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Aerodynamics Lab

Laboratory Manual
III YEAR B.TECH
(AERONAUTICAL ENGINEERING)

Department of Aeronautical Engineering

Aerodynamics Lab
Laboratory Manual
III YEAR B.TECH
(AERONAUTICAL ENGINEERING)

Department of Aeronautical Engineering


Document No:
MLRIT/AERO/LAB
MANUAL/AD

Date of Issue
04 July 2015

Compiled by
Mr. Yogesh
(Assistant Professor)

Authorized by
HOD(AERO)

VERSION 1.2.2

Date of Revision
07 JULY 2015

Verified by
Dr. M. Satyanarayana Gupta

Table of Contents
Experiment -1:
Pressure distribution over symmetrical airfoil
1.1 Viva Questions

1
5

Experiment - 2:
Centrifugal Flow Compressor Test Rig
2.1 Viva Questions

6
15

Experiment - 3:
Calibration of Low-Speed Wind Tunnel
3.1Viva Questions

16
20

Experiment 4:
Fluid Flow Studies Using Blower
4.1 Viva Questions

21
27

Experiment -5:
Calculation of Drag On Wooden Cylinder

28

5.1Viva Questions
Experiment 6:
Calculation Of Cl And Cd Of Naca 2312 Airfoil
6.1 Viva Questions
Experiment 7:
Flow Visualization Technique

31

32
38

39

6.1 Viva Questions

40

Experiment 8:
Axial Flow Fan Test Rig
6.1 Viva Questions

41
47

Department of Aeronautical Engineering


Experiment 1

Pressure distribution over symmetrical airfoil


AIM: To conduct the test on a wind tunnel for finding out the pressure distribution and velocity
distribution over NACA 0018 airfoil at -50 and -100 angle of attacks.
EQUIPMENT REQUIRED:
1 Low Speed Wind Tunnel Set-up.
2 Airfoil model.
THEORY:
A body immersed in a flowing fluid is exposed to both pressure and viscous forces. The sum of
the forces that acts normal to the free-stream direction is the lift, and the sum that acts parallel to
the free-stream direction is the drag. The geometric and dynamic characteristics of airfoils are
shown in figure. This experiment is concerned with computation of the pressure distribution on a
stationary airfoil mounted in the test section of a wind tunnel. We will consider only twodimensional airfoils where tip and root effects are neglected.

Geometry and Dynamic parameters of Airfoil


Because the velocity of the flow over the top of the airfoil is greater than the free-stream
velocity, the pressure over the top is negative. This follows directly from the application of

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Bernoullis equation. Similarly the velocity along the underside of the airfoil is less than the freestream velocity and the pressure there is positive.
Hence, both the negative pressure over the top and the positive pressure along the bottom
contribute to the lift. There are a variety of ways to measure lift. In this experiment, the lift
force, L, on the airfoil will be determined by integration of the measured pressure distribution
over the airfoils surface. Typical pressure distribution on an airfoil and its projection on the
airfoil normal are shown in Figure

Pressure distribution over an airfoil


The pressure distribution on the airfoil is expressed in dimensionless form by the pressure
coefficient Cp
Cp = 2(Pi-P)
U2

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EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURE:
1. Mount the model on the stand provided and keep the model in the Wind Tunnel through
the opening at the bottom. The tail edge facing the fan. Care should be taken to ensure
that the rod connecting the model to the balance does not touch the wind tunnel wall.
This should be checked even when the wind tunnel is in operation.
2. Connect the pressure tapping to the multi tube manometer as per the table give and note
the angle of incidence of air on the model. The incidence angle is changed by loosening
the bolts and manually positioning the aerofoil at the required incidence angle. Give pitot
tube connections.
3. Switch on the Drive unit.
4. Note the reading of Prandtl Pitot tube.
5. Calculate the velocity of flow using the readings in Prandtl Pitot tube.
6. Note the reading on differential pressure water connected to the Pitot tube.
7. Note the readings on the multi tube manometer P1 to P12 and P13 corresponds to the
atmospheric pressure.
8. Note the angle of inclination of the manometer.
9. For different angle of incidence of model and for different air flow rate, the experiment
may be repeated.
TABULAR COLUMN:
Points

