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You are on page 1of 13

journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/jfoodeng

coupled equations of transport problem during convective drying

S.M. Vahidhosseini a, E. Barati b, J.A. Esfahani a, *

a

Center of Excellence on Modeling and Control Systems (CEMCS), Department of Mechanical Engineering, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad

91775-1111, Iran

b

Department of Mechanical Engineering, Khayyam University, Mashhad, Iran

a r t i c l e i n f o

a b s t r a c t

Article history:

Received 21 August 2015

Received in revised form

22 April 2016

Accepted 23 April 2016

Available online 27 April 2016

A one-dimensional unsteady state mathematical model of coupled heat and mass transfer equations is

accomplished to simulate the convective drying of cylindrical quince slices with axis parallel to the hot

air ow. The semi-analytical proposed solution method considers fundamentals of the convective drying

process and takes internal resistances to temperature and moisture content into account. Green's

function method (GFM) is used due to existence of time dependent boundary conditions. In the present

study, unlike classic problems, evaporation term initiate a strong coupling between heat and mass

transfer equations and therefore in the present study the basic idea of numerical solutions which is

repetition and correction, is used to present a novel analytical solution and correct it. In addition the

effects of Biot number and relative humidity on drying kinetics are investigated. The agreement between

published experimental results and model predictions is remarkable.

2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Keywords:

Convective drying

Heat and mass transfer

Coupled equations

Analytical solution

Green's function method

1. Introduction

Most vegetables and fruits contain more than 80% water and

they are highly expendable. The explanation for water loss and

decay for most of their losses, which are calculated approximately

to be more than 30e40% in the developing countries in the tropics

and subtropics due to inadequate handling, transportation, and

storage facilities. By removing water content the growth and

reproduction of micro-organisms causing decay are prevented and

minimizes the moisture-mediated deteriorative reactions. It reduces weight and amount of the product, the packing is minimized

with higher cost of storage and transportation. The most dated

method which is dehydration technique is to conserve foodstuff.

Hence, while the product is becoming dry, simulation of the

transport phenomena is substantial (Mujumdar, 2006).

Considering the actual drying process physics by convection

method, it is a complex task to solve governing equation on the

process. Therefore it seems achievable to solve analytically only in a

certain high simple mode. Hernandez et al. (2000) were presented

a simple model in which one dimensional assumption is used for

the product. Some parameters are used and the body's width is

* Corresponding author.

E-mail address: Abolfazl@um.ac.ir (J.A. Esfahani).

http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jfoodeng.2016.04.017

0260-8774/ 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

shrinkage into account, the moist object's width is a function of

moisture content. Making use of this model and the superposition

principle, a two dimensional solution were presented by

Hernandez et al. (2000). In order to discretize the diffusion equation by using the nite volume method, Farias et al. (2013) wrote a

transient three dimensional mathematical formulation in boundary

tted coordinates and numerical formalism. Since the boundary

condition of the rst kind is used, their numerical solution can be

applied to investigate any diffusive process in solids with any

shapes. Etemoglu et al. (2005) proposed a mathematical model for

combined heat and mass transfer analysis of paper drying. In this

model, the assumption is that the paper has porous media during

the drying period and the vapor pressure of the evaporating liquid

stays at a quasi-saturated value corresponding to the temperature

of the liquid on the drying surface. Their comparisons demonstrate

that experimental values are highly close to those foretold from the

theory. In a model, Dimitrios A. Tzempelikos et al. (2015) studied

one-dimensional unsteady state heat and mass transfer during

convective drying. The model is based on the numerical method,

assuming moisture transport due to Fick's diffusion, with effective

moisture diffusion on the basis, on Arrhenius-type temperature

dependence. Simal et al. (2000) and also Ben-Yoseph et al. (2000)

presumed the temperature of the body to be stable during the

Nomenclature

aw

water activity

A, B

coefcients of eigenfunction

Bi1, Bi2 Biot number of front and back face

0

0

Bim1 ; Bim2 mass Biot number of front and back face

C

concentration of water vapor, kg m3

cp

product specic heat, J kg1 K1

Deff

moisture diffusivity, m2 s1

D0

preexponential factor of the Arrhenius equation,

m2 s1

Ea

activation energy, kJ mol1

Eh

evaporation term in heat transfer's B.Cs.

Em1, Em2 evaporation term in mass transfer's B.Cs.

Fo

Fourier number

Fom

mass Fourier number

f1, f2

variable term in heat transfer's B.Cs.

G1

Green's function of heat transfer

G2

Green's function of mass transfer

g1, g2

variable term in mass transfer's B.Cs.

H

Heaviside function

~ ; h

~

h

average convective heat transfer coefcient,

1

~m ; h

~m

h

1

2

hfg

k1, , k6

kp

L

L'

L00

L*1

L*2

Le

M

m

n

n'

Pvs

W m2 K1

water latent heat of evaporation, J kg1

constant

thermal conductivity, W m1 K1

length of quince slice, m

original operator of heat transfer Eq.

original operator of mass transfer Eq.

adjoint operator of heat transfer Eq.

adjoint operator of mass transfer Eq.

