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IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON CIRCUITS AND SYSTEMSI: REGULAR PAPERS, VOL. 56, NO.

3, MARCH 2009

583

IIR Digital Filter Design With New Stability


Constraint Based on Argument Principle
Aimin Jiang, Student Member, IEEE, and Hon Keung Kwan, Senior Member, IEEE

AbstractThis paper presents a weighted least squares (WLS)


method for IIR digital filter design using a new stability constraint.
Utilizing the reweighting technique, an iterative second-order cone
programming (SOCP) method is employed to solve the design
problem, such that either linear or second-order cone constraints
can be further incorporated. In order to guarantee the stability of
designed IIR digital filters, a new stability constraint with a prescribed pole radius is derived from the argument principle (AP)
of complex analysis. As compared with other frequency-domain
stability constraints, the AP-based stability constraint is both
sufficient and necessary. Since the derived stability constraint
cannot be directly incorporated in the iterative SOCP method,
the similar reweighting technique is deployed to approximate the
stability constraint in a quadratic form, which is then combined
with the WLS iterative design process. Filter design examples
are presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed
iterative SOCP method.
Index TermsArgument principle (AP), infinite impulse response (IIR) digital filters, reweighting techniques, second-order
cone programming (SOCP), weighted least squares (WLS)
approximation.

I. INTRODUCTION
OMPARED with FIR digital filter design, the major difficulties for designing an IIR digital filter are its nonlinearity and stability problems. Many algorithms have been developed to implement stable IIR digital filters. Some approaches
[1][6] implement filters in an indirect way, i.e., an FIR digital filter satisfying the filter specifications is designed first, and
then, model reduction techniques are applied to approximate
the FIR digital filter by a reduced-order IIR digital filter. In
such indirect designs, approximation procedures can substantially guarantee the stability of designed IIR digital filters, which
facilitates the design procedures. However, it is difficult to design filters with accurate cutoff frequencies using this design
strategy. Recently, many other algorithms [7][16] have been
proposed to design IIR digital filters in a direct way, which
means that the cost function of the design problem is directly
based on the ideal frequency responses. In order to tackle such
a nonlinear design problem, some iterative methods [8][12]

Manuscript received October 25, 2007; revised May 01, 2008. First published
October 31, 2008; current version published March 11, 2009. This work was
supported in part by the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of
Canada. This paper was recommended by Associate Editor M. Chakraborty.
The authors are with the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Windsor, Windsor, ON N9B 3P4, Canada (e-mail:
jiang13@uwindsor.ca; kwan1@uwindsor.ca).
Digital Object Identifier 10.1109/TCSI.2008.2002116

employ the SteiglitzMcBride scheme [17] to approach the optimal solution in some sense. Although, so far, the convergences
of these methods cannot be strictly guaranteed, many examples
in literature have shown their effectiveness. In this paper, we
adopt the same iterative procedure using the SteiglitzMcBride
scheme to design IIR digital filters.
Stability is an important issue for IIR digital filter design.
Recently, some positive-realness-based [7], [8], [10][13] and
the Rouch-theorem-based [14] frequency-domain stability
constraints have been developed and utilized in the design of
stable IIR digital filters. The positive-realness-based [13] stability constraint is expressed as linear inequalities with respect
to denominator coefficients, which can be easily incorporated
in linear programming (LP) and quadratic programming (QP)
problems. The Rouch-theorem-based stability constraint [14],
which is less conservative than the positive-realness-based stability constraint, is expressed as quadratic inequalities in terms
of denominator coefficients. Note that both of them should
. A simple way [8],
be satisfied at all frequencies
[10][13] to incorporate these constraints is to realize them on
. The number of
a set of dense-grid frequency points over
stability constraints is therefore large. Another way is to employ
a multiple exchange algorithm [14], which is used to identify a
set of active constraints. Then, stability constraints are replaced
by a finite number of active constraints. In [7], by defining a
convex stability domain, the design problem can be formulated
as an iterative semidefinite programming (SDP) problem. It has
been proved in [7] that this stability domain contains the domain
given by the Rouch theorem. Although the effectiveness of
the previously described stability constraints has been proved
by theoretical analyses and demonstrated by examples therein,
they are merely sufficient conditions for stability. This means
that some stable filters can be excluded from their admissible
solutions. Recently, a stability constraint based on the argument
principle (AP) of complex analysis has been introduced in [15],
which is both sufficient and necessary. By truncating the higher
order expansion components, the resulting stability constraint
becomes a linear equality constraint. However, through a large
number of simulations, this constraint could be found to be
invalid in some situations. As an attempt to solve this problem,
a new stability constraint is to be proposed, which is also based
on AP. Unlike that in [15], the stability constraint is approximated in a quadratic form, which is then combined with the
iterative design procedure. It will be shown that this stability
constraint is imposed on an integral over the whole frequency
. Hence, neither a large number of constraints on
band
dense-grid frequency points nor multiple exchange algorithms
are needed.

