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Signal Degradation in

Optical Fibers


Signal Attenuation & Distortion in
Optical Fibers
• What are the loss or signal attenuation mechanism in a fiber?
• Why & to what degree do optical signals get distorted as they
propagate down a fiber?
• Signal attenuation (fiber loss) largely determines the maximum
repeaterless separation between optical transmitter & receiver.
• Signal distortion cause that optical pulses to broaden as they
travel along a fiber, the overlap between neighboring pulses,
creating errors in the receiver output, resulting in the limitation
of information-carrying capacity of a fiber.

Attenuation (fiber loss)
• Power loss along a fiber:

Z= l

P(0) mW

P(l )  P(0)e

P( z )  P(0)e

 p z

 p l



• The parameter  p is called fiber attenuation coefficient in a units of for
example [1/km] or [nepers/km]. A more common unit is [dB/km] that is
defined by:

 P(0) 
 [dB/km ]  log
 4.343 p [1 / km ]

 P(l ) 


PATIL ASSISTANT PROFESSOR [3-3] . S.Fiber loss in dB/km Z=l z=0 P(0)[dBm] P(l )[dBm]  P(0)[dBm]  [dB/km]  l[km] • Where [dBm] or dB milliwat is 10log(P [mW]). S .

S. PATIL ASSISTANT PROFESSOR .3db/km S .5db/km 1550nm -0.0.Ideal fiber :Pout=Pin Attenuation =0db/km 1300nm --.

first use to express the input power in dbm? S .8 db/km at 1300 nm. S. PATIL ASSISTANT PROFESSOR .1 Consider a 30 km long optical fiber that has an attenuation of 0.Q. Suppose we want to find the optical output power pout if 200uwatt of optical power is launced into the fiber.

wavelength S . S. PATIL ASSISTANT PROFESSOR .Optical fiber attenuation vs.

Attenuation measure of decay of signal strength or loss of light power that occurs as light pulses propagate through the length of fiber Attenuation caused by 1)Absorption 2)scattering 3)Radiative losses S . S. PATIL ASSISTANT PROFESSOR .

PATIL ASSISTANT PROFESSOR .Absorption losses relates to the material composition and fabrication process of fiber. Absorption losses dissipated of some optical power as heat in the fiber cable. S . S.

3)Intrinsic absorption by constituent atom of fiber.1)Absorptio by automic defect in the glass composition 2)Extrinsic absorption by impurity atoms in the glass matts. S . PATIL ASSISTANT PROFESSOR . S.

Scattering losses in fiber due to microscopic variation and compositional fluctuation in fiberglass is composed of randomly connected molecular network of molecules of several oxides (e.g. S. S .geo2. PATIL ASSISTANT PROFESSOR .sio2.p2o5) these causes variation in refractive indices of core of fiber over distance.

such as water and metals. PATIL ASSISTANT PROFESSOR . S. Bending loss: Loss induced by physical stress on the fibre. Scattering Loss: Intrinsic loss mechanism caused by the interaction of photons with the glass itself. S .Types of Attenuation Absorption Loss: Caused by the fibre itself or by impurities in the fibre.


Absorption • Absorption is caused by three different mechanisms: 1. 3. PATIL ASSISTANT PROFESSOR .Impurities in fiber material: from transition metal ions (must be in order of ppb) & particularly from OH ions with absorption peaks at wavelengths 2700 nm. 2. 400 nm. 950 nm & 725nm.Intrinsic absorption (fundamental lower limit): electronic absorption band (UV region) & atomic bond vibration band (IR region) in basic SiO2. S.Radiation defects S .

and defect occurring during fiber manufactures. S . from compositional fluctuations.Scattering Scattering loss in glass arises from microscopic variation in material density. PATIL ASSISTANT PROFESSOR . S. and from structure inhomogenetics.

such structure consist of molecule density is higher lower than molecule density in the glass. S. S .Glass is connected randomly connected molecules network. PATIL ASSISTANT PROFESSOR .

These index variation causes Rayleigh scattering of the light. S. this give rise the variation in the refractive index of fiber over the distance small compared with the wavelength. S . PATIL ASSISTANT PROFESSOR .P2O5 compositional fluctuations can occur.Ge2O3.Glass is made up of several oxides such as SiO2.

A comparison of infrared absorption induced by various doping material. PATIL ASSISTANT PROFESSOR . S. in low loss silica fiber S .

