Genetic Algorithm 2

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3, MARCH 2009

583

Constraint Based on Argument Principle

Aimin Jiang, Student Member, IEEE, and Hon Keung Kwan, Senior Member, IEEE

method for IIR digital filter design using a new stability constraint.

Utilizing the reweighting technique, an iterative second-order cone

programming (SOCP) method is employed to solve the design

problem, such that either linear or second-order cone constraints

can be further incorporated. In order to guarantee the stability of

designed IIR digital filters, a new stability constraint with a prescribed pole radius is derived from the argument principle (AP)

of complex analysis. As compared with other frequency-domain

stability constraints, the AP-based stability constraint is both

sufficient and necessary. Since the derived stability constraint

cannot be directly incorporated in the iterative SOCP method,

the similar reweighting technique is deployed to approximate the

stability constraint in a quadratic form, which is then combined

with the WLS iterative design process. Filter design examples

are presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed

iterative SOCP method.

Index TermsArgument principle (AP), infinite impulse response (IIR) digital filters, reweighting techniques, second-order

cone programming (SOCP), weighted least squares (WLS)

approximation.

I. INTRODUCTION

OMPARED with FIR digital filter design, the major difficulties for designing an IIR digital filter are its nonlinearity and stability problems. Many algorithms have been developed to implement stable IIR digital filters. Some approaches

[1][6] implement filters in an indirect way, i.e., an FIR digital filter satisfying the filter specifications is designed first, and

then, model reduction techniques are applied to approximate

the FIR digital filter by a reduced-order IIR digital filter. In

such indirect designs, approximation procedures can substantially guarantee the stability of designed IIR digital filters, which

facilitates the design procedures. However, it is difficult to design filters with accurate cutoff frequencies using this design

strategy. Recently, many other algorithms [7][16] have been

proposed to design IIR digital filters in a direct way, which

means that the cost function of the design problem is directly

based on the ideal frequency responses. In order to tackle such

a nonlinear design problem, some iterative methods [8][12]

Manuscript received October 25, 2007; revised May 01, 2008. First published

October 31, 2008; current version published March 11, 2009. This work was

supported in part by the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of

Canada. This paper was recommended by Associate Editor M. Chakraborty.

The authors are with the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Windsor, Windsor, ON N9B 3P4, Canada (e-mail:

jiang13@uwindsor.ca; kwan1@uwindsor.ca).

Digital Object Identifier 10.1109/TCSI.2008.2002116

employ the SteiglitzMcBride scheme [17] to approach the optimal solution in some sense. Although, so far, the convergences

of these methods cannot be strictly guaranteed, many examples

in literature have shown their effectiveness. In this paper, we

adopt the same iterative procedure using the SteiglitzMcBride

scheme to design IIR digital filters.

Stability is an important issue for IIR digital filter design.

Recently, some positive-realness-based [7], [8], [10][13] and

the Rouch-theorem-based [14] frequency-domain stability

constraints have been developed and utilized in the design of

stable IIR digital filters. The positive-realness-based [13] stability constraint is expressed as linear inequalities with respect

to denominator coefficients, which can be easily incorporated

in linear programming (LP) and quadratic programming (QP)

problems. The Rouch-theorem-based stability constraint [14],

which is less conservative than the positive-realness-based stability constraint, is expressed as quadratic inequalities in terms

of denominator coefficients. Note that both of them should

. A simple way [8],

be satisfied at all frequencies

[10][13] to incorporate these constraints is to realize them on

. The number of

a set of dense-grid frequency points over

stability constraints is therefore large. Another way is to employ

a multiple exchange algorithm [14], which is used to identify a

set of active constraints. Then, stability constraints are replaced

by a finite number of active constraints. In [7], by defining a

convex stability domain, the design problem can be formulated

as an iterative semidefinite programming (SDP) problem. It has

been proved in [7] that this stability domain contains the domain

given by the Rouch theorem. Although the effectiveness of

the previously described stability constraints has been proved

by theoretical analyses and demonstrated by examples therein,

they are merely sufficient conditions for stability. This means

that some stable filters can be excluded from their admissible

solutions. Recently, a stability constraint based on the argument

principle (AP) of complex analysis has been introduced in [15],

which is both sufficient and necessary. By truncating the higher

order expansion components, the resulting stability constraint

becomes a linear equality constraint. However, through a large

number of simulations, this constraint could be found to be

invalid in some situations. As an attempt to solve this problem,

a new stability constraint is to be proposed, which is also based

on AP. Unlike that in [15], the stability constraint is approximated in a quadratic form, which is then combined with the

iterative design procedure. It will be shown that this stability

constraint is imposed on an integral over the whole frequency

. Hence, neither a large number of constraints on

band

dense-grid frequency points nor multiple exchange algorithms

are needed.