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IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON CIRCUITS AND SYSTEMSI: REGULAR PAPERS, VOL. 56, NO. 3, MARCH 2009

In practice, two optimal criteria, namely, minimax


[8],
[7], [10], [14],
[9], [13], [15] and (weighted) least squares
[15], are most frequently used in IIR filter design. Some other
criteria, such as equiripple passband and peak-constrained least
squares stopband [11], least -power error minimization [12],
and weighted integral of the squared error (WISE)[16], are also
applied in IIR digital filter design. In this paper, we will focus
on IIR filter design in the weighted least squares (WLS) sense.
Convex optimization [18] methods, such as second-order
cone programming (SOCP) [18], [19] and SDP [18], [20], have
been widely applied in designing FIR [21][25] and IIR digital
filters [1], [7], [9]. Compared with LP and convex QP problems,
SOCP problems can incorporate more general constraints besides linear equalities and inequalities. As a matter of fact, LP
and convex QP problems are special cases of SOCP problems.
Therefore, all the LP and convex QP problems can also be
solved by the SOCP algorithms. Although SOCP problems are
less general than SDP problems, the computation complexity
per iteration required in the SOCP algorithms is much less than
that in the SDP algorithms, particularly when the dimensions of
second-order cone (SOC) constraints are large. Therefore, we
will cast the IIR filter design problem into the SOCP form. In
[26], we have presented a preliminary version of this paper. In
order to incorporate the quadratic peak constraints, the design
method shall be implemented in this paper as an iterative SOCP
procedure instead of the iterative QP procedure adopted in [26].
Accordingly, the quadratic cost function in [26] is cast into
an SOC constraint. Since the stability constraint derived from
AP cannot be directly incorporated in the design procedure,
an approximated stability constraint is further proposed in this
paper. Two new examples and further discussion are included
in this paper.
This paper is organized as follows. In Section II, an iterative
SOCP method without any stability constraint is introduced to
design IIR digital filters. Then, peak constraints are incorporated
as SOC constraints. In Section III, a new stability constraint
based on AP is developed. Design examples are presented in
Section IV. Finally, conclusions are drawn in Section V.

and the superscript


denotes the transpose operation. We
and
assume all the filter coefficients
to be real values. It should be noted
that the proposed method can be extended to design IIR digital
filters with complex coefficients. For the sake of simplicity in
future discussions, here, we first define a weighted complex
error as

(2)
is a given nonnegative weighting function and
where
is the union of frequency bands of interest over
.
B. WLS Design
In the WLS sense, the design problem can be expressed as
(3)

By introducing an auxiliary variable , (3) can be formulated as

(4)

in
, the
Because of the existence of denominator
constraint of the design problem (4) cannot be cast into an either
linear or SOC constraint. Here, we consider an iterative scheme
which has been deployed in [8][12]. At the th iteration, the
constraint of (4) is written as
(5)
where
(6)

II. DESIGN OF IIR DIGITAL FILTERS


Note that, by introducing

A. Problem Formulation
be the ideal frequency response over
. Our
Let
task is to find a stable IIR digital filter with the transfer function

(7)
(8)

(1)
which can best approximate
In (1), the vectors , ,
tively, by

under some optimal criteria.