PATIL ASSISTANT PROFESSOR . S .Dispersion 1)Intramodal dispersionMaterial dispersion Waveguide dispersion 2)Intermodal dispersion Signal degradation in intermodal dispersion which is result of different value of group delay for each individual mode at single frequency. S.

PATIL ASSISTANT PROFESSOR .Group delay The velocity at which energy in the pulse travels along the fiber known as group delay. S. S .

Dispersion 1)Material dispersion/Chromatic dispersion 2)Waveguide dispersion S . S. PATIL ASSISTANT PROFESSOR .

S. PATIL ASSISTANT PROFESSOR .1)Material dispersion/Chromatic dispersion • Refractive index of core is a function of wavelength • Occur in single mode fiber • Time delay different for different wavelength components S .

Waveguide dispersion Light in cladding travel faster than the core S . S. PATIL ASSISTANT PROFESSOR .

This energy can then • Be re-emitted (scattering) • Frees the electron (photoelectric effects) (not in fibers) • Dissipated to the rest of the material (transformed into heat) • In an optical fibre Material Absorption is the optical power that is effectively converted to heat dissipation within the fibre. – When a material is illuminated.Material Absorption Losses • Material absorption is caused by absorption of photons within the fibre. PATIL – Extrinsic Absorption. and the radiant energy is transformed into electric potential energy. caused by interaction with one or more of the components of the glass S . • Two types of absorption exist: – Intrinsic Absorption. causedASSISTANT by impurities within the glass PROFESSOR . S. photons can make the valence electrons of an atom transition to higher energy levels – Photon is destroyed.

Intrinsic Absorption 1 Less significant than extrinsic absorption. • Intrinsic absorption is very low compared to other forms of loss. • Graph shows attenuation spectrum for pure silica glass. For a pure (no impurities) silica fibre a low loss window exists between 800 nm and 1600 nm. PATIL ASSISTANT PROFESSOR . S. • It is for this reason that fibres are made up of silica and optical communications systems work between about 800 to 1600 nm. S .

Intrinsic Absorption 2
• Intrinsic

absorption in the ultraviolet region is caused by
electronic absorption bands. Basically, absorption occurs when a
light particle (photon) interacts with an electron and excites it to a
higher energy level.
• The main cause of intrinsic absorption in the infrared region is
the characteristic vibration frequency of atomic bonds. In silica
glass, absorption is caused by the vibration of silicon-oxygen
(Si-O) bonds. The interaction between the vibrating bond and the
electromagnetic field of the optical signal causes intrinsic
absorption. Light energy is transferred from the electromagnetic
field to the bond.

Extrinsic Absorption (metallic ions)
• Extrinsic absorption is much more significant than intrinsic

• Caused by impurities introduced into the fiber material during manufacture
– Iron, nickel, and chromium
• Caused by transition of metal ions to a higher energy level
• Modern fabrication techniques can reduce impurity levels below 1 part in 10 10.
• For some of the more

common metallic impurities
in silica fibre the table shows
the peak attenuation
wavelength and the
attenuation caused by an
impurity concentration of 1 in

Extrinsic Absorption (OH ions)
•Extrinsic absorption caused by dissolved water in the glass, as the hydroxyl
or OH ion.
•In this case absorption due to the same fundamental processes (between
2700 nm and 4200 nm) gives rise to so called absorption overtones at 1380,
950 and 720 nm.
•Typically a 1 part per million impurity level causes 1 dB/km of attenuation at
950 nm. Typical levels are a few parts per billion

Absorption Spectrum for OH in
Narrow windows circa 800, 1300
and 1550 nm exist which are
unaffected by
this type of absorption.


• Frequently causes attenuation. (also called a leaky or radiation mode). S . since the transfer is often to a mode which does not propagate well. PATIL ASSISTANT PROFESSOR . S.Scattering Losses in Fibre • Scattering is a process whereby all or some of the optical power in a mode is transferred into another mode.

Raman scattering is an important issue in Dense WDM systems •Arise in glass from •Microscopic variations in the material density •From compositional fluctuations •From structural inhomogeneties •Defects occurring during fiber manufacture S . S. •Rayleigh is the dominant loss mechanism in the low loss silica window between 800 nm and 1700 nm. PATIL ASSISTANT PROFESSOR .Types of Scattering Loss in Fibre •Two basic types of scattering exist: Linear scattering: Rayleigh and Mie Non-linear scattering: Stimulated Brillouin and Stimulated Raman.

