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addition of a free vortex (circulation) around a cylinder in a rectilinear flow stream.

This is known as the Magnus effect. It was mentioned by Newton in 1672 and was

investigated experimentally by Magnus in 1853. In a real (viscous) fluid, this effect

may be produced by a tennis ball, for example, by making it spin as it travels through

the air. Because the relative velocity between the air and the ball is zero at the

surface of the ball, the spin of the ball produces a circulation approximating a free

vortex outside the boundary layer. A top spin produces a downward force, and a back

spin upward force. Spin about a vertical axis produces a sideward force, known as a

"hook" or "slice" in golf. In the case of both the ideal fluid and the real fluid, a

circulation is necessary for the production of a lift force.

Fig. 1

fluid.

Lift is expressed as the product of a lift coefficient, the dynamic pressure of the free

stream, and the chord area of the lifting vane. The lift coefficient depends on a

number of parameters, including the shape and angle of attack of the vane, Reynolds

number, Mach number, aspect ratio, etc.

The lift force is generally defined by the equation

FLift = CL vs2 A

where CL is the lift coefficient; ( vs2/2) is the dynamic pressure of the free stream;

and A is the chord area of the lifting vane. Fig. 2 shows the flow lines past an airfoil at

a given angle of attack , with and without circulation. The circulation required to

swing the trailing stagnation streamline A tangent to the trailing edge of the airfoil is

the desired quantity. The addition of circulation results in a higher velocity and lower

pressure over the upper surface and a lower velocity and higher pressure over the

lower surface airfoil.

a03/p1/fluids/flight.doc

A simple model relates the lift coefficient to the angle of attack for an airfoil in an ideal

fluid when the airfoil thickness and camber approach zero (flat plate)

CL = 2 sino

for small angles of attack. The angle o is the difference between the actual angle of

attack and the angle of attack for which the lift is zero. For a flat plate and

symmetrical airfoils without 'camber (curvature), o is the same as , since lift is zero

for zero angle of attack.

Flift

vS

vS

Fig. 2

(b) With circulation lift but no drag. Circulation added to flow pattern

in (a) to produce flow pattern in (b).

Thus, ideal flow theory predicts actual lift performance amazingly well but gives zero

drag in an infinite fluid for steady flow. An airfoil in a real fluid must create its own

circulation, or vortex field, just as the spinning table tennis ball, in order to experience

lift. The starting vortex is indicated in Fig. 3. As the motion begins, it is very slow and

approaches that of irrotational flow in an ideal fluid. The fluid particles passing around

the trailing edge must move very rapidly and must approach a stagnation condition at

A. But because of the viscosity of the fluid, they have less velocity than if the fluid

were ideal, and the fluid separates from the trailing edge of the airfoil in the form of a

vortex Fig. 3b. As this vortex passes from the airfoil, an opposing reaction starts a

counter circulation opposite in direction to that of the trailing vortex. It is this induced

counter circulation that produces lift.

Starting

vortex

vS

vS

(a)

counter circulation

Fig. 3

a03/p1/fluids/flight.doc

(b)

Starting vortex (a) at the beginning of motion and (b) after vortex

created.

For a finite lifting vane (the preceding discussion applies vane of infinite span),

additional explanations are necessary, since a vortex cannot terminate within the

fluid. The lift of a finite wing is zero at its tips, and thus the circulation would appear to

be there also, so that the vortex system cannot extend out to infinity. A closed vortex

loop is necessary, and this loop consists of tip vortices that trail behind the airfoil

back to the starting vortex (Fig. 4). The starting vortex degenerates to zero with time

because of viscous dissipation, and the vortex pattern is thus more horseshoe

shaped than rectangular or toroidal. The tip vortices have low-pressure cores, and for

ship propellers they are seen as threadlike cavities in the shape of helixes peeling off

the blade tips. Under certain conditions they may be observed as vapour trails behind

aircraft flying at high altitudes. Air within the vortex core expands and cools, and

vapours condense to become visible. For an airfoil of finite span, the tip vortices

produce a downward wash.

