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Assignment on


Presented to

Mr. Md Rafiqul Islam

District Commandant, Sirajgang
Course OIC, 34 BCS Ansar Basic Course
Presented by

Md. Sharfuzzaman (AV-120167)

Assistant District Commandant, Narayanganj.
Bangladesh Ansar & VDP.

Date of submission: The 24th september, 2016

Table of Content

The State of Our Environment...3
Greenhouse Effect..4
Forms of pollution.4
The Ways to Go Green and Save Green5
How to be responsible for keeping clean environment..6

Now it is evident from scientific study that our mother climate has undergone an abnormal human
induced change. Various climatic parameters such as rainfall, temperature, humidity, sunshine hour etc. of
various regions of the world have shown significant trends. Global warming is mainly caused by the
increase of green house gases of the atmosphere. Green house gases such as carbon dioxide, methane and
nitrous oxide etc. has been increased significantly over the last century. Such increased amount of green

house gases act as a blanked to store infrared radiation of solar energy. Stored energy is radiated as heat
and make warmer of the cooler parts of the atmosphere as well as land surface. Intergovernmental Panel
on Climate Change (IPCC) has reported in their fourth assessment report that global surface temperature
increased 0.74 0.18 C during the 100 years ending in 2005 (IPCC 2007). It is also noted by IPCC
(2007) that the rise of mean annual temperature will be 3.3 C per century. In the past, a number of
studies have been carried out on trend of climate change in climatic parameters over Bangladesh.
Chowdhury and Debsharma (1992) and Mia (2003) pointed out that temperature has been changed by
using historical data of some selected meteorological station. Parathasarathy et al. (1987) and Divya and
Mehritra (1995) reported mean annual temperature of Bangladesh has increased during the period of
1895-1980 at 0.310C over the past two decades. Karmakar and Shrestha (2000) using the 1961-1990 data
for Bangladesh projected that annual mean maximum temperature will increase to 0.4 0C and 0.73 0C by
the year of 2050 and 2100 respectively. It has been found that daily maximum temperature shows a
positive trend of increase at a rate of 0.621 0.491 0C per 100 year. The maximum increase occurred
during November at a rate of 2.7 0C per 100 year. However, daily minimum temperature shows more
significant trend of increase at a rate of 1.536 0.461 0C per 100 year. The maximum increase occurred
during February at a rate of 3.4 0C per 100 year. Daily mean temperature shows positive trend of increase
at a rate of 1.026 0.403 0C per 100 year. It has been clearly found that temperature of winter season
(December to February) has been raised much higher rate than that of summer season (June to August).
This study also reveals that temperature has been increase predominantly over the last 30 years (19782007) than last 60 years (1948-2007).

2. The State of Our Environment

Scientists have estimated that in order to avoid the worst impacts of climate change we must
have greenhouse gas emissions under control by 2020. These problems are no longer just issues
for future generations, we are that generation. In fact, it has been predicted that the year 2010
will be a record year for ice loss in the Arctic, Antarctic and Greenland Ice Sheets; a record year
for damage from hurricanes in the Atlantic and typhoons in the Pacific; and a record year for
high temperatures around the world.

3. Greenhouse Effect
The greenhouse effect is the process by which radiation from a planet's atmosphere warms the
planet's surface to a temperature above what it would be without its atmosphere. If a planet's
atmosphere contains radiatively active gases (i.e., greenhouse gases) the atmosphere will radiate

energy in all directions. Part of this radiation is directed towards the surface, warming it. The
downward component of this radiation that is, the strength of the greenhouse effect will
depend on the atmosphere's temperature and on the amount of greenhouse gases that the
atmosphere contains.On Earth, the atmosphere is warmed by absorption of infrared thermal
radiation from the underlying surface, absorption of shorter wavelength radiant energy from the
sun, and convective heat fluxes from the surface. Greenhouse gases in the atmosphere radiate
energy, some of which is directed to the surface and lower atmosphere. The mechanism that
produces this difference between the actual surface temperature and the effective temperature is
due to the atmosphere and is known as the greenhouse effect. Earths natural greenhouse effect is
critical to supporting life. Human activities, primarily the burning of fossil fuels and clearing of
forests, have intensified the natural greenhouse effect, causing global warming. The mechanism
is named after a faulty analogy with the effect of solar radiation passing through glass and
warming a greenhouse. The way a greenhouse retains heat is fundamentally different, as a
greenhouse works by reducing airflow and retaining warm air inside the structure.