, and
are defined, respec-

at the th iteration, the integrand in the constraint (5) can be ex. Obviously, if the iterative propressed as
will approach 1 as is large
cedure converges, then
enough. Thus, the integrand will approach
.
By defining

(9)
(10)

JIANG AND KWAN: IIR DIGITAL FILTER DESIGN WITH NEW STABILITY CONSTRAINT BASED ON AP

where
is the coefficient vector obtained at the previous
is the updating vector at the
iteration, is the step size, and
current iteration, the constraint in (5) is rewritten as

585

side of (17). Adopting the similar reweighting technique employed in (5), we obtain

(11)
where
(12)
(18)
In (12), the superscript denotes the complex conjugate and
represents the real part of a comtranspose operation, and
in (12) is a positive definite matrix, the deplex. Since
sign problem (4) with the constraint (11) can be further cast into
an SOCP problem

(13)
where

where
(19)
Note that, in [8] and [12], the IIR filter design problems are cast
into LP and QP forms, in which only linear constraints can be
incorporated. Therefore, the approximation of a circle by some
regular polygons is applied to linearize the constraint (18). Although this approximation is applicable when the edge number
of regular polygons is large enough, the total number of peak
constraints is rapidly increased. Moreover, this step may introduce some approximation error.

(14)
(15)
The norm appearing in the constraint of (13) is the standard
Euclidean norm, i.e.,
.
The iterative procedure stops if the following condition is
satisfied

III. AP-BASED STABILITY CONSTRAINT


In this section, a new stability constraint based on AP from
complex analysis is developed. First of all, AP is reviewed. The
stability constraint derived from AP is then approximated by
a quadratic constraint and combined with the iterative design
procedure mentioned in Section II.
A. AP

(16)
where is a prescribed small tolerance, or exceeds the specified maximum number of iterations. Otherwise, the new coefficient vector is computed according to (9).
Although the convergence of the iterative procedures has not
been strictly guaranteed, a sufficient condition for convergence
has been provided in [10] and [12]. Numerical examples presented in [8][12] also demonstrate the effectiveness of this design strategy.
C. Peak Constraint
In [8] and [12], linearized peak constraints have been developed to control the peak errors. Here, we will reformulate the
peak constraints as SOC constraints, which can better approximate the true peak constraints.
Using (2), the peak constraints are given by

(17)
denotes the prescribed peak error limit. Like the difwhere
ficulty encountered in formulating the design problem (4), the
true peak constraint also has the denominator on the left-hand

If
is analytic in a region enclosed by a contour in
be the
the plane, except at a finite number of poles, let
be the number of poles of the function
number of zeros and
in , where each zero and pole is counted according to its
multiplicity. Then, we have
(20)

This result is called argument principle [27].


In order to develop a stability constraint for IIR digital filter
designs, we consider the following monic polynomial function
(21)
Here, the contour is an origin-centered circle with the prescribed radius , i.e.,
. Then, according
lie strictly in the
to the AP stated earlier, all the zeros of
region enclosed by if and only if the following equation is
satisfied
(22)

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IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON CIRCUITS AND SYSTEMSI: REGULAR PAPERS, VOL. 56, NO. 3, MARCH 2009

The integral in (22) is carried out counterclockwise along


Note that

where we have (30) and (31) defined as shown at the bottom of


denotes a diagonal mathe page. In (30),
on its th diagonal. By computing
trix with
the integral of (24) over
, the stability constraint (24) is
strictly expressed as
(32)

(23)
where
where
denotes the argument of
. The first term on
the right-hand side of (23) is always equal to zero, since
is an even function of and
is closed. According to (21),
can be expanded as
on
the argument of
, i.e.,
, and then, the stability constraint (22) can be
simplified by

(33)

On the other hand, if there are


roots of
outside
and
roots inside , it can be easily verified that
. Then, given a denominator
has a stair
shape with respect to .
Equation (32) cannot be incorporated directly as a constraint
is in neither linear
into the design problem of (13), since
form nor SOC form of . In our design, we construct a new
stability constraint as

(24)
Thus, the stability constraint (24) of an IIR digital filter is stated
as follows. An IIR digital filter with the denominator
is
stable, if and only if the total change in the argument of
is equal to 0, when the integral is carried out along counterclockwise.

