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journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/apthermeng

Research paper

convection drying using Green's function method (GFM)

J.A. Esfahani a, *, S.M. Vahidhosseini a, E. Barati b

a

Center of Excellence on Modeling and Control Systems (CEMCS), Department of Mechanical Engineering, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad

91775-1111, Iran

b

Department of Mechanical Engineering, Khayyam University, Mashhad, Iran

h i g h l i g h t s

g r a p h i c a l a b s t r a c t

phenomena equations is introduced.

Thermal diffusivity is considered as a

function of temperature.

Solving

equations

in

three

dimensions.

Using analytical approach with less

time and lower cost than numerical

solution.

Reliable error rates for engineering

applications.

a r t i c l e i n f o

a b s t r a c t

Article history:

Received 22 November 2014

Accepted 2 April 2015

Available online 18 April 2015

Green's function method (GFM). Mass conservation, momentum and energy equations must be solved to

obtain convective heat and mass transfer coefcients. In most papers, these equations are solved using

numerical methods alike. The mass transfer coefcients are calculated using analogy between the

thermal and concentration boundary layers. The results of previous studies are used for these coefcients

values. Green's function method has been used as a new simple method to solve equations of transport

problem. The heat and mass transfer equations are solved using Green's function method and taking

diffusion equation-related adjoint differential operator equal to Delta function. Of course, these equations are coupled with thermal diffusivity, because this parameter is a function of temperature and is

used in mass transfer equation. These two coupled equations were solved with a good approximation

which is a denition of a weighted function for moisture distribution. Thus, temperature and moisture

distributions within the body obtained as functions of x, y, z and an independent time variable t. After

these steps it is seen that there is a good consistency between the results and the existing solutions. The

prominent advantages of the proposed solution are techniques which are less time and money

consuming compared to numerical and experimental methods.

2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Keywords:

Convection drying

Heat and mass transfer

Analytical solution

Green's function method

Coupled heat and mass transfer

1. Introduction

E-mail address: Abolfazl@um.ac.ir (J.A. Esfahani).

http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.applthermaleng.2015.04.016

1359-4311/ 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

water and thus are very deteriorative. Dehydration technique is the

most dated method to preserve foodstuff. The removal of the water

Nomenclature

A, B, C

D

G

g1, g2, g3

H

h

hm

k

L1, L2, L3

L'

L*

Le

M

n

q

T

t

U

X

x

Y

y

Z

z

moisture diffusivity, m2/s

total Green's function

moisture content with constant moisture diffusivity

Heaviside function

convective heat transfer coefcient, w/m2$K

convective mass transfer coefcient, m/s

thermal conductivity, w/m$K

lengths of moist object, m

original operator

adjoint operator

Lewis number

moisture content, kg water/kg dry comp

constant parameter

eigenfunction

temperature, K

time, s

velocity of drying air, m/s

Green's function in x-direction

x-direction, m

Green's function in y-direction

y-direction, m

Green's function in z-direction

z-direction, m

causing decay and minimizes the moisture-mediated deteriorative

reactions. It causes reduction in weight and volume of the product,

the packing is minimized with higher cost of storage and transportation. Thus, the products will be more storable under ambient

temperature. Therefore, it is important to determine the local

temperature and moisture content while the product is becoming

dry [1].

Given the real physics of drying process by convection method,

it is a complicated task to solve governing equation on the process.

Then it seems feasible to solve analytically only in a certain high

simple mode.

Garca-Alvarado et al. [2] studied a rigorous dimensionless

analysis of simultaneous heat and mass transfer equations. Their

solution was obtained by Laplace transform and complex inversion integral with space dependent function as initial conditions.

Their solution can be used in order to elucidate the effect of nonlinear interface relation and the effect of variable properties. In a

model presented by Hernandez et al. [3], one dimensional

assumption is used for the moist object. In order to nondimesionalizing, some parameters are used so that the body's

width is assumed to be variable. In the simplest model to take

the body's shrinkage into account, its width is a function of

moisture. Using this model and the superposition principle,

Hernandez et al. [3] reached a two dimensional solution.