10

11

12

Distance

160

120

80

50

30

10

10

30

50

80

120

S.No

Pref

15.5

10

15.5

h1

h2

h3

h4

h5

h6

h7

h8

h9

h10

h11

h12

H1

H2

15.3 15.3 17.2 15.3 15.3 15.3 15.4

15

18

15.4 15.4 17.4

32

30

15.4 15.3 17.2 15.4 15.4 15.4 15.4

15

19

15.2 15.2

18

32.5 29.5

Case 1: Calculations and Results with Formulae


Velocity of flow
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v =2a
Where
ha = w /a *(h1-h2)
= (1000 /1.23) *(32-30)*10e-02
= 16.26m
v =2a = (2 9.81 16.26) = 17.86m/s

Cp

hlocal
Pi P h i h P

Po P h o h
q
h pitot static

Note: After simplification we observe that density and gravity multiples are going to be same in
case of static and free stream pressures
Cp1 =

2(15.315.5)
1.23 17.86 2

= 0.001

On similar basis we calculate for coefficient of pressure for different stations


For other Angles of Attack conditions for p Head= 19.11m

-10
-5

h1
h2
19.12 19.62
19.12 19.62

h3
21.87
22.07

h4
19.32
19.52

h5
19.52
19.32

h6
19.52
19.62

h7
19.32
19.22

h8
19.12
19.03

h9
21.38
21.58

h10
20.40
20.60

h11
19.12
19.12

h12
21.28
21.58

S.No H1 H2
V
1 20.5 18.7 17.448
2 20.4
19 15.388

-10
-5

cp1
1.18247E-05
1.18247E-05

cp2
0.00033
0.00043

cp3
0.00181627
0.00249754

cp4
0.00014
0.00034

cp5
0.00027
0.00018

cp6
0.00027
0.00043

cp7
0.00014
9.5E-05

cp8
1.18247E-05
-7.1032E-05

cp9
0.00149
0.00208

cp10
0.00085
0.00125

cp11
1.18247E-05
1.18247E-05

Results:
Plot coefficient of pressure for different stations of chord length

VIVA QUESTIONS
1. What is angle of attack?

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cp12
0.00143
0.00208

Department of Aeronautical Engineering


In aerodynamics, angle of attack specifies the angle between the chord line of the
wing of a fixed-wing aircraft and the vector representing the relative motion between the
aircraft and the atmosphere.
2. What is critical angle of attack?
The critical angle of attack is the angle of attack which produces maximum lift
coefficient. This is also called the "stall angle of attack".
3. Explain stagnation point.
When the airfoil is located in a stream of air of velocity, the flow has to part near
the leading edge and pass along the upper and the lower airfoil surface. At the location,
where the flow is splitting up, the flow velocity is reduced to zero. This point is called
stagnation point. It is located close to the leading edge of the airfoil, but its position
moves with angle of attack.
4. Explain coefficient of pressure.
It is possible to plot a pressure distribution instead of the velocity distribution
(usually not the pressure, but the ratio of the local pressure to the stagnation pressure is
plotted and called pressure coefficient Cp):

.
5. Name any three dimensionless coefficients.
The dimensionless properties (coefficients) are defined as follows:

Lift Coefficient

Drag Coefficient

Moment Coefficient

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Lab
Department of AeronauticalAerodynamics
Engineering