(34)
Decreasing makes more poles move inside the circle . When
, all poles will lie inside .
An obstacle encountered in constructing the stability criterion (34) is the existence of denominator, depending on in
. Here, we adopt the similar iterative strategy mentioned
in Section II. At the th iteration,
is modified as

B. Stability Constraint
The polynomial function

can be expressed as
(25)

where

(35)
(26)
As the iterative procedure converges, it follows that
. Then, we can obtain that

(27)
In (27),
argument of

represents the imaginary part of a complex. The


is then computed by
(28)

By taking differentials with respect to


we obtain

on both sides of (28),

Thus, the stability constraint


can guarantee the stability of the IIR digital
filter obtained at the th iteration as is large enough. Note
is an indefinite matrix, this explicit
that since

(29)

(30)

..
.

..

..

..
.

(31)

JIANG AND KWAN: IIR DIGITAL FILTER DESIGN WITH NEW STABILITY CONSTRAINT BASED ON AP

stability constraint cannot be transformed into an SOC constraint. Therefore, we combine the stability constraint with the
constraint (11)
(36)

the maximum number of iterations are always set as 0.8,


and 200, respectively.

587

A. Example 1
The first example taken from [12] is to design a low-pass
digital filter. The ideal frequency response is defined as

where

(37)

(38)
represents a zero matrix of size
. Then,
in (14) and (15) is replaced by
. Since
increases rapidly when any pole leaves the prescribed region ,
essentially serves as a barrier function in (36). This design strategy has been utilized in [16] for the IIR digital filter design. In [16], the authors construct the cost function by linearly
combining the WLS criterion and the time-domain component
which serves as the implicit stability constraint. In practice, we
, which corresponds
can decrease to achieve lower
. Therefore, besides the preto decreasing of (34) as
scribed maximum pole radius , the parameter also plays
an important role of restricting poles locations. On the other
approach an indefinite mahand, increasing makes
trix, which cannot be used to formulate the SOC constraint in
(13). Therefore, cannot be too close to 1. Simulation experience indicates that is normally within the [0.99, 0.999999]
range. The effects of on the design results will be illustrated
in Example 2.
Finally, the design steps of the proposed iterative algorithm
are summarized as follows.
, filter orStep 1) Given the ideal frequency response
and , and weighting function
, set
ders
, and choose an initial guess
.
Step 2) Set
, and compute
by (6),
In (38),

by (37), and

by (19). Then, utilize

to calculate
by (14) and
by
the SOCP problem (13)
(15). Finally, solve for
with peak constraints (18).
by (9). If the stopping
Step 3) Update the coefficients
condition (16) is satisfied, or exceeds the maximum number of iterations, terminate the iterative
procedure. Otherwise, go to Step 2) and continue.

IV. SIMULATIONS
In this section, four examples are presented to demonstrate
the effectiveness of the proposed method. We have implemented
the proposed design method by SeDuMi[28] in MATLAB. The
errors of magnitude (MAG) and group delay (GD)
peak and
are adopted as measurements within frequency bands of interest.
In all designs, the step size in (9), the parameter in (16), and