4. pollution
Pollution is the introduction of contaminants into the natural environment that cause adverse
change. Pollution can take the form of chemical substances or energy, such as noise, heat or
light. Pollutants, the components of pollution, can be either foreign substances/energies or
naturally occurring contaminants.

5. Forms of pollution
The major forms of pollution are listed below along with the particular contaminant relevant to
each of them:

Air pollution: the release of chemicals and particulates into the atmosphere. Common
gaseous pollutants include carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs)
and nitrogen
oxides produced
by industry and
Photochemical ozone and smog are created as nitrogen oxides and hydrocarbons react to
sunlight. Particulate matter, or fine dust is characterized by their micrometre size PM10 to

Littering: the criminal throwing of inappropriate man-made objects, unremoved, onto

public and private properties.

Noise pollution: which encompasses roadway noise, aircraft noise, industrial noise as
well as high-intensity sonar.

Soil contamination occurs when chemicals are released by spill or underground

leakage. Among the most significant soil contaminants arehydrocarbons, heavy
metals, MTBE, herbicides, pesticides and chlorinated hydrocarbons.

Radioactive contamination, resulting from 20th century activities in atomic physics,

such as nuclear power generation and nuclear weapons research, manufacture and
deployment. Thermal pollution, is a temperature change in natural water bodies caused
by human influence, such as use of water as coolant in a power plant.

6.The Ways to Go Green and Save Green

Save energy to save money
Install compact fluorescent light bulbs (CFLs) when older incandescent bulbs burn out.Wash
clothes in cold water whenever possible. As much as 85 percent of the energy used to machinewash clothes goes to heating the water.Use a drying rack or clothesline to save the energy
otherwise used during machine drying.
Save water to save money.
Take shorter showers to reduce water use. This will lower your water and heating bills too.Install
a low-flow showerheadPlant drought-tolerant native plants in garden. Many plants need minimal
Less gas is equal to more money (and better health)
Walk or bike to work. This saves on gas and parking costs while improving cardiovascular health
and reducing risk of obesity.

Skip the bottled water.

Use a water filter to purify tap water instead of buying bottled water. Not only is bottled water
expensive, but it generates large amounts of container waste.Bring a reusable water bottle,
preferably aluminum rather than plastic, with everyone when traveling or at work.

7. How to be responsible for keeping clean environment

You need to keep the area around your house well spruced up. Encourage others inside your
home to do the same. Dispose the garbage properly and dont throw them on the roads or
surreptitiously, into your neighbors compound.Segregate the biodegradable and non
biodegradable wastes. Dont stack your wastes at home. They can bring about acute health risks
too.Try to maintain the hygiene level both inside and outside the house so that you dont provide
a breeding ground for insects or any other bacteria, fungi or viruses.Try reusing the old items and
give the recyclable products to a waste-recycling plant through drop-off centers.
Share car
Use public transportYou can reduce the burning of fossil fuels by reducing the usage of your
private vehicles. Otherwise, you can decide on carpooling.Reducing the burning of fuels will
result in the decrease of greenhouse gases. Besides, you can save the non renewable sources too.
Moreover, there could be chances of a leaking air conditioner in your car which is harmful to the
Plant a tree
Grow more plants around your house. Encourage your neighbors to do the same.
Trees will provide you with a cleaner and a fresher air to inhale.
Planting fruit-bearing trees will also be an added advantage. At least you can consume fresh
Besides, growing more plants will lead to a greener future.
Keep off the chemicals
Switch to natural soaps and detergents that are made of citrus or enzymes .Thus, the waste water
will not contain any chemicals.