Cordova-Quiroz et al. [4] presented a new one dimensional

analytical model. Their model is capable of predicting variations

of moisture content of the rectangular carrot. Of course, in their

model, the heat transfer equation is not solved. Therefore, the

change of shape of the moist object is neglected, because it is

dependent on stress and strain equations. In addition, mentioned

equations strongly depend on heat transfer and temperature

gradient. Pavon Melendez et al. [5] determined a nondimensional

solution to heat and mass transfer equations during drying

process. Using their solution and the values of effective

265

Greeks

a

d

q

4

x

h

z

t

l

Delta function

non-dimensional temperature

non dimensional moisture content

independent variable in Green's function

independent variable in Green's function

independent variable in Green's function

independent variable in Green's function

Eigenvalue

like x

like y

like z

like t

Subscripts

e

at equilibrium

i

at interphase

n1, m1

counter in x-direction

n 2 , m2

counter in y-direction

n 3 , m3

counter in z-direction

b

solid phase

g

air phase

0

initial condition

1, 2

for coefcient h in x-direction

3

for coefcient h in y-direction

4

for coefcient h in z-direction

free stream

parameters, the substance's behavior may be estimated. RuizLopez and Garcia [6] presented a one dimensional model to

predict the variation of moist object's moisture. They assumed

body's temperature to be constant during drying. However, in

mass transfer equation, the moisture diffusivity is taken into

account as a variable parameter and the effect of shrinkage is also

taken into account during drying. Simal et al. [7] and also Ben

Yoseph et al. [8] assumed the body's temperature to be constant

during the convective drying process, since Wu and Irudayaraj

[9] proved that convective drying process may be considered as

an isothermal process. Of course, this assumption is valid only

when the value of Biot number is small enough.

Barati and Esfahani [10e13] solved heat and mass transfer

equations one-dimensionally for various materials. They solved

these equations using Duhamel's integral, which contains

dependent boundary conditions. Other simplifying assumptions

are also pursued such as regular geometrics, symmetry, object to

be isotropic and inert, uniform moisture and temperature at the

rst.

In another paper, Esfahani et al. [14] executed a twodimensional analysis on the effect of the front face and back face

in drying process. At mentioned paper, thermal diffusivity parameter is assumed to be constant. Thus, heat and mass transfer

equations were separated into two equations and each solved by

method of separation of variables.

Green's functions are named after the British mathematician

George Green. He rst developed the method in 1830s. Many

believe that this method is too arduous. Therefore, students do not

refer to it mostly. In the present study it is tried to show the

contrast to the concept. Green's function method has not been

used so often in drying eld. Duffy [15] studied Green's function

with applications and offered a general mode of the Green's

function for various equations such as diffusion equation. About

solving transfer equations, the base of physical interpretation of

Green's function has a long association with heat transfer.

266

and mass transfer equations using Green's function method is the

physical interpretation of Green's function. Also for a specic

equation, main structure of Green's function is unique and it's not

related to the boundary conditions and it can be used in future

studies.

Heat and mass transfer equations for two-dimensional and

three-dimensional objects are often solved by numerical analysis

during drying process. Analytical solutions are often onedimensional and they are used to determine the limits of suitable

numerical solutions and to ensure the accuracy of experimental

results. In mentioned solutions the impacts of differential heat

transfer and mass transfer on surface facing inlet and surface facing

outlet of the object being dried are ignored and the lumped

capacitance method is used with higher approximation. Green's

function method is a powerful method which is used for solving

linear partial differential equations as well as for nonhomogeneous two and three-dimensional equations while the

boundary conditions are time-dependent.

Since one-dimensional and two-dimensional solutions cannot

express the effects of difference between surfaces on drying process, the analytical solution is three-dimensional in the present

study for drying process. The results of Mohan and Talukdar's

research [16] are used for convective heat and mass transfer coefcients. Green's function method has been used to present a

new simple method to solve equations of transport problem. In

present study, thermal diffusivity parameter is assumed to be

function of time. As a result, heat and mass transfer equations are

coupled. In order to solve this system of differential equations

with partial derivatives, a weight function dened for moisture

content and a good approximation gained for the system. Temperature and moisture content distribution are obtained in functional forms because of using an analytical solution for transport

problem in internal state of moist object. The ndings wellcomplied with numerical and experimental data of Mohan and

Talukdar's research [16]. Thus, it is obtained appropriate solutions

for engineering purposes with acceptable accuracy using less cost

and time.

placed inside a channel with 0.6 m 0.2 m 0.2 m dimensions.

The center of the object is congruous with the center of the

channel.

A three-dimensional unsteady state mathematical model is

developed to analyze heat and mass transfer through diffusion

within the moist object and some assumptions are determined as

follows: (i) moisture content is not dependent to thermophysical properties of the moist object, (ii) insignicant

shrinkage or deformation in moist object during drying, (iii)

insignicant heat generation inside the moist object, (iv) insignicant radiation effect and (v) insignicant changes in density

of moist object.

Moisture of a solid body can be bound moisture or unbound

moisture. In order to separate unbound moisture in convective

drying, evaporation happens. However, in separating bound

moisture, conduction heat transfer within the body is the most

important factor. In fact, if the drying body's pores are high, it can

be said that heat and mass transfer will be continuous in it and will

occur by diffusion mechanism [1]. Because of this, in some studies

[16e19] like study of Mohan and Talukdar [16], the evaporation

effects are neglected because in their moist object, the amount of

unbound moisture is less than bound moisture. This assumption is

considered in the present study.