Both numerator order and denominator order


are chosen
.
as 18. The prescribed maximum pole radius is set to
The weighting function used in this example is set to 1 over the
entire frequency band. The parameter used in (37) is set to
0.999. All initial numerator coefficients are chosen as 1, and the
,
initial denominator coefficient vector is set to
i.e., all the initial poles locate on the origin of the plane. It takes
the algorithm 49 iterations to converge to the final solution. The
maximum pole radius of the obtained IIR filter is 0.9226. The
MAG and GD responses are shown in Fig. 1. For comparison,
we also designed the low-pass filter using the least four-power
method of [12] under the same specifications. The maximum
pole radius of the IIR filter obtained by [12] is 0.9407. The MAG
and GD responses in the passband are also shown in Fig. 1. The
errors in the passband are summarized in Table I.
peak and
It can be seen that the proposed method can achieve better performances in the least squares sense.
In order to illustrate the effectiveness of peak constraints foris then modmulated in (18), the ideal frequency response
ified as

The parameter is set as 0.99996. Then, we impose peak conwith


( 35 dB)
straints on the stopband
for
. The weighting function
is set to 1 over the passband and stopband and 0 over the transition band. After 65 iterations, the iterative procedure converges
to the final solution. The design results are shown in Fig. 2, and
the peak and errors are shown in Table II. The maximum pole
radius of the obtained filter is 0.9732. We also adopt the WLS
method of [10] to design the filter under the same specifications.
Note that the WLS method in [10] is essentially a special case
. The maximum pole raof the least -power method with
dius of the filter designed by [10] is 0.9620. The design results
are also shown in Fig. 2, and all measurements are summarized
in Table II.
In [10] and [12], the positive-realness-based stability constraint is employed to guarantee the stability of designed filters,
which is expressed as
(39)
This stability criterion is sufficient. However, it cannot be used
to specify an arbitrary maximum pole radius . Results show
that the filters designed by the proposed method in this paper do

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Fig. 1. Design results of Example 1. (Solid curves) Designed by the proposed method. (Dashed curves) Designed by the least four-power method of [12].

TABLE I
MEASUREMENTS OF DESIGN RESULTS IN EXAMPLE 1

not always satisfy the stability constraint (39), whereas the filter
is still stable.
B. Example 2
The second example is to design a half-band high-pass filter
[16]. The ideal frequency response is given by

The filter orders are chosen as


. The prescribed
. The weighting function
maximum pole radius is set to
for
and
is chosen as
0 for
. The parameter is specified as
0.99996. The initial numerator coefficients are all set to 1, as in
Example 1. The initial poles are uniformly located on the unit
circle, i.e.,

(40)

It takes the algorithm 72 iterations to converge to the final solution. The design results are shown in Fig. 3. All the peak and
errors are summarized in Table III. The maximum pole radius
of the designed IIR high-pass filter is 0.9782. We also adopt the
WISE method of [16] to design the IIR high-pass filter under the
same specifications. The maximum pole radius of the obtained
filter is 0.9852. The design results and all measurements are also
given in Fig. 3 and Table III. Apparently, the proposed method
can achieve better performances.
In order to demonstrate the effects of the parameter on
the design results, we designed the high-pass filters with different . We performed the design procedures for 20 times
by increasing from 0.99 to 1. Fig. 4 shows the variation of
maximum pole radii with respect to . As mentioned earlier,
the poles approach the prescribed maximum pole radius when
gradually augmenting . Fig. 5 shows the variation of the total
,
number of iterations with respect to . Note that, as
the design problem is essentially formulated in the WLS sense
without any stability constraint, and the iterative procedure
cannot converge within the specified maximum number of
in (37) is
iterations. We find that when
still positive semidefinite. Fig. 5 shows that we can improve
the convergence speed of the iterative procedure by decreasing
. However, the maximum pole radius of the designed filter
should be
can also be reduced. Therefore, the parameter
appropriately selected, such that the maximum pole radius of
the designed filter can best approach the specified maximum
pole radius . The simulation results in Figs. 4 and 5 suggest
a way to choose . First of all, specify , and then, set
and perform the design procedure. If the iterative procedure
converges and the obtained poles lie inside , then the design

JIANG AND KWAN: IIR DIGITAL FILTER DESIGN WITH NEW STABILITY CONSTRAINT BASED ON AP

589

Fig. 2. Design results of Example 1 with peak constraints. (Solid curves) Designed by the proposed method. (Dashed curves) Designed by the WLS method of
[10].