Encourage the use of green energy

Try using solar energy which is the most abundant and cleanest source of energy. Try using
electric, hybrid or biodiesel fueled vehicles too. Use any other renewable source so that the fear
of extinction of non-renewable sources is diminished.
Reduce the usage of a wooden stove
Use energy efficient appliances to cook food. Using wooden stones will cause respiratory
diseases since they generate a lot of smoke. Hence, avoid using them.Carbon footprints need to

be reduced.Lower the temperature of the water heater in your house. Buy energy efficient
appliances and reduce the usage of air conditioners, dishwashers or thermostats.

Contaminants reduction
Try to avoid keeping any kind of toxic materials or contaminants at home. Dispose the wastes
and contaminants properly and dont stack them at home. Keep separate dust bins for
paper,plastic and organic. It with be easier to dispose them off.

Environmental education

Every school must have a separate class allotted for environmental education. Children need to
be aware of the preponderance of this concept in the modern day world.
They must be taught how to keep their surroundings clean and also how to maintain proper
hygiene.These are some of the ways how any individual can contribute to a healthier and a
cleaner environment. Its not enough if we just speak about environment and its cleanliness. We
need to wholeheartedly participate in this act and strive to make this Earth a lot more cleaner.

Waste management
Waste management is all the activities and actions required to manage waste from its inception to
its final disposal. This includes amongst other things, collection, transport, treatment and
disposal of waste together with monitoring and regulation. It also encompasses the legal and
regulatory framework that relates to waste management encompassing guidance on recycling
etc.The term usually relates to all kinds of waste, whether generated during the extraction of raw
materials, the processing of raw materials into intermediate and final products, the consumption
of final products, or other human activities, including municipal (residential, institutional,
commercial), agricultural, and social (health care, household hazardous wastes, sewage sludge).
Waste management is intended to reduce adverse effects of waste on health, the environment or
aesthetics.Waste management practices are not uniform among countries (developed and
developing nations); regions (urban and rural area), and sectors (residential and industrial).

Central principles of waste management

Diagram of the waste hierarchy

There are a number of concepts about waste management which vary in their usage between
countries or regions. Some of the most general, widely used concepts include:
Recycling is a resource recovery practice that refers to the collection and reuse of waste
materials such as empty beverage containers. The materials from which the items are made can
be reprocessed into new products. Material for recycling may be collected separately from
general waste using dedicated bins and collection vehicles, a procedure called kerbside
collection. In some communities, the owner of the waste is required to separate the materials into
different bins (e.g. for paper, plastics, metals) prior to its collection. In other communities, all
recyclable materials are placed in a single bin for collection, and the sorting is handled later at a
central facility. The latter method is known as "single-stream recycling.

Biological reprocessing

Recoverable materials that are organic in nature, such as plant material, food scraps, and paper
products, can be recovered through composting and digestion processes to decompose the
organic matter. The resulting organic material is then recycled as mulch or compost for
agricultural or landscaping purposes. In addition, waste gas from the process (such as methane)
can be captured and used for generating electricity and heat (CHP/cogeneration) maximising
efficiencies. The intention of biological processing in waste management is to control and
accelerate the natural process of decomposition of organic matter.

Energy recovery

Energy recovery from waste is the conversion of non-recyclable waste materials into usable heat,
electricity, or fuel through a variety of processes, including combustion, gasification,
pyrolyzation, anaerobic digestion, and landfill gas recovery. This process is often called wasteto-energy. Energy recovery from waste is part of the non-hazardous waste management
hierarchy. Using energy recovery to convert non-recyclable waste materials into electricity and
heat, generates a renewable energy source and can reduce carbon emissions by offsetting the
need for energy from fossil sources as well as reduce methane generation from landfills.
Globally, waste-to-energy accounts for 16% of waste management.