III Yr

Experiment 2
CENTRIFUGAL FLOW COMPRESSOR TEST RIG
1. INTRODUCTION

Centrifugal compressors, sometimes referred to as radial compressors, are a


sub-class of dynamic axisymmetric work-absorbing turbomachinery
The idealized compressive dynamic turbo-machine achieves a pressure rise by
adding kinetic energy/velocity to a continuous flow of fluid through the rotor or impeller.
This kinetic energy is then converted to an increase in potential energy/static pressure by
slowing the flow through a diffuser.
Imagine a simple case where flow passes through a straight pipe to enter
centrifugal compressor. The simple flow is straight, uniform and has no swirl. As the
flow continues to pass into and through the centrifugal impeller, the impeller forces the
flow to spin faster and faster. According to a form of Euler's fluid dynamics equation,
known as pump and turbine equation," the energy input to the fluid is proportional to the
flow's local spinning velocity multiplied times the local impeller tangential velocity. In
many cases the flow leaving centrifugal impeller is near or above 1000 ft./s or
approximately 300 m/s. It is at this point, in the simple case according to Bernoulli's
principle, where the flow passes into the stationary diffuser for the purpose of converting
this velocity energy into pressure energy
Centrifugal compressors are also similar to centrifugal pumps. The key difference
between centrifugal compressors and centrifugal pumps is that the compressor working
fluid in a gas (compressible) and the pump working fluid is liquid (in-compressible).
Again, the engineering techniques used to design a centrifugal pump are the same as
those to design a centrifugal compressor. Yet, there is one important difference, the need
to deal with cavitation in pumps.

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CENTRIFUGAL FLOW COMPRESSOR TEST RIG
1. INTRODUCTION

Centrifugal compressors, sometimes referred to as radial compressors, are a sub-class


of dynamic axisymmetric work-absorbing turbomachinery
The idealized compressive dynamic turbo-machine achieves a pressure rise by
adding kinetic energy/velocity to a continuous flow of fluid through the rotor or impeller. This
kinetic energy is then converted to an increase in potential energy/static pressure by slowing
the flow through a diffuser.
Imagine a simple case where flow passes through a straight pipe to enter centrifugal
compressor. The simple flow is straight, uniform and has no swirl. As the flow continues to pass
into and through the centrifugal impeller, the impeller forces the flow to spin faster and faster.
According to a form of Euler's fluid dynamics equation, known as pump and turbine equation,"
the energy input to the fluid is proportional to the flow's local spinning velocity multiplied times
the local impeller tangential velocity. In many cases the flow leaving centrifugal impeller is near
or above 1000 ft./s or approximately 300 m/s. It is at this point, in the simple case according
to Bernoulli's principle, where the flow passes into the stationary diffuser for the purpose of
converting this velocity energy into pressure energy
Centrifugal compressors are also similar to centrifugal pumps. The key difference
between centrifugal compressors and centrifugal pumps is that the compressor working fluid in
a gas (compressible) and the pump working fluid is liquid (in-compressible). Again, the
engineering techniques used to design a centrifugal pump are the same as those to design a
centrifugal compressor. Yet, there is one important difference, the need to deal with cavitation in
pumps.
Centrifugal compressors also look very similar to their turbomachinery counterpart
the radial-inflow turbine. While the compressor transfers energy into the flow to raise its

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pressure the turbine operates in reverse by extracting energy from the flow thus reducing its In
other words power is input to compressors and output from turbines.

Components of a simple centrifugal compressor


A simple centrifugal compressor has the following four components: inlet, impeller/rotor,
diffuser, and collector. The flow (working gas) enters the centrifugal impeller axially from right
to left. As a result of the impeller rotating clockwise when looking downstream into the
compressor, the flow will pass through the volute's discharge cone moving away from the
viewer.
Inlet
The inlet to a centrifugal compressor is typically a simple pipe. It may include features such as a
valve, stationary vanes/airfoils (used to help swirl the flow) and both pressure and temperature
instrumentation. All of these additional devices have important uses in the control of the
centrifugal compressor.
Centrifugal impeller
The key component that makes a compressor centrifugal is the centrifugal impeller. It is the
impeller's rotating set of vanes (or blades) that gradually raises the energy of the working gas.
This is identical to an axial compressor with the exception that the gases can reach higher
velocities and energy levels through the impeller's increasing radius. In many modern highefficiency centrifugal compressors the gas exiting the impeller is traveling near the speed of
sound.
Impellers are designed in many configurations including "open" (visible blades), "covered or
shrouded", "with splitters" (every other inducer removed) and "w/o splitters" (all full blades).
Most modern high efficiency impellers use "backsweep" in the blade shape.
Eulers pump and turbine equation plays an important role in understanding impeller
performance.

