)

h*

h =~

(21b)

"a

c*

VgHo

u*

u = 7=

(21d)

VgH0

(21e)

t = r\l&

'JL

R=2

^l

and s

{2l8)

=5:

be written in dimensionless form:

du

du dc

u S

+ u + 2c + R-j4 + ^2- s i n B = 0

(22)

Sx

dx

dx

c c

and

du

dc

dc

c + 2 + 2w = 0

dx

dt

dx

(23)

These equations can be solved (Appendix I) to determine the following general solutions for the flow velocity u and the height of the fluid

material in terms of the horizontal distance x, the time t, and the dimensionless resistance parameters R and S as follows:

2 ,

2 sin p t

s

- y(1 + m) +

3

'

3

+

30Rt

22(2-m) 3

/lOsinpf

V 15

1

and c(x,t,R) = - ((2 - mm)

3

'

+

21Rt

22(2 - m)3

in which

(7 sin p t

\ 15

27St

7(2 -mf

3St

7

10RA/2

198/V3

216(1 + m) Rt

~

11(2 - m)4

m'

3J

3/2

(24(?)

+ ^ /n

4

~~30

lb" + 11(2 - m)4

3St

10

7RA/2 m\ 3/2

198j\3 ~ 3"/

m =-

(24&)

(24c)

158

the relation

h(x,t) = c2(x,t,R)

(25)

and the flow velocity at this section is given by Eq. 24A. These perturbed

solutions give approximate values of the flow velocity and depth at all

sections of the disturbed free mass as functions of time, provided the

parameter, R, is sufficiently small.

After the break of the dam, for later instance of time, tlt t2, etc., the

flow depth is increased by the presence of viscous boundary resistance;

consequently, the flow velocity is decreased, as shown in Fig. 6. In fact,

because of the presence of the frictional terms in the Eq. 24a, the velocity

indicates an apparent negative value near m = 2. This physically un-

-1

uCrn.t)

"11

s/Z-^ -

"T2

"T3

"TC

-1

in

159

t|

t2

13

tc

1|

<!

'3

tc

I

VARIATION OF TIP DISPLACEMENT WITH TINE

acceptable result is due to the incompleteness of the perturbation procedure used in deriving the solutions for Eqs. 22 and 23. This could be

avoided by introducing another boundary layer in the coordinate direction m. This rather difficult procedure was not attempted; instead, it was

decided to adopt the procedure described later.

In the tip region, the viscous forces and the pressure forces are of the

same order of magnitude. Therefore, the velocity of flow does not

change appreciably in this region. Thus, the maximum value of the velocity function is a good representation of the tip velocity, as shown in

Fig. 7. These maximum velocities at different instants of time after the

break of the dam have been plotted against time, as shown in Fig. 8.

The corresponding tip displacement history can be evaluated using a

numerical integration procedure, as indicated in Fig. 8. The results of

this type of analysis are applicable to the early stages of flow. At some

time, tc, when the location of the section which has the maximum flow

velocity has moved backward to the dam axis, the results become

questionable.

The velocities and displacements of the tip were calculated using the

procedure outlined in the previous section, until the location of maximum velocity reached the dam axis. The time when this occurs is denoted as tc.

Determination of Surface Profile of Tailings Flow.The procedure

for determining the free surface profile at any time after the release of

a fluid tailings deposit is shown in Fig. 9. The disturbed portion of the

fluidized material is subdivided into two zones I and II. Zone II occupies

the region from the position of maximum flow velocity to the zone of

quiet, whereas zone I represents the tip region, in which the velocity

is assumed to be constant. The free surface profile in zone II is given

by

fc(x,0 = c2(x,t,R)-H0

(26)

in which c(x,t,R) was given in Eq. 24b. In zone I, the viscous resistance

160

ZONE II

' USING EXPRESSION (25)

ZONE I

USING EXPRESSION (28)

Mi

r"

"""N

X*

* * |

u(m,t)

TSt-

tj

and the pressure gradient are approximately equal. The equation governing the depth of flow is

dff

dx*'

(27)

yh*2

and on integration

(28)

h*(x) = h*r

of flow at this section; and x* = the displacement of the tip as shown

in Fig. 9.

