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Year 11 Biology: 8.

3 Patterns in Nature
Notes
ANH NGUYEN
Unit 1: Organisms are made of cells that have similar structural
characteristics
1.2.1 Outline the historical development of the cell theory, in
particular, the contributions of Robert Hooke and Robert Brown
1600- The first compound microscope was invented by Hans and
Zacharias Janssen
Robert Hooke:
Born 1635
Further developed the compound light microscope
First to describe cells (i.e. plant cells using a slice of cork)
Described cork cells as little boxes distinct from one another
Coined the term cells
First to acknowledge the concept of a cell
Observed similarities of fossil shells with living mollusc shells

Anton van Leeuwenhoek:


Born 1632
Described and discovered unicellular organisms by observing
rainwater droplets

Robert Brown:
Born 1773
Studied orchid cells under the microscope, found the nucleus
Developed Brownian Motion (movement of suspended particles)
Noticed that the nucleus exists for both plant and animal cells

Theodore Schwann & Matthias Schleiden:


Schwann was the first to see yeast cells producing new cells
Both came up with the 1st and 2nd cell theory

Rudolf Virchow:
Contributed to the 3rd cell theory

Walter Flemming:
Described the process of cell division (mitosis) from observations on
living and stained cells
The cell theory:
1. Cells are the smallest units of life
2. All living things are made up of cells
3. All cells come from pre-existing cells

Spontaneous Generation VS Cell Theory


Before the 17th century biologists believed that some animals such as
worms and frogs could spontaneously emerge from mud or water, and
that maggots developed from rotting meat. However, Louis Pasteurs
experiments later proved that micro-organisms arose only from other
micro-organisms. Thus, the Cell Theory developed, and revolutionised
antiseptic procedures in medicine.
1.2.2 Describe evidence to support the cell theory
Robert Hookes observation of cork cells
Leeuwenhoeks observation of unicellular cells & cork cells. He also
looked at his own saliva & found bacteria in it
Robert Brown recognises nucleus in both plant and animal cells
through a microscope
Observations of the processes that occur in cells, including mitosis
and fertilisation
1.2.3 Discuss the significance of technological advances to
developments in the cell theory
Without technological advances, the development of the cell theory could
not have happened.
Microscopes are the advance in technology that has the greatest
significance to the development of the cell theory. Hooke and other
scientists were able to observe cells in living organisms and thus
prove that living things are made up of cells, using a compound light
microscope. Leeuwenhoek used a single lense microscope to view
micro-organisms. This notion helped Schwann and Schleiden to
realise that cells are the smallest unit of life. Virchow observed cells
dividing under a microscope, leading him to conclude that new cells
come from pre-existing cells.
Other experiments carried out by scientists also helped the cell
theory to develop. Pasteur carried out an experiment that proved
that micro-organisms arose from other micro-organisms. Proving
that the 3rd cell theory is true.

Stains are used to help scientists see more clearly the components
that make up a cell. E.g. the nucleus is much easier to see if the
specimen has been stained.
1.2.4 Identify cell organelles seen with current light and electron
microscopes

1.2.5 Describe the relationship between the structure of cell


organelles and their function

1.3.1 Use available evidence to assess the impact of technology,


including the development of the microscope on the development
of the cell theory
The role of technology in the development of the cell theory is vital. With
the invention of a light microscope, scientists are able to observe and
closely study cells of organisms. Since the 17th century, the resolution and
the magnification of lenses significantly improved, which enabled more
detailed views of cells. In the 20th century, the electron microscope

provided much greater magnification and resolution of images. They were


able to view viruses, but could not view live-samples.
For instance, by using the electron microscope that scientists are able to
determine viruses as molecular, not cellular, and observe how viruses
reproduce inside host cells. Furthermore, the electron microscope allowed
organelles smaller than chloroplasts to be seen clearly. This enabled the
cell theory to be fully verified.
1.3.2 Perform a first-hand investigation to gather first-hand
information using a light microscope to observe cells in plants
and animals and identify the nucleus, cytoplasm, cell wall,
chloroplast and vacuoles.