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Diffuser
The

next

key

component

to

the

simple

centrifugal

compressor

is

the

diffuser. Downstream of the impeller in the flow path, it is the diffuser's responsibility to convert
the kinetic energy (high velocity) of the gas into pressure by gradually slowing (diffusing) the
gas velocity. Diffusers can be vaneless, vaned or an alternating combination. High efficiency
vaned diffusers are also designed over a wide range of solidities from less than 1 to over 4.
Hybrid versions of vaned diffusers include: wedge, channel, pipe and pipe diffusers. There are
turbocharger applications that benefit by incorporating no diffuser.
Bernoulli's fluid dynamic principal plays and important role in understanding diffuser
performance.
Collector
The collector of a centrifugal compressor can take many shapes and forms. When the
diffuser discharges into a large empty chamber the centrifugal compressors collector may be
referred to as a Plenum. When the diffuser discharges into a device that looks somewhat like a
snail shell, bull's horn or a French horn, the collector is likely to be referred to as a volute or
scroll. As the name implies, a collectors purpose is to gather the flow from the diffuser
discharge annulus and deliver this flow to a downstream pipe. Either the collector or the pipe
may also contain valves and instrumentation to control the compressor. For example, a
turbocharger blow-off valve.
Application of Centrifugal Compressor

In gas turbines and auxiliary power units


In pipeline compressors of natural gas to move the gas from the production site to the consumer
In oil refineries, natural gas processing, petrochemical and chemical plants.
Air-conditioning and refrigeration and HVAC:
In industry and manufacturing to supply compressed air for all types of pneumatic tools
In air separation plants to manufacture purified end product gases
In oil field re-injection of high pressure natural gas to improve oil recovery
In automotive engine and diesel engine turbochargers and super chargers

2. DESCRIPTION OF THE APPARATUS:

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The apparatus consists of Three Stage Compressor according to the standard design.

The compressor is directly coupled to KIRLOSKAR motor of 2hp capacity by means of Flange
coupling.
The motor is controlled by means of AC Drive of same capacity to conduct the experiment at
different speeds.
Pressure Tappings are provided at inlet, stages and outlet, with manometer for measuring.
Multi Tube Manometer and U Manometers are made of clear Acrylic with vinyl sticker
scale to for better readings.
Starter for the motor and Energymeter for power measurement are provided in the control panel
with other necessary intruments.

Compressor assembly with motor is mounted on the separate frame made of C channel. This
makes the complete assembly sturdy.
The control panel is made of MS tube with powder coating with panel made of NOVAPAN
BOARD.
The entire assembly is aesthetically designed considering all safety precautions.
3. EXPERIMENTATION:
AIM:

The experiment is conducted at various pressures to


a. Determine the Overall efficiency.
b. Determine the Isothermal efficiency.

PROCEDURE:
1.

Provide the necessary electrical connections to the panel.

2.

Check for the direction of the motor.


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3.

Close the ball valves of pressure arrangements.

4.

Switch on the Starter.

5.

Allow the system to attain the steady state.

6.

Now, open the valves of the respective pressure tappings and note down the values from the
manometer.

7.

Repeat the experiment and calculate average values.

NOTE: The experiment is designed for one particular speed only.


TABULAR COLUMNS AND OBSERVATIONS:

1st Stage
Pressure

Flow
measurement
Sl

RPM

m of water
column(outlet)

m of water
column

2nd Stage
Pressure

3rd Stage
Pressure

m of water
column

m of water
column

Time for
5 rev of
energy
meter,
T sec

h1

h2

h3

iso

300

4.53

0.91

1.81

2.30

89

50

50

400

6.40

1.20

2.40

3.04

76

50

51

800

8.61

1.81

3.31

4.23

52

47

49

900

8.81

1.91

3.41

4.37

39

44

48

1000

9.01

3.51

4.51

36

44

47

CALCULATIONS:
Head of the air, Ha

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a = Density of air = 1.2kg/m3


w = Density of water = 1000kg/m3
hsuffix = is for either inlet, outlet or stage head in m of water.
Overall Efficiency / Compression Efficiency, o %