These equations are reasonable only until the location of the maximum

velocity of flow reaches the axis of the dam, at time tc, as noted previously. After tc, a simple pseudo-steady state model was used for evaluating the tip velocity. Using the free surface profile shown in Fig. 10,

at time tc, the tip velocity is calculated using the pressure gradient yH0/

L and an average depth of flow, ha, of the disturbed material, using the

following equation:

yh2aH0

(29)

161

2,0

F

__

1\\

R = S = 0,001

R = S = 0,002

R = S = 0,005

xv

l\\\

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nit)

"o

R = S = 0,010

-\\\^GL

KS:

2 50

100

200

300

t- DIMENSIONLESS TIME

Using this velocity over a time interval At, a new tip displacement and

the resulting flow profile were calculated. The updated flow profile was

then used in calculating the tip velocity for the subsequent time interval.

This procedure was repeated until the calculated tip velocity was found

to be zero. At this stage, the flow was considered "frozen."

Using this procedure, a number of calculations were performed,

changing the values of R and S over the expected range of interest. Fig.

11 shows some variations of tip velocity and displacement with these

dimensionless resistance parameters and with dimensionless time t for

the case when R = S.

These results can also be plotted as isolines of inundation distance,

Xf, and freezing time, tf, for various combinations of R and S, as shown

in Figs. 12 and 13. By knowing the parameters, H0, -i\p, tyl and -y for a

given tailings impoundment, the dimensionless parameters R and S can

be calculated as shown by Eqs. 21. For these values of R and S, the

dimensionless inundation distance and the freezing time can be determined from the charts in Figs. 12 and 13. The values of inundation distance, freezing time, and mean velocity can then be readily obtained

using the relations

xf = xfxH0

(30)

(31)

162

0.002

FIG.

0,004

0,006 ' 0,008

R - VISCOUS PARAMETER

0.010

0,010

0,008

0,006

0,0014

0,002

0,002

FIG.

0,001

0,006

R - VISCOUS PARAMETER

0,008

0,010

163

(32)

*;

'/' t,7 'are dimensionless

results obtained from the charts.

An Example Problem.The potential use of the above dimensionless

prediction charts will be illustrated by a sample application. A tailings

impoundment will be analyzed with the following: H0 = 50 ft (15.25 m);

7 = 100 lb/cu ft (1,601 kg/m 3 ); f]p = 20 lb sec/sq ft (557.6 Pa s); and Ty

= 20 lb/sq ft (87.64 kg/m 2 ). The dimensionless resistance parameters R

and S are calculated as follows:

2X 20

100 x 50

"-

and

S=

20

yH0

100 x 50

= 0.0064,

= 0.0040

(33)

Using R = 0.0064 and S = 0.0040, the dimensionless inundation distance, Xf, and freezing time, tf, can be obtained as shown in Figs. 12

and 13; these are xf = 27 and t, = 75. Dimensional results can be obtained by using Eqs. 30-32 as follows: xf = 27 x 50 = 1,350 ft (47.25 m);

tf = 75 x V50/32.2 = 93 sec; and u*m = 1,350/93 = 15 fps (4.575 m/s).

Similar dimensionless charts have also been prepared for flow of liquefied mine tailings on a sloping bed. A sloping bed gives rise to extra

driving force in the momentum equation. Charts for bed slopes (3 = 2,

4, 6, 8, 10 and 12 are presented in Jeyapalan (9).

Flow Down Prismatic Valleys.The previous analyses considered

only the case of one-dimensional flows across the planes or wide valleys.

In many instances, liquefied tailings have flowed down narrow valleys

which would not be represented accurately as wide channels, and it is

desirable to be able to analyze flows of this type. In order to extend the

solutions to problems of this nature, the three types of prismatic crosssections shown in Fig. 14 were considered. Hydraulic depth, hH, and

hydraulic radius, hR, were used instead of actual depth, h, in order to

include the effects of the side boundaries. The geometrical parameters

for the various valley cross sections are listed in Table 2. The depth parameters hH and hR are related to the actual depth, h, by the relations

RECTANGLE

TRIANGLE

164

(D

Flow Area,

A

(2)

Top Width,

B

(3)

Wetted

perimeter, P

(4)

Hydraulic

depth, hH

(5)

Hydraulic

radius, hR

(6)

Wide rectangle

Deep rectangle

Triangle

Parabola

h

Bh

Snh1

2Bh/3

1

B

2sHh

B

1

B + 2h

2h(l + sj,)1'2

Pi

h

h

ft/2

2/i/3

h

Bh/(B + 2/i)

sHh/2(l + s2,)"2

Section

= 4h/B.

tin

i

- p = a2

h

,

and

hH .

