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INTRODUCTION

Globalization (or globalisation) describes a process by which regional economies,


societies, and cultures have become integrated through a global network of communication,
transportation, and trade. Globalization is usually recognized as being driven by a
combination of economic, technological, sociocultural, political, and biological factors. 1

Recent times have seen an unprecedented growth in regards to globalization. This


phenomenon is taking place in many fields of human activity - trade, technology, culture,
global education, global media and so on. The examples that speak most for themselves are
the multinational companies that have bases of operation all over the world. There are brand
names such as McDonalds, Pepsi, Coca-Cola, Toshiba and so on which are known all over
the world.

The language barrier is no longer a issue. There are very few people worldwide who
do not speak English, Spanish, French or any other of the international used languages. A
somewhat early attempt to create a global language was the invention of Esperanto, in 1887,
which was aimed at becoming a second language to all of the world population. Another
example of language globalization is the fact that the Chinese are the larger English speaking
(as a second language) country in the world.

This paper will take a look at what globalization means and the implication it comes
with, be them good or bad. Each chapter deals with one of the important aspects of this vast
subject. As it is virtually impossible to discuss all of the implications and details regarding
globalization, I have chosen just a few topics which I find interesting.

1 Croucher S. L.. Globalization and Belonging: The Politics of Identity in a Changing World.
Rowman & Littlefield. (2004). p.10
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PROS AND CONS OF GLOBALIZATION

Globalization, by definition is a world-wide phenomenon. Whether it started in recent


times or in ancient ones (the debate continues amongst scholars), it has become a subject of
great interest. Some even refer to it as a [...] true messiah to global socio-economic and
politic hiccups.2

Truth is that in a society such as ours, there is virtually no way to stop the process of
globalization. With the progress of technology, distances that only a few years ago seemed
impossible to cross are now within arms length. Better methods of transportation and the
Internet have made such development possible.

Given this context, the rate of globalization should not surprise anyone anymore. But
is it all good? Or does it come with negative aspects as well? In order to judge for ourselves,
a simple point list is enough to put things in perspective, starting with the good and following
with the bad.

The advantages of globalization:


Developing countries have better access to grants and financial aid from global
institutions which fight poverty
A word-wide influx and exchange of information takes place almost every second.
Cultural intermingling is an everyday occurrence in our society.
Technological development take place at a faster pace, thanks to scientists from all
over the world working together

2 Jotia L. , Globalization, Education and the Birth of a Democratically Active Global Citizen,
University of Botswana
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Countries come together to solve important issues, such as the glasshouse effect, the
depletion of the ozone layer, the nuclear disarmament and so on.
The mass media is now able to find out and share news from all over the world.

Now, a look at the negative aspects:

Globalization has made outsourcing a reality, many companies closing to close down
their own factories and outsource in countries with cheaper labour force, thus putting
thousands out of a job
Governments are now facing problems regarding the decentralization of power and
the shifting of it towards multinational
Contact between people from different countries has also increased the risk of disease
transport and social degeneration
Big, multinational corporations have a huge global impact, almost more than some
countries and are perceived by some as being the true forced that rule the world.
Do the bad aspects outweigh the benefits of a global community? Opinions are
divided all over the world. But even if that would be the case, there is no stopping
globalization. Its a reality and its here, and there is no way to avoid it.

GLOBALIZATION AS A TOOL FOR DEVELOPMENT


THE WORLD BANK
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Globalization has become one of the most important players in the helping of
developing countries. By creating global awareness, more and more international institutions,
such as the World Bank, have taken action and are trying to help. Other countries have seized
the opportunity to increase their economy through exports and offering outsourcing.
One of the best examples of this is India. The country has gone through some very
important transformations and had managed to place itself on the fourth place between the
world economies. In 1991 it occupied just the eighth place. Many companies outsource to
India their customer support, such as call centres. Managers all over the world have
recognized that the Indian market is one of the most profitable, as the large population of the
country make excellent potential customers.
The World Bank is a global institution which helps developing countries by providing
financial support. It consists of two distinct institutions The International Bank for
Reconstruction and Development, which provides loans as well as consulting, at affordable
return rates, aiming for middle income nations, and The International Development
Association, which helps the poorest countries in the world, by providing interest free credits
and grants.
The mission of the World Bank is the following Our mission is to fight poverty with
passion and professionalism for lasting results and to help people help themselves and their
environment by providing resources, sharing knowledge, building capacity and forging
partnerships in the public and private sectors .3 The World Bank has helped many countries
over the years, Romania included. Many companies benefited from advantages loans,
including the well known Petrom.
The World Bank is just a smaller part of the World Bank Group,
which has an additional three institutions

- International Finance

Corporation

(promotes

sustainable

private

sector

developing

countries),

Multilateral

Investment

investment

Guarantee

in

Agency

(promotes foreign direct investment into developing countries) and


International Centre for Settlement of Investment Disputes (provides

3 http://web.worldbank.org
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facilities for the conciliation and arbitration of investment disputes


between member countries and individual investors).
Institutions such as this one have been established due to the increase in the globalization
rate. People from all over the world have discovered that they share the same concerns and
ideologies. They have come together in the attempt to help countries which seem unable to
help themselves, by providing financial aid and finding them investors in order to help their
economy.
However, there have also been those that have criticized the World Bank (along with
other international monetary institutions such as the International Monetary Fund) claiming
that the free market policies that are enforced do more harm than good. Another criticism that
was brought before the World Bank was that it supported a universal success recipe, which
was implemented the same way in all countries that borrowed money or received grants. In
other words, the countrys traditional economic strictures and values are disregarded.
Though some world leaders see globalization as socio-economic and political devil, it
should be noted that some see it as a real blessing geared towards the betterment of lives of
the underdeveloped. Addressing the 21st Century Conference 2000 in China, the former
president of Botswana, Sir Ketumile Masire, positively stated; Humanity has a common
destiny, in this respect, the recognition and acceptance of the fact that we cannot wish each
other away, and that we have to work together for our collective prosperity is an essential
milestone in our relationship.4
Despite the controversy, the World Bank has nevertheless proven useful to developing
countries, including Romania. There is also the possibility that on the long term the negative
aspects of the institutions will outweigh the good, but for now that remains nothing more that
speculation.