1.3.3 Process information from secondary sources to analyse


electron micrographs of cells and identify cell organelles. (see
1.3.2 images)
UNIT 1 SUMMARY
1. List the 3 parts of the cell theory
1. All living things are made up of cells
2. All cells come from pre-existing cells
3. Cells are the basic unit of life
2. The work of Hooke provided evidence for which part of the cell
theory?
The first cell theory
3. Explain the discovery of Brown
Brown studied the structure and the internal components of a cell;
specifically, the nucleus of a cell. He also identified and named the
nucleus in plant cells.
4. Schwann and Schlieden came up with the idea of the cell
theory. Explain one area they studied.
They studied extracts of meat and identified any existing microbes in
meat, and then exterminating them by heat.
5. Name one scientist who showed that new cells came from preexisting cells.
Rudolf Virchow
6. Why was the development of the microscope so essential to
the development of the cell theory?
The microscope enabled scientists to see cells closer than with the naked
eye. This allows closer study of cells and provided an opportunity to better
understand cells, thus leads to the formation of the cell theory.

7. Explain how other technology helped scientists investigate


cells.
The method of staining allows scientists to observe first-hand the process
of cell division as when a specimen is stained, it can be placed under a
microscope to be further observed. This provides valuable insight to the
investigation of cells.
8. What is an organelle?
Parts of a cell that have specialised jobs and functions.
9. What organelles can be seen using a light microscope?
Nucleus, cytoplasm, chloroplast, vacuoles and cell wall in plant cells.
10. What organelles can only be seen using an electron
microscope?
Golgi body, EP Reticulum, ribosomes, lysosomes
11. Explain how you would make a slide of a plant cell.
For an onion, first peel a thin layer of onion and place on a slide.
Cover specimen with one drop of iodine
Carefully place a cover slip on top.
12. Choose two organelles and explain how their structure is
suited to their function.
A mitochondrion contains a folded membrane, called a cristae, with many
projections. The cristae allows greater surface area to produce ATP
energy, and hence lets the mitochondria performs its functions quickly
and efficiently. The Endoplasmic Reticulum is a network of membranes
which form channels and compartments throughout the cytoplasm of the
cell. These compartments divide and separate different chemical
functions, and allowing chemicals to travel to their designated locations.
Unit 2: Membranes around cells provide separation from and links
with the external environment
2.2.1 Identify the major groups of substances found in living cells
and their uses in cell activities
Inorganic substances (without carbon and hydrogen)
- Mineral salts (e.g. NaCl, Ca2+ compounds, K+ compounds)
- Water
- Some gases (e.g. oxygen)
Organic (with carbon and hydrogen)
- Lipids
- Carbohydrates (monosaccharides, disaccharides, polysaccharides)
- Proteins
- Nucleic acids (DNA, RNA)
2.2.2 Identify that there is movement of molecules into and out of
cells:
- Molecules are continually moving in and out of cells
- Raw materials are needed and wastes need to be expelled
- The cell continually exchanges materials with its external environment
2.2.3 Describe a current model of the membrane structure and
explain how it accounts for the movement of some substances in
and out of cells:
The current model of the cell membrane is the FLUID MOSAIC MODEL:

According to the model, the cell membrane is a thin sheet


composed of a bilayer (two layers) of fats called phospholipids.
- The bilayer is very fluid and the lipids can move about easily
- Other lipids such as cholesterol are also found in it
- Proteins are scattered throughout the membrane. There are of 2
types;
Integral proteins: they go through both layers and come out on
both sides
Peripheral proteins: attached to the integral proteins inside or
outside
The way this model accounts for substances moving in and out of cells is
as follows:
- Passive transport: the movement of substances across a
membrane which requires no energy. This includes:
-Diffusion: The movement of substances, such as water and
oxygen, from high to low concentration through the phospholipid
bilayer of the membrane.
-Facilitated diffusion: The diffusion of substances into the cell, but
not directly through the phospholipid layer. These substances diffuse
through integral proteins embedded in the cell membrane.
- Active transport: Molecules cannot pass through the cell
membrane at times because of their properties (e.g. they may be
too large; they may be stopped by the diffusion gradient; they carry
electrical charges.) In active transport, specific carrier proteins bind
to these molecules and bring them inside the cell. This requires the
use of energy.

2.2.4 Compare the processes of diffusion and osmosis

Both diffusion and osmosis are types of passive transport.