- 2 = 9 + 9jC

hR

(34)

The geometrical parameters given in Table 2 were used to calculate

the flow parameters a, 90, and Bv which are listed in Table 3 for the four

valley sections considered.

The governing equations and the solution procedures are examined

in Appendix II. Analyses of the flow of liquefied tailings in prismatic

valleys can be accomplished using a computer program (TFLOW) which

is based on the solutions in Appendix II.

ANALYSES OF TURBULENT FLOWS (PHOSPHATE TAILINGS)

the Hanks and Pratt criterion described in a previous section of this paper. If the flow will be turbulent, as is likely with fluid tailings materials,

such as phosphate tailings, existing flood routing computer programs

(GVFP (3) and FREAD (2)) can be used for the analyses. These programs

for turbulent flow analysis incorporate resistance to flow through the

use of the empirical Manning's n relationship rather than friction factors

or fluid viscosity. Values of Manning's n have been determined by laboratory tests using water, and it is not clear whether these same values

are applicable when the fluid involved in the turbulent flow is not water.

At the present time, it appears that the best approach may be to use

slightly higher values for Manning's n than those applicable for water,

for purposes of analyzing flows of somewhat more viscous fluids, such

as phosphate tailings.

TABLE 3.Flow Parameters for Various Valley Sections

Section

(D

a

(2)

6o

(3)

6i

(4)

Wide rectangle

Deep rectangle

Triangle

Parabola

1.00

1.00

0.71

0.82

1.00

1.00

(1 + 1/s*,)1'2

1.00

0.00

HJB

0.00

K*

a

K = {l/2[p - In (<? + p)/q] - \}/a2m, in which pm = (1 + cf)m; q = 2 HJB;

and Bh = width of channel at half the height of dam.

165

CONCLUSIONS

the failure of these structures has considerable potential for damage to

life and property in many cases. The behavior of tailings materials during flow can be represented with reasonable accuracy by the Bingham

plastic rheological model. The currently available computer programs

(GVFP (3) and FREAD (2)) can be used without modification for analyses

of potential inundation zones likely to result from turbulent flows of

fluid tailings, such as phosphate tailings and the water and coal waste

which flowed at Buffalo Creek.

The analysis procedures described in the preceding pages can be used

for analyses of flow failures in more highly viscous tailings which

undergo laminar flow. These procedures are applicable for flow of tailings on horizontal and sloping planes and in prismatic valleys. The analyses can be performed using dimensionless charts in the case of flow

on planes, and by means of a computer program (TFLOW) in the case

of flow in prismatic valleys.

While this paper presents only the analytical procedure for determining the configuration of tailings flows, flow velocities, and flow displacements it may be noted that the ability of the analyses to provide useful

results has been confirmed by means of flume experiments in the laboratory and by using the procedure to evaluate the extent of flow in

several cases of actual flow slides from tailings deposits. A description

of these checks on the usefulness of the analysis procedure will be the

subject of a separate paper.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

of the U.S. Bureau of Mines. The writers gratefully acknowledge the

technical assistance of Roy Soderberg and Dan Kealy. The senior author

had several fruitful, much appreciated conversations with Professor J.

L. Hammack, Jr., Dr. Ian M. Smith, Dr. Ricardo Dobry, and Dr. Gonzalo

Castro. Ms. Nancy Hoes typed the manuscript and Mrs. Cindy Adams

drafted the figures.

APPENDIX I.PERTURBATION SOLUTIONS FOR THE FLOW OF LIQUEFIED

TAILINGS FROM BREACHED DAMS ON PLANAR SURFACES

in the form

u(x,t,R) = u0 + Ri + R2u2 +

(35)

(36)

Using Eqs. 35 and 36 in Eqs. 22 and 23 gives by equating order R" terms

dU0

dUa

dCn

-? + u0-2 + 2c0-? = 0

St

and c

dx

dU0

(37)

dX

+2

dcn

+ 2M

dCn

^=0

<38>

166

The solutions of Eqs. 37 and 38 are the inviscid Ritter (18) solutions given

by

U = 1+

l{ l)

Co= 2

i( -f)

(39)

(40)

Using Eqs. 35, 36, 39, and 40 in Eqs. 22 and 23 gives by equating order

R1 terms

a "i

J,

du

A 3Ci

3 .