0 % =

100

Isothermal workdone, Wiso


= ln

Where,
Where,

1 2
12

2
22

A1 = Area of at the inlet


` =

d1 = Dia of the pipe= 0.04m

2
4

A2 = Area of at the outlet


d2 = Dia of the orifice = 0.02m
i = 1,2

lnr = compression ratio


ln =

Input Power, IP
=

3600

Where
n = No. of blinks of energy meter = 5
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K = Energy meter constant = ________ revs/kW-hr
T = time for n rev. of energy meter in seconds
Isothermal Efficiency , iso %

% =

100

Case 1 Calculations and Results:

Inlet
Ha = (1000*0.91) / 1.2 = 758.3m
Outlet
Ha = (1000*1.81) / 1.2 = 1508.33 m
Overall efficiency / Compression efficiency

0 % =

100 =

758.3
1508 .3

100 = 50.27 %

Isothermal work done, Wiso

= ln
Where,

ln =

1508 .33
758.3

= 1.98

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=

1 2

3 =

21 22

0.61.25033.1404

2 4.53

1.2503 2 3.1404 2

= ln = 1.2*1.83*10e-03*1.98 = 4.35
Input Power, IP
=

3600

53600
240 89

= 0.84 KW

Isothermal Efficiency, iso %

% =

0.50
0.84

100 =

100

59.52 %

PRECAUTIONS:

Do not run the motor if supply voltage is less than 380V

Do not forget to give electrical earth and neutral connections correctly.

Frequently, at least once in three months, grease all visual moving parts.

At least once in week, operate the unit for five minutes to prevent any clogging of
moving parts.

It is recommended to run the compressor at less than 1500rpm.

RESULT:

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Viva Questions

1. What is a Centrifugal Compressor?Discuss Centrifugal compressor and Fan?


2. Give Similarities of Centrifugal compressor and Pump?
3. What are the applications of Centrifugal Compressor?
4. Define Surge?
5. What is rotating stall?
6. What is mean by choke?
7. What is function of inducer?
8. What is mean by coriollis acceleration?
9. What do you understand by the word velocity triangle?

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Experiment 3
CALIBRATION OF LOW-SPEED WIND TUNNEL
AIM:
To find out the mach number of low speed wind tunnel.

EQUIPMENT REQUIRED
Wind tunnel
Manometer setting
Motor.
THEORY:
Wind tunnel is referred to a facility which provides a controllable flow field for testing
aerodynamic models and studying flow phenomena. Low speed is referred to the air flow speed
lower than 100 m/s, for which the incompressible flow condition is satisfied
Types of wind tunnels:

Based on set up models


Closed-type wind tunnel
Open-type wind tunnel
Aerodynamic wind tunnel
Environmental wind tunnel
Low turbulence level wind tunnel
Based on cross section of the test section
rectangular (general purpose)
circular (axi-symmetric model)
elliptical (aircraft model)

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Open type (Blower) wind tunnel

\
Open type (Suction) wind tunnel

Closed circuit

wind tunnel

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COMPONENTS OF WIND TUNNEL:


Fan drive: provide a pressure increase of flow, to overcome the pressure loss in the tunnel
circuit.
Test section: provide desirable flow condition and space for model testing or experiment, where
the instrumentation is situated. (Reynolds number is of the major concern to manage the issue of
dynamic similarity.)
Diffuser: a device to lower the air flow speed, consequently reduce the pressure loss due to
friction
Guide vanes: to guide the flow through the turning duct, and reduce the extent of secondary
flows.
Transition duct: the device to connect the upstream and downstream components of different
cross-sectional shapes.
Settling Chamber: A large space in front of the Nozzle to lower the air flow speed, and to
maintain the flow in uniform distribution and lower turbulence intensity.
Nozzle (Convergent section): to accelerate the flow speed to reach the desirable level in the test
section, meanwhile reduce the turbulence intensity.

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EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURE:

Switch on the motor and set up motor rpm.


Note the manometer reading H1 and H2.
By using relation between H1, H2 and density of water and air calculate velocity.
Calculate Mach number.