When molecules move from areas of higher concentration to areas of
lower concentration is called diffusion. Diffusion continues until all the
sugar molecules become evenly dispersed throughout the beaker. The
rate of diffusion is affected by temperature, size of molecule, and the
steepness of the concentration gradient.
Osmosis is the movement of WATER molecules from a region of higher
concentration to lower concentrated region, through a partially permeable
(selective) membrane. Therefore, water will move from a weak solution
(low concentration of solute, lots of water) to a strong solution (high
concentration of solute, less water). We can say that it moves down an
osmotic gradient.
2.2.5 Explain how the surface area to volume ratio affects the
rate of movement of substances into and out of cells
When an object is small it has a large surface area in comparison to its
volume. In this case diffusion will be an effective way to transport
material, like gases, into the cell. As an object becomes larger, its surface
area compared to its volume is smaller. Diffusion is no longer an effective
way to transport materials to the inside. For this reason, there is a
physical limit for the size of a cell, with the effectiveness of diffusion being
the controlling factor.
For example, there are eight small boxes that, in total, are equivalent in
volume to one big box. However, their surface areas are different. The
small cells together have twice the total surface area of the large cell,
because there are more exposed (inner) surfaces. Real organisms have
complex shapes, but the same principles apply. The surface-area volume
relationship has important implications for processes involving transport
into and out of cells across membranes. For activities such as gas
exchange, the surface area available for diffusion is a major factor limiting
the rate at which oxygen can be supplied to tissues.
2.3.1 Plan, choose equipment of resources and perform a firsthand investigation to gather information and use available
evidence to identify the following substances in tissues:
- Glucose Test:
Place 4ml of sample in a test tube
All 4ml of Benedicts solution
Heat gently in a water bath
If the solution turns orange-brown, there is glucose present
-Starch Test:
Place sample in a test tube
Add 5 drops of iodine solution
If the iodine turns purple, there is starch present
-Lipid Test:
Place a drop of sample on a piece of brown paper
If the paper becomes clear, the substance has lipids
-Protein Test:
Place 4ml of sample in a test tube
Add 5ml of sodium hydroxide and 5 drops of copper sulphate (this is called
the Biuret solution)

If the solution becomes light purple, there is protein present


-Chloride Ions Test:
Place 4ml of sample in a test tube
Add 4 drops of silver nitrate
If the solution turns milky white with precipitate formed, chloride ions are
present
-Lignin Test:
Add 3 drops of toludine blue to the sample
If the toludine changes from blue to blue-green, lignin is present
2.3.2 Perform a first-hand investigation to model the selectively
permeable nature of a cell membrane:
An experiment was performed as follows:
- A cellulose bag was fill with starch solution
- It was placed in a jar of water with iodine present
- Left overnight, the starchy solution in the cellulose bag turned
purple
- This proved that the iodine solution travelled through the bag by
osmosis
- This served to model the selectively permeable nature of the cell
membrane where the cellulose bag was the cell membrane and the
starch was the cytoplasm.
2.3.3 Perform a first-hand investigation to demonstrate the
difference between osmosis and diffusion

2.3.4 Perform a first-hand investigation to demonstrate the effect


of surface area to volume ratio on rate of diffusion

UNIT 2 SUMMARY
1. Complete the table which shows the four main substances
found in cells and their functions.
Substance
Function in cell
Protein
Provides growth, development and maintains the cells
structure
Carbohydrate Provides and produces energy
s
Lipids
Store energy
Nucleic acid
Holds the cells genetic information in chromosomes,
located in the cells nucleus
2. What is the difference between inorganic and organic
molecules?
Organic molecules are found only in living things and made by living
things. Inorganic molecules are found in non-living things (soils, air etc.)
and in living things.
3. Name three organic molecules found in cells.
Carbohydrates, proteins and lipids
4. What does it mean that a cell membrane is selectively
permeable?
It allows certain substrates to pass in or out of the cell while other
substances are not due to their size or charge.
5. Describe the experiment we did using dialysis tubing, iodine
and starch that modelled the selectively permeable nature of a
cell membrane.

