You are on page 1of 41
University of Miami Sports Nutrition Performance Guide The Official Canes Supplement Guide Lisa Dorfman, MS,

University of Miami Sports Nutrition Performance Guide

The Official Canes Supplement Guide

Lisa Dorfman, MS, RD, CSSD, LMHC—UM Sports Nutritionist

ldorfman@miami.edu

305-854-1065

How to Use This Guide

As a college athlete, you are striving to reach your personal best in sports, health and life. Besides training, nutrition is the most important influence on sports performance. Nutrition—what you eat and drink during training and competition can make the difference between:

the average athlete and aspiring professional,

the chronically injured and ill athletes and those who maintain good health, and

athletes who drag throughout their workouts and life vs. those who are energized and strive to be the best in all aspects of their lives.

Sometimes it is tempting to take the easy way out—drink, consume, or even inject your way to more energy, strength, muscle mass or weight loss, fat and lethargic workouts. Taking supplements is a risky business in college sports. At best they can give you a quick boost of energy, speed or power but at worst they can cause a positive substance test, eliminate you from playing colegicially or professionally, and may even cause permanent damage to your body.

This supplement guide will help you understand the NCAA legal standpoint on supplements, sort out fact from fiction on all the latest supplements and direct you towards selecting foods for a healthy diet complete with the vitamins, minerals, protein and amino acids vs. supplements to meet the daily dietary demands of your sport in addition to helping you prepare and recover from any competition.

Athletes who may benefit from calorie dense shakes and bars such as the University of Miami’s Muscle Milk shakes, bars and Gatorade products are:

those who cannot meet their caloric needs on a normal whole foods diet, and

all athletes as a post training or competition recovery fuel.

Sport drinks such as Gatorade replace valuable electrolytes lost through sweat, and muscle sugars needed for energy during training and competition. Electrolytes help the body’s cells to communicate efficiently. Electrolytes like sodium, which allows the body to retain fluids after consuming liquids, potassium, phosphate, magnesium, calcium, and chloride, are vital elements that allow for optimal performance in athletic challenges. After exercise, there is and increase in blood sugar levels, increase in loss of water soluble nutrients, and an increase in urination which may call for vitamin and/or mineral supplements to help athletes prevent dietary deficiencies or conditions such as iron deficiency anemia, lactose intolerance, GI issues, or other special dietary restrictions such as vegetarianism which can compromise the dietary intake and absorption of iron, calcium, B vitamins, and minerals.

Whether you can actually benefit from extra vitamins, minerals, shakes or bars is up to your personal doctor or UM sports nutritionist. It is best not to purchase any products without their approval since you can run the risk of toxicities which can impair your performance and/or be tainted with illegal substances.

You can meet with the UM sports Nutritionist Lisa Dorfman via email, in person or by phone to evaluate your dietary needs. The consultation will include a nutritional evaluation to get an analysis of your current diet to find out your dietary strengths and weaknesses in order to personalize a program just for you.

To make an appointment with Lisa Dorfman call 305-854-1065 or by email at ldorfman@miami.edu.

University of Miami Sports Performance Guide

Table of Contents

I.

Introduction

a. Energy Intake

b. What is a supplement?

c. NCAA rules and regulations: Legalities and contamination

d. Steroids and Hormones

II.

Supplemental Fluids

a. Sports drinks

b. Electrolytes

c. Energy drinks

d. Caffeine

e. Alcohol

III.

Muscle Building

a. Creatine

b. HMB

c. Chromium

d. ZMA

IV.

Amino Acids

a. Arginine

b. Beta-Alanine

c. BCAA

d. Glutamine

e. L-Carnitine

V.

Vitamins

a. Vitamin C

b. Vitamin B

c. Vitamin E

VI.

Minerals

a. Calcium

 

b. Iron

VII.

Fatty Acids

a.

Omega – 3 Fatty Acid

b.

CLA’s

VIII.

Herbs

IX.

Appendix A: Evaluating Popular Sports Nutrition Supplements—Ellen Coleman, RD

X.

Appendix B: Sport/Nutrition Bars

Acknowledgement

With appreciation to my summer interns, Jacqueline Salk and Meredith Degnan for assisting me with the completion of this guide.

Dietary Guide for Sports Training

To be successful in athletic performances, an athlete has to have a mixture of good genetics,

proper training and a healthy approach to diet and nutrition. The human body must be supplied

continuously with energy in order to perform its many complex functions. As a person’s energy

demands increase with exercise, the body must provide additional energy or the exercise will

cease. Nutrients are needed by the body for providing energy, building body structures, and the

regulation of body functions. With that in mind, Lisa Dorfman’s Hurricanes Sports Nutrition

Performance Eating Program was developed exclusively for the University of Miami athletes as

a general food guide for training and competition. While each and every athlete has varying

needs for calories, protein, fat, carbohydrates, vitamins and minerals based on many factors

including their age, weight, height, sex, genetics, health status, fitness & training level, the

2400-calorie plan for female athletes and 3500- calorie plan for male athletes can be used as a

starting point for getting adequate nutrition, building energy and endurance, developing lean

muscle mass and strength and preventing issues such as dehydration, vitamin and mineral

imbalances, and deficiencies which can impact training and performance.

Additional calories may be required for more intense training athletes, larger athletes, athletes training more than 2 hours each day, athletes combining strength and endurance training, and those athletes with high metabolism to meet daily energy requirements. When additional calories are required, healthy food sources such as fresh fruits and vegetables, whole grains, legumes, anti oxidants, beans and lean proteins like chicken, fish, seafood, turkey, egg whites, and non-fat

dairy are recommended. When additional calories cannot be met through food, approved sport bars and shakes, ie NCAA Muscle Milk can be added to a daily diet. A listing of other sport bars can be found in Appendix B.

Program Description

The program is suitable for healthy athletes ages 18-23. The program is moderately high in protein and complex carbohydrates and low in fat, saturated fat and sodium. For men, the dietary needs are 3500 calories & 116 grams of fat, and for women, it is 2400 calories and 80 grams of fat per day. Inadequate calorie intake is associated with dietary deficiencies while excessive calorie intake has short term consequences such as joint pain, injury and delayed recovery from injury, illness, training and competition and long term consequences like obesity, type II diabetes and high blood pressure.

Dietary Guide for Fitness and Sport

The most important component of successful sport training and performance is to ensure

adequate calorie intake to support energy expenditure, maintain strength, endurance, muscle

mass and overall health. Energy and nutrient requirements will vary with weight, height, age,

sex, and metabolic rate and with the type, frequency, intensity, and duration of training.

Recommended Daily Food Servings:

Men: 3500 calories

393 g carbohydrates (46%) 220 grams protein (26%), 108 grams fat (28%)…

4 cups low fat milk, yogurt or dairy equivalent

9 pieces fruit (1 cup juice = 2 fruits)

3 cups vegetables or salad +

4 cups grains or starchy vegetables plus 4 slices bread

20 oz protein or protein substitutes—(140 grams protein )

12 tsp fat –(60 grams )

9 cups -2 liters water, sport drinks, sugar free tea, low cal fluids+ Food Servings and equivalents:

Food Group

portion size

calories

C (GM) F (GM) P (GM)

Protein*

1 oz

55-80

0

1-9

7-9

Starch/Bread*

1 bread/1/2 cup

70-90

15

1+

3-5

Vegetables*

1 cup

50

5

1+

3

Fruit

1 piece

50-70

15

0

0

Dairy*

1 cup

80-100

12

0+

8

Fat/oils

1 tsp

45

0

5

0

*varying fats depending on prep, sauces, oils, other additions

Menu example:

Men- 3500 calories

393 g carbohydrates (46%) 220 grams protein (26%), 108 grams fat (28%)…

Breakfast

1.5 c ww, low sugar cereal

1 c low fat milk

1 banana

1 egg white omelet w/veggies

1-2 oz ham or Canadian bacon

1 cup Orange juice

Snack sport bar or shake fruit water

Lunch

1 cup OJ 2 c salad 8 oz chicken grilled 1 tbsp salad dressing 1 bag baked chips 1 cup 1 % milk

snack 1 smoothie and low fat milk water

Dinner

1 cup veg. soup 1 dinner roll 1 cup green salad 10 oz lean steak 1 cup rice and beans cooked vegetables

snack 1 breakfast/cereal bar water

Women: 2400 calories

288 g carbohydrates (49%) 167 grams protein (28%), 61 grams fat (23%)

4 cups low fat milk/dairy or equivalent

4 pieces fruit (1 cup juice = 2 fruit servings)

3 cups vegetables or salad

2 cups starchy vegetables cereals or grains + 2 slices bread

15 oz protein—(105 grams )

6 tsp fat—(30 grams fat)

9 cups minimum water, tea, fluids+

Food Servings and equivalents:

Food Group

portion size

calories

C (GM) F (GM)

P (GM)

Protein*

1 oz

55-80

0

1-9

7-9

Starch/Bread*

1 bread/1/2 cup

70-90

15

1+

3-5

Vegetables*

1 cup

50

5

1+

3

Fruit

1 piece

50-70

15

0

0

Dairy*

1 cup

80-100

12

0+

8

Fat/oils

1 tsp

45

0

5

0

*varying fats depending on prep, sauces, oils, other additions

Menu example:

Women- 2400 calories

288 g carbohydrates (49%) 167 grams protein (28%), 61 grams fat (23%)

Breakfast

1 c ww, low sugar cereal

1 c lowfat milk

1 banana

1 c orange juice

Snack

1

1

apple

breakfast bar

Lunch

Dinner

1 c melon or pineapple 2 c salad 6 oz chicken grilled 1 tbls salad dressing 6 ww crackers

snack 1 smoothie with low fat milk

1 cup veg soup 1 dinner roll 1 cup green salad 8 oz grilled fish ½ cup rice and beans 1 c cooked vegetables snack 1 yogurt 1 fruit

Consume adequate fluids through water, sport drink, unsweetened tea or sugar free soft drinks, flavored low sugar waters, nonfat milk, smoothies

Snacks/beverages recommended for energy- Fresh fruit, veggies, low fat crackers, flatbread, yogurt, whole grain crackers or cereal, pretzels or baked chips

All rights reserved. No part of this handout can be reproduced without the author’s written permission.