TABULAR COLUMN:
S.No

Motor RPS

H1

H2

H1 - H2

Velocity

Mach Number

20

0.237

0.227

0.01

12.62

0.0371

30

0.243

0.221

0.022

18.73

0.05

FORMULAE:
1. Total head (H) = [ ]*[H1 H2]
= Density of water (1000 kg/m3)
= Density of air (1.23 kg/m3)
2

2. Velocity (V) =

3. Mach number (M) = V / a


Where a is speed of sound = 340 m/s
MODEL CALCULATION:
Total head = [1000 1.23]*[0.01]
= 8.13 m
Velocity (V) = 2 9.81 8.13
= 12.62 m/s
Mach number (M) = 12.62 / 340
= 0.0371
RESULT:

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Viva Questions
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

What is an Incompressible Flow?


Explain Speed of Sound?
Define Mach number?
What is a Potential Flow?
Define Stream Function, Velocity Potential?

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Experiment 4
FLUID FLOW STUDIES USING BLOWER
AIM:
To conduct test on the given blower and to determine the overall efficiency using Forward,
Backward and Radial vanes provided.
EQUIPMENT REQUIRED:
1 Constant Air Blower Test Rig
2 Types of Vanes
3 Electrical power source
THEORY:
Centrifugal Blower: A centrifugal fan/ blowers use the kinetic energy of the impellers or the
rotating blade to increase the pressure of the air/gas stream which in turn moves them against the
resistance caused by ducts, dampers and other components. Centrifugal fans accelerate air in
radial direction, changing the direction (typically by 90o) of the airflow. Centrifugal fan is a
constant CFM device or a constant volume device, meaning that, at a constant fan speed, a
centrifugal fan will pump a constant volume of air rather than a constant mass. This means that
the air velocity in a system is fixed even though mass flow rate through the fan is not.

Figure-1.1 Centrifugal Fan blades

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When one fan cant afford the necessary flow and pressure, the fans must be run in series
two or more, in order to achieve the goal. The pressure of the centrifugal fan is high, so it is
widely used in the production and has high using frequency; the centrifugal fans in series are
often applied in practical production. According to the relevant statistics, fan power consumption
accounting for 12% of the total electricity consumption.
Impeller: An impeller is a rotor inside a tube or conduit used to increase the pressure and flow
of a fluid.
Working of Impeller: Air or gas enters the impeller through the inlet nozzle which provides
slight acceleration to the air before its entry to the impeller. The action of the impeller swings the
gas from the smaller to larger radius and delivers the gas at high pressure and velocity to the
casing. Thus unlike the axial type, here the centrifugal energy also contributes to the static
pressure rise. The flow from the impeller blades is collected by a spirally shaped casing known
as scroll or volute. It delivers the air to the exit of the blower.

Figure -1.2 Fluid flow in an impeller.


Fabrication of an impeller: The centrifugal fan impellers can be fabricated by welding curved
or almost straight metal blades to the two side walls of the rotor or it can be obtained in one piece
by casting. Such an impeller is of enclosed type. The open types of impellers have only one
shroud and are open on one side. A large number of low pressure centrifugal fans are made out
of thin sheet metal.
Impeller size and shape: The peripheral speed of the impeller with a given geometry is decided
by the stage pressure rise. Therefore for the desired value of the peripheral speed there are
various combinations of the impeller diameters and the rotational speeds.
Straight or curved sheet metal blades or aerofoil shaped blades have been used in centrifugal fans
and blowers. Sheet metal blades are circular arc shaped or of a different curve. They can be
either being welded or riveted to the impeller disc. The blade exit angles depend on whether they
are backward swept, radial or for forward swept.

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Figure-1.3 Different impellers

EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURE:
1. Fill mercury in the Manometer provided for Venturimeter, the levels must be equal, if not
remove air blocks.
2. Fill water in the manometer provided for Prandle Pitot tubes, provided on the suction and
delivery side.
3. Close the cock connected to the inner pipe of the Pitot tube and leave this column of the
manometer open to the atmosphere.
4. Open the cock connecting the static pressure end of the Pitot tube.
5. Close the delivery control valve and start the unit.
6. Note the time taken for 10 revolution of energy meter reading.
7. Note the spring balance reading connected to the torque arm of the swinging field motor.
8. Note the speed of the motor.
9. Note the manometer readings.
10. Repeat the experiment for different openings of the delivery valve and for different
impeller vanes.

