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Graduate School
Answers to Final exam in Ph.D 301
Educational Leadership and Management in the 21st Century
Name of Student
Email Address
Contact Number
Name of School



Answers to Question No. 1:

Leadership is the ability of a superior to influence the behavior of subordinates and
persuade them to follow a particular course of action (Barnard, 1938) to accomplish
identified goals. It is a key factor in the life and success of an organization and its people,
it transforms potential into reality. Over the years, a number of assumptions have been
proposed leadership theories have been formulatedsome were successfully applied while
others failed for some considerable reasons. In such cases, new paradigms were
introduced because the old ones may have lost their effectiveness and are no longer
relevant to the needs of the changing global society and environment. Its therefore crucial
for any organization to have a dependable and capable leader who is an expert in his field
in order to fully achieve its goals. A good leader is a person with integrity who is
committed to the organization and the people who work together to accomplish the
organizations mission; this person leads by example, communicates without ceasing, and
shows care, concern, and consistency in all dealings.
As a future leader in the educational setting, I think I possess the following
leadership traits which will enable me to lead an academic institution in the future:
a) The two general types of behavior exhibited by leaders, such as:
Concern for People in dealing with my employees/subordinates, I prefer to
leadership according to the context and culture of the organization where I
am leading. I
want to adhere to the leadership theory TRAIT THEORY/GREAT MAN
(WOMAN) which
assumes that the leader is different from the average person in terms of
personality traits
such as: intelligence, perseverance and ambition; that people are born with
traits (where some are particularly suited to leadership); that if rightly
combined with
positive values and outlook would make them great leaders. I believe that if
others have
become good leaders, I can also do it with my own leadership style.

Concern for Production - I want to apply McGREGORS THEORY Y of

leadership which
assumes that the average person if properly taught and motivated can learn
to accept, seek
responsibility, view work as being natural as rest or pay, will exercise selfdirection/control
to achieve organizational goals and objectives.
Accordingly, leaders are made, they are not bornwhich means that we dont
successful leaders at the time of birth, not even overnight... but it takes
years and a lot of
patience, education/training, learning, knowledge, perseverance and
practice to make a
great leader.
subordinates in decision-making; or I want to solicit consensus of the group
in decision
making if it pertains to internal affairs of the organization where there is no
for central coordination (which doesnt need employees involvement - the
leader can decide
on his own).
c) STODGILLS (1974) TRAIT AND SKILLS THEORY As a leader, I assume the
following traits of a
good leader: Adaptable to situations, alert to social environment, ambitious
achievement-oriented, assertive, cooperative, decisive, dependable,
energetic, persistent,
self-confident, tolerant of stress and willing to assume responsibility.
I also assume the skills of a good leader: clever (intelligent), conceptually
skilled, creative,
diplomatic and tactful, knowledgeable about group task, organized, persuasive
and socially
d) TRANSFORMATIONAL LEADERSHIP- being a transformational leader I am always
visibleI will
stand up to be counted rather than hide behind the troops, I make continued
efforts to keep
my people going, motivate them, constantly doing the rounds, listening,
soothing and
energizing them, guide them along the way to keep everything in order. As a
leader, I will also accept the fact that along the way, there are failures and
blind canyons. I
also want to motivate my people in the use of their long-practiced ceremonies,
rituals and
other symbolism but may introduce little changes relevant to the need of times