Energy: Calories for Sport

Energy and nutrient requirements vary between individuals because of differences in weight, height, sex, age, and metabolic rate. The time, duration, intensity, and frequency of training will also greatly vary, therefore the determined energy needs for athletes will also vary. Individuals who participate in an overall fitness program, i.e. thirty to forty minutes per day, three times per week can generally meet their daily nutritional needs by following a normal diet providing roughly 1,800-2,400 calories per day. Athletes with a more intense training demands can require anywhere from 2,400 to over 10,000 calories per day (4). Meeting the caloric needs of athletes may not be possible through a whole food diet alone, and may benefit from additional supplementary shakes, cars and snacks. Inadequate amount of calories can cause muscles to breakdown more easily. Moreover, breakfast is always a positive way to start consuming adequate calories to prevent injuries. Breakfast foods such as fortified cereals, peanut butter with whole grain bread, yogurt with fruit, and oatmeal are all good food choices containing much needed nutrients for good quality physical performance.

Sports drinks, some weight gain shakes, bars, and gels help to get athletes extra energy for their training, weight gain or competition. A multivitamin or singular vitamin or mineral can help manage a deficiency such as an iron or calcium deficiency and electrolytes like potassium lost through sweat. A dietary evaluation and/or blood test can help determine the need for a vitamin or supplement before spending money on unnecessary and potentially illegal supplements.

When athletes do not take the time to change their diet but instead are tempted to add supplements to their existing, and perhaps deficient, diet at a great expense. Most supplements will not enhance an athlete’s performance and may even contain NCAA banned and illegal substances which can increase one’s personal health risk and possibly lead to elimination from the team or school.

What is a dietary supplement?

Dietary Supplement—defined by the Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act as something added to the diet, mainly vitamins, minerals, amino acids, herbs or botanicals, metabolites/ constituents/extracts or combination of any of these ingredients. A supplement is intended to aid in getting adequate nutrients from a healthy diet. Supplements can include vitamins, minerals, amino acids, shakes, bars, and sports gels. Athletes attracted to using supplements as a quick fix towards reaching their goal of increase muscle mass, metabolism, stamina, and loss of body fat.

Even seemingly

legal dietary supplements could have been contaminated with small amounts of prohormones or other compounds found on the list of banned substance. This has been the cause of some positive drug tests, and because an athlete signs a code of conduct, he or she is responsible for everything that goes into his or her body. A guide to evaluating sports supplements can be found in Appendix A

One thing an athlete must be aware of is the risk of contamination.

NCAA Banned-Drug Classes 2007-08

The NCAA list of banned-drug classes is subject to change by the NCAA Executive Committee. The term “related compounds” comprises substances that are included in the class by their pharmacological action and/or chemical structure. No substance belonging to the prohibited class may be used, regardless of whether it is specifically listed as an example. Many nutritional/dietary supplements contain NCAA banned substances. In addition, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) does not strictly regulate the supplement industry; therefore purity and safety of nutritional dietary supplements cannot be guaranteed. Impure supplements may lead to a positive NCAA drug test. The use of supplements is at the student-athlete’s own risk. Student-athletes should contact their institution’s team physician or athletic trainer for further information.

Banned Drugs: The following is a list of banned- drug classes, with examples of substances under each class.

 

(a) Stimulants:

(b) Anabolic Agents:

anabolic steroids

methylenedioxymethamphetamine amiphenazole (MDMA, ecstasy)

androstenediol androstenedione boldenone clostebol dehydrochlormethyl- testosterone oxandrolone dehydroepiandro- sterone (DHEA) dihydrotestosterone (DHT) testosterone2 dromostanolone (THG) epitrenbolone fluoxymesterone gestrinone mesterolone

methyltestosterone

amphetamine

meclofenoxate

nandrolone

bemigride

methylphenidate

norandrostenediol

benzphetamine

nikethamide

norandrostenedione

bromantan

octopamine

norethandrolone

caffeine1 (guarana) chlorphentermine cocaine cropropamide crothetamide diethylpropion

pemoline

pentetrazol

phendimetrazine

oxymesterone

phenmetrazine

oxymetholone

phentermine

stanozolol

phenylpropanolamine

dimethylamphet-

tetrahydrogestrinone

amine doxapram ephedrine (ephedra,

picrotoxine pipradol prolintane strychnine synephrine (citrus zhi shi, bitter orange) fencamfamine

trenbolone

ma huang)

ethamivan

other anabolic agents:

aurantium,

methandienone clenbuterol

ethylamphetamine

The following stimulants are not banned:

methamphetamine

phenylephrine

pseudoephedrine

(c) Diuretics and other Urine Manipulators:

(d) Street Drugs:

acetazolamide hydrochlorothiazide bendroflumethiazide hydroflumethiazide benzhiazide methyclothiazide bumetanide metolazone chlorothiazide polythiazide chlorthalidone probenecid

heroin

tetrahydrocannabinol

marijuana

(THC)3

ethacrynic acid

spironolactone (canrenone)

 

finasteride probenecid flumethiazide triamterene furosemide trichlormethiazide

and related compounds

(e) Peptide Hormones & Analogues

(f) Anti Estrogens

Corticotrophin (ACTH)

Anastrozole

Clomphene

Growth Hormone (hGH, Somatotrophin)

Tamoxifen

Human Chorionic Gonadotrophin (hCG)

Insulin like Growth Factors (IGF-I)

Luteinizing Hormone (LH)

Erythropoietin (EPO) Sermorelin

Darbepoetin

Effects of androgenic anabolic steroids in Athletes:

Skin—acne and cysts, oily scalp

Hormonal—disturbance in endocrine and immune function

Physical—short stature, tendon rupture

In kids—premature closing of growth plates

Males—increase sex drive, acne vulgaris, enlarged breasts, testicular hypotrophy,

infertility.

Females—clitoris enlargement, excessive body hair

Metabolic—changes in haemostatic system and urogenital tract, altered glucose metabolism,

immune system suppression, low thyroid hormone levels

Cardiovascular—increase blood pressure, depression of HDL, HDL2, and HDL3 cholesterol

Hepatic system—cancer, pelosis hepatitis, increased liver enzymes, jaundice

Mental Health—Increase aggressive behavior, mood disturbances, i.e. depression, hypomania,

psychosis, homicidal rage, mania, delusions

Infection—HIV/AIDS, hepatitis (from injectable)

Athletic Performance—Increase strength, and lean body mass, no increase in endurance

performance.

Definitions of positive:

1. Caffeine—if the concentration in urine exceeds 15 micrograms/ml.

2. Testosterone – an adverse analytical finding (positive result) based on any reliable analytical method (e.g., IRMS,GCMS, CIR) which shows that the testosterone is of exogenous origin, or if the ratio of the total concentration of testosterone to that of epitestosterone in the urine is greater than 6:1, unless there is evidence that this ratio is due to a physiological or pathological condition.

3. Marijuana

and

nanograms/ml.

THC—if

the

concentration

in

the

urine

of

THC

metabolite

exceeds

15

Starting on the list of banned substances are supplements known as prohormones and anabolic steroids. Prohormones are naturally derived precursors to testosterone and other anabolic steroids. They are popular among body builders because they claim to naturally boost anabolic hormones. There is no evidence that these compounds affect training adaptations, and may even reduce HDL (good cholesterol) and increase LDL (bad cholesterol) (4). Androgenic-anabolic steroids, known as male sex steroid hormones, are used to enhance athletic performance and appearance. Some of the effects, including increased muscle mass, increased bone mineral density, and a decrease in body fat attract steroids to athletes who wish to improve their performance. Short term administration of these drugs can increase strength, body weight, and speed. However, some of the adverse effects associated with these steroids are irreversible, especially in women, and can impact male and female liver, serum lipids, psyche and behavior, and reproductive systems. Neither prohormones nor steroids should be consumed by student athletes, as they are illegal and propose detrimental effects to the person taking them.