The dialysis tubing was first tied at one end to form a tube-like bag in
which glucose and starch was fed from the other end. Next, the bag is
placed into a water bath where iodine is poured in the water to create a
dark yellow colour. After leaving the tube in the water bath overnight, it
turned into a dark purple colour. To confirm the presence of glucose,
Benedict solution is added to see if there would be a brown colour change.
6. Name some molecules that need to move and out of cells.
Water, oxygen, gases, sugars
7. What is the effect of the hydrophobic end of the phospholipids
facing both the outside and the inside of the cell?
The hydrophobic ends, since they hate water, would want to push the
water away. This forces the water either inside or outside the membrane.
8. How do small molecules like oxygen and carbon dioxide enter
and exit a cell?
They are able to seep through air gaps in the membrane.
9. How do larger molecules enter and exit a cell?
Through the process of active transport, specifically called endocytosis,
and when specific carrier proteins bind the larger molecules to bring them
inside or outside a cell.
10. Explain the difference between osmosis and diffusion.
Diffusion is the movement of various types of molecules from a region of
high concentration to lower concentrated region in order to balance the
concentration gradient. Osmosis is the movement of water molecules,
and/or dissolvable substances, from areas of high to low concentration
that does not follow the concentration gradient.
Unit 3: Plants and animals have specialised structures to obtain
nutrients from their environment
3.2.1 Identify some examples that demonstrate the structural and
functional relationships between cells, tissues, organs and organ
systems in multicellular organisms
Multi-cellular Organisms consist of:
Cells
A collection of similar cells that
make up a tissue. E.g. muscle
Tissue
A group of similar tissues that have
a particular function makes an
organ. E.g. liver
Organs
Organs working together to carry
out particular functions make an
organ system. E.g. endocrine
system
Organ System
Many organ systems make up an
organism.
3.2.2 Distinguish between autotrophs and heterotrophs in terms
of nutrient requirements
Heterotrophs are organisms that obtain their energy for living and the
material for building and repairing their structure from organic matter in
their surroundings. The organic matter is its food. To be food for a
heterotrophic organism, a substance must contain organic matter that can

be broken down and used by the heterotrophy to supply it with the


chemical energy for living and the organic matter to build and repair its
own structure.
Types of heterotrophs:
HERBIVORES- eat plants
CARNIVORES- eat animals
OMNIVORES- eat plants and animals
SCAVENGERS- eat already dead organisms
The source of energy for all life processes is ultimately the sun. The link
between consumer organisms (heterotrophs) and this energy is provided
by the group of organisms that can manufacture their own foodautotrophs.
Plants can manufacture organic substances (food) from inorganic
substances and change light energy from the sun to chemical energy
through photosynthesis. The light energy is trapped by chlorophyll.
Carbon dioxide + Water

Light energy

Glucose + oxygen + water

3.2.3 Identify the materials required for photosynthesis and its


role in ecosystems
3.2.4 Identify the general word equation for photosynthesis and
outline this as a summary of a chain of biochemical reactions
As previously learnt, photosynthesis requires carbon dioxide, light and
water to produce oxygen and sugars. This process is affected by a number
of factors. (see previous page for photosynthesis word equation.)
-Light intensity: with increased light intensity comes increased rate of
photosynthesis
-Amount of surface area of the leaf exposed to the sun: chloroplast is
responsible for photosynthesis and are mainly stored in the leaves of
plants. If the leaf has more area exposed to the sun, then more chloroplast
receives light to undergo photosynthesis. Therefore, with increased
surface area exposed to the sun, comes an increased rate of
photosynthesis.
-Temperature: with increased temperature comes an increased rate of
photosynthesis. However, if the temperature is too low, the rate of
photosynthesis decreases. If the temperature is too high, the rate of
photosynthesis also decreases. When it is very hot, the stomata in a leaf
close in an effort to prevent water loss. When the stomata are closed, that
also means that the exchange of gases needed for photosynthesis ceases,
which in turn, decreases the rate of photosynthesis.
-Level of carbon dioxide available: the more carbon dioxide there is in the
air, the more there is available to be part of photosynthesis. Therefore,
with increased CO2, comes in increase in the rate of photosynthesis.
3.2.5 Explain the relationship between the organisation of the
structures used to obtain water and minerals in a range of plants
and the need to increase the surface area available for absorption