S. such as SiO2. GeO2. • These two effects give rise to refractive index variations which occur within the glass over distances that are small compared with the wavelength. • Glass is also made up of several oxides. S . • Due to this such structure contains inhomogeneties in form of high or low average density.Scattering Losses • Already we know that glass is composed of a randomly connected network of molecules. P2O5 where compositional fluctuations may be there. PATIL ASSISTANT PROFESSOR .

• To express the effect is fairly complex as it includes – The random molecular nature – The various oxide constituents. thereby giving rise to blue sky. • Rayleigh type scattering is the same phenomenon that scatters light from the sun in the atmosphere.Scattering Losses • The ultimate effect of refractive index variation is a Rayleigh type scattering of the light. • For single component glass the scattering loss at a wavelength λ resulting from density fluctuations can be approximated by (in base e units) Αscat = 8π3 (n2 .1)2 kbTfβT S . PATIL 4 3λ ASSISTANT PROFESSOR . S.

Scattering Losses • In the above expression – – – – n is the refractive index KB is the Boltzman’s constant βT is the isothermal compressibility of the material Tf is the temperature at which the density fluctuations are frozen in the glass. S . S. To change this to decibels units multiply this equation by 10 log e = 4.343. • Alternatively the relation in base units of e becomes Αscat = 8π3 n8 p2 kbTfβT 3 λ4 • Here p is the photoelastic coefficient. PATIL ASSISTANT PROFESSOR .

In this the magnitude of composition and density of fluctuations are generally not known and must be determined from experimental data. S.bePATIL calculated. Then scattering losses canS . ASSISTANT PROFESSOR .Scattering Losses • For multicomponent glass the scattering is given by Αscat = 8π3 (δn2)2 δV • • • • 3 λ4 Where the square of the mean square refracitve index fluctuation (δn2)2 over a volume of δV is m (δn2)2 = (δn / δp)2 (δp) + Σ (δn2 / δCi) (δCi)2 I= 1 Here δp is the density fluctuation and δCi is the concentration fluctuation of the ith glass component.

S .Scattering Losses • The other mechanism causing scattering include – Structural inhomogeneties – Defects created during fiber fabrication. • Thus the preform manufacturing methods that have evolved have minimized these extrinsic effects to the point where scattering that results from them is negligible compared with the intrinsic Rayleigh scattering. PATIL ASSISTANT PROFESSOR . S. • These defects may be in the form of – Trapped gas bubbles – Unreacted starting materials – Crystallized regions in the glass.

S. it decreases dramatically with increasing wavelength shown below S . PATIL ASSISTANT PROFESSOR .Scattering Losses • Rayleigh scattering follows a characteristics λ4 dependence.

S. • Combining the infrared. we get the result shown in figure below for a single mode fiber. PATIL ASSISTANT PROFESSOR .Scattering Losses • The graph shows that for wavelengths below about 1 μm it is the dominant loss mechanism in a fiber and gives the attenuation versus wavelength plot gets a downward trend with increasing wavelength. • At wavelengths longer than 1 μm. ultraviolet. S . infrared absorption effects tend to dominate optical signal attenuation. and scattering losses.

Scattering Losses • If we consider multimode fiber the losses are on higher side due to – Higher dopant concentrations – The accompanying larger scattering loss due togreater compositional fluctuation in multimode fiber. PATIL ASSISTANT PROFESSOR . multimode fibers are subject to higher order mode losses owing to perturbations at the core – cladding interface S . • In addition. S.

Bending Losses • Radiative losses occur whenever an optical fiber undergoes a bend of finite radius of curvature. PATIL point where it becomes negligible. – The loss increases exponentially with the decreasing radius of the curvature until a certain S . the lesser is the loss. • Macrobending Losses (Bending losses) : – The high the radius. ASSISTANT PROFESSOR . S. • Fibers can be subject to two types of bends – Macroscopic bends having radii that are larger compared with the fiber diameter for example such as those that occur when a fiber cable turns a corner – Random microscopic bends of the fiber axis that can arise when the fibers are incorporated into cables.

S . • The curvature loss effects can be explained by examining the modal electric field distributions as in the diagram.Bending Losses • If the bend radius is made a bit smaller once this threshold point has been reached. S. PATIL ASSISTANT PROFESSOR . the losses suddenly become extremely large.