Popular Products that contain illegal ingredients:

Hydroxycut (Ephedrine)

Metabogenx (Ephedrine)

Thermospeed (Ephedrine)

Fluids for Hydration

Xenadrine (Bitter Orange)

HydroXadrine (combination of hydroxycut and Xenadrine)

Zantrex 3 (caffeine)

Hydration is very important for an athlete during competition in order to prevent dehydration. Accurate hydration regulates the body’s temperature and is essential for an athlete’s comfort, optimal performance, and safety in any physical activity. Dehydration is defined as percent loss in body weight and can be extremely detrimental, even life threatening, to an athlete during performance. Dehydration can result in a decrease in blood volume, skin blood flow, and sweat rate along with an increase in core body temperature and muscle glycogen uptake (6). Dehydration also causes cramps, dizziness, fatigue, increases chances of heat exhaustion and heat stroke. Sweating increases fluids and water loss, so it is important to realize this factor and take it into account with training in climates such as Miami. Fluid intake requirements increase as ambient temperature and energy expenditure increases. An adequate hydrated state can be assured by a high fluid intake in last few days before competition. Here are some guidelines for proper hydration:

o

A useful check is to observe the color of urine, which should be pale in color. An athlete should not rely on this test if he/she is taking vitamin supplements, as the water-soluble B vitamin riboflavin, can add a yellowish hue to urine.

o

Thirst is an unreliable sign to drink because a considerable degree of dehydration can occur before the desire for fluid intake is evident.

o

In hot and humid environments, frequent consumption of small volumes of fluid are recommended throughout exertion: 3-4 ounces every 15-20 minutes.

Suggested fluid intake for exercise:

o

Before exercise: Consume 16-24 fluid ounces two hours before practice or event and 12 fluid

ounces 15 minutes before.

o

During exercise: Consume 8-12 fluid ounces every 15 minutes for events last longer than one

hour.

Use a 6-8% carbohydrate concentration and a small amount of electrolytes (500-

700mg/L Sodium)

o

After exercise: Try to ingest 150% weight loss; 1.5 Liters/kg body weight lost.

Sports Drinks

NCAA: Permitted

The main goal of a sports drink is to replace losses of nutrients and electrolyte levels with fluid intake and to refuel depleted glycogen stores. Electrolytes are important to athletes involved in prolonged, high intensity exercises. The primary electrolytes added to sports drinks are sodium and potassium, which helps replenish the losses lost through sweating. Sodium maintains blood volume, helps to hydrate athletes by increasing their own thirst mechanism and ensuring that they consume enough fluid, while also increasing water absorption and fluid retention. Potassium is an important factor in action potentials leading to muscle contraction. Proper hydration assists with the cooling of body temperature which is vital to athletic endurance and performance. Consuming a carbohydrate-electrolyte sports drink can allow greater performance by an athlete. (10).

Electrolytes: Potassium, sodium, chloride, and magnesium are mineral salts that can conduct electricity when dissolved in water. For optimal health and athletic performance, it is important that you consumer these nutrients in proper balance. Keep you salt intake low and your potassium intake high because to much sodium chloride can disrupt this balance. Together electrolyte function in maintaining they body’s water balance distribution, kidney and adrenal functions, acid-base balance, muscle and nerve cell functions, and heart functions.

SPORTS DRINK

Exercise

Calories

Carbs

Protein

Fat

Sodium

Potassium

Accelerade

During

140

26g

6.5g

1g

190mg

86mg

Allsport Body Quencher

120

32g

110mg

100mg

Champion Nutrition MET II

After

260

36g

20g

4g

200mg

Champion Nutrition Metabolol

Before

200

24g

14g

5g

210mg

Champion Nutrition Pro-Score 100

After

80

<1g

17g

1g

190mg

Champion Nutrition Revenge

During

100

20g

4g

0.5g

85mg

Champion Nutrition Revenge Sport

During

90

23g

0g

0g

100mg

Carbo Pro

During

224

56.7g

0g

0g

0mg

Cytomax

During

100

20g

0g

0g

80mg

Cytomax Cool Citrus

96

20g

100mg

110mg

Cytomax Complete Whey

After

96

3g

16g

1.5g

150mg

Cytomax Lite

During

80

16g

0g

0g

65mg

Cytomax Pre-Formance

Before

260

35g

26g

2g

50mg

Cytomax Recovery

After

340

18g

26g

18g

100mg

1st Endurance E3

During

96

24g

0g

0g

270mg

Endurox R4

After

270

53g

14g

1g

220mg

Extran Carbohydrate

During

575

145g

0g

0g

0mg

Extran Thirstquencher

During

90

22g

0g

0g

122mg

Gatorade

During

60

15g

0g

0g

200g

60mg

G Plush G1 Hydration Formula

50

12g

340mg

80mg

GU20

During

100

26g

240mg

40mg

Hammer Nutrition HEED

During

100

25g

0g

0g

62mg

Hammer Nutrition Perpetuem Hammer Nutrition Sustained

During

260

54g

6g

2g

231mg

Energy

During

343

73g

10.5g

1g

112mg

Hammer Nutrition Recoverite

After

120

30g

10g

0g

74mg

PowerBar Endurance

During

70

17g

0g

0g

160mg

Powerade

140

38g

110mg

60mg

PowerBar Recovery

After

90

20g

3g

0g

250mg

Sport Quest Interphase

After

172

13g

25g

2g

190mg

Spiz

During

517

94g

20g

5g

580mg

Ultima

During

25

6g

0g

0g

75m

Ultragen

After

320

60g

20g

0g

350mg

Energy Drinks

A competitive athlete is constantly training to become better in his or her sport. Because of this lifestyle, one may complain about fatigue or running out of energy, and turn to an energy drink as a source of replenishment. Most of these “energy drinks” contain carbohydrate and caffeine as the main ingredients, along with other nutrients such as amino acids, vitamins, and minerals. Energy drinks also often contain methylxanthines (caffeine), B vitamins and herbs. The high carbohydrate, typically sugars, provides energy while the caffeine stimulates the central nervous system (2).

Most energy drinks contain > 18-25 grams of carbohydrate and 80 -360mgs of caffeine per eight ounce serving. This high concentration will slow fluid absorption into the blood and impede rehydration during exercise (2). This can cause a number or problems, including gastrointestinal disturbances, nervousness, irritability, muscle twitching, headaches and respiratory problems which can decrease performance. Energy drinks may also cause seizures due to the “crash” effect following the quick bursts of energy it provides. Because of this, energy drinks should not be consumed before, during, or after exercise when rehydration is crucial.

Energy Drink

Caffeine

5 Hour Energy Drink

40mg/fl. oz.

Amp Energy Drink

71mg/8 fl oz.

Red Bull

80mg/8.3 fl oz.

Rockstar Energy Drink-Original

80mg/8 fl. Oz

Caffeine

NCAA: permitted within guidelines: see intake below.

Overview: Caffeine is a central nervous system and metabolic stimulant. It is readily absorbed in the bloodstream after ingestion, as blood levels rise and peak around sixty minutes (6). The improvement in performance is explained by increased fatty acid availability, which leads to a decrease in carbohydrate metabolism and a consequent decrease in glycogen use.

Claim: Caffeine is sold to consumers as an energizing product claiming to increase endurance (and overall) performance, along with increasing alertness.

Intake: If an athlete is testes for caffeine and his/her urine contains over 15 micrograms per milliliter, he will be considered a violator of NCAA guidelines, and will fail the drug test.

Validity: In moderation, caffeine has no adverse health effects; however, it can be accompanied by an upset stomach, nervousness, irritability, headaches, and diarrhea (14). There have been many studies that support the notion that caffeine improves performance during endurance running and cycling, and also short term, high intensity exercise. Caffeine is a diuretic, however, and may decrease the consumer’s overall hydration. Small amounts of caffeine, (less than three mugs of coffee), consumed an hour before exercise may increase overall stamina and performance (1).

Alcohol

NCAA: Not Permitted, not encouraged

Alcohol is a central nervous system depressant. Pure alcohol supplies 7 cal/gram and is a source of energy that is metabolized more like fat. In order to be on top of one’s game, an athlete needs to train and perform intensely on both a mental and physical level. Alcohol has been described as a performance impairing drug. It exerts an effect on most of the organ systems used by the body during exercise, including the central nervous system, muscle energy stores, and the cardiovascular system. Acute effects include effects on motor skills and physical performance, while chronic effects eventually impede physical performance, leading to varying degrees of muscle damage and weakness (16). Alcohol also effects motor coordination and depletes aerobic capacity and endurance for up to 48 hours from the last consumed drink.

Effects on muscle development and recovery:

o

Alcohol use may cancel out gains from your workout by reducing protein synthesis and therefore decreasing muscle build-up.

o

Alcohol causes dehydration and slows down the body’s ability to heal because it is a toxin that travels through the blood stream to every organ and tissue.

o

Alcohol may prevent muscle recovery by decreasing your levels of human growth hormone and testosterone, both of which are important in muscle growth and recovery.

o Alcohol can deplete your sources of energy by altering your body’s ability to make ATP.

Effects on nutrition and endurance:

o

Alcohol use constricts metabolism and endurance.

o

Alcohol use may require increased conditioning to maintain weight because of the extra calorie intake.

o

Alcohol use can inhibit the absorption to vital nutrients including thiamin, vitamin B12, zinc, and folic acid.

o

Alcohol increases fatigue and increases blood pressure making the heart have to work harder and expending more energy.

An athlete needs to be aware that alcohol has negative effects on motor skills, strength and power, and aerobic performance. Alcohol causes abnormal heart rhythms in athletes, weakens cardiac and skeletal muscles, slowly depletes vitamins in the body and interferes with the absorption and storage of new nutrients. The goal of training is to reach peak performance, and athletes cannot reach that goal if they let alcohol consumption get in the way.

Muscle-Building Supplements

Many athletes train to increase strength and speed to optimize their athletic performance. When conventional methods, such as resistance training and diet, do not lead athletes to a quick fix, they may look toward muscle building supplements to increase their lean muscle mass.