3.2.6 Explain the relationship between the shape of leaves, the


distribution of tissues in them and their role

3.2.7 Describe the role of teeth in increasing the surface area of


complex foods for exposure to digestive chemicals

- Teeth grind and physically break up food in the mouth where the
digestive process begins
- Grinding food into smaller pieces increases the rate of reaction due to
smaller surface area and therefore saliva is absorbed faster, food can be
swallowed easier and will break down faster throughout the digestive
process.
Carnivore example: Dogs
- Digestive system relatively small and simpler compared to
herbivores
- Large stomach to produce enzymes for the breakdown of meats
- Fast and efficient digestion process
- Very little caecum
Herbivore example: Cows digestive system
- Fermentation occurs in caecum; it is very large
- Are a type of ruminant herbivore. It is as if they have four
stomachs
- More efficient than the hindgut fermentation in other herbivores
(e.g. rabbit)
Omnivore example: Human digestive system
- Digestive system proportionally larger than a carnivores but smaller
than a herbivores
- Teeth structure different (four molars and four incisors)
- Very small caecum
MAJOR ORGANS:
- The mouth (aids digestion)
- pH7
- The first part of the digestive system (mechanical digestion)
- The entry point of food (increases surface area for faster chemical
digestion)
- Teeth (cuts, tears, crush and grind food)
- Salivary glands (produce and secrete saliva into the oral cavity).
Saliva also moistens the food. It contains enzymes (ptyalin or
salivary amylase). Begins digestion of starch into smaller
polysaccharides.
3.2.8 Explain the relationship between the length and overall
complexity of digestive systems of a vertebrate herbivore and
vertebrate carnivore with respect to:
- the chemical composition of their diet
- the functions of the structures involved
HERBIVORES: why do they need a special adaptation for digestion?
Plants are more difficult to digest than animal tissue due to the tough
cellulose wall that must be broken down before the cell contents can be
released. The breaking down of cellulose is called fermentation.
The teeth of herbivores are large and flat (molars) which are suited to
grinding food. Cattle, kangaroos and sheep carry out cellulose digestion in
a chamber before the stomach, called the rumen. They are known as
foregut fermenters.
Cattle have a stomach made up of 4 chambers, the first is really the
rumen. Grass goes to the rumen first (without chewing). The grass is later

regurgitated, little at a time, into the mouth where it is chewed. The food
then goes to the other chambers of the stomach where it is further
processed.
Horses, rabbits, possums and koalas carry out cellulose digestion in a
chamber after the small intestine, called the caecum. They are known as
hindgut fermenters.
There are special bacteria that break down cellulose in the rumen and
caecum of herbivores.
Some hindgut fermenters (possums, rabbits) produce two types of solid
wastes. They release dry faeces in the daytime (to retain the water in
their body during the day) and soft, moist faeces at night. The soft, moist
faeces are re-eaten by the animal to ensure that all the nutrients released
by the bacteria in the caecum can be absorbed by the small intestine, and
are not wasted.
Eating patterns: herbivores spend most of the day eating because plant
matter releases less energy than animal tissue. So, to obtain the same
energy, they need to eat more. Plant matter spends much longer in the
digestive system because it takes longer time to break down.
CARNIVORES (meat eaters. E.g. dogs)
Animal cells do not have a cell wall and so can be digested much faster
than plant cells.
The teeth of a carnivore consist of large canines to tear and rip meat.
There is no need for a caecum or rumen. Food does not spend a long time
in the mouth of carnivores because there is no cell wall to break through.
The intestines are short and larger when compared to herbivores.
Carnivores do not spend much of the day eating (only about 15 minutes)
since meat has a high energy value and is digested quickly.
3.3.1 Plan, choose equipment or resources and perform first hand
investigations to gather information and use available evidence
to demonstrate the need for chlorophyll and light in
photosynthesis.

3.3.2 Perform a first-hand investigation to demonstrate the


relationship between surface area and the rate of reaction

3.3.3 Identify data sources, gather, process, analyse and present


information from secondary sources and use available evidence to

compare the digestive systems of mammals, including a grazing


herbivore, carnivore and a predominantly nectar feeding animal
Mammalian Nectar
Mammalian Carnivore
Mammalian Herbivore
Feeder
Humans, pigs, etc.

Cattle, sheep, etc.

Examples
of animals
in this
group

Chemicals
common
in foods
ingested
by animal

Our system is
designed to digest and
absorb protein and
fats substances that
do not require long
time processes to
break down the
nutrients

Protein as
amino acids
Fats/Lipids as
fatty acids &
glycerol
Carbohydrates
as simple
sugars
(monsaccharide
s)

Ruminant animal

High carbohydrate
diet with lower
amounts of protein
the protein is less
concentrated than in
the flesh of an
animal
Farmers and protein
supplements
problems mad cow
disease

The honey possum is


a small, mouse-sized
marsupial mammal
that lives in southwestern
Australia.
The dietary
specialisation of honey
possums appears not
to be due to any
specialisation of the
digestive system but to
the specialisations of
the tongue and palate
which enable the
animal to harvest
sufficient pollen and
nectar to provide
protein and energy
required for all lifes
purposes.