• Since this field tail moves along with the field in the core. S.Bending Losses • The above figure shows that any bound core mode has an evanescent field tail in the cladding which decays exponentially with as a function of distance from the core. the field tail would have to move faster than the speed of the light to keep up with the core field. ASSISTANT PROFESSOR . • At a certain critical distance xc from the center of the fiber. • Since this is not possible the optical energy in the field S . part of the energy of a propagating mode travels in the fiber cladding. PATIL beyond xc radiates away. the field tail on the far side of the center of curvature must move faster to keep up with the field in the core for the lowest order fiber mode. • When a fiber is bent.

Bending Losses • The amount of optical radiation from a bent fiber depends on – Field strength at xc – The radius of curvature R • Higher order modes are less tightly bound to the fiber core than the lower order mode. thus the higher order modes will radiate out of the fiber first. • Thus the total number of modes that can be supported by a curved fiber is less than in a straight fiber. • Gloge has derived the following expression S . PATIL ASSISTANT PROFESSOR . S.

S . PATIL ASSISTANT PROFESSOR .Bending Losses • Gloge has derived the following expression for the effective number of modes Neff that are guided by a curved multimode fiber of radius a: Neff = N∞ {1 – (α + 2 / 2αΔ)[(2a / R) + (3 / 2n2kR)2/3] } Where α defines the graded index profile. S. Δ is the core-cladding index difference n2 the cladding refractive index k = 2π / λ is the wave propagation constant N∞ = (α / α + 2 ) (n1 ka)2 Δ is the total number of modes in a straight fiber.

PATIL ASSISTANT PROFESSOR . S . S. • Microbends are repetitive small-scale fluctuations in the radius of the curvature of the fiber axis shown in figure.Bending Losses • Another form of radiation loss in optical waveguide results from mode coupling caused by random microbends of the optical fiber.

Bending Losses
• They are caused
– By non uniformities in the manufacturing of the fiber
– By nonuniform lateral pressures created during the
cabling of the fiber, known as cabling or packaging

• An increase in attenuation results from
microbending because the fiber curvature causes
repetitive coupling of energy between the guided
modes and the leaky or nonguided modes in the
• One method of minimizing microbending losses is
by extruding a compressible jacket over the fiber.

Core and Cladding Losses
• Upon measuring the propagation losses in an actual
fiber, all the dissipative and scattering losses will be
manifested simultaneously.
• Since the core and cladding have different indices of
refraction and therefore differ in composition, the
core and cladding generally have different
attenuation coefficients, denoted by α1 and α2 resp.
• If the influence of modal coupling is ignored, the loss
for a mode of order (v, m) for a step-index
waveguide is
α vm = α1 (Pcore / P) + α2 (Pclad / P)
Where Pcore / P and Pclad / P are the fractional power for
several order modes.

Core and Cladding Losses
• But we know already that Pclad / P = 1 - Pcore / P thus
the above expression becomes
α vm = α1 + (α2 – α1 ) (Pclad / P)
• The total loss of the waveguide can be found by
summing over all modes weighted by the fractional
power in that mode.
• For graded index fiber the situation is more complex.
In this both the attenuation coefficients and the
modal power tend to be functions of the radial

PATIL increases with increasing mode number. • The complexity of the multimode waveguide has prevented an experimental correlation with a model. n terms are modes of graded index fiber. • However it has generally been observed that the loss S . S. • The loss is given by αgi = int (α (r) p(r) r) dr / int (p(r) r) dr Where p(r) is the power density of that mode at r. ASSISTANT PROFESSOR .Core and Cladding Losses • At a distance r from the core axis the loss is α(r) = α1 + (α 2 – α1) (n2(0) – n2(r)/n2(0)-n22) Where α1 and α2 are the axial and cladding attenuation coefficients resp.

Rayleigh Scattering (I) •Dominant scattering mechanism in silica fibres •Scattering causes by inhomogeneities in the glass.18 dB per km. present in the glass after manufacture. •For 1550 nm the loss is approximately 0. •Inhomogeneities manifested as refractive index variations. of a size smaller than the wavelength. PATIL ASSISTANT PROFESSOR . S . S. •Difficult to eliminate with present manufacturing methods •Rayleigh loss falls off as a function of the fourth power of wavelength:  in this empirical formula is expressed in microns (μm) •The Rayleigh scattering coefficient Ar is a constant for a given material.