TABLE II
MEASUREMENTS OF DESIGN RESULTS WITH PEAK CONSTRAINTS
IN EXAMPLE 1

errors are shown in Table IV. The maximum pole radius


and
of the designed IIR digital filter is 0.7986. We also utilized the
WLS method of [15] to design the filter. The maximum pole radius of the obtained filter is 0.7233. The design results and all
measurements are also given in Fig. 6 and Table IV.
In [15], a stability constraint based on linearized AP is incorporated in the iterative design progress. At the th iteration, the
stability constraint (32) is replaced by its linear approximation,
i.e.,

result can be accepted as the final solution. Otherwise, should


be decreased until a satisfied design result is obtained.
C. Example 3
In this example, another low-pass digital filter with the following ideal frequency response is designed:

(41)
Assuming that, at the previous iteration, all poles lie inside ,
. Thus, the stability constraint
then we have
(41) is simplified as
(42)

.
The design specifications are exactly the same as those proposed for the first example in [15]. The filter orders are chosen
as
and
. The prescribed maximum pole radius is
. Note that the weighting function used in [15] is
set to
used in our formulation. Thereessentially equivalent to
fore, we choose the weighting function as

otherwise.
The parameter used in (37) is set to 0.999992. The initial
and
coefficients are chosen as
. After 12 iterations, the algorithm finds the final
solution. The design results are shown in Fig. 6. All the peak

. Like
which is a linear equality constraint with respect to
the Rouch-theorem-based stability constraint, the iterative procedure incorporating (42) as the stability constraint has to start
from a denominator whose poles lie inside . Fig. 7 shows the
values of
during the iterative procedure of
the proposed method. It can be seen that the maximum pole radius of the designed IIR filter can still be less than , even when
the stability constraint (42) is not satisfied.
D. Example 4
The last example is to implement an equalization and antialiasing filter [14], [29], which follows an analog antialiasing
filter and a sampler, to equalize the MAG and phase (or GD)
responses of the analog filter in the passband and increase the

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Fig. 3. Design results of Example 2. (Solid curves) Designed by the proposed method. (Dashed curves) Designed by the WISE method of [16].

TABLE III
MEASUREMENTS OF DESIGN RESULTS IN EXAMPLE 2

Fig. 5. Variation of the total number of iterations with respect to .

Fig. 4. Variation of maximum pole radii with respect to .

attenuation in the stopband. The ideal frequency response of the


cascaded system is defined by

Then, the desired frequency response of the IIR digital filter is


, where
is the frequency response
denotes the sampling period. The
of the analog filter and
transfer function
of the analog filter is given in [29]. The
can be used as a free parameter to minimize
desired delay
. In [29], the best FIR filter design according to the complex
, while an
Chebyshev criterion has been presented with
IIR filter with
has been designed in [14] under the least
squares sense. In our designs, the best result can be obtained
. Filter
when the desired GD in the passband is set as
and
. The prescribed maximum pole
orders are

JIANG AND KWAN: IIR DIGITAL FILTER DESIGN WITH NEW STABILITY CONSTRAINT BASED ON AP

591

Fig. 6. Design results of Example 3. (Solid curves) Designed by the proposed method. (Dashed curves) Designed by the WLS method with linearized AP-based
stability constraint of [15].