Diagram
of
digestive
system
(cut &
paste
from
internet)

Comparis
on of
system
parts
teeth

Teeth include:

Canines (small)

grabbing/ripping

Teeth include:

Nipping/cutting teeth
Molars - grinding

The incisors and


canines are pointed
but the cheek teeth are
flattened pegs with
rounded tips and do

Mammalian Carnivore

Mammalian Herbivore

Incisors - cutting
Molars grinding
Monogastric 1
stomach
Comparis
on of
system
parts
stomach(s
)

Comparis
on of
system
parts
small
intestine

Comparis
on of
system
parts
Caecum

Comparis
on of
system
parts
Large
Intestine

Contains acid (HCl)


digestion of protein
requires acidic
conditions

not resemble the


normal structure of
mammalian teeth
Ruminant more than 1
stomach actually 4
Rumen, Omasum,
Abomasum and reticulum

Most nutrient absorbed


here

The surface area for


absorption is
maximised by villi

The surface area for


absorption is maximised by
villi

Amino acids + simple


sugars into blood

Amino acids + simple


sugars into blood

Fatty acids into the


lymph

Fatty acids into the lymph

Contains bacteria to
assist in breakdown of
foods extremely
small and of little
usage

Contains bacteria to assist


in breakdown of foods
larger than in monogastric
animal

Much shorter (length)


than small intestine

Much shorter (length) than


small intestine

Absorption of

Absorption of

Water
Vitamins
minerals

It has a large, twochambered stomach.

Rumen (main large


stomach) has bacteria and
other organisms that
breakdown cellulose and
complex carbohydrates into
simple sugars fermentation

Most nutrient absorbed


here

Mammalian Nectar
Feeder

Water
Vitamins
minerals

Pollen (high in protein


and carbohydrate) is
digested progressively
in the small intestine.

First it lacks a caecum


so there is little to help
us identify where the
small intestine finishes
and where the large
intestine starts!

Unit 4: Gaseous exchange and transport systems transfer


chemicals through the internal and between the external
environments of plants and animals
4.2.1 Compare the roles of respiratory, circulatory and excretory
systems
Respiratory system: to obtain the oxygen required by cells in respiration
and to get rid of unwanted carbon dioxide.
Circulatory system: to transport or circulate materials around the body to
supply cells with nutrients and remove wastes.
Excretory system: to collect and remove waste materials from the body.

4.2.2 Identify and compare the gaseous exchange surfaces in an


insect, a fish, a frog and a mammal
Organi Name
Diagram of respiratory system Description of
sm
of
process by which
respirat
gas exchange
ory
occurs
surface
Insect
Trachea
Air enters the body
e
through pores or
spiracles and
moves through a
series of fine
tubules bringing air
directly to all cells.
Gas exchange
occurs by diffusion.
Fish

Gills

Water flows over


the gills allowing
dissolved oxygen to
diffuse into the
capillaries and
carbon dioxide to
diffuse out

Frog

Lungs
and
skin

Mamm
al

Lungs

Simple lungs: Air


moves in and out,
allowing the
diffusion of oxygen
and carbon dioxide
into the capillaries
that line them.
Skin: Gases diffuse
directly across the
thin, moist skin
that is richly
supplied with
capillaries.
Air moves into the
lungs through a
series of tubules
that end in small
sacs called alveoli
where diffusion
occurs between the
alveolar sac and
the capillaries
lining them

Thin, moist walls mean that gases diffuse across the respiratory surfaces
efficiently. Large surface area allows maximum exchange of gases to
occur in a given time.
4.2.3 Explain the relationship between the requirements of cells
and the need for transport systems in multicellular organs
Explain the relationship between the requirements of cells and the need
for transport systems in multicellular organisms:
In unicellular organisms, all nutrients needed can be diffused from the
external environment over their surface area
Wastes can just be removed from cells by diffusion as well
However, in multicellular organisms, the surface area is not great
enough to provide nutrients for all the organisms cells
Transport systems are used to carry nutrients to all the bodys cells, and
to carry wastes away
Transports systems provide all the needs of organisms
4.2.4 Outline the transport system in plants. Including:
Gas Exchange:
- Plants exchange gases (CO2 and O2) with the environment for
respiration and photosynthesis
- In land plants, the leaves and stems have specialised structures for
gas exchange
STOMATES:
- These are located on leaves of plants
- They are pores in the leaf which enable the diffusion of gases