Creatine

NCAA: Not illegal, Not permitted

Overview: Creatine is a naturally occurring compound present in most muscle tissue. Creatine is an amino acid normally produced in the body from arginine, glycine and methionine. Most of the creatine in the diet comes from meat, but half of the body’s supply is manufactured in the liver and kidneys. Phosphocreatine in the muscle provides the high energy phosphate for ATP regeneration during the first seconds of high intensity exercise.

Claims: Supplementing with creatine is said to increase phosphocreatine stores in type II (fast twitch) muscle fibers, which can improve contractile function by maintaining ATP turnover, reduce the need for anaerobic glycolysis and lactic acid formation during intense exercise, and result in a higher phosphocreatine synthesis during recovery from high intensity exercise.

Validity: Studies have shown an increase in peak power and total work were observed which positively correlates with an increase in concentration of PCr in type II muscle fibers after supplementation.

Availability: The primary dietary sources of creatine are fish and red meat. Supplements can be found in pill, wafer, and powder forms. Creatine absorption appears to be enhanced when consumed with a high carbohydrate sports drink or juice.

Caffeine may counteract creatine’s benefits on acute intermittent exercise performance and taken in combinations may exert adverse effects including an increase in dehydration.

Also, the use of creatine supplements may be unsafe for those using NSAIDs, renal medication, and diuretics due to possible interaction (11).

Chromium

NCAA: Not illegal

Overview: Chromium is considered an essential mineral in the diet which potentiates insulin action which is critical to the metabolism and storage of carbohydrate, fat, and protein in the body

Claims: It is a very popular supplement because manufacturers claim that it builds muscle and burns fat. The stimulated amino acid uptake is thought to increase protein synthesis and muscle mass gain.

Validity: There has been some research which shows that chromium increases growth, decreases body fat, enhances RNA synthesis, and positively influences the immune system. However, there has been no research supporting the claims that chromium will lower body fat or increase lean muscle mass.

Availability: Chromium can be found in meat, dairy products, whole grain breads and cereals. It is available as a single ingredient supplement as well as in combination forms which include: chromium chloride, chromium nicotinate, chromium picolinate, high chromium yeast, and chromium citrate.

Some medications may interact with chromium, especially if taken on a regular basis. For example, beta- blockers, insulin, and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (ibuprofen and aspirin) may have their effects enhanced if taken together with this supplement. On the other hand, antacids, corticosteroids, and proton pump inhibitors may alter stomach acidity and may lead to impairment of chromium absorption or enhance its secretion when taken in combination. (12).

ZMA – Zinc monomethionine aspartate and Magnesium Aspartate

Overview: ZMA is a supplement used by bodybuilders and athletes. The supplement is a combination of the minerals zinc and magnesium and vitamin B6. All three of these compounds are important in biological processes

Claim: ZMA is said to raise testosterone and IGF-1 levels which may aid in gaining muscle size and strength.

Validity: Most studies have found no effects on strength, hormone levels, or increased anaerobic capacity due to taking ZMA supplements.

Beta-Hydroxy Beta Methylbutyrate (HMB)

NCAA: Not illegal, Not permitted

Overview: HMB is a metabolite of the essential amino acid leucine which is claimed to increase lean- body mass and strength and also to improve recovery. Protection against stress, reduced body fat, lower blood cholesterol, and an improved immune function are also claims made by this supplement which has grown in popularity in the past few years (6).

Claim: Promotes loss of body fat, helps build muscles, improved immune functions, increases strength and speeds up recovery between workouts by decreasing post workout soreness.

Validity: There is little evidence to support these claims. While there have been studies conducted with HMG have shown an increase in lean muscle mass, most of the findings are from one laboratory and need to be confirmed by others as well. Also, studies that have shown an increase in muscle mass were conducted on untrained athletes and the elderly. More information is needed when looking at the effect of HMB on trained athletes.

Availability: HMB is not essential in our diets. It comes from animal and plant origin and there are small amounts in citrus fruit, catfish, and alfalfa.

Amino Acids

The contractile proteins actin and myosin are the most abundant proteins in muscle accounting for approximately 80-90% of all muscle protein, which contains all of the naturally occurring amino acids. The most abundant amino acids are branch chain amino acids: leucine, valine, and isoleucine, which account for 20% of total amino acids found in muscle protein. Amino acids generate a wide variety of processes, constantly undergoing synthesis and degradation. Protein can not exist with out the correct combination of amino acids. Amino acids are vital for healthy muscles, ligaments, tendons, organs, glands, and most body fluids. They allow muscles to contract and hold water they also stimulate the production of anti-bodies. Amino degradation has two main purposes: They get oxidized in the mitochondria for energy, and lead to the synthesis of other compounds (such as neurotransmitters, hormones, and other proteins).

Arginine

NCAA: Not illegal, Not Permitted

Claims: Many protein powders and energy shakes contain this amino acid, marketing it as a nitric oxide producing, muscle-building supplement. Nitric oxide, in theory, is thought to be useful to athletes as it opens the blood vessels allowing for greater circulation of oxygen to all the organs, muscles, and internal systems. Additionally, it is said to stimulate the release of human growth hormone which in turn will increase muscle growth and strength. Arginine is a protein synthesis and is necessary for the proper function of burning fat and is excellent in would healing and bone repair.

Claims: Marketed to enhance muscle growth, strength, and to jumpstart the immune system.

Validity: Most studies have determines that arginine will not increase muscle mass, and in fact, may cause numerous health problems including diarrhea, nausea, dizziness, and thickening of skin. Moreover, arginine has been found to stimulate a relapse of the herpes virus (15).

Availability: Natural sources of arginine are found in brown rice, carob, chocolate, nuts, oatmeal, peanuts, peanut butter, raisins, raw cereal, sesame and sunflower seeds, and whole wheat products.

Branched Chain Amino Acids (BCAA’s)

NCAA: Not illegal, Not Permitted

Overview: BCAA’s are three essential amino acids (leucine, isoleucine, and valine) present throughout muscle tissue and are advertised as important muscle boosters during exercise as they may halt the breakdown of muscle tissue during anaerobic activity. In theory, these amino acids prevent the build-up of tryptophan in the blood during exercise, which, if left free in the blood, signal fatigue to the brain.

Claims: Manufacturers claim that BCAAs enhance performance and allow the athlete to overcome fatigue. Decreases mental fatigue, increases fat free mass, minimizes protein degredation and loss of mass,

Validity: Some evidence at high altitudes.

Availability: Dairy and red meat are good sources of BCAAs, as well as whey, protein, and eggs.

Beta-Alanine

NCAA: Not Illegal, Not permitted

Overview: Beta-Alanine is a non-essential amino acid made by our bodies. When combined with histidine, another amino acid, it creates the dipeptide carnosine. Carnosine is important to our muscles because it helps balance out the muscle’s pH, which in turn reduces fatigue. When lactic acid accumulates in muscles, carosine works as a buffer by prolonging the ability of the muscle to do work.

Claims: Marketed as the next big bodybuilding supplement, beta-alanine is said to increase muscle mass, strength, endurance, and also fight fatigue. A beta-alanine supplement is more effective than ingesting straight carnosine as a supplement because your gastrointestinal tract will break carnosine down before it can reach the muscles.

Validity: Carnisine has been shown to buffer the acidic properties of the muscle during intense activity. Also, its presence in the muscle had direct correlation to the overall strength of the subject being tested, along with an increase of muscle mass over a period of weeks during which beta-alanine was being supplemented in the diet.

Availability: Beta-alanine is found in eggs, meat, chicken, plants, and some dairy. It is also synthesized in the body. It can be found in supplement form in products like Athletic Edge Nutrition Intra Xcell, and Millennium Sport Carnage.

Glutamine

NCAA: Not Illegal, Not Permitted

Overview: Glutamine is one of the most common amino acids in human muscle and the most abundant protein in muscle tissue. The amino acid is needed to synthesize protein and transporting nitrogen between tissues. Glutamine is needed by the body in times of extreme physical activity and when your immune system is fighting off an illness.

Claims: Improve rapid water absorption, stimulation of muscle protein synthesis and muscle tissue growth, increased immune system and prevention of infection, reduction in muscle soreness and improved muscle tissue repair, and helps burn more fat while preserving the muscles and minimizing discomfort.

Intake: 10g per day. Take immediately after training by mixing the powder with juice or Gatorade. Intense training will drop plasma glutamine levels and low levels of glutamine have been a contributing factor in athletic overtraining syndrome and an increased risk for infection that effects athletes during training and competition.

Validity: Glutamine is thought to be relatively safe and well tolerated, yet is not recommended for those with kidney disorders. Excessive doses may cause gastrointestinal problems.

Availability: Beef, fish, poultry, eggs, and dairy are good forms of glutamine in the diet. It is available as a bulk powder-- essentially tasteless. Powder brands: NOW glutamine powder, Precision

Engineeredglutamine powder, Prolab® Glutamine Powder, Syntrax Glu FMglutamine powder.

L-Carnitine

NCAA: Not Illegal, Not Permitted

Overview: Carnitine is made from several amino acids in your body, mainly lysine and methionine. It is a vitamin-like substance important for fatty acid transport.

Claim: In theory, supplementing carnitine will increase glucose metabolism, VO2 max, and reduce lactate production during high intensity exercise. However, the most important claim resides in the fact that carnitine is a “fat burner”, increasing fat metabolism and decreases fatty build up. Endurance athletes use this supplement In order to spare muscle glycogen by the relying of fat oxidation.