Lewis number

moisture content in wet basis,kg water.(kg product)1

counter of eigenfunction expansion for

nondimensional moisture content

counter of eigenfunction expansion for

nondimensional temperature

constant parameter

saturated water vapour pressure at surface, Pa

that process of convective drying may be assumed as an isothermal

process. Of course, this presumption is well-founded only when the

value of Biot number is adequately small. Heat and mass transfer

equations are solved one-dimensionally for various materials by

Barati and Esfahani, (2011a, 2011b, 2012, 2013). The equations were

solved by making use of Duhamel's integral, which contains

dependent boundary conditions. Other simplifying assumptions

are also pursued such as regular geometrics, symmetry, object to be

isotropic and inert, uniform moisture and temperature at the rst.

These solutions have been proposed for geometries in Cartesian

coordinates.

Green's functions are named after George Green, the British

mathematician who was the rst one developed the concept in

1830s. Duffy (2001) investigated Green's function with applications and for various equations such as diffusion equation, he

offered a general mode of the Green's function. The base of physical

interpretation of Green's function has a long association with heat

transfer regarding solving transfer equations. Hence in mathematic

point of view, the beauty of solving heat and mass transfer

25

q1

eigenfunction of heat transfer

q2

eigenfunction of mass transfer

Rg

gas constant, kJ mol1 K1

RH

relative humidity of drying air, %

T

temperature, K

t

time, s

U

velocity of drying air, m s1

V

Volume, m3

wh1 ; wh2 ; wh3 nondimensional temperature with constant

parameters

wm1 ; wm2 ; wm3 nondimensional moisture content with

constant parameters

X

moisture content in dry basis,kg water.(kg dry

product)1

z

axial coordinate, m

z*

nondimensional axial coordinate

Greeks

a

b

d

rb

rs

rw

q

q*

x

t

j

l

eigenvalue of mass transfer

Delta function

bulk density of product, kg m3

density of solid product, kg m3

density of water, kg m3

temperature (TTg), K

nondimensional temperature

independent variable in Green's function like z

independent variable in Green's function like t

nondimensional moisture content

eigenvalue of heat transfer

Subscripts

e

at equilibrium

i

at interphase

m

counter of mass transfer's eigenvalues

n

counter of heat transfer's eigenvalues

t

total

g

air phase

0

initial condition

free stream

equations using Green's function method is the physical interpretation of Green's function. Also for a certain equation, major

structure of Green's function is singular and it's not related to the

boundary conditions and it can be used in future investigations.

Kevin D. Cole (2004) discussed three forms of Green's function for

several boundary conditions for steady heat conduction in a right

circular cylinder. His results show better convergence for the

double sum series in comparison to the classic triple-sum series. He

also developed a new triple-sum form with the method of time

partitioning. David H. Y. Yen and James V. Beck (Yen and Beck, 2004)

studied a boundary value problem for steady heat conduction in a

three dimensional composite using Green's function. They gained

different representations of the solutions with different convergence characteristics. Their work reveals the advantage of Green's

function over the classical method of separation of variables.

J.A. Esfahani et al. (2015) presented a three-dimensional

analytical solution of transport problem of convection drying using Green's function method (GFM) and then temperature and

moisture distributions within the moist object obtained as functions of independent place and time variables. It is seen that there is

26

and experimental solutions. But the most important assumption in

their study was ignoring the evaporation term in modeling and this

assumption is the weak point of their study. Also such as other

articles (Barati and Esfahani, 2011a, 2011b, 2012, 2013), their solution has been proposed for geometry in Cartesian coordinates.

Green's function method is a powerful method which is used for

solving linear partial differential equations as well as for nonhomogeneous equations while the boundary conditions are timedependent. But the GFM alone cannot solve the system of

coupled partial differential equations (PDEs). The objective of this

paper is to promote the application of Green's function method to

convective drying process and ll a gap in analytical modeling of

coupled heat and mass transfer and to extend the validity of the

proposed model is a supplement for the recently published paper

(J.A. Esfahani et al., 2015) because unlike previous article, the

evaporation term is considered in present study and therefore

present study xes the weaknesses of previous article.

With studying previous researches (Barati and Esfahani, 2011a,

2011b, 2012, 2013, Esfahani et al., 2015; Kaya et al., 2009, 2006,

2008; Oztop and Akpinar, 2007; Chandra Mohan and Talukdar,

2010; Esfahani et al., 2014; Ruiz Celma et al., 2012; Schossler

et al., 2012) that have been done in this class of studies, it becomes clear that a major problem in these types of studies is the

existence of evaporation process in convective drying that with

mathematical modeling of that process, a strong coupling between

heat and mass transfer equations will be created. About this

coupling, the important thing is that it appears in boundary conditions and in fact, the equations will be coupled in their boundary

conditions. From the standpoint of analytical and mathematical

methods, there is a big gap in the analytical solution of these

equations and available analytical studies are about some special

cases with approximations. Maybe it can be stated that, in the eld

of mathematical and analytical solutions considering the evaporation term, no solution is performed in cylindrical coordinates, up to

now. Of course, it should be noted that some good numerical solutions have been done in this context previously. Therefore, the

present study can be a starting point for analytical studies of

convective drying process in cylindrical coordinates in which the

evaporation term is considered. Also, the physical interpretation of

the Green's function method has a direct relationship with heat

transfer and this added to the beauty of solution, mathematically.

The analytical solution is one-dimensional in the present study

for convective drying process. However, The results of Dimitrios A.