They are present on the upper and lower sides of leaves, but mainly
on the lower side
- Stomates receive the gases needed for photosynthesis (not
respiration)
- Stomates can open and close: When open, gas exchange occurs in
the leaf and photosynthesis occurs, but when they close, the rate of
photosynthesis slows
- The opening and closing of Stomates is controlled by guard cells,
and this is dependent on stimuli such as: light, low CO2 levels, an
internal clock, water deficiency, and high temperatures.
LENTICELS:
- These are pores on the woody stems of plants.
- The gases needed for respiration are diffused through lenticels
- Carbon dioxide also diffuses out
Nutrients and Water:
In flowering plants, the transport system is called vascular tissue, or
conducting tissue
Vascular tissue is made up of xylem and phloem
Xylem and phloem together in the leaves are called veins
Xylem and phloem together in roots is called stele
In flowering plants, no plant cell is far from vascular tissue
XYLEM:
- Transport water and mineral ions up the plant stem to the leaves
- Consists of dead cells, whose cross-walls (connection between cell
walls) have been broken away, creating a continuous tube
- Xylem also gives strength and rigidity to the plant
PHLOEM:
- Transport the products of photosynthesis (sugars) throughout the
whole plant.
- Made of long columns of sieve tube cells, which have holes in their
cell walls, so that the cytoplasm is mixed and diffusion of sugars
occurs.
- Organic material in the phloem is transported up and down the plant
ROOT HAIRS:
- These structures are on the surface of the roots
- They provide a large surface area for water to diffuse into the plant
- Water enters the plant via the root hairs and then enters the xylem
Transpiration:
- Transpiration is the loss of water from a plant through the stomates
in leaves
- When stomates are open, gases flow in for photosynthesis.
However, at the same time, water is lost by evaporation. This water
loss is transpiration
- As water is lost, more water flows in through the roots
- The constant flow of water from roots, to vascular tissue, to leaves
and into the air is called the transpiration stream
- Some plants have adaptations to reduce transpiration, such as
sunken stomates, small leaves or hairy leaves

4.2.5 Compare open and closed circulatory systems using one


vertebrate and one invertebrate as examples
Open Circulatory System:
- Invertebrates such as molluscs and arthropods have open systems
- This involves the movement of body fluids (or haemolymph) around
the whole body by a simple pumping system
- Haemolymph bathes the tissues and accumulates in large spaces in
the animal
- The fluid is pumped to the front of the animal and slowly flows to
the back
- The pressure is very low and fluids circulate slowly
- Open systems suit smaller animals. E.g. an insect, such as a fly, has
an open circulatory system. The heart (called a dorsal longitudinal
vessel) contracts and fluid flows to the front of the insect. The fluid
flows through the tissues of the body and enters the heart again
through a series of holes. The fluid is then pumped again to the rest
of the body
Closed Circulatory System:
- Large animals such as vertebrates and squids have closed systems
- The closed circulatory system consists of a muscular pump (heart)
that forces a liquid (blood) through a series of tubes (blood vessels)
- These tubes carry materials rapidly throughout the body
- No body cell is far from a blood vessel
- The nutrients, wastes and gases are all carried in blood
- The nutrients must first diffuse into the body fluid (called lymph)
before it can be used.
- Closed systems meet the needs of large active animals. E.g.
Humans have closed circulatory systems. The heart pumps blood
around the body in veins and arteries. The body cells receive
nutrients from the blood from the veins.
4.3.1. Use available evidence to perform a first-hand investigation
and gather first-hand data to identify and describe factors that
affect the rate of transpiration
The higher the TEMPERATURE the higher the rate of transpiration
The faster the WIND the higher the transpiration
More LIGHT more transpiration
The water content in the SOIL affects rate water is taken up
The higher HUMIDITY the lower the rate of transpiration
4.3.2 Perform a first-hand investigation of the movement of
materials in xylem or phloem
Things to consider:
-

Performing means?

Know how to write an aim, method, discussion, results, hypothesis etc

AIM:
To observe the movement of dye in the xylem and phloem of a piece of celery.