584

IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON CIRCUITS AND SYSTEMSI: REGULAR PAPERS, VOL. 56, NO. 3, MARCH 2009

[8],

[7], [10], [14],

[9], [13], [15] and (weighted) least squares

[15], are most frequently used in IIR filter design. Some other

criteria, such as equiripple passband and peak-constrained least

squares stopband [11], least -power error minimization [12],

and weighted integral of the squared error (WISE)[16], are also

applied in IIR digital filter design. In this paper, we will focus

on IIR filter design in the weighted least squares (WLS) sense.

Convex optimization [18] methods, such as second-order

cone programming (SOCP) [18], [19] and SDP [18], [20], have

been widely applied in designing FIR [21][25] and IIR digital

filters [1], [7], [9]. Compared with LP and convex QP problems,

SOCP problems can incorporate more general constraints besides linear equalities and inequalities. As a matter of fact, LP

and convex QP problems are special cases of SOCP problems.

Therefore, all the LP and convex QP problems can also be

solved by the SOCP algorithms. Although SOCP problems are

less general than SDP problems, the computation complexity

per iteration required in the SOCP algorithms is much less than

that in the SDP algorithms, particularly when the dimensions of

second-order cone (SOC) constraints are large. Therefore, we

will cast the IIR filter design problem into the SOCP form. In

[26], we have presented a preliminary version of this paper. In

order to incorporate the quadratic peak constraints, the design

method shall be implemented in this paper as an iterative SOCP

procedure instead of the iterative QP procedure adopted in [26].

Accordingly, the quadratic cost function in [26] is cast into

an SOC constraint. Since the stability constraint derived from

AP cannot be directly incorporated in the design procedure,

an approximated stability constraint is further proposed in this

paper. Two new examples and further discussion are included

in this paper.

This paper is organized as follows. In Section II, an iterative

SOCP method without any stability constraint is introduced to

design IIR digital filters. Then, peak constraints are incorporated

as SOC constraints. In Section III, a new stability constraint

based on AP is developed. Design examples are presented in

Section IV. Finally, conclusions are drawn in Section V.

denotes the transpose operation. We

and

assume all the filter coefficients

to be real values. It should be noted

that the proposed method can be extended to design IIR digital

filters with complex coefficients. For the sake of simplicity in

future discussions, here, we first define a weighted complex

error as

(2)

is a given nonnegative weighting function and

where

is the union of frequency bands of interest over

.

B. WLS Design

In the WLS sense, the design problem can be expressed as

(3)

(4)

in

, the

Because of the existence of denominator

constraint of the design problem (4) cannot be cast into an either

linear or SOC constraint. Here, we consider an iterative scheme

which has been deployed in [8][12]. At the th iteration, the

constraint of (4) is written as

(5)

where

(6)

Note that, by introducing

A. Problem Formulation

be the ideal frequency response over

. Our

Let

task is to find a stable IIR digital filter with the transfer function

(7)

(8)

(1)

which can best approximate

In (1), the vectors , ,

tively, by

, and

are defined, respec-

at the th iteration, the integrand in the constraint (5) can be ex. Obviously, if the iterative propressed as

will approach 1 as is large

cedure converges, then

enough. Thus, the integrand will approach

.

By defining

(9)

(10)

JIANG AND KWAN: IIR DIGITAL FILTER DESIGN WITH NEW STABILITY CONSTRAINT BASED ON AP

where

is the coefficient vector obtained at the previous

is the updating vector at the

iteration, is the step size, and

current iteration, the constraint in (5) is rewritten as

585

side of (17). Adopting the similar reweighting technique employed in (5), we obtain

(11)

where

(12)

(18)

In (12), the superscript denotes the complex conjugate and

represents the real part of a comtranspose operation, and

in (12) is a positive definite matrix, the deplex. Since

sign problem (4) with the constraint (11) can be further cast into

an SOCP problem

(13)

where

where

(19)

Note that, in [8] and [12], the IIR filter design problems are cast

into LP and QP forms, in which only linear constraints can be

incorporated. Therefore, the approximation of a circle by some

regular polygons is applied to linearize the constraint (18). Although this approximation is applicable when the edge number

of regular polygons is large enough, the total number of peak

constraints is rapidly increased. Moreover, this step may introduce some approximation error.