Tzempelikos et al. (2015)'s research are used for convective heat

transfer coefcients. Convective mass transfer coefcients are

calculated using the analogy between the thermal and concentration boundary layers. Green's function method has been used to

solve equations of transport problem with time dependent

boundary conditions. Temperature and moisture content distribution are obtained by using a novel mathematical method that can

be named Repitition and Correction method (RCM). Two weighted

functions dened for moisture content and temperature in order to

take the variations of variable parameters into account. The ndings well-complied with the experimental results are generated by

Tzempelikos et al. (2015). Thus, it is obtained a new appropriate

solution technique for engineering purposes with acceptable accuracy using lower cost and less time compared to numerical and

experimental methods. At last, the effects of Biot number and

relative humidity on drying kinetics are investigated.

energy to maintain the evaporation generated from the convective

energy to the food. The food during the transport process undergone two distinct occurrences: food temperature increase towards

air temperature and temperature decrease because of evaporation

happening. As it is obvious, heat is added to the food and the

moisture is immigrated from food. The moisture of the food

transfers to the surface by diffusion. The concentration gradient

developed by the evaporation of water on the surface is the driving

force for water diffusion inside the moist object, due to the variation of the water vapor partial pressure between the surface and

the hot air.

The properties of the moist object and physical conditions are

presented in Table 1. In developing the model, the following assumptions are made:

One-dimensional mass transfer in the moist object by diffusion

(in parallel with axial coordinate)

One-dimensional heat transfer in the moist object by conduction (in parallel with axial coordinate)

considering shrinkage during drying only for calculation of rs

Insignicant radiation effect

Homogenous food

Initial uniform temperature and water content within the food

In the present study, with respect to the drying process of

quince slices, mentioned assumptions are taken into account. They

may not reduce the ability of proposed model to reproduce the

experimental drying data. During convective drying, the diffusion is

operated as the controlling mechanism of mass transfer. This

mechanism has been successfully applied in several studies to

model the drying fruits and vegetables (Hernandez et al., 2000;

Tzempelikos et al., 2015; Barati and Esfahani, 2012). It is an actual

fact in food drying that foods shrink during the process. Nonetheless, depends on the food nature and physical conditions, the value

of shrinkage effects on the temperature and moisture history.

Furthermore, the food is considered to be homogeneous. These

presumptions are common in engineering applications due to

providing satisfactory accuracy and substantial decrease in calculating cost.

2.1. Model of mass transfer

A one-dimensional Fickian diffusion model of moisture transfer

is applied to simulate the time evolution of the local moisture

content, spatial distribution, in the quince slices during drying:

vX

v2 X

Deff 2

vt

vz

with the following initial and boundary conditions:

2. Mathematical model

The different mechanism occurring on food during drying process is shown in Fig. 1. One of the substantial phenomena that occur

(1)

Table 1

Quince properties and physical conditions (Tzempelikos et al., 2015).

Properties

Values or relations

X0

T0

Tg

RH

RH

RH

RH

RH

RH

289.5 K

40 C, 50 C, 60 C

19.54%

12.24%

6.77%

17.14%

9.00%

2.93%

(U

(U

(U

(U

(U

(U

1

1

1

2

2

2

m/s,

m/s,

m/s,

m/s,

m/s,

m/s,

Tg

Tg

Tg

Tg

Tg

Tg

313.15

323.15

333.15

313.15

323.15

333.15

K)

K)

K)

K)

K)

K)

Xz; tjt0 X0

rs Deff

rs Deff

(2)

vX

~ m Cj

h

1

z0 Cg

vz z0

vX

~ Cj

h

m2

zL Cg

vz zL

(3)

(4)

temperature for foods as well, but according to some previous

studies (Hernandez et al., 2000; Tzempelikos et al., 2015; Esfahani

et al., 2015; Kaya et al., 2006; Chandra Mohan and Talukdar, 2010;

Ruiz Celma et al., 2012), the well-known Arrhenius equation which

assumes only temperature dependency of moisture diffusivity is

used. About variations of Deff along z, it is obvious that it is negligible if temperature's dependency to z is small. For small sizes of

foods, temperature variations along z is small (Barati and Esfahani,

2011a; Adhikari et al., 2003; Patel and Chen, 2008; Chen, 2005) and

so variations of Deff along z is negligible (vDeff =vzy0). A temperature dependence of the effective diffusion coefcient is assumed,

following an Arrhenius type equation:

Deff

Ea

D0 exp

Rg T

(5)

is the activation energy, Rg is the gas constant, T is the absolute

temperature, resulting to the equation:

4

Deff 5:492 10

4431:713

exp

T

(6)

t. For simplicity, the value of z is assumed to be equal to the

midpoint of the moist object. As a result, the parameter Deff will be

solely a function of t.

The vapor concentration at the quince slice's surfaces

(Cjz0 &CjzL ) and also the concentration of water vapor in hot

air (Cg) are obtained from the ideal gas law (Eqs. (7)e(9)), as a

function of the water activity, aw:

27

Factually, it is a distinctive factor of each product that, being characterized by its own construction, determines how intense the

bounds between water and food structure are. As food moisture

content decreases, water activity of food decreases, thus only the

free water evaporates is denoted by a unity value of water activity.

The bounded water is removed as well when the water activity is

less than unity. Water activity on external food surface can be

described as (CHEN, 1971):

aw expk1 k2 $expk3 M

(10)

transfer equation (Eqs. (3) and (4)). Then the value of z for front face

(Eq. (3)) and back face (Eq. (4)) is equal to zero and L, respectively.

By giving these values to z, the right hand sides of Eqs. (3) and (4)

become time dependent parameters and consequently the

boundary conditions become time dependent. In fact, the evaporation term in boundary conditions make a strong coupling between temperature and moisture content that couples many

parameters to each other, e.g., aw is not independent of Diffusivity,

latent heat of evaporation and heat conductivity.