Circulation around

an airfoil

Starting

vortices

Trailing tip vortices

Fig. 4

Lift (CL) and drag (CD) data can be plotted against the angle of attack (Fig. 5). A

desirable characteristic of an airfoil is a high lift to drag ratio. In Fig. 5b, the maximum

value of this ratio is found by finding the tangent to the curve through the origin that

has the largest slope. This is the point A in Fig. 5b. Fig. 5 shows that the attack angle

cant be to large, otherwise a stall condition is reached and lift is no longer provided

by the circulation around the airfoil.

a03/p1/fluids/flight.doc

(a)

(b)

stall

CL

Decreasing

Reynolds

number

Angle of attack

(c)

Fig. 5

a03/p1/fluids/flight.doc

CL

Aspect ratio:

span / chord

CD

(d)

Airfoil characteristics. (a) and (b)Typical lift and drag coefficients. (c)

Effect of Reynolds number on lift coefficient and stall angle. (d) Effect

of airfoil aspect ratio.

Lift of airfoils may be calculated or they may be measured directly in a wind tunnel by

the integration of the pressures over the airfoil section. The algebraic difference

between the predominantly negative

pressure on the top surface of the foil and the predominantly positive pressure on the

bottom surface will result in a net force normal to the chord of the airfoil. As a first

approximation, the component of this force normal to the approaching free stream is

the net lift on the airfoil.

If px is the surface pressure at a distance x from the leading edge of an airfoil of

chord length C, pS is the free stream pressure, and vS is the free stream velocity of

approach, then the surface pressures may be expressed as a dimensionless

pressure coefficient

Cp = (px pS) / (1/2 vS2)

The variation of Cp over an airfoil (NACA 0015: symmetrical foil with maximum

thickness 15% of chord length) in a small wind tunnel is shown in Fig. 6. The average

height between the two curves in Fig. 6 is called the normal force coefficient CN and

is related to the angle of attack by

CL ~ CN cos

For the data in given in Fig. 6, CL = 0.85 and from the equation CL = 2 sin = 0.87.

Thus, calculations from an ideal fluid theory agree well with measured values of lift.

According to the Bernoulli equation, the maximum pressure from the free stream

value ps is the dynamics pressure. Thus, at a stagnation point on an airfoil, the max

value of px pS = vS2 and the maximum pressure coefficient is Cp = 1.

Cp

-3

Over the upper front surface of the airfoil

-2

Pressure on upper surface

-1

0

Pressure on lower surface

+1

0

Fig. 6

a03/p1/fluids/flight.doc

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5

0.6

x/C

0.7

0.8

0.9

1.0

0015 airfoil at an attack angle of 8 with Reynolds number ~ 6104.

The low pressures indicated in Fig. 6 for the front upper surface provide most of the

lift for this airfoil. Associated with these low pressures are high velocities, so that at

high subsonic free stream velocities, local velocities along the foil surface may

become supersonic and shocks may affect the flow.

DRAG

The total drag on an aircraft is due to pressure differences and viscous shear and

the drag force acts in a direction parallel and opposite to the direction of motion of the

aircraft.

Viscous shear forces may play an important role in the development of the boundary

layer and influencing the point of separation of the boundary layer from the surface of

the body. This affects the size of the pressure differences and pressure drag. This

skin friction is the force that the air exerts on a surface in the direction of flow and is

a direct consequence of momentum transfer through the boundary layer.

The pressure differences around the aircraft, arise from a force known as the form

drag and is a consequence of the acceleration of the fluid through which the aircraft

is moving. It is very depend upon the shape and orientation of an object.

Fdrag = C vS2 A

C is the drag coefficient (for skin friction or other forms), vS2 is the dynamic

pressure of the free stream and A is the projected frontal area, or area being sheared

for pure skin friction, or the chord area for lifting vanes.

Reference: Essentials of Engineering Fluid Mechanics (3rd Ed) Reuben M. Olson

a03/p1/fluids/flight.doc

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