(14)

(15)

The norm appearing in the constraint of (13) is the standard

Euclidean norm, i.e.,

.

The iterative procedure stops if the following condition is

satisfied

In this section, a new stability constraint based on AP from

complex analysis is developed. First of all, AP is reviewed. The

stability constraint derived from AP is then approximated by

a quadratic constraint and combined with the iterative design

procedure mentioned in Section II.

A. AP

(16)

where is a prescribed small tolerance, or exceeds the specified maximum number of iterations. Otherwise, the new coefficient vector is computed according to (9).

Although the convergence of the iterative procedures has not

been strictly guaranteed, a sufficient condition for convergence

has been provided in [10] and [12]. Numerical examples presented in [8][12] also demonstrate the effectiveness of this design strategy.

C. Peak Constraint

In [8] and [12], linearized peak constraints have been developed to control the peak errors. Here, we will reformulate the

peak constraints as SOC constraints, which can better approximate the true peak constraints.

Using (2), the peak constraints are given by

(17)

denotes the prescribed peak error limit. Like the difwhere

ficulty encountered in formulating the design problem (4), the

true peak constraint also has the denominator on the left-hand

If

is analytic in a region enclosed by a contour in

be the

the plane, except at a finite number of poles, let

be the number of poles of the function

number of zeros and

in , where each zero and pole is counted according to its

multiplicity. Then, we have

(20)

In order to develop a stability constraint for IIR digital filter

designs, we consider the following monic polynomial function

(21)

Here, the contour is an origin-centered circle with the prescribed radius , i.e.,

. Then, according

lie strictly in the

to the AP stated earlier, all the zeros of

region enclosed by if and only if the following equation is

satisfied

(22)

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IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON CIRCUITS AND SYSTEMSI: REGULAR PAPERS, VOL. 56, NO. 3, MARCH 2009

Note that

denotes a diagonal mathe page. In (30),

on its th diagonal. By computing

trix with

the integral of (24) over

, the stability constraint (24) is

strictly expressed as

(32)

(23)

where

where

denotes the argument of

. The first term on

the right-hand side of (23) is always equal to zero, since

is an even function of and

is closed. According to (21),

can be expanded as

on

the argument of

, i.e.,

, and then, the stability constraint (22) can be

simplified by

(33)

roots of

outside

and

roots inside , it can be easily verified that

. Then, given a denominator

has a stair

shape with respect to .

Equation (32) cannot be incorporated directly as a constraint

is in neither linear

into the design problem of (13), since

form nor SOC form of . In our design, we construct a new

stability constraint as

(24)

Thus, the stability constraint (24) of an IIR digital filter is stated

as follows. An IIR digital filter with the denominator

is

stable, if and only if the total change in the argument of

is equal to 0, when the integral is carried out along counterclockwise.

(34)

Decreasing makes more poles move inside the circle . When

, all poles will lie inside .

An obstacle encountered in constructing the stability criterion (34) is the existence of denominator, depending on in

. Here, we adopt the similar iterative strategy mentioned

in Section II. At the th iteration,

is modified as

B. Stability Constraint

The polynomial function

can be expressed as

(25)

where

(35)

(26)

As the iterative procedure converges, it follows that

. Then, we can obtain that

(27)

In (27),

argument of

is then computed by

(28)

we obtain

can guarantee the stability of the IIR digital

filter obtained at the th iteration as is large enough. Note

is an indefinite matrix, this explicit

that since

(29)

(30)

..

.

..

..

..

.

(31)

JIANG AND KWAN: IIR DIGITAL FILTER DESIGN WITH NEW STABILITY CONSTRAINT BASED ON AP

stability constraint cannot be transformed into an SOC constraint. Therefore, we combine the stability constraint with the

constraint (11)

(36)

and 200, respectively.