Eq. (10) is necessary to correctly depict the complicated steps

involved in drying process. It must be noted that water activity is an

individual parameter of each food and determines how intense the

connections between food structure and water are. The Eq. (10)

offered by CHEN (1971), where the coefcients k1, k2 and k3 are

obtained by Noshad et al. (2013). experimentally. The saturated

water vapor pressure at surface can be written as (ASHRAE, 2009):

5:8 103

1:391 4:864 102 T 4:176

Pvs exp

T

105 T 2 1:445 108 T 3 6:545lnT

(11)

based on convective heat transfer coefcient using analogy between the layers of thermal and concentration boundary:

0

DLen

hm h

kg

(12)

for values of h that presented in Table 2. Lewis number (Le)

demonstrate the ratio between thermal and concentration

boundary layer thicknesses. For most applications, n is considered

1/3 (Incropera and Dewitt, 1996).

2.2. Model of heat transfer

Pvs jTT0;t

Cjz0 2:1667 103 $aw jz0 $

T0; t

(7)

heat transfer must be considered. A simple mathematical modeling

in comparison with spatially distributed heat transfer equation is

provided by considering negligible temperature gradient. Being a

temperature gradient within the food, governing equation is heat

transfer equation with two boundary conditions and initial

Pvs jTTL;t

CjzL 2:1667 103 $aw jzL $

TL; t

(8)

Table 2

Average convective heat transfer coefcients mw2 K (Tzempelikos et al., 2015).

face

RH Pvs jTTg

$

Cg 2:1667 103 $

100

Tg

front

back

m

s

Tg ( C)

(9)

40

50

60

40

50

60

37.86

18.84

37.91

18.86

34.25

17.05

58.75

31.00

57.01

29.66

56.38

29.08

28

more complicated. The model of heat conduction in a solid body

can be written as:

vT

v2 T

a 2

vt

vz

(13)

Tz; tjt0 T0

kp

(14)

vT

vX

~ Tj

h

T

r

D

h

g

1

fg s eff

z0

vz z0

vz z0

kp

(15)

vT

vX

~ Tj

h

T

r

D

h

g

2

fg s eff

zL

vz zL

vz zL

Fo

at

Deff t

L2

Bi2

; Fom

2

; Fo Le$Fom ; Le

(16)

3. Solution procedure

As it is mentioned in the previous section, the parameters Deff,

kp, rs and cp (and as a result a) are variable. For solving the equations with considering these variations, the weighted functions

method has been used like the recently published article (J.A.

Esfahani et al., 2015). Then at the rst step, let's assume that these

parameters are constant and at the end, apply the effect of these

parameters' variations by using weighted functions approximation.

Introducing Biot numbers (Bi and Bim) is necessary to relate internal

and external resistances to mass or heat uxes. In order to identify

controlling mechanisms, these dimensionless variables are functional (Giner et al., 2010). Heat and mass transfer controlled

mechanisms can be inferred directly from differential transfer

equations if they are rewritten in terms of dimensionless variables.

Rewriting governing equations in terms of the following dimensionless variables is a common engineering practice:

~ L

h

z

; z* ; Bi1 1 ;

L

kp

Deff

~ L

~m L

~m L

T Tg

h

h

h

X Xe

X

q

*

2

1

2

; Bi0m1

; Bi0m2

; j

; q

;

kp

Deff

Deff

X0 Xe X0

T0 Tg q0

(21)

Cj * Cg

Cj * Cg

cp q0

Ja

; Em1 z 0 ; Em2 z 1 ; g1 Fom Bi0m1 $Em1 ;

hfg

rs X0

rs X0

g2 Fom Bi0m2 $Em2 ; Eh Le$Ja1 $X0 $

vj

vz*

total volume) is allowed to vary in the calculations. At any time of

drying process, rs is calculated according to the lost water and the

bulk density (rb). With these concepts, rs is calculated according to

the following relationship:

rs

rb0 Vt0 1 M0

rb Vt 1M0 X0 X

Vt0 0 0 r

w

(17)

where rb k4 k5 $X k6 $X 2 (Koc et al., 2008). The thermophysical properties of the matter are functions of the moisture content,

based on the following relationships (Tzempelikos et al., 2015):

kp 0:148 0:493M

(18)

(19)

(15) and (16) indicates the heat conducted from the front surface to

the back surface of the quince slice, the rst term on the right side

denotes heat penetrating from the environment to the food via

convection. The second term on the right side of Eqs. (15) and (16)

considered as the heat of evaporation of the water leaving the

surface, where hfg is the water latent heat of evaporation, given by

the following equation (ASHRAE, 2009):

hfg 2501:05 103

0:3298

647:3 T

647:3 273:15

(20)

(13)e(16) can produce the following dimensionless equations:

Non-dimensional mass transfer equation with its boundary

conditions:

vj

v2 j

vFom vz*2

(22)

Fom 0 : j 1

(23)

z* 0 : jZ * g1 Fom

(24)

z* 1 : jz* g2 Fom

(25)

conditions:

*

vq

v2 q

vFo vz*2

(26)

Fo 0 : q 1

(27)

(28)

z* 1 : Bi2 q* q*z* Eh f2 Fo

(29)

heat and mass transfer equations, are completely coupled to each

one of their solution. A new way is proposed here. Eh term associate

the heat transfer equation to j and g(Fom) term associate the mass

transfer equation to q*. These two terms are related to the evaporation at surface. In some studies, these terms are neglected