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CALCULATIONS:
1 Blower Discharge(Qt)
Qt =K m3/sec -------------------------- (1)

2 Total Head
H=Hd + Hs
(2)
3 Blower Output Power

-----------------------------

P0= a*Q*9.81*H watts

---------------- (3)

4 Blower input Power


Pi =3600/E *5/t KW ------------------ (4)
5 Blower Efficiency
= P0/ Pi *100 %

------------------ (5)

Where; Hs = h1 - h2 (S1/S2 - 1)
K = a1*a2 / ( )
g = 9.81m/sec2
h = h1 - h2 (S1/S2 - 1) m
S1- density of Manometric fluid
S2- density of air.
h1-h2 are manometric readings in m of mercury column.
a1-Area of Venturimeter inlet, diameter of inlet =100mm
a2- Area of Venturimeter throat, diameter at throat = 60mm
a -is the density of air.
E-energy meter constant
t-the time taken (seconds) for 10 revolutions of energy meter disc
MARRI LAXMAN REDDY INSTITUTIONS 24 | P a g e

Department of Aeronautical Engineering


In the case of the blower provided with swinging field motor the input power may also be
calculated as follows.
Input Power Pi =2NT/60 watts.
T - The torque = Torque arm length * spring balance reading in Kg * g
N- Speed of the motor.
TABLAR COLUMN:

S. No

Valve

Motor
RPM

Venturi head

Delivery head

Time for 5 rev


energy meter

Spring
balance

Blower
efficiency

Blower
efficiency
with spring

h 2m

Sec

Kg

Suction head

positio
n
h1m

h2m

h1m

h2m

h1m

25%

2914

0.19

0.175

0.20
8

0.165 0.187

0.183

20

4.5

27.25

25

50%

2910

0.20

0.165

0.24

0.135 0.19

0.183

18

5.1

30

28.5

75%

2904

0.205

0.16

0.25

0.123 0.19

0.18

17.6

5.2

28.28

27.35

100%

2900

0.255

0.16

0.25
3

0.123 0.19

0.18

17.5

5.35

27.77

26.27

To find the blower discharge


Qt =K m3/sec.
The value of K= 0.013417
Where K = a1*a2 2 / (12 22 ) where g = 9.81m/sec2
The values of Qt =0.091879 to 0.294155

Case 1 Calculations and Results:


Blower efficiency =
Total head (H) =

100

HD+HS

MARRI LAXMAN REDDY INSTITUTIONS 25 | P a g e

Department of Aeronautical Engineering


=

1000
[(0.208-0.165)(1000
1)] + [(0.187-0.183)( 1.23 1)]
1.23

= 38.164
Discharge (Q) =0.013417*[(0.19-0.175)(

13600
1.23

1)]

= 2.22 m3/s
Output (P0) = a*Q*9.81*H
= 1.23*2.22*9.81*38.164
= 1022 watts
Input (Pi)

=[

3600
240

]*[20 ]

= 3750 watts
Blower efficiency () =

1022
3750

100

= 27.25%
Blower efficiency with spring:
Torque (T) = 0.300*9.81*4.5
= 13.2435 Nm
Input power (Pi) =

2291413.2435
60

= 4042.925 Watts
1022

Blower efficiency with spring (S) = 4042 .925 *100 = 25%


Blower efficiency ()

= 27.25 %

Blower efficiency with spring (S)

= 25 %

GRAPHS:
1. H verses Power input.
2. H verses Efficiency.
3. H verses Efficiency with spring.
RESULTS:
MARRI LAXMAN REDDY INSTITUTIONS 26 | P a g e

Department of Aeronautical Engineering

Viva Questions
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

Applications of Blower?
What is difference between Radial, Forward and Backward Vanes?
What is the purpose of Venturimeter?
How do you take reading of manometer for Hg fluid medium?
What is Blower?
What is Coefficient of Discharge?