36 dB/km.Rayleigh Scattering (II) •The Rayleigh scattering coefficient Ar depends: -The fibre refractive index profile -The doping used to achieve a given core refractive index •For a step index germanium doped fibre Ar is given by: Ar = 0.63 + 1.NA dB/km •For a graded index near-parabolic profile fibre Ar is given by: Ar = 0.NA dB/km Exercise: Show that for a graded index fibre with a numerical aperture of 0.63 + 2. S.75. S .275 operating at 1330 nm the Rayleigh scattering loss is approximately 0. PATIL ASSISTANT PROFESSOR .06.

Bending Loss (Macrobending & Microbending) • Macrobending Loss: The curvature of the bend is much larger than fiber diameter. PATIL ASSISTANT PROFESSOR ..Keiser. For any radius a bit smaller than this point. S. Higher order modes radiate away faster than lower order modes.McGrawHill. 2000 S . the loss increases exponentially until it reaches at a certain critical radius. Optical Fiber communications. Lightwave suffers sever loss due to radiation of the evanescent field in the cladding region. As the radius of the curvature decreases. 3rd ed. the losses suddenly becomes extremely large.G.

2000 S .Keiser. S. The power is dissipated through the microbended fiber. 3rd ed.G. Optical Fiber communications..Microbending Loss • Microbending Loss: microscopic bends of the fiber axis that can arise when the fibers are incorporated into cables. PATIL ASSISTANT PROFESSOR .McGrawHill. because of the repetitive coupling of energy between guided modes & the leaky or radiation modes in the fiber.

Material Dispersion 2. PATIL ASSISTANT PROFESSOR . in general: 1. • In communication.Waveguide Dispersion 3. frequencies) of the signal have different propagation velocities within the physical medium. dispersion is used to describe any process by which any electromagnetic signal propagating in a physical medium is degraded because the various wave characteristics (i. • There are 3 dispersion types in the optical fibers. S .e.Dispersion in Optical Fibers • Dispersion: Any phenomenon in which the velocity of propagation of any electromagnetic wave is wavelength dependent. S.Polarization-Mode Dispersion Material & waveguide dispersions are main causes of Intramodal Dispersion..

S . V g .Modal wave phase velocity: For a modal wave propagating along z-axis represented byexp( jωt  jz) . the velocity of constant phase plane is: v  c  k1 n1 [3-4] • 2.Plane wave velocity: For a plane wave propagating along z-axis in an unbounded homogeneous region of refractive index n1 . the velocity of constant phase plane is: ω vp  [3-5]  3. S.Group Velocity • Wave Velocities: • 1. This is the actual velocity which the signal information & energy is traveling down the fiber. PATIL ASSISTANT PROFESSOR . which is represented by exp( jωt  jk1 z ) .For transmission system operation the most important & useful type of velocity is the group velocity. when traveling a length of l along the fiber is commonly referred to as group delay. It is always less than the speed of light in the medium. The observable delay experiences by the optical signal waveform & energy.

the following analysis would be helpful. PATIL ASSISTANT PROFESSOR . S .Group Velocity & Group Delay • The group velocity is given by: dω Vg  d [3-6] • The group delay is given by: l d g   l Vg dω [3-7] • It is important to note that all above quantities depend both on frequency & the propagation mode. In order to see the effect of these parameters on group velocity and delay. S.

PATIL ASSISTANT PROFESSOR .Chromatic dispersion • The combination of material dispersion and waveguide dispersion is called as chromatic dispersion. • These losses primarily concern the spectral width Tx and choice of the correct wavelength S . S.

PATIL ASSISTANT PROFESSOR . • Attenuation is minimum at 1300nm a highly attractive optical wavelength.The graph of effective refractive index vs wavelength • Material dispersion and waveguide dispersion effect vary in opposite senses as the wavelength increased . S. but at an optimum wavelength around 1300nm . two effect almost cancel each other and chromatic dispersion is at minimum. S .

PATIL ASSISTANT PROFESSOR . S. The net effect is spreading of pulse . each of these modes carries the modulation signal and each one is incident on the boundary at different angle. S . they will each have their own individual propagation times . this form of dispersion is called modal dispersion.Modal dispersion • As only certain number of modes can propagate down the fiber .