The physical properties of moist object are represented in

Table 1. The following governing three-dimensional heat and mass

transfer equations regarding above assumptions can be written as

follows:

2. Mathematical model

Tx; y; z; tjt0 T0

(3)

Mx; y; z; tjt0 M0

(4)

the corresponding boundary conditions. The sizes of the moist

object are 0.08 m 0.02 m 0.02 m. Aspect ratio (AR) is dened

as proportion of the length of the moist object along the ow

direction (x-direction) to the width of the moist object perpendicular to the ow direction (y or z-direction). Here, we adopt

AR 4 since the object in industry is often subjected to hot air

1 vT v2 T v2 T v2 T

2 2 2

a vt

vx

vy

vz

(1)

1 vM v2 M v2 M v2 M

2 2

D vt

vx2

vy

vz

(2)

vTx; y; z; t

h1 Tjx0 Tg

vx

x0

(5)

vMbi x; y; z; t

hm1 Mgi x0 Mg

D

vx

x0

(6)

Table 1

Physical properties of moist object. (Mohan and Talukdar [16]).

Properties

Values

Thermal conductivity, k

Thermal diffusivity, a

Initial moisture content, M0

Initial temperature,T0

Moisture content in supplied air, M

Temperature of drying air, T

0.589 W/(m K)

3.488 107 m2/s

7.196 kg/kg (db)

295 K

0.0196 kg/kg of dry air

333 K

k

vTx; y; z; t

h2 TjxL1 Tg

vx

xL1

(7)

vMbi x; y; z; t

vx

(8)

D

xL1

hm2 Mgi xL Mg

1

vTx; y; z; t

h3 Tjy0 Tg

vy

y0

vMbi x; y; z; t

hm3 Mgi y0 Mg

vy

y0

k

(10)

vTx; y; z; t

h3 TjyL2 Tg

vy

yL2

(11)

vMbi x; y; z; t

hm3 Mgi yL Mg

2

vy

yL2

(12)

D

(9)

vTx; y; z; t

h4 Tjz0 Tg

vz

z0

(13)

vMbi x; y; z; t

hm4 Mgi z0 Mg

vz

z0

(14)

vTx; y; z; t

h4 TjzL3 Tg

k

vz

zL3

D

vMbi x; y; z; t

hm4 Mgi zL Mg

3

vz

zL3

qx; y; z; t

Tx; y; z; t T0

T T0

(19)

4x; y; z; t

Mx; y; z; t Me

M0 Me

(20)

Indeed, in this diverse forms in Eq. (19) and Eq. (20) for

dimensionless quantities, variable q represents ascendant function and 4 represents a descendant function demonstrating the

same increasing temperature and moisture reduction, respectively. Eq. (1) can be rewritten along these lines after denition of

q:

(15)

where a is the thermal diffusivity and D is the moisture diffusivity. The correct dependent variable in mass transfer equation

is the volumetric concentration of water and Eq. (2) is obtained

based on the assumption of constant moist object's density. In

most papers [16e18], Arrhenius equation is used to calculate

parameter D:

1119

m2

; D0 2:41 107

D D0 exp

T

s

Note that D and a are moisture diffusivity and thermal diffusivity, respectively. Lewis number (Le) indicates the ratio between

thermal and concentration boundary layer thicknesses. For most

applications, n is considered 1/3 [20]. Then average convective heat

and mass transfer coefcient rates for each surfaces of moist object

are evaluated by taking a weighted average of the local heat and

mass transfer coefcients.

Table 2 renders average convective heat and mass transfer

coefcients for all surfaces and inlet velocities. The rates ranges

from 2.73 W/m2K to 23.07 W/m2K for heat transfer coefcients

and from 5.3 107 m/s to 4.51 106 m/s for mass transfer

coefcients.

It is decided using Green's function method (GFM) [15,21,22] to

solve heat transfer equation (Eq. (1)) and mass transfer equation

(Eq. (2)). Dimensionless temperature and moisture content for

those equations are dened along these lines:

L0 q 0; L0

(16)

(17)

267

v

aV2

vt

(21)

Given that operator L0 is one-dimensional in x-direction, after

integration of XL0 q expression in solution domain of by using

integration by parts, nally it is attained following expression:

XL0 q ds

ZL1

Xqj

0

Zt

t

L1

dx

dt

aXqx Xx qj

0

0

0

(22)

v

v2

qL X ds; L a 2

vt

vx

*

the differential element in solution domain which is here equal to

dx dt and L* represents the adjoint differential operator related to

the original differential operator. The expression L*X is made equal

to Delta function:

3. Solution procedure

L* X dx x; t t

(23)

must be determined for the moisture body. In present study, data

from Mohan and Talukdar [16] is used for values of h. Average

convective mass transfer coefcient was evaluated based on

convective heat transfer coefcient using analogy between the

thermal and concentration boundary layers.