Validity: Most controlled experiments have failed to show effects of carnitine supplementation. There was no positive impact on fat oxidation or glycogen breakdown in endurance exercise. Neither VO2max nor lactate accumulation were altered during high-intensity exercise (6).

Availability: Can be found in animal products like meat and dairy, and as a general rule, the redder the meat, the higher the carnitine content. Forms of the dietary supplement are L-carnitine, acetyl-L- carnitine, and propionyl-L-carnitine.

General Warning: Weight loss pills being bought on the internet can do you more harm than good. Pills and supplements may contain hazardous ingredients without any warnings on the labels. Many of the ingredients found in some supplements have been banned from the U.S. but are still being used as key ingredients.

Vitamins

Vitamins are organic compounds needed in small quantities in the diet and are essential for specific metabolic reactions in the body and for promoting growth and development. Vitamins reduce exercise induced oxidative stress experienced by athletes. Athletes need more vitamins because of their higher rate of energy metabolism and higher muscular and skeletal stresses. Essential vitamins like K and D, cannot be produced by the body and therefore must be taken in by the diet. Reductions in body function and impaired health are results of vitamin deficiencies, which can affect an athlete’s performance during crucial times in competition. Although physical activity may increase requirements for some vitamins, it can usually be met by consuming a balanced diet. Therefore, it is important to eat a wide variety of foods to reach optimal vitamin intake since many vitamins work in concert to obtain maximum benefits.

To maximize vitamin intake from you diet try:

- eating a variety of colorful fruits and vegetables.

- Eat fresh fruits and vegetables, especially those in season.

- Steam or microwave vegetables rather than boiling them – nutrients tend to seep out in boiling water.

- Don’t overcook vegetables, long cooking times reduce nutrient content.

B Vitamins

NCAA: Permitted

Overview: Increased energy metabolism creates a need for more of the B vitamins that serve as part of coenzymes involved in the energy cycles. Studies have shown, however, that athletes can become depleted in some B vitamins so a dietary change or supplementation will improve exercise performance. For some athletes, such as wrestlers, gymnasts, or rowers, who consume low-calorie diets for long periods, a B vitamin supplement to meet the RDA may be appropriate. Without the B vitamins, the body would be lacking the energy to function normally. Thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, pantothenic acid, and biotin form coenzymes which help the body metabolize the food we eat into energy. Vitamin B6 helps to metabolize amino acids while vitamin B12 increases red blood cells that move energy throughout the body. Many athletes do not get the recommended amount of B vitamins through their diet.

Claims: This vitamin family is marketed as supplying energy to athletes to assist in their best performance. They increase the oxygen carrying capacity and convert food to usable energy.

Intake: RDA for vitamin B6 is 2-2.5mg/day. RDA for vitamin B12 is 4-6mcg/day. B6 upper tolerance is 100mg/day; if too much is taken, it could possible result in nerve damage in arms and legs.

Availability: B vitamins can be found in meat, dairy products, green, leafy vegetables, nuts, and enriched grains, along with multi-vitamins.

Vitamin C

NCAA: Permitted

Overview: Vitamin C is involved in a number of important biochemical pathways that are important to exercise metabolism and the health of athletes. Vitamin C is also an important antioxidant that protects the body form free radical damage. It guards the body’s tissues from oxidative stress, which can occur during competition and high intensity exercise, and helps the immune system fight off disease and illness. Additionally, this vitamin helps with the absorption of iron, which is also a very important ingredient in an athlete’s diet.

Claim: Many suppliers sell vitamin C as a key supplement for athletes in order to decrease the common cold and sicknesses, and improve overall health. Vitamin C also helps for the connective tissue protein known as collagen. Athletes involved in concussive sports require more collagen and therefore many benefit from higher levels of vitamin C.

Validity: Vitamin C supplement has been shown to increase performance in those that were in a deficient state, however, no improvement was shown in those with a healthy and adequate intake of the vitamin. With regards to the immune system, however, vitamin C has been found to improve the healing process overall.

Intake: The RDA for calcium is 90mg/day for men and 75mg/day for women. The upper limit intake is 2000mg/day. When taken in large doses, it is possible for vitamin C to interfere with the absorption and metabolism of vitamin B12.

Availability: Fresh fruits and vegetables are the best source of this vitamin, especially strawberries, broccoli, oranges, watermelon, red peppers, and kiwi. It is also found in many multi-vitamins. It is advised that the proper precautions should be taken into account when cooking foods with Vitamin C because it is easily destroyed in heat.

Vitamin E

NCAA: Permitted

Overview: Vitamin E encompasses a family of eight antioxidants, mainly alpha-tocopherol, which is the only form that is actively maintained in its largest quantities in blood and tissue. Its main function in the body is that of an antioxidant which intercepts free radicals and prevents a chain reaction of lipid destruction.

Claim: Vitamin E is said to function as antioxidants, which is important in preventing oxidative damage to cellular structure and function during exercise, supposedly optimizing preparation for competition.

Intake: RDA for vitamin E is 15mg/day for males and females.

Validity: According to Melvin H. Williams, Ph.D., FACSM, “Vitamin E has been shown to enhance oxygen utilization during exercise at altitude, but does not appear to be an effective ergogenic under sea level conditions. A contemporary review indicated that although vitamin E supplementation may increase tissue or serum vitamin E concentration, most evidence suggests there is no discernable effect on training, performance, or rate of post-exercise recovery in either recreational or elite athletes “ (8).

Availability: Food sources for vitamin E are vegetable oils, nuts, whole grains, and green leafy vegetables, liver and corn. It can also be found in a multi-vitamin.

Minerals

Minerals are inorganic compounds essential to life processes. Inadequate mineral nutrition is associated with a variety of diseases including anemia, hypertension, osteoporosis, and diabetes (6). It is because of this that minerals are necessary for optimal health and performance. Minerals provide a path for electrical impulses that stimulate muscular movement and coordination. They strengthen the skeletal structure keeping it resistant to fractures, and maintain an acid0-base balance in the blood and tissue critical for endurance performances.

Their functions include:

o

building blocks for bodily tissues such as teeth and bones (Calcium and Phosphorus)

o

Enzyme function in metabolism (Magnesium, Copper, and Zinc)

o

Function of immune cells (Iron, Zinc)

o

Electrolytes (Sodium, Potassium, Chloride)

Calcium

NCAA: Permitted

Overview: Calcium is an important part of our body’s structure, making up our bones, teeth, parts of our cells, and out phospholipids. Calcium is also a regulator when it comes to muscle contractions, hormones, nerves, blood clotting, and many other vital parts of our system.

Claim: The main marketing for calcium is an improvement in bone density.

Intake: RDA for calcium is 1000-1300mg/day for adults. Low intake of this mineral can lead to deficiencies and undesirable health conditions.

Validity: Supplemented calcium intake over the recommended amount showed higher bone density in tested subjects. Athletic performance also increased bone density, as did sun exposure, which supports the claim that vitamin D is a necessary component of calcium absorption and bioavailability (17).

Availability: Calcium can be found in dairy products such as yogurt, milk, and cheese, along with sunflower seeds, tofu, dried beans and peas, lentils, dark green vegetables like broccoli, spinach, collards and green peppers. The two main forms of the supplement are calcium carbonate and calcium citrate and can also be found in multivitamins.

Iron

NCAA: Permitted

Overview: Iron as one of the most critical implications for sport performance. As a component of hemoglobin, it is instrumental in transporting oxygen from the lungs to the tissues, making oxygen

available to the working muscles. This mineral also makes up part of the protein in muscles. If an athlete has an iron deficiency, it will seriously hinder his or her endurance, immune system, and mood. Iron is marketed for muscle function, energy utilization, and increasing oxygen capacity to the blood and

muscles. Athletes at risk for developing low iron stores are the rapidly growing male adolescent, the female athlete with heavy menstrual losses, the athlete with an energy-restricted diet, distance runners who may have increased gastrointestinal iron loss, hematuria, hemolysis due to foot impact, myoglobin leakage, and those training heavily in hot climates with heavy sweating. Iron deficiency anemia is a condition that causes endurance problems in athletes characterized by the body’s poor oxygen carrying capacity.

Claim: Marketed for muscle function, energy utilization, and increasing oxygen capacity.

Intake: Those who may require an iron supplement include female endurance athletes, gymnasts, vegetarians, and those undergoing restricted energy intakes. Prolonged consumption of large amounts of iron can cause a disturbance in iron metabolism in susceptible individuals, with an accumulation in the liver. Also, excess iron intake may reduce absorption of other cations, including zinc and copper.

Validity: There have been many studies that have found that female athletes and endurance athletes have problems with iron deficiencies. This deficiency decreases immune system ability and increases fatigue, irritability, and a short attention span.

Availability: The most easily absorbed iron is heme iron which comes from red meat or animal products. Non-heme iron can be found in fruits, vegetables, and fortified cereals and its absorption can be enhanced by consuming foods high in Vitamin C. Iron is also available in many multi vitamins.

Fatty Acids:

Omega – 3 Fatty Acid

NCAA: Permitted

Overview: Alpha linolenic Acid or omega-3 fatty acid is an extremely important polyunsaturated fat that aids in helping prevent heart diseases, pulmonary disease, and many other disorders. The body metabolizes omega-3 fatty acids into prostaglandins and eicosanoids, which work similar to hormones.