(Esfahani et al., 2015; Kaya et al., 2009, 2006, 2008; Oztop and

Akpinar, 2007; Chandra Mohan and Talukdar, 2010; Esfahani

et al., 2014). Here, the acceptability of this hypothesis is neglected

and it must be briey reminded that in some cases of moist objects

like apple the amount of unbound moisture is less than bound

moisture and constant drying rate period can be neglected

(Mujumdar, 2006). Due to this reason, the effects of the evaporation

are neglected in these studies. Thus, removing this term as a

rudimentary approximation would be appropriate. Assuming that

Eh 0 and by substituting g(Fom) term with Bi0m j , the equations

are transformed into a classic type of diffusion equation and will be

separated. The analytic solution of these two equations in the new

shape, is available from previous study (Esfahani et al., 2015):

Z1

0 *

G1 L q ds1

h

0

X n

02

0

Bm $exp bm Fom $ bm cos bm z*

j z* ; Fom

m1

io

Bi0m1 sin b0m z*

ln Bi1 Bi2

l2n Bi1 Bi2

v

v2

vFo vz*2

(35)

Z

00

G2 L jds2

Z1

m

G2 jjFo

dz*

0

ZFom

1

G2 jz* G2Z * j dFom

0

(31)

(32)

The Eq. (32) is an implicit equation which has no analytical solution. There is a tangent expression at the left side of the equation

with p period. The left hand side expression is intersected by the

right hand side expression once at each p. Hence, ln is in the nth

positive p. The rst twenty ln are attained using numerical method

and Maple 17.02 software. An and Bm have been dened in the

previous study. This solution is named primary solution. Now with

considering the main shape of the equations (Eqs. (22)e(29)) and

by making use of primary solution, Eh and g(Fom) are calculable.

Now by having these two terms, each equation can be solved

without removing these two terms. Although it is necessary to

consider the point that these two terms are the function of time (in

the dimensionless form, functions of Fo and Fom) and in order to

solve the two equations, a method must be used to encompasses

the time dependant boundary conditions. Thus, the Green's function method is used since the overall form of Green's function is

available thanks to the previous study (Esfahani et al., 2015). Eqs.

(22) and (26) are written operationally:

(30)

tanln

ZFo

1

*

G1 q

dz

G1 q*z* G1Z* q* dFo

* Fo

0

X

2

A

q* z* ; Fo

$exp

l

Fo

$ ln cos ln z*

n

n

n1

o

Bi1 sin ln z*

29

v

v2

vFom vz*2

(36)

transfer equations respectively. ds1 and ds2 indicates the differential elements in solution domains of heat and mass transfer

equations which are here equal to dz* dFo and dz* dFom

respectively. L*1 and L*2 represents the adjoint differential operator

related to the original differential operators. The expressions L*1 G1

and L*2 G2 are made equal to Delta function:

L*1 G1 d x z* ; t1 Fo

(37)

L*2 G2 d x z* ; t2 Fom

(38)

Eqs. (35) and (36) can be rewritten by taking L*1 G1 and L*2 G2

equal to Delta function in them and using Delta function features

and substituting Eqs. (33) and (34) in them as follows:

q* z* ; Fo

Z1

G1 jt0 dx

0

ZFo

G1 1; t1 $f2 t1

0

G1 0; t1 $f1 t1 dt1

ZFom

Z1

j z ; Fom

G2 jt0 dx

0

G2 1; t2 $g2 t2

0

G2 0; t2 $g1 t2 dt2

2

L0 q* 0; L0

v

v

vFo vz*2

(33)

L00 j 0; L00

v

v2

vFom vz*2

(34)

domain of 1 and 2 by using integration by parts, nally

following expressions is attained:

(39)

(40)

For solving Eqs. (39) and (40) in order to obtain q* and j, initially

Green's functions must be determined. These functions are as follows (Esfahani et al., 2015):

h

i

X

2

G1 HFo t1 n1 An exp ln Fo t1 q1n xq1n z* ;

(41)

30

n

h

i

X

o

2

G2 HFom t2 1

2 exp bm Fom t2 q2m xq2m z* ;

m1

(42)

q2m x cosbm x; bm mp

The difference in the overall form of the Eqs. (41) and (42) is due

to the difference between the boundary conditions of heat and

mass transfer equations. So that, Robin-Robin (R-R) type of

boundary conditions is used for heat transfer and NewmanNewman (R-R) type of boundary conditions is used for mass

transfer. Green's function here is a variant of temperature distribution and in fact it is originally a variant of the original function.

Indeed, in t1 Fo a thermal source and in t2 Fom a concentration

source operate straightway with a unit strength at x z* and

Green's functions explain the distribution of temperature and

moisture content at Fo > t1 and Fom > t2, whether physically

possible or not (Greenberg, 1971). Therefore in Green's function we

have Heaviside function which equals to 1 in Fo > t1 and Fom > t2

while we have H 0 in Fo < t1 and Fom < t2. By substituting Eqs.