587

A. Example 1

The first example taken from [12] is to design a low-pass

digital filter. The ideal frequency response is defined as

where

(37)

(38)

represents a zero matrix of size

. Then,

in (14) and (15) is replaced by

. Since

increases rapidly when any pole leaves the prescribed region ,

essentially serves as a barrier function in (36). This design strategy has been utilized in [16] for the IIR digital filter design. In [16], the authors construct the cost function by linearly

combining the WLS criterion and the time-domain component

which serves as the implicit stability constraint. In practice, we

, which corresponds

can decrease to achieve lower

. Therefore, besides the preto decreasing of (34) as

scribed maximum pole radius , the parameter also plays

an important role of restricting poles locations. On the other

approach an indefinite mahand, increasing makes

trix, which cannot be used to formulate the SOC constraint in

(13). Therefore, cannot be too close to 1. Simulation experience indicates that is normally within the [0.99, 0.999999]

range. The effects of on the design results will be illustrated

in Example 2.

Finally, the design steps of the proposed iterative algorithm

are summarized as follows.

, filter orStep 1) Given the ideal frequency response

and , and weighting function

, set

ders

, and choose an initial guess

.

Step 2) Set

, and compute

by (6),

In (38),

by (37), and

to calculate

by (14) and

by

the SOCP problem (13)

(15). Finally, solve for

with peak constraints (18).

by (9). If the stopping

Step 3) Update the coefficients

condition (16) is satisfied, or exceeds the maximum number of iterations, terminate the iterative

procedure. Otherwise, go to Step 2) and continue.

IV. SIMULATIONS

In this section, four examples are presented to demonstrate

the effectiveness of the proposed method. We have implemented

the proposed design method by SeDuMi[28] in MATLAB. The

errors of magnitude (MAG) and group delay (GD)

peak and

are adopted as measurements within frequency bands of interest.

In all designs, the step size in (9), the parameter in (16), and

are chosen

.

as 18. The prescribed maximum pole radius is set to

The weighting function used in this example is set to 1 over the

entire frequency band. The parameter used in (37) is set to

0.999. All initial numerator coefficients are chosen as 1, and the

,

initial denominator coefficient vector is set to

i.e., all the initial poles locate on the origin of the plane. It takes

the algorithm 49 iterations to converge to the final solution. The

maximum pole radius of the obtained IIR filter is 0.9226. The

MAG and GD responses are shown in Fig. 1. For comparison,

we also designed the low-pass filter using the least four-power

method of [12] under the same specifications. The maximum

pole radius of the IIR filter obtained by [12] is 0.9407. The MAG

and GD responses in the passband are also shown in Fig. 1. The

errors in the passband are summarized in Table I.

peak and

It can be seen that the proposed method can achieve better performances in the least squares sense.

In order to illustrate the effectiveness of peak constraints foris then modmulated in (18), the ideal frequency response

ified as

( 35 dB)

straints on the stopband

for

. The weighting function

is set to 1 over the passband and stopband and 0 over the transition band. After 65 iterations, the iterative procedure converges

to the final solution. The design results are shown in Fig. 2, and

the peak and errors are shown in Table II. The maximum pole

radius of the obtained filter is 0.9732. We also adopt the WLS

method of [10] to design the filter under the same specifications.

Note that the WLS method in [10] is essentially a special case

. The maximum pole raof the least -power method with

dius of the filter designed by [10] is 0.9620. The design results

are also shown in Fig. 2, and all measurements are summarized

in Table II.

In [10] and [12], the positive-realness-based stability constraint is employed to guarantee the stability of designed filters,

which is expressed as

(39)

This stability criterion is sufficient. However, it cannot be used

to specify an arbitrary maximum pole radius . Results show

that the filters designed by the proposed method in this paper do

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IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON CIRCUITS AND SYSTEMSI: REGULAR PAPERS, VOL. 56, NO. 3, MARCH 2009

Fig. 1. Design results of Example 1. (Solid curves) Designed by the proposed method. (Dashed curves) Designed by the least four-power method of [12].

TABLE I

MEASUREMENTS OF DESIGN RESULTS IN EXAMPLE 1

not always satisfy the stability constraint (39), whereas the filter

is still stable.

B. Example 2

The second example is to design a half-band high-pass filter

[16]. The ideal frequency response is given by

. The prescribed

. The weighting function

maximum pole radius is set to

for

and

is chosen as

0 for

. The parameter is specified as

0.99996. The initial numerator coefficients are all set to 1, as in

Example 1. The initial poles are uniformly located on the unit

circle, i.e.,

(40)

It takes the algorithm 72 iterations to converge to the final solution. The design results are shown in Fig. 3. All the peak and

errors are summarized in Table III. The maximum pole radius

of the designed IIR high-pass filter is 0.9782. We also adopt the

WISE method of [16] to design the IIR high-pass filter under the

same specifications. The maximum pole radius of the obtained

filter is 0.9852. The design results and all measurements are also

given in Fig. 3 and Table III. Apparently, the proposed method

can achieve better performances.