Claim: Reduce triglyceride levels, smoothens muscle contractions, prevents blood platelets from clumping together, and can reduce the risk of heart attacks. Studies have also shown that Omega-3 fatty acid may reduce joint pain, stiffness, and inflammation. Lastly, omega-3 fatty acid has also been shown to lower “bad” cholesterol and raise the “good” cholesterol.

Intake: People with bleeding disorders should consult a doctor before taking supplements.

Validity: Exact function are still not know for certain but research suggests that omega 3 fatty acid may benefit the heart, blood clotting, and the dilation or relaxation of blood vessels.

Availability: Eicosapentaenoic (EPA) Acid and docosahexaaenoic acid (DHA) are found in fish oil. Cold water fish provide the most abundant source of essential fatty acids. Fish sources include anchovies, Atlantic halibut, bluefish, herring, Alaskan salmon, sardines, canola oil, walnuts, flaxseed, soybeans, spinach, wheat germ oil and wild game.

* If you’re concerned about mercury or PBCs than visit: www.ewg.org/safefishlist

CLA-Conjugated Linoleic Acid

Overview: CLAs belong to a family of many isomers of linoleic acid, which are found primarily in the meat and dairy products of ruminants. CLA is used to build muscle, reduce body fat, and induce an optimum cellular environment for improved health.

Claim: CLAs have been said to have various antioxidant and anti-tumor properties. Studies on CLA in humans show a tendency for reduced body fat particularly abdominal fat, changes in serum total lipids and decreased whole body glucose uptake. CLA supplementation has, however, been shown to increase C-reactive protein levels, to possibly induce oxidative stress, to reduce insulin sensitivity and to increase lipid peroxidation

Intake: CLA cannot be produced by the human body, but it can be obtained through foods such as whole milk, butter, beef, and lamb

Validity: Studies on mice and rats show promising results in reducing mammary, skin, and colon tumor growth. Further studies are necessary to establish clinical significance.

Availability: Kangaroo meat may have the highest concentration of CLA when compared with other foods. Grass-fed ruminants like lamb and beef. Eggs are also rich in CLA, and it has been shown that the CLA in eggs survives the high temperatures encountered during frying

Herbs

Herbs are non-woody plants or plant parts that are used both medicinally and therapeutically. Because they can act like drugs, they may have potential side effects or interactions with foods, other herbs, or medications (9). Phytochemicals, including flavonoids, phenols, saponins, and terpenes, are the active ingredient in herbs. Many people use natural herbs to treat various health conditions as well as to promote overall well being. Included below is a chart of some herbal supplements, along with their claim and safety concerns.

Herb

Additional Names

Claimed to Benefit

Safety Concerns

Arnica

Mountain tobacco,

Muscle pain, stiffness, osteoarthritis

May increase effects of anticoagulants (which prevent blood clots)

leapord’s bane,

wundkraut

 

Astragalus

Huang chi, huang qi, milk vetch

Weak immune system, fatigue

May increase with immunosuppressant drugs

Cayenne

Capsicum, red pepper, African chilies

Musculoskeletal pain, osteoarthritis, digestive problems

Digestive disorders, skin irritation

Cordyceps

Caterpillar fungus, dong chon xai cao, semitake

Weak immune system, poor endurance performance

May reduce blood sugar levels

Devil’s Claw

Grapple plant, harpagophytum, wood spider

Muscle pain, digestive problems, fever

May interfere with antidiabetic drugs

Echinacea

Purple coneflower, black Sampson, Indian head

Weak immune system, colds, infections

May interfere with immunosuppressants

Ginseng

Chinese ginseng, ciwuija, Russian root

Poor endurance performance, low energy, weak immune system

May interfere with anticoagulants

Guarana

Guarana gum, zoom coaoa, Brazilian cocoa

Excess body fat, lethargy

Contains caffeine

Rhodiola

Golden root, Arctic root

Lethargy, fatigue, poor endurance

May interact with other herbs

Willow Bark

White willow, purple osier, bay willow

Fever, muscle pain, osteoarthritis

May interact with coagulants.

One must hesitate when it comes to the attractive claims made for herbal supplementation. There is insufficient research on the use of herbs by athletes, and therefore, there are no safe recommendations for athletes use.

Appendix A—reprinted with permission

Evaluating Popular Sports Supplements

Ellen Coleman, MA, MPH, RD, CSSD

Nutrition professionals often are asked to evaluate sports supplements that athletes currently use or are considering using. This article describes a method for evaluating popular sports supplements. Three commonly used sports supplements—creatine, arginine, and green tea—are reviewed here to illustrate the application of this evaluation method.

Primary Considerations in Evaluating Supplements

Safety and Effectiveness

The two most critical questions to ask are: Is this supplement safe? And is it effective? 1 In considering the risks and benefits of supplement and drug use, credible information on safety and effectiveness is essential. 1 Safety is paramount, because as the Hippocratic Oath states: “Primum non nocere” – “First, do no harm.”

The first step in determining effectiveness is to assess whether the claim made regarding the supplement is reasonable from a physiological perspective. 2 To determine this, the nutrition professional must ascertain whether the supplement’s purported mechanism of action is biologically plausible. If the supplement is unfamiliar, registered dietitians can visit Web sites that sell the product to identify the ingredients and the supposed method of action.

The next step is to review the scientific literature and meticulously examine the quality and quantity of studies provided to support the safety and effectiveness of the supplement. 2,3 All supportive research should be published in a reputable peer-reviewed journal and cited in the National Library of Medicine database (PubMed) (www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/PubMed). The American Dietetic Association’s

practice paper on dietary supplements provides

of research. 3 For specifics on many supplements, several resources are available on the Internet to help

nutrition professionals evaluate sports supplements (see page 4).

guidelines for critically appraising the scientific validity

Doping Status

Once safety and effectiveness have been established, it is important to consider whether the sports supplement may cause the athlete to test positive for a prohibited substance. 1,4 Some apparently “safe” supplements contain ingredients not declared on the label that are prohibited by the doping regulations of the National Collegiate Athletic Association, International Olympic Committee, and World Anti-Doping Agency.

Contaminants that have been identified by these groups include a variety of anabolic androgenic steroids and ephedrine. Although the contamination usually is the result of poor manufacturing processes, there also is evidence of deliberate adulteration of products by manufacturers. As a result, an

unsuspecting athlete may test positive for banned substances. 4-6 Innocent ingestion of prohibited substances is not an acceptable excuse. Athletes who test positive for banned substances are legally responsible and subject to penalties. Several organizations screen supplements for prohibited substances and certify products that pass testing (see page 4).

The undeclared inclusion of contaminants in supplements is not uncommon. The Medical Commission of the International Olympic Committee found that of 634 tested nonhormonal nutritional supplements from 13 countries, 14.8% contained substances that would have led to a positive doping test but were not listed on the label. 5 Italian researchers found that 12.5% of 64 nutritional supplements contained banned substances (anabolic steroids and ephedrine) not declared on the label. 6

Quality of the Product

As a final consideration, it is important to evaluate the quality of the sports supplement, because the Food and Drug Administration does not review supplements prior to their market entry. The following four factors should be examined when assessing supplement quality:

Identity (Does the product’s contents match what is printed on label?)

Potency (Does the product contain the amount of the ingredient claimed on label?)

Purity (Is the product free of unacceptable levels of contaminants?)

Bioavailability (Does the ingredient break apart properly in the body so that it may be assimilated?)

Several organizations are involved in testing supplements and certifying products that pass tests for identity, potency, purity, and bioavailability (see page 4). It is recommended that products receive certification from of these organizations. Some manufacturers may make the claim that their products are “pharmaceutical quality,” but such a claim is meaningless.

Example: Evaluating Creatine

Creatine is used widely by athletes to increase muscle mass and improve performance during repeated intervals of high-intensity, short-duration (<30 seconds) exercise. As phosphocreatine, creatine provides energy for high-power muscular performance via the phosphagen system. Supplemental creatine increases total creatine by 10% to 30% and phosphocreatine stores by 10% to 40%. 7 Creatine supplementation also increases muscle cell volume and muscle fiber hypertrophy. 8 Thus, the purported performance benefits of creatine supplementation can be reasonably explained by creatine’s methods of action—and, therefore, these claims are biologically plausible.

A substantial body of research suggests that creatine supplementation represents a safe method to enhance muscle size and strength during resistance training. 8,9 While there is no strong scientific evidence to support any adverse effects, to date few studies have focused on the safety of long-term creatine usage. 9 Daily supplementation with 5 g to 20 g of creatine for 0.25 to 5.6 years did not have any long- term detrimental effects on kidney or liver functions in highly trained college athletes. 10

Although not all studies report significant results regarding efficacy, the majority of scientific data indicate that creatine appears to be an effective ergogenic aid for activities that involve repeated, short

intervals of high-intensity exercise. 7-9 Short-term creatine supplementation (e.g., 20 g/day for 5-7 days) may improve work performed during sets of maximal effort muscle contractions and repetitive sprint performance by 5% to 15%. 7 Long-term creatine supplementation may promote significantly greater improvements in strength, fat-free mass, and high-intensity exercise performance. 7 Chronic creatine supplementation may allow the athlete to train harder and thereby achieve greater training adaptations and performance gains. 1,8

Thus, creatine appears to be both a safe and effective supplement for athletes who want to increase muscle mass and improve performance during repeated bouts high-intensity exercise.