TABLE IV
MEASUREMENTS OF DESIGN RESULTS IN EXAMPLE 3

radius is chosen as
. The parameter
0.99994. The weighting function is set as

is selected as

otherwise.
, and
The initial point is also set as
. The proposed method takes 69 iterations to
reach the final solution. The maximum pole radius of the designed IIR filter is 0.9673. The MAG responses, phase errors,
and GDs of analog filter, designed IIR equalization and antialiasing filter, and cascaded system are shown in Fig. 8. We
also designed the filter under the same specifications by using
the GaussNewton method proposed in [14]. The maximum
pole radius of the obtained filter is 0.9810. All the peak and
errors of MAG and GD responses of designed IIR equalization
and antialiasing filters are summarized in Table V.
In [14], the Rouch theorem is employed to develop a stability
chosen with all
constraint. Given an initial denominator
its roots inside , then all denominators

Fig. 7. Values of
posed method.

 (rqq

have their roots inside

)

during the iterative procedure of the pro-

if the denominator updates


satisfy

(43)
where
.
Note that initial denominator polynomials with roots outside ,
such as (40), cannot be used by the design processes which adopt

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Fig. 8. Design results of Example 4. (Solid curves) Cascaded system. (Dashed curves) Equalizer designed by the proposed method. (Dash-dotted curves) Analog
filter.

TABLE V
MEASUREMENTS OF DESIGN RESULTS IN EXAMPLE 4

(43) as the stability constraint. However, this prerequisite is not


required by the proposed method in this paper. Like (39), the
Rouch-theorem-based stability constraint is only a sufficient
condition to ensure stability. Moreover, in order to guarantee
the stability, these two constraints must be satisfied at all fre. A traditional way to incorporate these conquencies
straints is to impose them on a dense frequency grid, which,
however, greatly increases the number of constraints. Unlike
(39) and (43), the new proposed stability constraint in this paper
rather than at
is realized over the whole frequency band
each frequency.
V. CONCLUSION
In this paper, an IIR digital filter design method with a new
AP-based stability constraint has been presented. As compared with the previous design methods using the reweighting
technique, the design problem is formulated as an iterative
SOCP problem, which can handle both linear and SOC constraints. Therefore, some more complicated constraints, such
as quadratic peak error constraints, can be further incorporated.
Another advantage of the design method is that the stability

constraint is deduced from AP, which is both sufficient and necessary for stability. Finally, the proposed stability constraint is
imposed on the whole frequency band, which greatly facilitates
the design progress. In order to incorporate it into the design
procedure, the similar reweighting technique is employed,
and the stability constraint is then combined with the iterative
procedure. If the iterative procedure converges and parameters
and
are appropriately selected, the stability constraint
can guarantee the stability of the designed filter. When the
maximum pole radius is given, by adjusting the parameter
, we can also control poles locations. The robustness and
effectiveness of the proposed approach have been demonstrated
in this paper by four numerical examples.
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Aimin Jiang (S07) received the B.E. and M.E.


degrees in the electrical engineering from Nanjing
University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Nanjing, China, in 2001 and 2004, respectively. He is
currently working toward the Ph.D. degree in the
Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering,
University of Windsor, Windsor, ON, Canada.
His research interests include optimization and
its applications to digital signal processing and
communications.

Hon Keung Kwan (M81SM86) received the


D.I.C. and Ph.D. degrees in electrical engineering
(signal processing) from Imperial College London,
London, U.K., in 1981.
He was a Design Engineer in electronics and
computer memory industry in Hong Kong during
19771978 and a Faculty Member with the Department of Electronic Engineering, The Hong
Kong Polytechnic University, during 1981 and,
subsequently, with the Department of Electrical and
Electronic Engineering, The University of Hong
Kong, Pokfulam, Hong Kong. He is currently with the University of Windsor,
Windsor, ON, Canada, where he has been a Professor in electrical and computer
engineering since 1989. The area of his research interests is digital filter theory
and intelligent techniques for signal processing.
Dr. Kwan is a Licensed Professional Engineer (Ontario), a Chartered
Electrical Engineer (U.K.), and a Fellow of the Institution of Engineering
and Technology (U.K.). He has a variety of teaching, administrative, and
professional experiences and had served as Chairs and various officers in the
Digital Signal Processing Technical Committee and the Neural Systems and
Applications Technical Committee of the IEEE Circuits and Systems Society.