(41) and (42) in Eqs. (39) and (40) and after simplifying, q* and j

can be obtained nally:

)

q* z* ; Fo

j z* ; Fom

8

9

8

9

< Terms resulted =

< Terms resulted =

from initial

from boundary

:

;

:

;

conditions

conditions

2

3

(43)

In the Eq. (43), the rst integral for the Eqs. (39) and (40) is the

generative factor of term f$g2 and the second integral of these

equations is the generative factor of term f$g3 which these factors

indicate initial conditions and boundary conditions of the problem

respectively. Therefore, a more precise solution would be conducted by placing a primary solution in the Eqs. (22)e(29) and

resolving them for the second time. Now let us repeat this solution

replacement in the equations and solution improvement until the

variation of the derived solution would reach to the appropriate

precision. In other words, we substitute the new solution in the

primary solution and calculate the Eh and g(Fom) and solve the

equations again and this process would be continued until the

variation of the two sequential solution reduced. However,

different criteria may be used as the difference of the two

sequential solutions. The surface of the moist object is the best

place for the calculation of error because the primary approximation that is Eh 0 was considered on the surface of the object.

Therefore, a new semi-analytic method was presented for solving

coupled PDEs with time dependent boundary conditions so it can

be called as Repitition and Correction method (RCM). It should be

mentioned that in the calculation of Eh and g(Fom) it is more

appropriate to use the most recent derived q* and j to faster solution convergence to the desired precision. Term f$g2 doesn't

change in different iterations because the initial conditions are always the same but term f$g3 vary in every repetition due to the fact

that term f$g3 is derived from the previous repetition and

Table 3

2

Effective moisture diffusivity coefcient 1010 ms (Tzempelikos et al., 2015).

U

1

2

Tg ( C)

m

s

40

50

60

3.82343

3.88313

6.01866

6.60007

8.98063

9.02179

As it is mentioned in the beginning of this section, all the variable quantities were assumed constant. Now by making use of

weighted functions, the variation effects of these parameters are

implicated in the nal solution. That is, the solution is conducted

through constant values and the ultimate balance conditions would

be identied. The values of Deff is shown in Table 3. In this study, the

weight function is a polynomial with order two. Therefore, three

different conditions must be determined by three functions. To this

end, q* and j were obtained with three different constant

parameters:

a. By using temperature and moisture content of the body at the

beginning of the process, variable parameters were calculated.

q* and j were obtained through this calculation and were

named wh1 and wm1 .

b. Variable parameters were calculated in half of the nal time. q*

and j were obtained through this calculation and were named

wh2 and wm2 .

c. By using temperature and moisture content of the body at the

end of the process, variable parameters were calculated. q* and j

were obtained through this calculation and were named wh3

and wm3 .

As a matter of fact, part a, b and c are the moisture content

distribution within the object at the beginning, middle and the end

of the process, respectively. Dimensionless weighted mean function of q* and j were obtained by using these three distributions

during the whole process like previous study (J.A. Esfahani et al

(Esfahani et al., 2015).). The sequences of steps that sum up the

process of the application of Repitition and Correction method

(RCM) are presented in the following:

Step 1: Consider Eh 0 and substitute the term g(Fom) with

Bi0m j.

Step 2: Solve equations and obtain primary solution.

Step 3: Calculate Eh and g(Fom) terms by making use of primary

solution.

Step 4: Solve the original equations and obtain the new q* and j.

Step 5: Repeat step 3 and 4 until the desired precision is

obtained.

In Fig. 2, these steps are presented as a ow chart. The green area

in Fig. 2 is related to Green's function method that is common for

solving heat transfer and mass transfer equations and the outside

area is related to the other steps of RCM to considering the variations of Deff, kp, rs and cp (and as a result a).

4. Results and discussion

By using a novel mathematical method (RCM) that combined

with GFM, temperature and moisture content distributions within

the object are semi-analytically obtained. Temperature and moisture content depend on place (z*) and time (Fo). Temperature and

moisture content distributions are measured for two inlet velocities

(1 m/s and 2 m/s) and three inlet temperatures (40 C, 50 C and

60 C) individually.

31

Fig. 3. The impact of changes in the nal counter and summation of (a) dimensionless moisture content and (b) dimensionless temperature convergence test for the central point of

the quince slice (U 1 m/s and Tg 50 C).

gures of this section are drawn. As it is clear from the previous

section, each equation has some sigmas in the range (1). An

eigenvalue is required in each sigma for each number from range

(1). There is no possibility of getting a global answer with all

numbers in the range (1). Therefore, for each counter, 20 positive and consecutive initial eigenvalues are assumed. Fig. 3(a) and

(b) are represented for the center of moist object (U 1 m/s and

T 50 C) and the nal counter amounts to 5, 10 and 20 to check

whether 20 initial eigenvalues are sufcient or not and to assure

that the answers converge as the nal counter rises. Changes of

non-dimensional moisture content in mass Fourier number were

depicted in Fig. 3(a) and changes of non-dimensional temperature

in Fourier number were depicted in Fig. 3(b). As Fig. 3(a) claries,

the curves can be split into two parts: (Fom < 0.02 and Fom > 0.02).

The part Fom > 0.02 is similar for the nal counter n& m 5, 10 and

20. But in the part Fom < 0.02, with increase of n and m the solution

become closer to its actual rate such that non-dimensional moisture content at Fom 0 for n& m 5 is almost 0.95 and it is almost 1

for n& m 20 indicates answer convergence to the actual rate

when nal counter increases.

Fig. 3(b) also have two parts but the borderline rate for these

two parts is Fo 0.2 splitting them into Fo < 0.2 and Fo > 0.2. Like

Fig. 3(a), in the part where Fo > 0.2 is the same for all amounts of n

and m but in Fo < 0.2 when nal counter of n and m rises, nondimensional temperature converges to its actual rate. The curves

are related to the point at the center of the object and thus at rst,

they are perpendicular to the vertical axis (for n& m 20), and then

it is effected by heat and mass transfer just receiving and there

happens greater change in the related curve. However, alteration in

curve for non-dimensional temperature at central point happens

with celerity than alteration in curve for non-dimensional moisture

content, since heat transfer rate is higher than mass transfer rate.