Example: Evaluating Arginine

Many athletes take “nitric oxide releasing” supplements containing arginine alpha-ketoglutarate to enhance muscle size and strength. The non-essential amino acid arginine is the substrate for the nitric oxide synthase enzyme, which catalyzes the oxidation of arginine to produce nitric oxide (a gas) and citrulline. Nitric oxide is a key signaling molecule in the cardiovascular system and promotes vasodilation. 11

In theory, arginine alpha-ketoglutarate supplementation boosts nitric oxide production and enhances vasodilation. This increases blood flow and oxygen transport to the muscles and promotes an extended “muscle pump” during resistance training. The increased blood flow also enhances delivery of nutrients to the muscles and removal of wastes from the muscles. The purported result: dramatic increases in muscle size and strength.

The proposed method of action for arginine alpha-ketoglutarate stretches the bounds of credibility. In atherosclerosis, the endothelium has a reduced capacity to produce nitric oxide and dilate effectively. Healthy people, however, do not have reduced nitric oxide production or impaired endothelial vasodilation and, therefore, they are unlikely to benefit from arginine alpha-ketoglutarate supplements. There also is no evidence that arginine alpha-ketoglutarate supplements increase nitric oxide levels or blood flow to the muscles in healthy people. 11

Measuring nitric oxide is no small achievement, because the gas is highly reactive and has a very short life. Clinical studies generally measure flow-mediated endothelium-dependent vasodilation of the brachial artery to evaluate the effect of arginine supplementation on the vascular system . 11

There is evidence that supplemental arginine may be beneficial in the clinical setting for patients with atherosclerosis and associated endothelial dysfunction by improving endothelial function. 11 Arginine supplementation (6.6 g/day for 2 weeks) improved exercise tolerance and flow-mediated vasodilation of the brachial artery in patients with angina 12 and claudication. 13

The majority of research suggests that arginine supplementation is safe and well-tolerated at doses of 12 g or less per day in healthy individuals and patients with atherosclerosis. 11-15 However, arginine is not recommended following acute myocardial infarction, as 9 g/day of arginine did not improve vascular stiffness measurements or ejection fraction but was associated with higher postinfarction mortality. 16

Evans and colleagues examined responses to daily doses of 3, 9, 21, and 30 g of arginine for 1 week. Five of the 12 healthy participants noted adverse effects (primarily diarrhea) with the 21 g/day dose, and an additional five noted adverse effects (primarily diarrhea) with 30 g/day. 14

Only one published study has evaluated the safety and efficacy of arginine alpha-ketoglutarate in resistance-trained adult men. 15 The subjects consumed 4 g of arginine alpha-ketoglutarate three times a day (n=20) or placebo (n=15) and engaged in periodized resistance training 4 days a week for 8 weeks. The researchers found that 12 g/day of arginine alpha-ketoglutarate significantly increased one repetition max bench press, Wingate peak power performance, and plasma arginine levels, but it had no effect on body composition, total body water, isokinetic quadriceps muscle endurance, and aerobic capacity. The supplement appeared to be safe and well-tolerated.

Arginine alpha-ketoglutarate appears to be safe in doses up to 12 g/day, with the exception of its contraindicated use following acute myocardial infarction. However, the data is woefully inadequate to determine effectiveness. Only one study suggests that arginine alpha-ketoglutarate increases muscle strength, and there is no evidence that it increases muscle size. Further research on the safety and effectiveness of arginine alpha-ketoglutarate is warranted.

Example: Evaluating Green Tea Extract

A number of athletes and active people take green tea extract to increase their metabolic rate and promote

weight loss. Green tea extract contains tea catechins (primarily epigallocatechin gallate [EGCG]) and caffeine.

In theory, the tea catechins and caffeine interact synergistically to augment and prolong the release

of norepinephrine by the sympathetic nervous system. Tea catechins inhibit catechol-O-methyltransferase,

the enzyme that degrades norepinephrine. Caffeine inhibits phosphodiesterase, the enzyme that degrades

cyclic AMP. The net result is that green tea extract (50 mg caffeine and 90 mg EGCG three times daily) may reduce two brakes along the pathway of norepinephrine-activated thermogenesis. 17

The purported beneficial effects of green tea extract on metabolic rate and weight loss appear reasonable from a physiological standpoint. However, only a small number of studies have evaluated the supplement for this purpose, and the results are mixed. 17-20

Several studies 17-18 have found that green tea extract significantly increased 24-hour energy expenditure by 4% to 8% (~80-179 kcal/day). Dosages studied were 50 mg caffeine and 90 mg EGCG three times daily, and 200 mg caffeine from guarana and 90, 200, 300, or 400 mg EGCG three times daily; these dosages are commonly found in green tea extract supplements). While the results of these studies are provocative, other investigations suggest that the acute effect of green extract on 24-hour energy expenditure does not translate into a sustained increase in metabolic rate or a clinically significant weight loss over time. 19,20 At present, the data is insufficient to support the claim that green tea extract promotes an increase metabolic rate or weight loss.

While green tea is widely consumed as a beverage and generally regarded as safe, green tea extract may not be safe. There have been case reports of acute liver toxicity associated with the use of green tea

extract. 21,22 It seems prudent to advise against using green tea extract until further research clarifies the safety and effectiveness of the supplement.

Conclusion

Discussing supplements with athletes is not easy. Nutrition professionals are concerned about safety, while athletes desire a competitive edge. After assessing the athlete’s needs and goals, education should include the potential risks/benefits (including doping) of using the supplement and guidelines on choosing a quality supplement. If convincing data suggest that the supplement may endanger the athlete’s health, it is prudent to advise against using the supplement, even if the supplement appears to be effective for the purpose taken.

Ultimately the decision to use supplements lies with the athlete. If the supplement is safe, regardless of effectiveness, consider working with the athlete to test the product on a trial basis, as this helps to establish credibility. 1,2

Ellen Coleman, MA, MPH, RD, CSSD, a past chair of SCAN and an expert speaker on sports nutrition, is the nutrition consultant for The Sport Clinic of Riverside, Calif., and author of Eating for Endurance, 4th edition (Bull Publishing) and Diet, Exercise, and Fitness, 7th edition (Nutrition Dimension). She also has provided consultation services to the Anaheim Angels baseball team and Los Angeles basketball team.

References

1. Dunford M. Dietary supplements and ergogenic aids. In: Dunford M, ed. Sports Nutrition: A Practice

Manual for Professionals. 4th ed. Chicago, IL: American Dietetic Association; 2006:116-141.

2. Butterfield G. Ergogenic aids: evaluating sports nutrition products. Int J Sports Nutr

Exerc Metab. 1996;6:191-197. 3. American Dietetic Association. Practice paper of the American Dietetic Association:

dietary supplements. J Am Diet Assoc. 2005;102:460-470.

4. Maughan R. Contamination of dietary supplements and positive drug tests in sport. J Sports Sci.

2005;23:883-889.

5. Geyer H, Parr MK, Mareck U, et al. Analysis of non-hormonal nutritional supplements for anabolic-

androgenic steroids - results of an international study. Int J Sports Med. 2004;25:124-129.

6. Martello S, Felli M, Chiarotti M. Survey of nutritional supplements for selected illegal anabolic

steroids and ephedrine using LC-MS/MS and GC-MS methods, respectively. Food Addit Contam.

2007;24:258-265.

7.

Kreider RB. Effects of creatine supplementation on performance and training adaptations. Mol Cell

Biochem. 2003;244:89-94.

8. Volek JS, Rawson ES. Scientific basis and practical aspects of creatine supplementation for athletes.

Nutrition. 2004;20:609-614.

9. Bemben MG, Lamont HS. Creatine supplementation and exercise performance: recent findings. Sports

Med. 2005;35:107-125.

10. Mayhew DL, Mayhew JL, Ware JS. Effects of long-term creatine supplementation on liver and

kidney functions in American college football players. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab. 2002;12:453-460.

11. Gornik HL, Creager MA. Arginine and endothelial and vascular health. J Nutr. 2004;134: 2880S–

2887S.

12. Maxwell AJ, Zapien MP, Pearce GL et al. Randomized trial of a medical food for the dietary

management of chronic, stable angina. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2002;39:37-45.

13. Maxwell AJ, Anderson BE, Cooke, JP. Nutritional therapy for peripheral arterial disease: a double-

blind, placebo-controlled, randomized trial of HeartBar. Vasc Med. 2000;5:11-19.

14. Evans RW, Fernstrom JD, Thompson J, et al. Biochemical responses of healthy subjects during

dietary supplementation with L-arginine. J Nutr Biochem. 2004;15:534-539.

15. Campbell B, Roberts M, Kerksick C, et al. Pharmacokinetics, safety, and effects on exercise

performance of l-arginine alpha-ketoglutarate in trained adult men. Nutrition. 2006;22:872-881.

16. Schulman SP, Becker LC, Kass DA, et al. L-arginine therapy in acute myocardial infarction: the

Vascular Interaction With Age in Myocardial Infarction (VINTAGE MI) randomized clinical trial. JAMA.

2006;295:58-64.

17. Dulloo AG. Duret C, Rohrer D, et al. Efficacy of a green tea extract rich in catechin polyphenols and

caffeine in increasing 24-h energy expenditure and fat oxidation in humans. Am J Clin Nutr.

1999;70:1040-1045.

18. Berube-Parent S. Pelletier C, Doré J, Tremblay A. Effects of encapsulated green tea and Guarana

extracts containing a mixture of epigallocatechin-3-gallate and caffeine on 24 h energy expenditure and fat oxidation in men. Br J Nutr. 2005;94:432-436.