This result in pulse broadening is known as polarization mode dispersion.Polarization mode dispersion • Different frequency component of a pulse acquires different polarization states . S . S. PATIL ASSISTANT PROFESSOR .

will travel faster than the lower order modes travelling in high refractive index region. PATIL ASSISTANT PROFESSOR . • The higher order modes travelling in outer regions of the core . hence it supports multimode propagation with a low intermodal delay distortion and high data rate over long distance is possible. S .Pulse broadening in graded index fiber • The core refractive index varies radially in case of graded index fiber . then the transit times of the individual modes will be identical. S. so eliminating modal dispersion. • If the index of profile is carefully controlled .

the pulse distortion increases less rapidally because of mode coupling. S.Mode coupling After certain initial length . The energy from one mode is coupled to other mode because of • Structure imperfection • Fiber diameter variation • Refractive index variation • Micro bend in cable S . PATIL ASSISTANT PROFESSOR .

Design optimization Feature of single mode fiber • Longer life • Low attenuation • Signal transfer quality is good • Mode noise is absent • Larger BW-distance product S . S. PATIL ASSISTANT PROFESSOR .

Basic design optimisation • • • • • Cut off wavelength Dispersion Mode field diameter Bending loss Refractive index profile S . S. PATIL ASSISTANT PROFESSOR .


 is the opticalsignal bandwidth. Z=l z-=0 f (t )   c   ~ f ( )e jt d    [3-8] c  g (t )   c   ~ f ( )e jt  j ( ) l d    c  S . The propagation constant of a particular modal wave carrying the signal is  (ω). Let us find the output signal waveform g(t). S. PATIL ASSISTANT PROFESSOR [3-9] .Input/Output signals in Fiber Transmission System • The optical signal (complex) waveform at the input of fiber of length l is f(t).

[3-10]   c jt  j [  ( c )  d d   c (  c )]l d  c   / 2 )   c d  c   / 2 e  j  ( c ) l d f (t  l d )  e  j ( c )l f (t   g ) [3-11]   c d g  l d l  V S..S.If    c d  ( )   ( c )  d g (t )  1 d 2 (   c )  2 2 d    c  c   / 2 ~ jt  j ( ) l f (  ) e d    c   / 2  e  j  ( c ) l  c   / 2 ~  f ( )e j ( t  l d d  c   / 2 ~  f ( )e (   c ) 2  .. c PATIL g ASSISTANT PROFESSOR [3-14] .

This phenomenon arises due to a finite bandwidth of the optical source.  (ω) . PATIL ASSISTANT PROFESSOR . leading to Inter Symbol Interference (ISI). at each frequency.Intramodal Dispersion • As we have seen from Input/output signal relationship in optical fiber. is frequency dependent over band width ω sitting at the center frequency ω c . S . the output is proportional to the delayed version of the input signal. we have one propagation constant resulting in a specific delay time. S. and the delay is inversely proportional to the group velocity of the wave. GVD causes pulse broadening. As the output signal is collectively represented by group velocity & group delay this phenomenon is called intramodal dispersion or Group Velocity Dispersion (GVD). • In the case of optical pulse propagation down the fiber. dependency of refractive index on the wavelength and the modal dependency of the group velocity. Since the propagation constant.

S . 3rd & ISI A measure of information capacity of an optical fiber for digital transmission is usually specified by the bandwidth distance product BW  L in GHz.Keiser. for graded index fiber is about & for single mode fibers are higher than 10 GHz. 2000 .km. PATIL ASSISTANT PROFESSOR Optical Fiber communications..G.5 S. For multi-mode step index fiber this quantity is about 20 MHz.

PATIL ASSISTANT PROFESSOR    [3-16] .How to characterize dispersion? • Group delay per unit length can be defined as: g d 1 d 2 d    L dω c dk 2c d [3-15] • If the spectral width of the optical source is not too wide. S. symmetrical around center wavelength. then the delay d difference per unit wavelength along the propagation path is approximately g d For spectral components which are apart. the total delay difference  over a distance L is: d g 2 L  d 2 d    2        2  d 2c  d d  d d    d d  L  V  g   d 2   L  d 2    S .

and shows how much a light pulse broadens as it travels along an optical fiber. PATIL ASSISTANT PROFESSOR [3-18] .  g can be well approximated by: g  d g d    DL  • D has a typical unit of [ps/(nm. and can be defined as the delay difference per unit length per unit wavelength as follows: 1 d g d  1 D  L d d  V g     2c  2 2    [3-17] • In the case of optical pulse. S.• d 2 2  d 2 is called GVD parameter. if the spectral width of the optical source is characterized by its rms value of the Gaussian pulse   .km)]. S . the pulse spreading over the length of L. The more common parameter is called Dispersion.

