5 views

Uploaded by ErinSutton

Solving for the time evolution of the Free Gaussian Wavepacket wavefunction

- Normal Distribution
- Townsend, Quantum Physics, CHAP_3, Schodinger Eq
- Latex
- Numerical problem in computation of the hypertriton production cross section
- Statistics in Business Research
- cqt01
- elementary probability theory.pdf
- Normal Distribution
- PERT
- MatE 14 - Lecture 3 Normal Pr
- 1305021 p
- BTP Stage 2 Final
- Hesular Weyl and Berry
- Lab Report 1
- SQQS1013-Ch5-A122
- 9_16042019
- IQM - Lecture Guide
- Risk-based Methodology for Validation of Pharmaceutical Batch Processes.
- Testing for Normality Using SPSS Statistics
- 2010_JJC_Paper_2

You are on page 1of 5

A useful integral

First, verify the completed square:

2

2 2

u

y2

y

y

y2

u

y2

u2 2

u

i

2 =

2 i 2 2 =

+ iuy.

2

2

2

2

2

2

2

2 2

[[Technical note: To assure convergence of the integral, we must have <e{2 } > 0. When we select a square

root of 2 , we will always take one with <e{} > 0.]]

(

Z +

2 )

2 2

Z +

u

y

u

y2

exp i

du

exp

+ iuy du = exp 2

2

2

2

2

x=

u

y

i

2

2

,

giving

Z

u2 2

+ iuy

exp

2

du =

y 2 /22

x2

2

dx

2 y2 /22

e

.

(1)

x2 ex dx

Z

=

Z0

=

x2 ex dx

2

2

x(xex ) dx.

u = x

du = dx

dv

v

= xex dx

2

= 21 ex

whence

Z

x2 ex dx

Z

=

x(xex ) dx

2

0

Z

2

2

xex

21 ex dx

0

0

Z

x2

1

= 2 00+ 2

e

dx

0

=

.

2

=

1

2

(2)

a. Normalization:

(x; 0)

|(x; 0)|2

2

2

A

ex /2 ei(p0 /h)x

A2 x2 /2

e

Z

(3)

(4)

|(x; 0)|2 dx = A2

ex

/ 2

(5)

Z

Z +

A2 + x2 /2

xe

dx = 0

x|(x; 0)|2 dx =

h

xi =

so. . .

.

4

A =

h

x2 i =

dx

= A2

x2 |(x; 0)|2 dx

=

=

=

A2

x2 ex

Z +

2 2

/ 2

dx

u2 eu du

[[Use A somewhat less useful integral (2). . . ]]

1

2

A2 2

= 2

=

.

2

2

2

And

2

(x)2 = h

x2 i h

xi = h

x2 i,

so

x = / 2.

(6)

Z +

1

(p; 0) =

ei(p/h)x (x; 0) dx

2h

Z +

2

2

A

1

=

2h

Now use the useful integral (1) with u = x, = 1/, and y = (p0 p)/h. Note that, as required,

<e{} > 0.

1

A 2 (p0 p)2 2 /2h2

(p; 0) =

e

2h 1/

r

(pp0 )2 2 /2h2

= A

e

.

(7)

h

2

0)|2 =

|(p;

A2 (pp0 )2 2 /h2

e

.

h

Its clear from inspection that this probability density is centered on p0 , and hence that hpi = p0 . If you

feel compelled to produce a more algorithmic proof, then simply evaluate h

p p0 i, which is easily seen to

vanish, to prove that hpi = p0 .

(p)2

=

=

=

=

h(

p p0 )2 i

Z

2 2

2

A2 +

(p p0 )2 e(pp0 ) /h dp

h

3 Z +

2

A2

h

u2 eu du

h

3

2

h

h2

A

=

.

h

2

2 2

So

[[Use u = (p p0 )/h. . . ]]

h

p = .

2

[[Once the momentum representation (7) is in hand, then these calculations are considerably easier than

evaluating things like

Z +

(x; 0)

h

pi =

(x; 0) ih

dx. ]]

x

a. From the time development of energy eigenstates,

t) = e(i/h)E(p) (p;

0).

(p;

While from the properties of momentum wavefunctions,

Z +

1

dp.