3 + - ! + 2 1 + - - - c , + 2 2 - - - - - sin p

dt t

\

t) dx t

\

tj dx R

162^1 + -)

\

t

3S

, 2

/

x\ du,

dc,

and - C l + 2 - - + 6

t

\

t) dx

dt

2u,

(

x\ 3c,

-+4 1+- =0

t

\

t) dx

(42)

With a transformation

m=

*-

(43)

u^(x,t) = U(m,t)

(44)

cfat) = C(m,t)

(45)

aiT

U (2-m)dU

3 + 2- +

dt

t

t

dm

+ 162(1 + m)

2C

(2-m)8C

+2

t

t

m

3 .

sin p

R

3S_

"I

(2-m)J2 ++ ,

R(2-mf,2 = 0

()

2C (2 - m) SIT , aC

(2 - m) dC

and + - + 6 + 2f

t

dm

dt

t

dm

17 n

2- =0

t

(47)

U(m,t) = P(m) -t

(48)

C(m,t) = Q(m) -t

(49)

(2-

dP

dQ

3

162(1 + m)

) - + 2 ( 2 - O T ) ^ + 5P-2Q--smp +

^ - ^

167

3S

+ ~

V2 = 0

R(2 - mf

(50)

and

(2 - m) + 2(2 - m) - ^ - 2P + 8Q = 0

dm

dm

with boundary conditions

(51)

P(-l) = 0

(52)

and

Q ( - l ) = - ^

.(53)

These ordinary differential equations can be solved for P(m) and Q(m)

with the specified boundary conditions; the solutions are

2 sin (3

~~3R

27S

216(1 + m)

2

7R(2 - m) ~ 11(2 - m)4

10 sin p 3S

10\/2

m\

1

+

15R

7R 198/\3 3 /

- s i n p _ 3S_ 27(1 + m)

3QR

WR + 11(2 - mf

30

22(2 - mf

(54fl)

21

22(2 - m)3

^_ji+_LV?_r

15R

10R

198/\3

(54 & )

3/

TAILINGS FROM BREACHED DAMS IN PRISMATIC VALLEYS

of a viscous fluid in a prismatic rectangular, triangular, or parabolic

channel is

du*

du* 2c* dc*

- + *- + -^-+ g(sf - s0) = 0

at*

Bx* a2 dx* 5 W

'

, x

(55)

dA*

du*

8A*

- + A* + u*

=0

dt*

dx*

dx*

(56)

'

2 = f

(57)

_ x*

H

_h*

H0'

_. c*

C

VgH^'

168

M*

2i\v

/to

du

du

and

2c dc

dC

Ru

dU

dC

2 + a2c + 2w = 0

dt

dx

dx

v(60)

;

in the form

u(x,t,R) = u0 + Rut + R2u2 +

(61)

c(x,t,R) = c0 + Rci + R c2 +

(62)

u0 = 2pi +

(63)

c0 = flU - Pi^J

(64)

in which

P,

- ,

_2_

^

a =

(65)

/ 2 i

(66)

( a + 2)

'

u(x,t,R)

(67)

(68)

in which

and

am)

.

, . ,

in which

P(m) = CA-)

- I

Pl

- fil^

....

a2-Pi _ a(a2 + 6) p 2

+ ^8 - T 16(a

r d2 r+ r2)

= D,

cX'

2a)

pi =

- +

j

+

2

eg

sin p

s e0

s e1

eD u0

a e2

PiRi

R5^Pi

PiRfl 3 c 0

PiCofl9

P 2 fl 7 9<^

2 9M0

Pi^a7

2 9 0 e t a |

2

P a 5 fl 7 c^

Rq

%\u0

2

PiC fl5

9a

2

P %sC0fl

169

(7)

(71)

(69)

(73)

= -z 7

D

1

1

(3a2 + 2)

I ?<?1

i + o^2 , >

4 + 8fl(fl2 + 2 ) '

:....(74)

2

a Lsin

a2

(fl

+t 6)

t*

J i i l (3

U

W

W

it*

V^I

= ^ ^2R

- - 7 ~' ??1 +^ T+7 16(

Z T 2r +^ '2)? 2

(75)

<7i = - R~

+- +

j

Ra

_ sinp

*k

PjRaj

SB0

P a % 7

S9t

B^KaV

pjRflsfl

a9 2

2 4

p a fl79

2 90 8 t a

22 3

3

(76)

9 a

Q2

22 - -

\''i

Pi a fl3fl5

APPENDIX III.REFERENCES

to Slow Mudflows," Geotechnique, Vol. 23, No. 1, 1973, pp. 101-107.