In order to demonstrate the effects of the parameter on

the design results, we designed the high-pass filters with different . We performed the design procedures for 20 times

by increasing from 0.99 to 1. Fig. 4 shows the variation of

maximum pole radii with respect to . As mentioned earlier,

the poles approach the prescribed maximum pole radius when

gradually augmenting . Fig. 5 shows the variation of the total

,

number of iterations with respect to . Note that, as

the design problem is essentially formulated in the WLS sense

without any stability constraint, and the iterative procedure

cannot converge within the specified maximum number of

in (37) is

iterations. We find that when

still positive semidefinite. Fig. 5 shows that we can improve

the convergence speed of the iterative procedure by decreasing

. However, the maximum pole radius of the designed filter

should be

can also be reduced. Therefore, the parameter

appropriately selected, such that the maximum pole radius of

the designed filter can best approach the specified maximum

pole radius . The simulation results in Figs. 4 and 5 suggest

a way to choose . First of all, specify , and then, set

and perform the design procedure. If the iterative procedure

converges and the obtained poles lie inside , then the design

JIANG AND KWAN: IIR DIGITAL FILTER DESIGN WITH NEW STABILITY CONSTRAINT BASED ON AP

589

Fig. 2. Design results of Example 1 with peak constraints. (Solid curves) Designed by the proposed method. (Dashed curves) Designed by the WLS method of

[10].

TABLE II

MEASUREMENTS OF DESIGN RESULTS WITH PEAK CONSTRAINTS

IN EXAMPLE 1

and

of the designed IIR digital filter is 0.7986. We also utilized the

WLS method of [15] to design the filter. The maximum pole radius of the obtained filter is 0.7233. The design results and all

measurements are also given in Fig. 6 and Table IV.

In [15], a stability constraint based on linearized AP is incorporated in the iterative design progress. At the th iteration, the

stability constraint (32) is replaced by its linear approximation,

i.e.,

be decreased until a satisfied design result is obtained.

C. Example 3

In this example, another low-pass digital filter with the following ideal frequency response is designed:

(41)

Assuming that, at the previous iteration, all poles lie inside ,

. Thus, the stability constraint

then we have

(41) is simplified as

(42)

.

The design specifications are exactly the same as those proposed for the first example in [15]. The filter orders are chosen

as

and

. The prescribed maximum pole radius is

. Note that the weighting function used in [15] is

set to

used in our formulation. Thereessentially equivalent to

fore, we choose the weighting function as

otherwise.

The parameter used in (37) is set to 0.999992. The initial

and

coefficients are chosen as

. After 12 iterations, the algorithm finds the final

solution. The design results are shown in Fig. 6. All the peak

. Like

which is a linear equality constraint with respect to

the Rouch-theorem-based stability constraint, the iterative procedure incorporating (42) as the stability constraint has to start

from a denominator whose poles lie inside . Fig. 7 shows the

values of

during the iterative procedure of

the proposed method. It can be seen that the maximum pole radius of the designed IIR filter can still be less than , even when

the stability constraint (42) is not satisfied.

D. Example 4

The last example is to implement an equalization and antialiasing filter [14], [29], which follows an analog antialiasing

filter and a sampler, to equalize the MAG and phase (or GD)

responses of the analog filter in the passband and increase the

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IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON CIRCUITS AND SYSTEMSI: REGULAR PAPERS, VOL. 56, NO. 3, MARCH 2009

Fig. 3. Design results of Example 2. (Solid curves) Designed by the proposed method. (Dashed curves) Designed by the WISE method of [16].

TABLE III

MEASUREMENTS OF DESIGN RESULTS IN EXAMPLE 2

cascaded system is defined by

, where

is the frequency response

denotes the sampling period. The

of the analog filter and

transfer function

of the analog filter is given in [29]. The

can be used as a free parameter to minimize

desired delay

. In [29], the best FIR filter design according to the complex

, while an

Chebyshev criterion has been presented with

IIR filter with

has been designed in [14] under the least

squares sense. In our designs, the best result can be obtained

. Filter

when the desired GD in the passband is set as

and

. The prescribed maximum pole

orders are

JIANG AND KWAN: IIR DIGITAL FILTER DESIGN WITH NEW STABILITY CONSTRAINT BASED ON AP

591

Fig. 6. Design results of Example 3. (Solid curves) Designed by the proposed method. (Dashed curves) Designed by the WLS method with linearized AP-based

stability constraint of [15].