4 .Peoples Daily, 2000


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GLOBAL CITIZENS AND MASS MEDIA

Global citizenship
Society had made it very clear that we no longer need to understand just our own
country and culture, but also those of the people around us. We live in a multicultural
environment that requires of us to have an understanding that goes beyond just ourselves and
our mentality.
A very good example of this can be a university. Speaking from personal experience, I
have encountered, during my college days, people from different countries, foreign students
(Arabs, French and Spanish mostly) that have chose for whatever reason to study in Romania.
With each interaction with them, I came to realise that they thought about things differently
and had a complete different outlook on life.
For instance, during the exam sessions, when Romanian students were stressed out
and studied as much as possible, the French students were very relaxed, and didnt see the
exams as a huge challenge to be overcome, but rather a small part of the college experience.
It took some time for the rest of us to understand and more importantly, to accept their
behaviour.
This takes me to another aspect of being a global citizen education on how to be
such a citizen. More and more nongovernmental agencies are militating to create special
classes in school to help children understand what being part of a global society means and
how to accept our multicultural society. By providing children with such knowledge is
beneficial on the long run, reducing the effect of xenophobia produced by ignorance, and we
are in no short examples of such behaviour.
The business environment is without a doubt the place where most different cultures
come to coexist. A person working in a big multinational must be able to interact and
understand its colleagues from different countries. Perhaps the people working in such
companies are the closest ones to what is now being called a global citizen.
The simplest way to summarize what this concept could be the following phrase: My
country is the world, and my religion is to do good.5
5 Thomas Paine in Rights of Man, 1791
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Global citizenship implies a closeness of different countries and peoples, all working
together for a greater purpose breaking down barriers between people, helping countries
surpass economical and social inequalities and help deal with environmental issues.
The way globalization has been expanding in the last century, there is no doubt in my
mind that we are all going to become global citizens in the future, be it near of far. [...]the
challenges of globalization call for the birth of critically conscious and democratically
active global citizens who can contribute positively towards the amelioration of the
problems/challenges at hand.6

Mass Media
Newspapers, television, radio, Internet all types of media that focus on finding and sharing
information with as many people as possible. Technology has made communication over vast
distances possible. Now, people from one side of the planet can learn of others from half way
across the world in just seconds.
And this had become more than just something convenient, but rather something
quite necessary. Think how easy it is now to find information about anything you need, from
weather conditions to stock exchange. Living in a knowledge based society, the need for
information pushes us forward.
Sharing information with one another is nothing more than just a form of
globalization. It brings us closer to each other in a way that in not physically possible. This is
especially true in regards to the Internet.
Mass media also has its problems. While it can communicated things to a large group
of people at the same time, it can also mislead the public, by sharing some things, while
omitting others.
A good example of this in what happened in our country at the last presidential
election. Three out of four television stations claimed that one of the candidates had won the
election, and people were shocked the next day to find out that the new president was actually
the other candidate. Whether the news station did this deliberately or it was just a mistake,
6 Jotia L., Globalization, Education and the Birth of a Democratically Active Global Citizen ,
University of Botswana
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the point remains that mass media is capable of broadcasting news which then shape peoples
opinions and ideas.
News stations aside, the Internet is becoming the tool that most people rely when it
comes to information. The most important difference is that the Internet allows user to
interact with news or, to voice their opinions and thoughts on a certain subject, thus feeling
more involved that just watching television or reading newspaper.
Regardless of the type of media used, there is no denying that this is one of the key
players in the process of globalization, maybe even the most crucial one.

CONCLUSIONS

Globalization is not just an abstract concept. Its a phenomenon that takes place all
around us, everyday. It affects us all in way we can see and also in others we cannot perceive.
It promotes knowledge sharing and development. It was creates controversy and
manifestations against it.
The world we live in is slowly changing and with it so do we. We are becoming
global citizens, a part of something much bigger than just our community or our nation. It
might be a slow process, but we are getting there regardless.
Globalization has its good points and its bad ones. Its not the secret to a perfect
economy and the disappearance of poverty; its just a change in our society. Right now all we
can do is hope it will be for the better.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

1. Ammi, C.(2007), Global Consumer Behavior, ISTE Ltd.


2. Brtianu, C., Vasilache, S. (2008) Elaborarea, redactarea i susinerea lucrrilor de
licen i masterat, Bucureti, Editura Universitar
3. Croucher S. L.. (2004) Globalization and Belonging: The Politics of Identity in a
Changing World, Rowman & Littlefield
4. Goyal, K.A., (2006) Impact of Globalization on Developing Countries (With Special
Reference To India), International Research Journal of Finance and Economics, Issue 5
(2006)
5. Kaipa, P. (2010) Do Multinationals Really understand Globalization?, Businessweek.
6. Kotler P., Keller, K.L., (2006) Managing Marketing, Prentice Hall
7. Jotia L., Globalization, Education and the Birth of a Democratically Active Global Citizen,
University of Botswana
8. Paine,T.(1791), Rights of Man
9. http://www.org/biblio/globalization.htm, accessed 20 august 2010
10. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=s7bkHu27P5o Personal Media,
Shigeru Miyagawa
11. http://www.globalization101.org, accessed 24 august 2010
12.http://www.web.worldbank.org, accesses 20 aug 2010

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