Fig. 4 claries validation of this study based on experimental

data from Dimitrios A. Tzempelikos et al. research (Tzempelikos

et al., 2015). The gures demonstrate time-depended (a and c)

moisture content and (b and d) temperature. Inlet ow velocity is (a

and b) U 1 m/s and (c and d) U 2 m/s. Based upon experimental data for moisture content and temperature, maximum

relative error is 9.3% and 14.7% respectively. These error rates are

reliable for engineering applications due to analytical solution,

using less time and lower cost than numerical methods and there is

32

Fig. 4. Change of (a and c) moisture content and (b and d) temperature during the drying and compare it with data from Dimitrios A. Tzempelikos et al. research for (a and b)

U 1 m/s and (c and d) U 2 m/s (Tzempelikos et al., 2015).

Fig. 5. (a) Dimensionless moisture content and (b) dimensionless temperature proles developing within the food in axial direction at different drying times (U 2 m/s and

Tg 40 C).

moist object more rapidly than moisture transfer. Therefore, temperature curves change earlier than moisture content curves. The

same is clear for temperature convergence to hot air temperature

such that temperature converges to its nal rate quicker than

moisture content. Indeed, this rapid convergence of temperature is

due to higher heat transfer rate than mass transfer rate or the wellknown Lewis number being higher than 1 (Le a/D > 1). This issue

can be seen in Fig. 3 in a way that Fom 2 (0,0.35) and Fo 2 (0,20)

and this wild difference is justiable by the relation Fo Le$Fom.

Fig. 4 also claries that at rst, temperature and moisture content

changes are higher and gradually the change is lower due to

approaching temperature and moisture content of the moist object

to the hot air temperature and moisture content. As a result, the

gradient of temperature and moisture gradually reduces and

therefor transfer of heat and mass decreases.

Fig. 5(a) and (b) claries non-dimensional moisture content and

non-dimensional temperature curves within the moist object over

mass Fourier number and Fourier number, respectively. These gures are demonstrated under conditions (U 2 m/s and

T 40 C) to give a better vision of how temperature and moisture

content are scattered inside the quince slice during drying process.

The non-dimensional moisture content and non-dimensional

temperature of quince reduce over time, since there is gradients

for temperature and moisture content between moist object surface and hot air. The moisture of moist object is transferred to the

hot air in form of vapor, as a result of diverse vapor pressures between the surface of moist object and drying hot air. Fig. 5(a) and

(b) indicates that extremum points of non-dimensional moisture

content and non-dimensional temperature curves and the

geometrical center of quince slice are not coincided and it is closer

to the back surface. These points proceed towards back surface

progressively over time farther than front surface. This dissymmetry is due to unparallel and dissymmetrical pattern of heat

transfer between front surface and back surface. Temperature in

front surface is higher due to its higher heat transfer in comparison

with back surface at a particular time. As a matter of fact, owing to

its higher heat transfer rate, the temperature of front surface converges at hot air more rapidly. However, in the case of temperature,

Fig. 6. Mass Fourier number evolution of surface dimensionless moisture content with

air relative humidity as the parameter (U 2 m/s and Tg 40 C).

33

Fig. 7. Fourier number evolution of surface dimensionless temperature with air relative humidity as the parameter (U 2 m/s and Tg 40 C).

the moist object, which vanish rapidly. This particular behavior is

principally attributed to the low heat transfer Biot number, which

range between 0.22 and 0.48. These values are of the same order of

magnitude compared to the limit of thermally-thin-materials set

to the order of 0.1. In other words the resistance to convection

across the uid boundary layer is much more than the resistances

to conduction within the quince slice (Incropera and Dewitt, 1996).

By making comparison between Fig. 5(a) and (b), it is clear that

temperature change quince slice is higher than moisture content

change at the beginning of the process. Due to the fact that the

Lewis number is higher than one, the effect of temperature change

is transferred more rapidly within the object than mass transfer

effects.

The starting point is probably a wet bulb condition. This

Fig. 8. Fourier number evolution of surface saturated water vapor pressure with air

relative humidity as the parameter (U 2 m/s and Tg 40 C).

34

phenomena can be seen in Figs. 4 (b) and (d) that is plotted for the

midpoint of moist object. Actually the temperature of midpoint of

moist object does not reach close to the equilibrium temperature, at

once and after initial temperature increasing, it is increased with a

gentle slope. This phenomena can be explained by the evaporative

cooling effect due to the rapid moisture ux on the surface during

the early stages of drying. The rapid moisture ux on the surface of

the product during this period requires more energy for moisture

evaporation and hence, less heat received by the product initially.

Then, as the moisture ux decreases in the later stages of drying,

the product temperature is gradually increased approaching close

to the equilibrium with the drying air temperature. It was also

found that a temperature gradient exists within the product

particularly in the initial stages of drying that is a common outcome

from Figs. 4 ((b) and (d)) and 5(b).