TABLE IV

MEASUREMENTS OF DESIGN RESULTS IN EXAMPLE 3

radius is chosen as

. The parameter

0.99994. The weighting function is set as

is selected as

otherwise.

, and

The initial point is also set as

. The proposed method takes 69 iterations to

reach the final solution. The maximum pole radius of the designed IIR filter is 0.9673. The MAG responses, phase errors,

and GDs of analog filter, designed IIR equalization and antialiasing filter, and cascaded system are shown in Fig. 8. We

also designed the filter under the same specifications by using

the GaussNewton method proposed in [14]. The maximum

pole radius of the obtained filter is 0.9810. All the peak and

errors of MAG and GD responses of designed IIR equalization

and antialiasing filters are summarized in Table V.

In [14], the Rouch theorem is employed to develop a stability

chosen with all

constraint. Given an initial denominator

its roots inside , then all denominators

Fig. 7. Values of

posed method.

(rqq

)

satisfy

(43)

where

.

Note that initial denominator polynomials with roots outside ,

such as (40), cannot be used by the design processes which adopt

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IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON CIRCUITS AND SYSTEMSI: REGULAR PAPERS, VOL. 56, NO. 3, MARCH 2009

Fig. 8. Design results of Example 4. (Solid curves) Cascaded system. (Dashed curves) Equalizer designed by the proposed method. (Dash-dotted curves) Analog

filter.

TABLE V

MEASUREMENTS OF DESIGN RESULTS IN EXAMPLE 4

required by the proposed method in this paper. Like (39), the

Rouch-theorem-based stability constraint is only a sufficient

condition to ensure stability. Moreover, in order to guarantee

the stability, these two constraints must be satisfied at all fre. A traditional way to incorporate these conquencies

straints is to impose them on a dense frequency grid, which,

however, greatly increases the number of constraints. Unlike

(39) and (43), the new proposed stability constraint in this paper

rather than at

is realized over the whole frequency band

each frequency.

V. CONCLUSION

In this paper, an IIR digital filter design method with a new

AP-based stability constraint has been presented. As compared with the previous design methods using the reweighting

technique, the design problem is formulated as an iterative

SOCP problem, which can handle both linear and SOC constraints. Therefore, some more complicated constraints, such

as quadratic peak error constraints, can be further incorporated.

Another advantage of the design method is that the stability

constraint is deduced from AP, which is both sufficient and necessary for stability. Finally, the proposed stability constraint is

imposed on the whole frequency band, which greatly facilitates

the design progress. In order to incorporate it into the design

procedure, the similar reweighting technique is employed,

and the stability constraint is then combined with the iterative

procedure. If the iterative procedure converges and parameters

and

are appropriately selected, the stability constraint

can guarantee the stability of the designed filter. When the

maximum pole radius is given, by adjusting the parameter

, we can also control poles locations. The robustness and

effectiveness of the proposed approach have been demonstrated

in this paper by four numerical examples.

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degrees in the electrical engineering from Nanjing

University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Nanjing, China, in 2001 and 2004, respectively. He is

currently working toward the Ph.D. degree in the

Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering,

University of Windsor, Windsor, ON, Canada.

His research interests include optimization and

its applications to digital signal processing and

communications.

D.I.C. and Ph.D. degrees in electrical engineering

(signal processing) from Imperial College London,

London, U.K., in 1981.

He was a Design Engineer in electronics and

computer memory industry in Hong Kong during

19771978 and a Faculty Member with the Department of Electronic Engineering, The Hong

Kong Polytechnic University, during 1981 and,

subsequently, with the Department of Electrical and

Electronic Engineering, The University of Hong

Kong, Pokfulam, Hong Kong. He is currently with the University of Windsor,

Windsor, ON, Canada, where he has been a Professor in electrical and computer

engineering since 1989. The area of his research interests is digital filter theory

and intelligent techniques for signal processing.

Dr. Kwan is a Licensed Professional Engineer (Ontario), a Chartered

Electrical Engineer (U.K.), and a Fellow of the Institution of Engineering

and Technology (U.K.). He has a variety of teaching, administrative, and

professional experiences and had served as Chairs and various officers in the

Digital Signal Processing Technical Committee and the Neural Systems and

Applications Technical Committee of the IEEE Circuits and Systems Society.

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