(x) =

ei(p/h)x (p)

2h

Putting these together,

(x; t)

=

=

Z +

1

0) dp

ei(pxE(p)t)/h (p;

2

h

r Z +

2 2

2

1

A

ei(pxE(p)t)/h e(pp0 ) /2h dp.

h

2

h

Use

p0

= p p0

1 0

(p + p0 )2 t

2m

t

p0

= p02

+ p0 x t + p0 x E(p0 )t

2m

m

px E(p)t =

(p0 + p0 )x

to get

(x; t)

=

=

=

r

Z

02 2

2

A

i(p0 xE(p0 )t)/h +

t

p0 1

exp i p02

e

+ p0 x t

ep /2h dp0

h

2m

m

h

2

h

r

2

0

Z +

i(p0 xE(p0 )t)/h

t

p0

A

p

exp p02

+

i

x

e

exp

i

t

dp0

2

h

2m

h

h

m

2

h

2

h

r

0

Z

p02

p0

A

th

p

i(p0 xE(p0 )t)/h +

exp 2 2 + i

x t

e

exp i

dp0 ,

h

m

h

m

2

h

2

h

h giving

r

2

Z

n

i(p0 xE(p0 )t)/h +

k

th

p0 o

(x; t) = A

exp

e

2 + i

exp ik x t

dk.

2

2

m

m

p0

t,

m

which plucks our force-free motion heartstrings by reminding us of classical equations like

x

x(t) =

p0

t.

m

But the part the multiplies the k 2 doesnt pluck any heartstring of mine. Write the dimensionless quantity

=1+i

ht

m 2

so the equation is

+

2 2

n

k

p0 o

dk.

exp

exp ik x t

2

m

The integral here is the useful integral (1) with u = k, = , and y = x (p0 /m)t. Note that, as

required, <e{2 } = 2 > 0. Using that integral, we get

r

i(p0 xE(p0 )t)/h 2 (x p0 t)2 /22

m

e

(x; t) = A

e

2

p0

2

2

1

= A ei(p0 xE(p0 )t)/h e(x m t) /2 .

(8)

(x; t)

= A

e

2

c. We seek |(x; t)|2 = (x; t)(x; t). Start off by computing, for z = er/ , where r is real and

complex,

1

+

2<e{}

1

2

r/ r/

+

= exp r

= exp r

.

|z| = z z = e

e

= exp r

||2

Thus

A2

p0 2 1

2<e{}

|(x; t)| = exp (x t)

.

m 2 2

||2

2

But

||2 = 1 +

t

h

m 2

2

and

<e{} = 1

so

|(x; t)|2 =

p0

2

2

2

1

e(x m t) / || .

||

(9)

This expression has exactly the same Gaussian form as |(x; 0)|2 , equation (4), except that

xx

p0

t

m

and

where

|| =

1+

||,

t

h

m 2

2

.

h

xi t =

p0

t

m

(10)

(x)t =

2

1+

h

t

m 2

2

.

(11)

The center of the wavepacket moves exactly like a classical particle, but the uncertainty spreads out.

- Normal DistributionUploaded byAnonymous 2DuYUD
- Townsend, Quantum Physics, CHAP_3, Schodinger EqUploaded byElcan Diogenes
- LatexUploaded byM2C7r6
- Numerical problem in computation of the hypertriton production cross sectionUploaded byIis Yulia
- cqt01Uploaded byjackieness
- Statistics in Business ResearchUploaded byDipayan_lu
- elementary probability theory.pdfUploaded byDaniel Maruri
- Normal DistributionUploaded byyashar2500
- PERTUploaded byAkshay Kittur
- MatE 14 - Lecture 3 Normal PrUploaded bysajeer
- 1305021 pUploaded byHugo Livas
- BTP Stage 2 FinalUploaded byPradeep Kundu
- Hesular Weyl and BerryUploaded bykunni59
- Lab Report 1Uploaded byessaid
- SQQS1013-Ch5-A122Uploaded byAwnieAzizan
- 9_16042019Uploaded byمحمد خيري بن اسماءيل
- IQM - Lecture GuideUploaded byKiran Kumar
- Risk-based Methodology for Validation of Pharmaceutical Batch Processes.Uploaded byzombiecorp
- Testing for Normality Using SPSS StatisticsUploaded byprasadkulkarnigit
- 2010_JJC_Paper_2Uploaded bynothingtodo1992
- Normal Distribution Giuded SolutionsUploaded byleeshanghao
- Normal UMPUploaded byAnonymous JSHUTp
- Metrics HealthCareUploaded bySai Sridhar
- ME GATE-2018 Paper 3-FEB-2018 Morning Session Ans Qns (1)Uploaded byNirmal Jayanth
- Sampling Distributions of Sample MeansUploaded byDaryl Vincent Rivera
- Better Alternatives to Sampling PlansUploaded byschumon
- PE4051_Set3_2010Uploaded byHussein A'mer
- Concrete Microwave Reflection Properties Measurement Bois_IEEE_2000Uploaded byfdelfin
- curadatonigrace week4 reflective learning journalUploaded byapi-351819382
- Class 09 - Control Charts for Variables2 (1 of 2)Uploaded byMatthew Smith