²  Spread. The waves arrive at the end of the fiber at different times and hence result in a broadened output pulse. ² . Waves in the guide with different free space wavelengths travel at different group velocities due to the wavelength dependence of n1.O. © 1999 S. S. Optoelectronics(Prentice Hall) S . ²  1 o 2  0 t  t All excitation sources are inherently non-monochromatic and emit within a spectrum. Kasap.Material Dispersion Cladding Input v g ( 1 ) Emitter Very short light pulse v g ( 2 ) Core Intensity Intensity Output Intensity Spectrum. of wavelengths. PATIL ASSISTANT PROFESSOR .

n( ) • Material-induced dispersion for a plane wave propagation in homogeneous medium of refractive index n:  mat d 2 d 2 d  2  L  L  L n (  )  dω 2c d 2c d    L dn  n     c d  [3-19] • The pulse spread due to material dispersion is therefore: d mat L  d 2 n g     2  L  Dmat ( ) d c d Dmat ( ) is material dispersion S .Material Dispersion • The refractive index of the material varies as a function of wavelength. PATIL ASSISTANT PROFESSOR [3-20] . S.

McGrawHill.G. 3rd ed.Keiser.Material Dispersion Diagrams S . S. PATIL ASSISTANT PROFESSOR Optical Fiber communications.. 2000 .

PATIL ASSISTANT PROFESSOR [3-23] . we consider that n is not dependent on wavelength. Defining the normalized propagation constant b as: b •  / k  n2 2 2 n1  n2 2 2 2   / k  n2 n1  n2 [3-21] solving for propagation constant:   n2 k (1  b) [3-22] • Using V number: V  ka(n  n2 ) 2 1 2 1/ 2  kan2 2 S .Waveguide Dispersion • Waveguide dispersion is due to the dependency of the group velocity of the fundamental mode as well as other modes on the V number. In order to calculate waveguide dispersion. S.

. 3rd ed. 2000 [3-24] . S.McGrawHill. PATIL ASSISTANT PROFESSOR Optical Fiber communications.Keiser.Waveguide Dispersion • Delay time due to waveguide dispersion can then be expressed as:  wg L d (Vb )   n2  n2  c dV  S .G.

McGrawHill. PATIL ASSISTANT PROFESSOR Optical Fiber communications.Waveguide dispersion in single mode fibers • For single mode fibers.G. 3rd ed. waveguide dispersion is in the same order of material dispersion. S.Keiser. The pulse spread can be well approximated as:  wg d wg n2 L  d 2 (Vb )     L  Dwg ( )  V d c dV 2 Dwg ( ) S .. 2000 [3-25] .

Optoelectr onics(P rentice Hall) S . S.Polarization Mode dispersion Intensity t Output light pulse n1 y // y n1 x // x Ey  Ex Core Ex z Ey  = Pulse spread t E Input light pulse Suppose that the core refractive index has different values along two orthogonal directions corresponding to electric field oscillation direction (polarizations).O. We can take x and y axes along these directions. PATIL ASSISTANT PROFESSOR Ex . Kasap. An input light will travel along the fiber with and Ey polarizations having different group velocities and hence arrive at the output at different times © 1999 S.

Polarization Mode dispersion • The effects of fiber-birefringence on the polarization states of an optical are another source of pulse broadening. Polarization mode dispersion (PMD) is due to slightly different velocity for each polarization mode because of the lack of perfectly symmetric & anisotropicity of the fiber. If the group velocities of two orthogonal polarization modes are vgx and vgy then the differential time delay  pol between these two polarization over a distance L is  pol L L   v gx v gy [3-26] • The rms value of the differential group delay can be approximated as:  pol  DPMD L S . S. PATIL ASSISTANT PROFESSOR [3-27] .

PATIL ASSISTANT PROFESSOR [3-29] . Dch ( )  Dmat  Dwg  ch  Dch ( ) L  [3-28] • Total dispersion is the sum of chromatic . polarization dispersion and other dispersion types and the total rms pulse spreading can be approximately written as: Dtotal  Dch  D pol  .  total  DtotalL  S .Chromatic & Total Dispersion • Chromatic dispersion includes the material & waveguide dispersions.. S..

. S.McGrawHill. Fact 2) Minimum attenuation is at 1550 nm for sinlge mode silica fiber.Total Dispersion. Strategy: shifting the zero-dispersion to longer wavelength for minimum attenuation and dispersion. zero Dispersion Fact 1) Minimum distortion at wavelength about 1300 nm for single mode silica fiber.Keiser. 2000 . S . PATIL ASSISTANT PROFESSOR Optical Fiber communications. 3rd ed.G.