circumstances. For them small changes get big hurrays, pumping up their
significance as
indicators of real progress (Culture Creators). A transformational leader
To find my way forward, I need to apply the following keys to become a successful
leader (Kouzes, James and
Posner, Barry, 2012):
a) Model the way Know your values but also affirm the shared values of the
group by aligning actions and setting a good example.
b) Inspire a shared vision envision the future, imagine exciting and ennobling
c) Challenge the process search for opportunities and look for innovative ways to
d) Enable others to act foster collaboration; strengthen others to develop
competence and
e) Encourage the heart Show appreciation for remarkable contributions and
excellence. Celebrate the values and victories by creating a community spirit.
f) Develop the vision a view of the future that will excite and convert followers.
g) Sell the vision sell the vision immediately and continually; create trust and
rely on personal integrity.
A great strength of this book is that it makes it very clear that it is designed for all people in leadership positions.
The book came out of a research project, and the way the authors about it reveals a lot about its intent. Instead of
interviewing top leaders in the business world, the authors interviewed ordinary leaders, but asked them about
their peak leadership experiences. When were they at their best?
The authors came up with these 5 cardinal rules of leadership:
1. Model the Way. Know your values, but also affirm the shared values of the group. Set the example by aligning
actions with shared values.
2. Inspire a Shared Vision. Envision the future by imagining exciting and ennobling possibilities. Enlist others in a
common vision by appealing to shared aspirations.
3. Challenge the Process. Search for opportunities by seizing the initiative and by looking outward for innovative
ways to improve. Constantly generate small wins and learn from experience.
4. Enable Others to Act. Foster collaboration. Strengthen others by increasing self-determination and developing
5. Encourage the Heart. Recognize contributions by showing appreciation for individual excellence. Celebrate the
values and victories by creating a spirit of community.
This is a book for the ordinary leader, who dreams of extraordinary things. The idea that comes through all the
way is that leadership is not just about your position or your company's status. Being a leader is about
"relationships, credibility, and what you do." Highly recommended for anyone in leadership positions -- maybe

even especially those NOT at the top of the totem pole.

I really hope you found this review helpful.
h) Comment Was this review helpful to you? YesNo
i) 51 of 54 people found the following review helpful

Finally, I am very much people-oriented; I will balance my attention between action that
creates progress and the mental state of my employees/subordinatesacting more like a
good teacher or coach and encourages
creative solutions to problems. Overall, as a woman leader, I believe that Leadership
effectiveness most often depends upon the fit between the setting and the contemporary

Answers to Question No. 2

In my current position as a guest lecturer of SURIGAO STATE COLLEGE OF
Campus) for only three (3) yearsI prefer to adapt the theory on

The Leadership Challenge is written for real leaders, who today face some of the
toughest organizational challenges we've ever encountered. And, it provides
practical, real-world advice based on Jim's and Barry's extensive global research
that is indispensable for leaders at all levels.
I always refer leaders to this book, because although my Ph.D. is in Organizational
Behavior, my undergraduate background is in mathematics. And, I respect people
who gather real facts! In developing the Leadership Practices Inventory, which is
possibly the world's most widely respected tool for 360 leadership feedback, Jim
and Barry have thoroughly reviewed input from tens of thousands of respondents.
They've then used this data to form sound conclusions about what works--and
what doesn't work--in terms of leadership behavior.
The central theme of The Leadership Challenge is that leadership is for everyone.
It can be learned, but, let's face it, it's not easy. The Leadership Challenge is based
upon learnings from leaders at all levels--and shows how "regular people" can
make a huge, positive difference in their organizations. It is written in a way that
can help executives, mid-managers, first-line supervisors, project leaders--and
even individual contributors--better understand how they can lead and
immediately apply what they have learned in their work.

For example, Jim and Barry asked managers about their clarity around their
personal values as well as around the values of their organizations. These
managers were also asked about their level of commitment to the organization,
their level of motivation and productivity, job satisfaction, and so on. To me, what
they found is fascinating! Leaders with the highest levels of commitment are those
who are clearest about their own personal values. Clarity about personal values
was more prevalent in a positive workplace attitude and level of engagement than
was clarity around organizational values. In doing the research for my recent
book, Mojo, I found something similar to be true as well: People who find
happiness and meaning at home are more likely to also find happiness and
meaning at work.
Finally, for those of you reading this book now, I'd highly recommend that you put
what you read here into practice. This book can help you lead in such a way that
your organization will become a better place for you, your managers, employees,
and colleagues-to-be. At the same time, if you implement what you learn here,
you'll make a positive difference in not only your organization, but also in your
own life and in the lives of those whom you lead.