Eq. (22) can be rewritten one-dimensionally by taking L*X equal

to Delta function in it and using Delta function features and

substituting Eq. (21) in it as follows:

DLen

hm h

k

qx; t

ZL1

(18)

Xqj

0

Zt

L

t

dx

a Xqx Xx q 1 dt

0

0

0

(24)

268

must be determined. This function is attained by solving Eq. (23). By

making Laplace transform on Eq. (23), the equation is written in the

form of Sturm-Liouville equation which can be solved using

method of eigenfunction expansions. After these operations,

Green's function is attained in x-direction [15]:

X Ht t

An1

P

n1 1

tanln2 L2

2h3 kln2

(27)

k2 l2n2 h23

h

i

An1 exp al2n1 t t qn1 xqn1 x ;

!

a1n1

h1 h2 2

h1 h2

h h 2

4

2

2 2

;

2 12 2

a2n1 a3n1

k

k

k

!

!

!

h21 L1

h1 h2 h21

h31 h2 h1 h2

h

2

4

2

a ; a3n1 ln1 ln1

; qn1 x ln1 cosln1 x 1 sinln1 x

4

a2n1 ln1 2

2 1n1

k

k

k

k2

k

(25)

Table 2

Average convective heat and mass transfer coefcients.

h(w/m2K)

Surface

Facing inlet

Facing outlet

Top

Bottom

South

North

hm(m/s) 106

U 0.1 m/s

U 0.2 m/s

U 0.3 m/s

U 0.1 m/s

U 0.2 m/s

U 0.3 m/s

14.07

2.73

5.31

5.31

5.85

5.85

19.24

4.15

6.37

6.37

7.13

7.13

23.07

4.88

7.05

7.05

8.03

8.03

2.75

0.53

1.04

1.04

1.14

1.14

3.76

0.81

1.25

1.25

1.39

1.39

4.51

0.95

1.38

1.38

1.57

1.57

from this relation:

tanln1 L1

h1 h2 kln1

(26)

k2 l2n1 h1 h2

The Eq. (26) is an implicit equation which has no analytical solution. There is a tangent expression at the left side of the equation

with p/L1 period. The left hand side expression is intersected by the

right hand side expression once at each p/L1. Hence, ln1 is in the nth

positive p/L1. The rst twenty ln1 are attained using numerical

method and Maple 17.02 software.

Similar to Eq. (25) can be obtained for Green's function in ydirection

and

z-direction

where

X; n1 ; An1 ; a1n1 ; a2n1 ; a3n1 ; ln1 ; x; x; h1 ; h2 and L1 are replaced with

Y; n2 ; An2 ; a1n2 ; a2n2 ; a3n2 ; ln2 ; y; h; h3 ; h3 and L2 for y-direction and

Z; n3 ; An3 ; a1n3 ; a2n3 ; a3n3 ; ln3 ; z; z; h4 ; h4 and L3 for z-direction,

respectively. ln2 ; ln3 are also calculated based on these expressions:

tanln3 L3

2h4 kln3

(28)

k2 l2n3 h24

for several inlet velocities.

Overall Green's function can be attained through multiplying

Green's function in x-direction by Green's function in y-direction

and Green's function in z-direction:

G X$Y$Z

(29)

function and here it is a variant of temperature distribution. Indeed,

in t t a thermal source operates straightway with a unit strength

at x x and Green's function claries how temperature is distributed at t > t, whether physically possible or not [22]. Thus in

Green's function we have Heaviside function (H(t t)) which

equals to 1 in t > t while we have H(t t) 0 in t < t. By

Table 3

Four eigenvalues related to counters 1 to 4 for several inlet velocities.

Counter

1

2

3

4

ln1

ln2

ln3

U (m/s)

U (m/s)

U (m/s)

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.1

0.2

0.3

15.86

46.45

82.75

120.73

18.00

48.48

84.21

121.81

19.08

49.67

85.14

122.52

29.58

162.62

317.00

473.14

32.30

163.68

317.56

473.52

33.91

164.35

317.92

473.76

31.00

163.16

317.29

473.34

34.11

164.43

317.96

473.79

36.09

165.30

318.44

474.11

obtained at last:

(

qx; y; z; t 1

P

n1 1

Bn1

(

P

n3 1

269

order 2. Hence, there are three functions to be determined in three

9 8

9

= < X

h

h

exp al2n1 t ln1 cosln1 x 1 sinln1 x

Bn2 exp al2n2 t ln2 cosln2 y 3 sinln2 y

; :

;

k

k

n 1

Bn3

=

h

exp al2n3 t ln3 cosln3 z 4 sinln3 z ;

;

k

h

Bn1 An1 sinln1 L1 1 cosln1 L1 1 ;

kln1

h

Bn2 An2 sinln2 L2 3 cosln2 L2 1 ;

kln2

h

Bn3 An3 sinln3 L3 4 cosln3 L3 1

kln3

(30)

temperature. Thus, Eq. (2) may not be solved solely by this

method. Consequently, Eq. (30) should be substituted into Eq. (2).