Figs. 6 and 7 demonstrate the mass Fourier number and Fourier

number evolutions of non-dimensional moisture content and nondimensional temperature at surface of the food with inlet air

relative humidity. Signicant increase in temperature and slight

increase in moisture content can be seen when the relative humidity of air increases from 5% to 40%. When free water is removed

from the food, an increase in relative humidity of air from 5% to 40%

signicantly lowers the drying rate due to a decrease in the drying

force which promotes moisture transfer. As drying progress, the

internal resistance to mass transfer represents the rate limiting

step. Fig. 8 claries the saturated water vapor pressure at surface

against Fourier number. From the present study, at the beginning of

process the surface vapor pressure rises with a little moisture

decrement. Subsequently, when the process rate is controlled by

mass transfer and the water leaving the food is bounded to the food

structure, a progressively reduction of pressure slope is seen.

Finally, the process nalize when the moisture steam pressure

within the quince slice is the same with the one in the air drying.

Some cases with different conditions were shown in Table 4 in

order to investigate the variation effect of Bi and Bim on the drying

process. Figs. 9 and 10 were concluded with respect to the table.

Fig. 9 presents the Fourier number evolution of food nondimensional temperature with Biot number. An increase in Biot

number corresponds to a decrease in external resistances to heat

and mass transfer. This causes sharp increment of food temperature

which can be evidently observed when free water evaporates and

leaves the food. Fig. 10 displays the saturated water vapor pressure

at surface against Fourier number for different cases. In Fig.10, the

variations of the curves are very similar to the Fig. 9 with the

increasing bond indeed because Pvs is a function of temperature as

it is mentioned in the previous section. By comparing Figs. 8 and 10,

it is seen that the values of Pvs in the Fig. 10 are more than Fig. 8. This

is due to the difference of the drying hot air's temperature between

Figs. 7 and 9 which is consequently resulted in the increase of the

temperature of the moist object in the Fig. 9, therefore Pvs in the

Fig. 10 have more values than Fig. 8.

Fig. 9. Fourier number evolution of food dimensionless temperature with Biot number

as the parameter for different cases.

Fig. 10. Fourier number evolution of surface saturated water vapor pressure with Biot

number as the parameter for different cases.

In order to make the used method more applicable in the

Table 4

Different cases for studying the effects of variations of Biot and mass Biot numbers.

Case

1

2

3

4

2

2

2

2

m

s

Tg ( C)

Bi

Bim

40

40

40

40

0.2

0.4

2

4

1

2

1

2

105

105

106

106

use the presented method, should be mentioned. In general, two

linear partial differential equations (Linear PDEs) of second order,

with two independent variables x and y (sometimes, t) can be

formulated as:

0

A uxx B0 uxy C0 uyy D0 ux E0 uy F0 u

u

L

00

00

00

00

00

00

$

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

u

A uxx B uxy C uyy D ux E uy F u

L

0

f

00

f

(44)

where L and L are the original differential operators and

00

00

A0 ; A ; B0 ; ; f0 and f are the given functions of x and y. The solution's domain of Eq. (44) is with the following general linear

time-dependent boundary conditions,

B:Cs:u

B:Cs:u0

0

a u b000un f 0

00

:

00

0

0

a u b un f

(45)

0

u0n demonstrate the outward normal derivatives vu/vn and vu /vn,

0

00

0

00

0

00

respectively, and a , a , b , b , f and f are functions dened on G, as

shown in Fig. 11.

0

00

0

The terms f and f can be the functions of u and u on the

00

00

boundary curve G, respectively (f 0 f 0 u0 jG & f f uG ). Then,

0

00

because of the terms f and f , the system of Eq. (44) is a coupled

PDEs system. The presented method (RCM) can solve the system of

Eq. (44) using Green's function method. The GFM is applicable only

for differential operators that satisfy superposition principle. In

fact, most operators encountered in Engineering have the basic

requirement, e.g., the diffusion equation (such as the present

study), wave equation, Laplace equation and so on. The steps for

solving system of coupled Eq. (44) are presented briey in the

following:

0

00

equations.

Step 2: Solve uncoupled equations and obtain primary solutions.

0

00

Step 3: Calculate f and f terms by making use of primary

solutions.

0

Step 4: Solve the original equations and obtain the new u and u

and replace them with primary solutions.

Step 5: Repeat steps 3 and 4 until the desired precision is

obtained.

Note that every two or three dimensional equation can be

solved using product solution method. Furthermore, the method of

weighted functions can be used in order to apply the variations of

parameters, with approximation.

6. Conclusions

A new mathematical solution is conducted to measure distribution of temperature and moisture content inside quince slice by

making use of Green's function method. Illustrating transport

phenomena in drying of quince slice is the aim of the present

investigation. The mathematical model developed in this study is

very comprehensive and can be employed to predict transient

variations in temperature and moisture content distributions of

quince slice with acceptable accuracy. The proposed model is

particularly useful for determination which set of operating conditions would enhance the quality and safety of the nal product.

The results in brief are:

35

PDEs in the convective drying process based on solution repetition and improvement.

This solution explain the simplicity of the Green's function in

order to solve heat and mass transfer problems using laboratory

equipment for data entry without any need to complex numerical methods.

In coupled equations, solution of equations (presuming xed

variables) and weighted functions approximation, can be used

to interfere the inuence of variables into solution with an

acceptable approximation.

The results of simulations are found to be in noticeable

concurrence with experimental data in terms of time evolutions

of food temperature and moisture content.

It is explained that heat and mass Biot numbers and relative

humidity have a substantial part only during the primary stage

of the drying process.

It is seen that when external resistance to mass transfer control

the drying, history of water activity depends on Biot number.

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