Pyrolysis is a process of thermo-chemical decomposition of organic materials by heat in the
absence of oxygen which produces various hydrocarbon gases. During pyrolysis, the molecules
of object are subjected to very high temperatures leading to very high vibrations. Therefore,
every molecule in the object is stretched and shaken to an extent that molecules starts breaking
down. The rate of pyrolysis increases with temperature. In industrial applications, temperatures
are above 430 C (800 F). Fast pyrolysis produces liquid fuel for feedstocks like wood. Slow
pyrolysis produces gases and solid charcoal. Pyrolysis hold promise for conversion of waste
biomass into useful liquid fuel. Pyrolysis of waste plastics can produce millions of litres of fuel.
Solid products of this process contain metals, glass, sand and pyrolysis coke which cannot be
converted to gas in the process.
Resource recovery
Resource recovery is the systematic diversion of waste, which was intended for disposal, for a
specific next use. It is the processing of recyclables to extract or recover materials and resources,
or convert to energy.These activities are performed at a resource recovery facility. Resource
recovery is not only environmentally important, but it is also cost effective. It decreases the
amount of waste for disposal, saves space in landfills, and conserves natural resources.

The management of waste is a key component in a business' ability to maintaining ISO14001
accreditation. Companies are encouraged to improve their environmental efficiencies each year
by eliminating waste through resource recovery practices, which are sustainability-related
activities. One way to do this is by shifting away from waste management to resource recovery
practices like recycling materials such as glass, food scraps, paper and cardboard, plastic bottles
and metal. a lot of conferences will discuss this topic as the international Conference on Green
Urabnism which will be held in Italy From 1214 October 2016.

Avoidance and reduction methods

An important method of waste management is the prevention of waste material being created,
also known as waste reduction. Methods of avoidance include reuse of second-hand products,
repairing broken items instead of buying new, designing products to be refillable or reusable
(such as cotton instead of plastic shopping bags), encouraging consumers to avoid using
disposable products (such as disposable cutlery), removing any food/liquid remains from cans
and packaging, and designing products that use less material to achieve the same purpose (for
example, lightweighting of beverage cans).
International waste movement
While waste transport within a given country falls under national regulations, trans-boundary
movement of waste is often subject to international treaties. A major concern to many countries
in the world has been hazardous waste. The Basel Convention, ratified by 172 countries,
deprecates movement of hazardous waste from developed to less developed countries. The
provisions of the Basel convention have been integrated into the EU waste shipment regulation.
Nuclear waste, although considered hazardous, does not fall under the jurisdiction of the Basel

Waste is not something that should be discarded or disposed of with no regard for future use. It
can be a valuable resource if addressed correctly, through policy and practice. With rational and
consistent waste management practices there is an opportunity to reap a range of benefits. Those
benefits include:
a. Economic - Improving economic efficiency through the means of resource use,
treatment and disposal and creating markets for recycles can lead to efficient
practices in the production and consumption of products and materials resulting in
valuable materials being recovered for reuse and the potential for new jobs and
new business opportunities.

b. Social - By reducing adverse impacts on health by proper waste management

practices, the resulting consequences are more appealing settlements. Better social
advantages can lead to new sources of employment and potentially lifting
communities out of poverty especially in some of the developing poorer countries
and cities.
c. Environmental - Reducing or eliminating adverse impacts on the environmental
through reducing, reusing and recycling, and minimizing resource extraction can
provide improved air and water quality and help in the reduction of greenhouse
gas emissions.

d. Inter-generational Equity - Following effective waste management practices can

provide subsequent generations a more robust economy, a fairer and more
inclusive society and a cleaner environment.

Rooftop Gardening
Rooftop gardening can be an effective method in ensuring food supply and satisfying nutritional
needs of the inhabitants (Helen Keller International and Institute of Public Health Nutrition
1985). Rooftop gardening, although is being practiced in the city in many form for years in the
past, there have been hardly any concerted effort on part of the Government, community
organizations and as well the general citizens to integrate it to urban agriculture. Proper
understanding of the problems and prospects associated with the adoption of policies will
contribute, to a great extent, to increased food supply in the city. The proposed study is an effort
in this direction. It identifies the long-term policy measures for rooftop gardening that can
become the basis for a sustainable approach for urban agriculture.Rooftop gardening can be very
effective for green economy and food security in urban area like Bangladesh.

We need the environment as much as the environment needs us and we live in it, therefore if you
don't want humanity to end, keep the environment safe in order for us to live and the
environment to live.