It is clear that there is not any analytical solution to such a

problem. It is known that D is a function of four variables

including x, y, z and t. For simplicity, the values of x, y, z are

assumed to be equal to the midpoint of the moisture body. As a

result, the parameter D will be solely a function of t. To prevent

sophisticated calculations, an approximation should be considered to solve the problem. In such cases, usually the method of

averaging is used, which is a good approximation. A better

method is weight functions approximation. Unlike the previous

method, this approximation has exact solution. To this end, rst

we solve Eq. (2) similar to Eq. (1):

(

4x; y; z; t

P

m1 1

(

(

Bm1

different D:

a. Parameter D is calculated using temperature of the body at the

end of the process (T 333 K) and Eq. (17). Eq. (31) is obtained

based on this calculation and is named g3. Plotting this function

for each point of the body in terms of time, we see that this

function will converge after 30000 s.

b. Parameter D is calculated using temperature of the body at the

beginning of the process (T 295 K) and Eq. (17). Eq. (31) is

obtained based on this calculation and is named g1.

c. Regarding part a, parameter D is calculated in half of the nal

time (t 15,000 s). Eq. (31) is obtained based on this calculation

and is named g2.

=

hm1

2

sinlm1 x

exp Dlm1 t lm1 coslm1 x

;

D

P

m2 1

P

m3 1

Bm2

Bm3

=

hm3

2

sinlm2 y

exp Dlm2 t lm2 coslm2 y

;

D

9

=

hm4

2

sinlm3 z ;

exp Dlm3 t lm3 coslm3 z

;

D

h

Bm1 Am1 sinlm1 L1 m1 coslm1 L1 1 ;

Dlm1

h

Bm2 Am2 sinlm2 L2 m3 coslm2 L2 1 ;

Dlm2

h

Bm3 Am3 sinlm3 L3 m4 coslm3 L3 1

Dlm3

(31)

270

Fig. 2. Steps of the process of the GFM and weighted functions method in brief.

Fig. 3. The impact of changes in the nal counter and summation of dimensionless

temperature convergence test for the central point of the moist object (U 0.3 m/s).

Fig. 4. The impact of changes in the nal counter and summation of dimensionless

moisture content convergence test for the central point of the moist object (U 0.3 m/s).

Fig. 5. Change of (a) temperature and (b) non dimensional moisture content during

the drying and compare it with data from Mohan and Talukdar research [16].

271

Fig. 6. Slices of (aed) temperature and (eeh) moisture content within the moist object.

the object at the beginning, middle and the end of the process,

respectively. Using these three moisture content distribution,

dimensionless weighted mean function of moisture content was

obtained during the whole process:

2

4 At Bt C;

(32)

4jt0 g1

(33)

4jt15000 g2

(34)

4jt30000 g3

(35)

obtained.

t2

4:5 108

t

g1

4g2 g3 3g1

30000

4x; y; z; t g1 g3 2g2

(36)

In Eqs. (30) and (31), ln1 and lm1 are eigenvalues in x-direction,

ln2 and lm2 are eigenvalues in y-direction and ln3 and lm3 are eigenvalues in z-direction. An1 ; An2 ; An3 ; Am1 ; Am2 and Am3 are calculated by normalization of their corresponding eigenfunctions.

In Fig. 2, the sequences of steps that summarize the process of

the application of this method are presented as a ow chart. The

green area (in the web version) in Fig. 2 is related to Green's

function method that is common for solving heat transfer and mass

272

Fig. 7. Temperature contours within the moist object at (a) t* 0.00218, (b) t* 0.0218, (c) t* 0.218.

functions to considering the variations of moisture diffusivity.

4. Results and discussion

Temperature and moisture content distributions within the

object are analytically obtained using convective heat and mass

and z directions) and depend on time. Temperature and moisture

content distributions are measured for three inlet velocities individually (0.1 m/s, 0.2 m/s and 0.3 m/s). Initial conditions of moist

object are supposed to be as follows: T0 295 K and M0 7.196 kg/

kg (db).