- Quantenoptik-Vorlesung2.pdfUploaded byErinSutton
- Quantenoptik-Vorlesung12.pdfUploaded byErinSutton
- Quantenoptik-Vorlesung11.pdfUploaded byErinSutton
- Quantenoptik-Vorlesung10.pdfUploaded byErinSutton
- Algorithms Lecture Notes: Graph TraversalUploaded byErinSutton
- Quantenoptik-Vorlesung9.pdfUploaded byErinSutton
- Quantenoptik-Vorlesung6.pdfUploaded byErinSutton
- Quantenoptik-Vorlesung5.pdfUploaded byErinSutton
- Quantenoptik-Vorlesung7.pdfUploaded byErinSutton
- Quantenoptik-Vorlesung8.pdfUploaded byErinSutton
- Quantenoptik-Vorlesung4.pdfUploaded byErinSutton
- Quantenoptik-Vorlesung1Uploaded byErinSutton
- THz_spectroscopy_imaging.pdfUploaded byErinSutton

- David L. Bergman and J. Paul Wesley- Spinning Charged Ring Model of Electron Yielding Anomalous Magnetic MomentUploaded byJuiomSDF
- T. Masuda et al- Competition between Helimagnetism and Commensurate Quantum Spin Correlations in LiCu2O2Uploaded byGravvol
- Graphene Oxide PaperUploaded bytechzones
- Large-Scale Synthesis of High-Quality Ultralong Copper NanowiresUploaded byBhabani Sankar Swain
- 15Equilibrium Phase Diagrams Construction Interpretatio, Terminology NotesUploaded byKiran Babu Satuluri
- summary chapter 3 townsend quantum mechanics modern approachUploaded byBruna Shinohara
- Nanotechnology - Gunter Schmid (Wiley-VCH, 2008).pdfUploaded byMokeng Mokoma
- naap_hydrogen_sg.docUploaded byAnonymous E9ESAecw8x
- Physics Lab VivaUploaded byAditya Gupta
- Neils BohrUploaded byarghya_bi108
- Chemistry Project 2Uploaded byVeenita Kumari
- Doped Metal Oxide (ZnO) and Photocatalysis a ReviewUploaded byWeiHong.Jian
- Residual ResistivityUploaded byNAYEEM
- Coulomb s LawUploaded bymueed6074
- 13. Osdi Ashari Optical and Structural Properties of ZnO Thin Films Fabricated by Sol-Gel Method Ok[1]Uploaded byGutama Ade Wardana
- Deposition and Characterization of C-Axis Oriented Aluminum Nitride Films by RadiolUploaded bybhagaban70442393
- Fe1-pdfUploaded byKimberly
- 061027 SolutionsUploaded byMaratati
- 5.73LectureNotesUploaded bycyclopssteel
- Thin Film Solar Cells - Presentation 2Uploaded byyonatan842322
- Synthesis of zinc-doped copper oxide nanoparticles: Structural and morphological characterizationsUploaded byInternational Journal for Scientific Research and Development - IJSRD
- phase diagramsUploaded byapi-213793181
- Structure of Atom notesUploaded byAnudeex Shetty
- lecture7Uploaded byapi-3771959
- MT-201B MATERIAL SCIENCE NEW - Copy.pptUploaded byUday Bhardwaj
- 반도체 용어사전Uploaded by하종인(korean)
- Material With Specific Magnetic PropertiesUploaded byFiki Firdaus
- 14B1Uploaded byqqqqq
- 3. Chemical BondsUploaded byFarukIslam
- Scimatp Lecture 10 Optical Properties of MaterialsUploaded bygwenny_castle