HYPOTHESIS:
I believe..I think..
MATERIALS:

Food dye

250ml beaker

Celery

Water

METHOD:
PART A
1. Pour approximately 100-150ml of water into a 250ml beaker.
2. Pour the same amount of water into another beaker, this time add five
drops of food dye to the water. Add more dye if necessary.
3. Place a stalk of celery into the beaker with the plain water.
4. Place a stalk of celery into the beaker with the water and dye.
5. Leave the celery overnight. (Till Friday)
PART B:
1. Take your celery and cut a cross section
2. Observe the xylem and phloem, and the movement of the dye.
3. Cut a thin section of the celery and prepare a wet mount slide of the
celery and view under the microscope.
4. Draw your observations.
RESULTS:
Drawing of your specimen. Indicate the xylem, phloem and any other
observations on your diagram.
4.3.3 Use available evidence to discuss, using examples, the role of
technologies, such as the use of radioisotopes in tracing the path of
elements through living plants and animals.
Things to consider:
-

What does discuss mean?

Simplify the question to know all the terms in the question

Be scientific, key words etc

Radioactive forms of certain elements can be utilised in the production of


radioactive isotopes. These radioactive isotopes aid scientists as they are
capable of tracing certain biochemical pathways. The radioactive isotope acts

much the same as the non-radioactive isotope in the biochemical pathway to be


tested.
For example:
Autoradiography is a technique used by scientists to trace the movement of
certain substances around a plant. It involves the following steps:

Carbon 14 a radioactive isotope, is added to plant to observe the


movement of carbon in the process of photosynthesis.

The plant uses the radioactive isotope carbon 14 in the process of


photosynthesis.

The movement of the carbon 14 isotope can be traced by using an


autoradiograph. This is similar to when we have an x ray. The
autoradiograph is produced by placing the plant against photographic film.
The areas of the plant that are dark in nature is where carbon 14 has
built up.

Other examples of radioisotopes include:


Thallium 201: Used to detect damaged heart tissue after a heart attack. The
isotope will only accumulate in normal undamaged heart tissue. This enables
doctors to determine how much of the heart tissue was damaged during the
heart attack.
Technetium 99: This radioactive isotope emits gamma radiation and is useful
in scintigraphy, (method used to examine organs to diagnose cancer and other
diseases).

Unit 5: Maintenance of organisms requires growth and repair


5.2.1 Identify mitosis as a process of nuclear division and explain its
role.
Things to consider:
-

What does identify mean?

What does explain mean?

Know mitosis is nuclear division

Be succinct and use scientific language

Mitosis is the duplication of chromosomal DNA followed by a cell division that


results in two smaller daughter cells being formed, which are identical to the
parent cell. Mitosis is an important process for all organisms. It is responsible for
growth as well as tissue repair. Mitosis also plays an important role in asexually
reproducing organisms. In this process mitosis transmits DNA codes from one cell
generation to the next.
5.2.2 Identify the sites of mitosis in plants, insects and animals
Things to consider:

What does identify mean?

Underline key words

Make sure you answer for plants, insects and mammals

Use scientific terminology

Plants, insects and mammals are constantly undergoing mitosis in order for
growth and repair of tissue. In plants mitosis occurs just behind the root cap, just
below the shoot tip, buds along the stem and roots and in the cambium, which
lies between the xylem and phloem. Insects have various stages in which they
undergo mitosis. When a larva changes into a pupa, groups of cells form into
discs. These discs are the sites for cell division and mitosis. New cells are
produced here for growth and for the pupa to turn into an adult insect. Mammals
undergo mitosis for growth and repair. The main sites for mitosis in mammals
include the bone marrow and skin.
5.2.3 Explain the need for cytokinesis in cell division
Cytokinesis is the division of the cytoplasm and occurs during the telophase
stage of mitosis. In animal cells the cytoplasm constricts to the centre, breaks,
and then forms into two cells. In plants there is no constriction. A cell plate is
formed instead. The plate is a double membrane with a space between the two
layers. The process of cytokinesis is important during mitosis as the cells
stabilise the internal concentration of materials which is essential to produce two
functioning cells.
5.2.4 Identify that nuclei, mitochondria and chloroplasts contain DNA
-

Know the meaning of identify

Simple question, answer should be short and straight to the point.

Cells contain many organelles. These organelles enable the cell to function
efficiently. The organelles that contain DNA are the nuclei, mitochondria and
chloroplasts.
5.3.1 Perform a first - hand investigation with a microscope to gather
information from prepared slides to describe the sequence of changes
in the nucleus of plant or animal cells undergoing mitosis.
END