273

Fig. 8. Moisture content contours within the moist object at (a) t* 0.01635, (b) t* 0.1635, (c) t* 1.635.

on the results achieved and variables with less effectiveness. The

non-dimensions are dened along these lines: non-dimensional

distance is dened as x* x/L1, y* y/L1,z* z/L1, Nondimensional time is dened as t* at/L2. Thus, as it is dened

above x*2[0,1], y*2[0,0.25] and z*2[0,0.25].

MATLAB Version 7.11.0.584 (R2010b).As it is obvious from the Eqs.

(30) and (31), each equation has three sigma in the range (1 ). In

each sigma for each number from range (1 ), an eigenvalue is

required. Since Eq. (26)e(28) do not have analytical answers, It is

impossible to get a global answer for all numbers in the range

274

assumed for each eigenvalue. Figs. 3 and 4 are represented for the

center of moist object (U 0.3 m/s) and the nal counter amounts

to 4, 8 and 16 to check whether 20 initial eigenvalues are sufcient

or not and to assure that the answers converge as the nal counter

rises. Fig. 3 illustrates changes of non-dimensional temperature and

Fig. 4 demonstrates changes of non-dimensional moisture content

in non-dimensional time.

As Fig. 3 illustrates, the curves can be separated into two

parts: (t* < 0.02 and t* > 0.02). The part t* > 0.02 is similar for the

nal counter n1 & n2 & n3 4, 8 and 16. But in the part t* < 0.02,

with rise of n1, n2 and n3, the solution is closer to its real rate

such that non-dimensional temperature at t* 0 for n1 & n2 &

n3 4 is almost 0.037 and it is 0.001 for n1 & n2 & n3 16

demonstrated answer convergence to the real rate when nal

counter rises.

Fig. 9. Variation of (a) non-dimensional temperature and (b) non-dimensional moisture content along the central line of object with constant x and z.

Fig. 4 also contains two parts but the borderline rate for these

two parts is t* 0.2 dividing them into t* < 0.2 and t* > 0.2. Like

Fig. 3, in the part where t* > 0.2 is the same for all amounts of m1,

m2 and m3 but in t* < 0.2 when nal counter of m1, m2 and m3

increases, non-dimensional moisture content converges to its real

rate.

Fig. 5 illustrates validation of the present study based on data

from Mohan and Talukdar research [16]. The gures represent

time-depended (a) temperature and (b) non-dimensional moisture

content. Inlet ow conditions are U 0.3 m/s and T 333 K.

Maximum relative error based on experimental data for temperature and non-dimensional moisture content are 7.7% and 9.7%

respectively. These error rates are reliable for engineering applications owing to analytical solution, using less time and lower cost

than numerical methods and there is a good suitability among the

results.

By comparing temperature and moisture curves, it is clear that

the effect of heat transfer spread in the moist object more quickly

than moisture transfer. Thus, temperature curves change earlier

than non-dimensional moisture content curves. The same is

obvious for temperature convergence to hot air temperature such

that temperature converges to its nal rate quicker than moisture

content. Indeed, this quick convergence of temperature is owing to

higher heat transfer rate than mass transfer rate or the well-known

Lewis number being higher than 1 (Le a/D > 1). Fig. 5 also illustrates that at rst, temperature and moisture content changes

are higher and gradually the change is lower owing to approaching

temperature and moisture content of the moist object to the hot air

temperature and moisture content. Consequently, the gradient of

temperature and moisture gradually decreases and thus transfer of

heat and mass reduces.

As stated before, the advantage of solving Eq. (2) using weight

function approximation is that it has exact solution at the selected

points. According to Fig. 5(b), it can be seen that the results of

present study at t 0 s and t 30,000 s are more consistent with

the experimental results. As explained in section 3, these points are

included in selected points. Of course, t 15,000 s is one of the

selected points, but as it can be seen, in this point results are

deviated from experimental data. Noticing experimental results, it

can be seen that after t 10,000 s measured values for non

dimensional moisture content are decreased slightly and this might

be the reason of difference between obtained results and experimental data.

Fig. 6 is drawn to present better understanding of temperature

and moisture distributions during drying process. This gure shows

temperature distribution (aed) and moisture distribution (eeh) in

different slices and times. Part (b) and (f) are drawn for nondimensional times 0.218 and 1,635, respectively. As can be seen,

in these two parts, range of temperature and moisture are (332.1,

332.7) and (0.22, 0.29), respectively, such that high temperature

and low moisture is related to the front face (as a result of direct

collision between drying ow and front face). In similar slices, but

in a time equal to 10% of the time considered for parts (b) and (f)

(parts (a) and (e)), range of temperature and moisture are (305, 317)

and (2.4, 5.1), respectively, which are far greater than range of parts

(b) and (f). In fact, in parts (b) and (f), temperature and moisture

have reached their limit and therefore, range of variation is low.

However, in parts (a) and (e), the process has not reached to its nal

condition yet. So the ranges of variation in different slices are high.