Optimum single mode fiber & distortion/attenuation characteristics Fact 1) Minimum distortion at wavelength about 1300 nm for single mode silica fiber. S . PATIL ASSISTANT PROFESSOR . Fact 2) Minimum attenuation is at 1550 nm for sinlge mode silica fiber. There are four major categories to do that: 1.Dispersion shifted fibers. 3. 4. Strategy: shifting the zero-dispersion to longer wavelength for minimum attenuation and dispersion by Modifying waveguide dispersion by changing from a simple step-index core profile to more complicated profiles. S. effective cross section areas are typically greater than 100m 2 ).Dispersion-flattened fibers.1300 nm optimized single mode step-fibers: matched cladding (mode diameter 9.Large-effective area (LEA) fibers (less nonlinearities for fiber optical amplifier applications.6 micrometer) and depressed-cladding (mode diameter about 9 micrometer) 2.


3rd ed. S.G..Keiser. 2000 .McGrawHill.Single mode fiber dispersion S . PATIL ASSISTANT PROFESSOR Optical Fiber communications.

. S.Keiser. 2000 .G. PATIL ASSISTANT PROFESSOR Optical Fiber communications. 3rd ed.Single mode fiber dispersion S .McGrawHill.

PATIL ASSISTANT PROFESSOR n1  n2 2 [3-30] [3-31] [3-32] 2 . S.405 and c  V • Dispersion: d D ( )   Dmat ( )  Dwg ( ) d   D( ) L  • For non-dispersion-shifted fibers (1270 nm – 1340 nm) • For dispersion shifted fibers (1500 nm.1600 nm) S .Single mode Cut-off wavelength & Dispersion 2a • Fundamental mode is HE11 or LP01 with V=2.

PATIL ASSISTANT PROFESSOR [3-34] [3-35] S0 . and is the value of the dispersion slope in ps/(nm . S. S 0  S (0 )  dD d  0 S0  0 4  D ( )  1 ( )   4    S .km).Dispersion for non-dispersion-shifted fibers (1270 nm – 1340 nm) S0 0 2  ( )   0  (  ) 8  2 •  0 is relative delay minimum at the zero-dispersion wavelength 0 2 [3-33] .

1600 nm) S0  ( )   0  (  0 ) 2 2 D ( )  (  0 ) S 0 S . S. PATIL ASSISTANT PROFESSOR [3-36] [3-37] .Dispersion for dispersion shifted fibers (1500 nm.

Keiser. PATIL ASSISTANT PROFESSOR Optical Fiber communications.G. 2000 .. S.McGrawHill. 3rd ed.Example of dispersion Performance curve for Set of SM-fiber S .

.G.Example of BW vs wavelength for various optical sources for SM-fiber.McGrawHill. 3rd ed. S .Keiser. 2000 . PATIL ASSISTANT PROFESSOR Optical Fiber communications. S.

.G. S.Keiser. 3rd ed. 2000 .MFD S . PATIL ASSISTANT PROFESSOR Optical Fiber communications.McGrawHill.

S. PATIL ASSISTANT PROFESSOR Optical Fiber communications.McGrawHill..G.Bending Loss S . 3rd ed. 2000 .Keiser.

McGrawHill.. 3rd ed. S. 2000 .Keiser.G.Bending effects on loss vs MFD S . PATIL ASSISTANT PROFESSOR Optical Fiber communications.

S.56  103 .G.07 n2 S . 3 2  0.6 m.Keiser..Bend loss versus bend radius a  3.McGrawHill. b  60m n n   3. PATIL ASSISTANT PROFESSOR Optical Fiber communications. 2000 . 3rd ed.

Kerr effect Temporal changes in a narrow optical pulse that is subjected to Kerr nonlinearity in A dispersive medium with positive GVD. where I is the intensity of Optical wave. S. PATIL ASSISTANT PROFESSOR . S . n  n0  n2 I Kerr nonlinearity in fiber.

S. Kerr Nonlinearity tends to squeeze the pulse. S .First-order Soliton Temporal changes in a medium with Kerr nonlinearity and negative GVD. Since dispersion tends to broaden the pulse. resulting in a formation of optical soliton. PATIL ASSISTANT PROFESSOR .