19. Kovacs EM, Lejeune MP, Nijs I, et al. Effects of green tea on weight maintenance after body-weight

loss. Br J Nutr. 2004;91:431-437.

20. Diepvens K, Kovacs EM, Nijs IM, et al. Effect of green tea on resting energy expenditure and

substrate oxidation during weight loss in overweight females. Br J Nutr. 2005;94:1026-1034.

21. Bonkovsky HL. Hepatotoxicity associated with supplements containing Chinese green tea (Camellia

sinensis). Ann Intern Med. 2006;144:68-71.

22. Molinari M, Kymberly DS, Watt TK, et al. Acute liver failure induced by green tea extracts: case report and review of the literature. Liver Transpl. 2006;12:1892-1895.

A summary of key points is provided on page 4.

Appendix B

Sport Bars

Vits

SPORTS

&

BAR

VEGAN

CALS

Carbs

SUGAR

PROTEIN

FAT

Mins

Atkins Beakfast

15g

Bar

N

150

3g

1g

High P

7g

Atkins Advance

21g

Bar

N

220

21g

0g

High P

8g

 

22g

Balance Big Bar

N

200

17g

High P

5g

 

15g

Balance Gold Bar

N

210

22g

High P

7g

 

15g

Balance Outdoor

N

210

23g

High P

6g

Balance Bar

N

200

22g

14g

6g

Balance Bar Plus

N

200

22g

14g

6g

 

59g

High

17g

Bear Valley

N

420

CHO

28g

High P

13g

 

30g

Luna Tea Cakes:

High

Berry Pomegranate

Y

140

CHO

12g

2g

1.5g

 

53g

Logia:

High

Bible Bar

150

CHO

3g

6g

 

42g

High

Boulder Bar

220

CHO

10g

2-5g

 

30g

High

20g

Builders Bar

N

270

CHO

19g

High P

8g

 

23g

Carb Solutions

256

14g

1g

High P

3.5g

 

51g

Clif Bar (lactose

High

free)

Y

250

CHO

10-16g

5-12g

2g

 

29g

Clif Nectar (lactose

DM Choice

High

free)

Y

150

CHO

20g

3g

5g

For Diabetics:

140

19g

9g

6g

4.5g

For Diabetics:

31g

Extend Bar

150

High

10g

3g

1.5g

 

CHO

Universal Nutrition:

Dr. Diet LowCarb

Dr. Diet LowCarb

19g

Bar

234

2.6g

0g

High P

8g

Universal Nutrition:

21g

Diet

208

2g

0g

High P

4g

Dr. Soy Bar

N

185

27g

11g, Brown Rice

11g

4g

 

32g

High

18g

Elev8 Me

N

220

CHO

24g, Fructose

High P

4g

 

42g

Power Bar:

High

24g, Maltodextrine,

Energize Bar

N

210

CHO

Fructose, Dextrose

6g

3.5g

 

43g

Met-RX:

High

30g

Food Bar

420

CHO

25g, Fructose

Very high P

14g

 

53g

Kashi:

High

Go Lean Bar

290

CHO

11g

5g

 

40g

For Diabetics:

High

Glucerna

140

CHO

4g

6g

4g

 

45g

Power Bar:

High

Harvest

240

CHO

7g

4g

Cooke Pharma:

Heart Bar

190

27g

3g

3g

 

32g

27g,

Met-RX:

High

Sucralose,Maltodextrin,

32g

Protein Plus Bar

310

CHO

Sugar Alcohol

Very high P

9g

Universal Nutrition:

33g

Hi Protein Bar

296

7g

Very high P

6g

Twin Lab:

16g

Ironman

230

24g

High P

8g

 

10g

Jenny Craig Bar

220

40g

High P

5g

JŎCALAT:

5g

Larabar

Y

190

24g

17g

High P

9g

Clif:

10g

Luna Bar

Y

180

24g

13g

High P

5g

Clif:

Luna Glow

140

15g

1g

8g

7g

Clif:

Luna Nutz Ovr. Choc. Twin Lab:

180

24g

2g

10g

4.5g

Metabolift Luna Tea Cakes:

130

1g

12g

5g

Mint Chocolate

Y

130

25g

11g

3g

3g

 

12g

Mountain Lift Bar

220

34g

High P

5g

 

15g

Myoplex Life

190

27g

16g

High P

2.5g

Met-RX

110

18g

6g

1.5g

Natural Krunch Bar

Genisoy:

11g

Nature Grains

230

41g

High P

3g

Natures' Plus

150

19g

10g

4g

Nutiva Original

N

210

11g

5g

9g

14g

Solgar:

Optein Wellness

Bar

190

10g

6.5g

2g

Luna Tea Cakes:

2g

Orange Blossom

Y

130

30g

12g

High P

1.5g

Power Bar:

22g, Maltodextrine,

9g

Performance

N

240

44g

Fructose

High P

3g

Premier Eight:

18g

Premier Elite

160

2g

High P

4.5g

Premier Eight:

32g

Premier Nutrition

260

8g

Very high P

6g

Premier Eight:

31g

Premier Protein

200

12g

Very high P

8g

Pria Carb Select

170

22g

1g

10g

7g

Optimum Nutrition:

22g

Protein Diet Bar

180

3g

High P

5g

Twin Lab:

35g

Protein Fuel

320

12g

Very high P

5g

Power Bar

Protein Plus

290

24g

5g

2g

Worldwide Sports

Nutrition:

32g

Pure Protein Bar SoyJoy

280

14g

Very high P

5g

Raisin Almond

N

130

16g

11g

4g

6g

 

15g

Shape Up Bar

220

30g

9g

High P

7g

 

1g

Slim Fast Bar

120

22g

20g

High P

3.5g

 

13g

Snickers Marathon

220

27g

18g

High P

1.5g

Genisoy:

Soy Nutty

190

28g

12g

5g

Genisoy:

14g

Soy Pro bar

220

33g

High P

3.5g

Met-RX:

15g

Source One

170

20g

High P

5g

Twin Lab:

15g

Soy Sensations

180

23g

High P

6g

Shaman

pharmaceuticals:

Syn X Bar

200

26g

8g

9g

All Terrain Foods:

8g

Tahoe Bar

200

32g

High P

5g

PHD Inc.:

200-

6-10g

Think!

250

29-36g

High P

4-9g

Weider Nutrition:

Tiger's Milk

140

18g

7g

5g

Solgar:

2g

Triumph Bar

170

33g

High P

3.5g

Biochem:

Ultimate LoCarb

Bar

270

2g

21g

10g

Biochem:

Ultimate LoCarb

20g

Bar 2

230

3g

High P

7g

Luna Tea Cakes:

2g

Vanilla Macademia

Y

150

30g

8g

High P

4g

Mead Jonhson:

120-

Viactiv

150

20-29

4-6g

2-5g

 

15g

Zone Dbl Chocolate

200

20g

13g

High P

7g

Zone Choc.

16g

Caramel

210

20g

16g

High P

7g

 

15g

Zone Choc Vanilla

200

21g

14g

High P

7g

 

15g

Zone Perfect Peach

210

20g

13g

High P

7g

All Terrain Foods:

7g

Zuma & Berkeley

180

36g

High P

1g

References

- For additional info on supplements visit: drugfreesports.org or www.consumerlab.com

1. Bahrke, M. & Yesalis, C. Performance Enhancing Substances in Sport and Exercise. Champaign:

Sheridan Books Inc. 2002.

2. Bonci, L. Gatorade Sports Science Institute: “Energy” Drinks: Help Harm or Hype? Volume 15. Number 1.

3. Coleman, E. & Maughan, R. & Nelson, S. & Skinner R. Gatorade Sports Science Institute. (2002). Volume 13. Number 4.

4. Dorfman, Lisa. Chapter 26, Nutrition for Exercise and Sports Performance.

5. Firth, G. & Manzo, L. University of Notre Dame: For the Athlete: Alcohol and Athletic Peformance. 2004.

6. Gleeson, M. & Jeukendrup, A. (2004). Sport Nutrition: An Introduction to Energy Production and Performance. Human Kinetics Inc. 231-265.

7. Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition. (2004). 1(1). (Kreider, R.B. & Greenwood, M. Ed). 7-26.

8.

Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition. (2004). 1(2) 1-6. Electronic Edition.

9. Kundrat, S. Gatorade Sports Science Institute: Herbs and Athletes. (2005). Volume 18. Number

1.

10. Montana State University. Sports Nutrition. 23 July 2007.

Http://btc.montana.edu/olympics/nutrition/eat15.html.

11. Natural Standard Monograph. (2008). Creatine. http://www.naturalstandard.com/monographs/herbssupplements/creatine.asp.

12. Office of Dietary Supplements: Dietary Supplement Fact Sheet: Chromium. www.dietarysupplement.info.nihgov/factsjeet/chromium.

13. Oregon State University: Linus Pauling Institute. http://Lpi.oregonstate.edu/inforcenter/vitamins/vitaminE.

14. Rolfes, S. & Whitney, E. Understanding Nutrition. 10 th Edition. Belmont: Wadsworth. 2005.

15. Schulman, R. Solve it with Supplements. New York: Rodale Inc. 2007.

16. The University Health Center: A Unit of the Division of Student Affairs, University of Georgia. 2007. http://www.uhs.uga.edu/aod/athletic-performance.html.

17. The University of Maryland Medical Center. American Ginseng. (2007).

Http://www.umm.edu/altmed/articles/american-ginseng-000248.htm.