Parts (c) and (g) are drawn for slice which contains two lines

y* z* 0 and y* z* 0.25. As it can be seen, in these two parts,

temperature and moisture contours are symmetrical with respect

to line y* z* 0.125. The reason is that the body is geometrically

symmetrical with respect to this line. This symmetry is also seen in

parts (d) and (h). These two parts are drawn for slice which

275

moisture content on the central line of object with constant y and z.

slice, are symmetrical with respect to the line x* 4z* 0.5.

Figs. 7(aec) and 8(aec) illustrate temperature and moisture

content contours within the moist object (z* 0.125) over time in

order to give a better vision of how temperature and moisture

content are distributed inside the moist object during drying process. The contours demonstrate temperature and moisture content

distribution under impact of inlet ow (U 0.3 m/s). The parts a, b

and c of Fig. 7 are represented for dimensionless time 0.00218,

0.0218 and 0.218 respectively and these parts of Fig. 8 are represented for dimensionless time 0.01635, 0.1635 and 1.635 respectively. The temperature of moist object rises and its moisture

content decreases over time, because there is gradients for temperature and moisture content between moist object surface and

hot air. As a result of diverse vapor pressures between the surface of

moist object and drying hot air, the moisture of moist object is

transferred to the hot air in form of vapor.

Fig. 7(ac) shows that geometrical centers of temperature

contours and object are not coincided and it is closer to the back

Fig. 11. Effect of inlet ow velocity on (a) dimensionless temperature and (b)

dimensionless moisture content within the moist object and the central point of

object.

over time farther than front surface. This dissymmetry is owing to

unparallel and dissymmetrical pattern of heat transfer between

front surface and back surface. Temperature in front surface is

higher owing to its higher heat transfer compared to back surface at

a certain time. In fact, the temperature of front surface converges at

hot air more quickly due to its higher heat transfer rate. For

instance, as Fig. 7(a) shows, the closest temperature contour to

front surface is 300 K and the closest one to back surface is 296 K.

The temperatures in the corners are higher owing to their higher

heat transfer. For instance, in Fig. 7(a) the temperature for back

surface near the central line is 296 K and it is 298 K in the corners.

In Figs. 7(a) and 8(a) with lower time than Figs. 7(b,c) and 8(b,c),

no great change in the temperature and moisture content is available for central regions of the object (lacking too many contours)

276

because heat and mass transfer effects are not received at the

center of the object. By comparing Figs. 7(a) and 8(a), it is evident

that the temperature change inside object is higher than moisture

content change in a certain time. In fact, the effect of temperature

change is transferred more quickly inside the object than mass

transfer effects because the Lewis number is higher than one. In

Fig. 7(c) temperature range is 332.15 Ke332.6 K. Whole object has

almost reached to T but at the same time still moisture content

inside the object differs greatly with hot air moisture content. Also

x* 0.7 in Fig. 7(c) at t* 0.218 is for geometrical center of temperature contours but x* 0.7 in Fig. 8(c) at t* 1.635 is for

moisture content contours. It is because of higher rate of heat

transfer compared to moisture transfer rate and the Lewis number

is higher than one.

In Fig. 9(a, b), it can be seen non-dimensional temperature and

non-dimensional moisture content vary on the central line of object with constant x and z while ow impacts with inlet velocity

U 0.3 m/s. The non-dimensional temperature and moisture

content change takes place in ve points of this line. Here are the

values of y-axis coordinates of the points: 0 m, 0.005 m, 0.01 ,

0.015 m and 0.02 m. Seemingly three curves have been plotted for

non-dimensional temperature and moisture content in Fig. 9(a, b).

In fact, no discrimination is possible between curve for y 0 m and

y 0.02 m or between curve for y 0.005 m and curve for

y 0.015 m due to equality between convection heat transfer coefcient on the upper and lower surfaces. The curves are coincident

because average heat and mass transfer coefcients are equal in top

and bottom surfaces as it is evident in Table 2. These illustrations

are symmetrical to the plane y* 0.125.

When the points on the object at y 0.02 m and y 0 m are

compared to the point y 0.01 m at the center of the object, it is

seen that curves related to the points on the object converge more

rapidly to nal condition and they come up against a severe alteration at beginning of drying process because they are subjected to

air ow. But the curve related to the point at the center of the object

is perpendicular to the vertical axis at rst, and then it is inuenced

by heat and mass transfer just receiving and there occurs greater

change in the related curve. However, since heat transfer rate is

higher than mass transfer rate, alteration in curve for nondimensional temperature at central point occurs more rapidly

than alteration in curve for non-dimensional moisture content.