2. Fread, D. L., "The NWS Dam-break Flood Forecasting Model," Report from

Office of Hydrology, National Weather Service, Silver Spring, Md., Sept., 1978.

3. "Gradually Varied Flow Profile Program," GVFP, Hydrology Engineering Center, U.S. Army Engineers, Davis, Calif., 1978.

4. Hanks, R. W., and Pratt, D. R., "On the Flow of Bingham Plastic Slurries

in Pipes and between Parallel Plates," Journal of Society of Petroleum Engineers,

Dec, 1967, pp. 342-346.

5. Hedstrom, B. O. A., "Flow of Plastic Materials in Pipes," Industrial Engineering Chemistry, Vol. 44, 1952, pp. 651-656.

6. Henderson, F. M., "Open Channel Flow," MacMillan and Co., New York,

N.Y., 1966, 522 pp.

7. Hill, R., The Mathematical Theory of Plasticity, Oxford Clarendon Press, Oxford, England, 1950.

8. Hutchinson, J. N., and Bhandari, R. I., "Undrained Loading: A Fundamental

Mechanism of Mudflows and other Mass Movements," Geotechnique, Vol. 21,

No. 4, 1971, pp. 353-358.

9. Jeyapalan, J. K., "Analyses of How Failures of Mine Tailings Impoundments,"

dissertation, presented to the University of California, at Berkeley, Calif., in

1980, in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of

Philosophy.

10. Johnson, A. M., "A Model for Debris Flow," dissertation, presented to Pennsylvania State University, at College Park, Pa., in 1965, in partial fulfillment

of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy.

11. Johnson, A. M., and Hampton, M. A., "Subaerial and Subaqueous Flow of

Slurries," Report from School of Earth Sciences, Stanford University, Stanford,

Calif., July, 1969.

12. Korner, H. J., "Reichweite und Geschwindigkeit von Bergsturzen und Flie

Schnedawinen," Rock Mechanics, Vol. 8, 1976, pp. 225-256.

13. Morgenstern, N. R., "Submarine Slumping and Initiation of Turbidity Currents," Marine Geotechnique, A. F. Richards, ed., University of Illinois Press,

Urbana, 111., 1967, pp. 189-220.

170

14. Nye, J., "The Flow of Glaciers and Ice-Sheets as a Problem in Plasticity,"

Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, A 207, 1951, pp. 554-572.

15. Okuda, S., Suwa, H., and Yokoyama, K., "Observation System on Rocky

Mudflow," Disaster Prevention Research Institute Bulletin, Kyoto University,

Vol. 23, Part 3-4, No. 312, Kyoto, Japan, 1973.

16. Okuda, S., Suwa, H., and Yokoyama, K., "Synthetic Observation on Debris

Flow, Part 2," Disaster Prevention Research Institute, Kyoto University, Kyoto,

Japan, Apr., 1976.

17. Okuda, S., Suwa, H., and Yokoyama, K., "Synthetic Observation on Debris

Flow, Part 3," Disaster Prevention Research Institute, Kyoto University, Kyoto,

Japan, May, 1977.

18. Ritter, A., Die Fortpflanzung der Wasserwellen," Zeitschrift des Vereines

Deutscher Ingenieure, Vol. 36, No. 33, 1892, pp. 947-954.

19. Scheidegger, A. E., "On the Prediction of the Reach and Velocity of Catastrophic Landslides," Rock Mechanics, Vol. 5, Mar., 1978, pp. 231-236.

APPENDIX IV.NOTATION

a =

C =

c =

f =

g =

H =

H0 =

h =

hH =

hR =

R =

R =

S =

s

f =

t =

uu ==

* =

V =

V =

t\a =

VV =

y =

i =

T =

T

y =

TR

=

P =

shape parameter;

Chezy coefficient;

celerity;

friction factor;

acceleration due to gravity;

Hedstrom number;

dam height;

flow depth;

hydraulic depth;

hydraulic radius;

viscous parameter;

Reynolds number;

strength parameter;

friction slope;

time;

average flow velocity;

flow velocity;

dimensional variables;

kinematic viscosity;

viscosity;

apparent viscosity;

plastic viscosity;

total unit weight;

shear strain rate;

shear stress;

yield shear strength;

residual shear strength; and

bed slope.

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