Fig. 10(a, b) illustrates curves for non-dimensional temperature

and moisture content at central line inside the object while y and z

are constant. These curves are plotted for inlet velocity U 0.3 m/

s. There is a prominent difference between the curve for x 0 m

and the curves for other points since the curve for this point

converges more rapidly at the nal rate and at the beginning there

is a capricious change in dimensionless temperature and moisture

content for this point because of direct effect of drying air ow on

this point and heat and mass transfer start from this point from

the rst stage. Curves of non-dimensional temperature with

x 0.02 m and x 0.08 m among the others are the same. Also

curves for the point with x 0.04 m and x 0.06 m are similar to

each other. At the start of the process, the points close to the

surface in mentioned curves with x 0.08 m and x 0.06 m have

higher temperature but the temperature in the points with

x 0.02 m and x 0.04 m are higher compared to other points

with similar curve while they receive the effect of heat transfer

into the object progressively. The moisture content curve for point

with x 0.04 m and the moisture content curve for point with

x 0.06 m are the same as well but the resemblance is less than

temperature curves. The curves for points with x 0.02 m and

x 0.08 m have no sameness. At the beginning, the points close to

the surface of the object such as x 0.06 m and x 0.08 m lose

higher moisture similar to temperature curves. Although the

internal points receive the effect of mass transfer, this time the

curves for the points near to the surface of object have lower

moisture. Only the curve for point with x 0.02 m can intersect

the curve of point with x 0.08 m, though two other curves get

closer to the curves of mentioned points. Because of change of

heat and mass transfer rates, the curves for temperature and

moisture content differ. In fact, despite thermal diffusivity effect,

the water diffusivity is not able to compensate the impact of initial

mass transfer in points near to the surface for internal points and

all in all, convective mass transfer has more impact than mass

transfer by conduction.

Fig. 11(a, b) shows the effect of inlet ow velocity on (a)

dimensionless temperature and (b) dimensionless moisture content within the moist object and the central point of object. As inlet

velocity raises, convective heat and mass transfer coefcients in

surface increase. As a result, temperature and moisture content

inside the object converge at nal rates more rapidly. Therefore,

inlet ow velocity increase results in drying period decrease, and

causes a relation which is semi-linear. For example, in the case of

curves for dimensionless moisture content, when inlet ow velocity increases 100% (from 0.1 m/s to 0.2 m/s), dimensionless

moisture content at t* 0.53 decreases 18.4% (from 0.38 to 0.31).

However, when inlet ow velocity increases 50% (from 0.2 m/s to

0.3 m/s), dimensionless moisture content decreases only 9.7% (from

0.31 to 0.28). This semi-linear relation between increase of velocity

and decrease of dimensionless moisture content is due to laminar

ow at these velocities.

5. Conclusions

Using Green's function method, a three-dimensional analytical

solution is performed to measure distribution of temperature and

moisture content inside moist object. In order to solve heat and

mass transfer equations simultaneously, weighted functions

approximation was used. This method has exact solution at

selected point, unlike the averaging method. The results of Mohan

and Talukdar's research [16] are used for convective heat and mass

transfer coefcients for different surfaces of moist object. These

solutions are obtained for three inlet ow velocities 0.1 m/s, 0.2 m/s

and 0.3 m/s. The results in brief are:

This solution illustrated the simplicity of the Green's function to

solve heat and mass transfer problems using laboratory equipment for data entry without any necessity to complicated numerical methods. Gained results are well consistent with

experimental and numerical data, and they are acceptable for

engineering application. In addition, it is cheaper and less time

consuming.

In coupled equations, weighted functions approximation and

solution of equations (assuming constant variables), can be used

to interfere the effect of variables into solution with a reasonable

approximation.

Due to thermal diffusivity and moisture diffusivity difference

(Le > 1), geometrical center of temperature and moisture have

different shift rates. Geometrical center of temperature contours

shift more than those for moisture content such that geometrical center of temperature contours reaches at x* 0.7 when

dimensionless time is t* 0.218 but the latter reaches at x* 0.7

when dimensionless time is t* 1.635.

Heat and mass transfer rates for surface facing inlet is higher

than for points on other surfaces. For instance, when we

compare the points on the central line with y and z as a constant,

the closest point to the front face inside the object at x 0.02 m

at the beginning of the process, converge more rapidly to the

inside the object.

As velocity increases, the moisture content decreases. In other

words, with 100% increase of inlet ow velocity of 0.1 m/s, the

percentage of decrease in dimensionless moisture content is

18.4% at t* 0.53 and 50% increase of the inlet ow velocity of

0.2 m/s, results in 9.7% decrease in dimensionless moisture

content t* 0.53.

Acknowledgment

This work was supported by Ofce of the Vice Chancellor for

Research, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Grant 28517.

Appendix A. Supplementary data

Supplementary data related to this article can be found at http://

dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.applthermaleng.2015.04.016.

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