Experiment 5

MARRI LAXMAN REDDY INSTITUTIONS 27 | P a g e

Department of Aeronautical Engineering


CALCULATION OF DRAG ON WOODEN CYLINDER
AIM:
To determine the Drag over different bodies
PREREQUISITES:
1 Low Speed Wind Tunnel Set-up
2 Models( Bodies of Different Shapes)

THEORY:
A pre-requisite to aircraft performance analysis is the ability to calculate the aircraft drag at
various flight conditions. One of the jobs of a performance engineer is to determine drag force
produced by an aircraft at different altitudes, speeds and configurations. This is not an easy task,
since, this force is a function of several parameters including aircraft configuration. As it was
discussed, the drag is a function of aircraft speed, wing area, air density, and its configuration.
Each aircraft is designed with a unique configuration, thus, aircraft performance analysis must
take into account this configuration. The configuration effect of aircraft drag is calculated
through the drag coefficient (CD), plus a reference area that relates to the aircraft.
An aircraft is a complicated three-dimensional vehicle, but for simplicity in calculation, we
assume that the drag is a function a two-dimensional area and we call it the reference area. This
area could be any area including tail area, wing area and fuselage cross-sectional area, or
fuselage cross section, or fuselage surface area, or even aircraft top-view area. No matter what
the area is, the drag force must be the same. This unique drag comes from the fact that the drag
coefficient is a function of the reference area. Therefore, if we select a small reference area, the
drag coefficient will be large, but if we choose a large reference area, the drag coefficient will be
small. In an air vehicle with a small wing area (e.g. high-speed missile), the fuselage cross
sectional area is considered as the reference area.
The measurements of these areas are easy and they usually include the most important
aerodynamic part of aircraft. This simplified reference area is compensated with the complicated
drag coefficient.
1

= 2 2 ------------(1)
The drag coefficient is a non-dimensional parameter, but it takes into account every aerodynamic
configuration of the aircraft including, wing, tail, fuselage engine, and landing gear. This
coefficient has two main parts (as will be explained in the next section). The first part is referred
to as lift-related drag coefficient or induced drag coefficient (CDi) and the second part is called
zero-lift drag coefficient (CDo). The calculation of the first one is an easy job, but it takes a long
time to determine the second part. In large transport aircraft, this task is done by a group of up to
twenty engineers for a time period of up to six months. For this reason, a large portion of this
chapter is devoted to the calculation of CDo. This calculation is not only time consuming, but also
MARRI LAXMAN REDDY INSTITUTIONS 28 | P a g e

Department of Aeronautical Engineering


is very sensitive, since it influences every aspect of aircraft performance. Drag is the enemy of
flight and its cost.
One of the primary functions of aerodynamicists is to reduce this coefficient. Aircraft designers
are also very sensitive about this coefficient, because any change in the external configuration of
aircraft will change this coefficient and finally aircraft direct operating cost.
EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURE:
1. Mount the model on the stand provided and keep the model in the Wind Tunnel through
the opening at the bottom. The tail edge facing the fan. Care should be taken to ensure
that the rod connecting the model to the balance does not touch the wind tunnel wall.
This should be checked even when the wind tunnel is in operation.
2. Calibrate the strain gauge balance to indicate an initial value of Lift=0 and Drag=0.
3. Connect the pressure tapping to the multi tube manometer as per the table give and note
the angle of incidence of air on the model. The incidence angle is changed by loosening
the bolts and manually positioning the aerofoil at the required incidence angle. Give pitot
tube connections.
4. Switch on the Drive unit.
5. Note the reading on strain gauge balance
6. Note the reading of Prandtl Pitot tube.
7. Calculate the velocity of flow using the readings in Prandtl Pitot tube.
8. Note the angle of inclination of the manometer connected to Prandtl Pitot tube.
9. For different angle of incidence of model and for different air flow rate, the experiment
may be repeated.
10. Take the Readings of Drag from the strain gauge balance.

SPECIFICATIONS:
Cylinder diameter = 60mm
Length of Cylinder =140mm

MARRI LAXMAN REDDY INSTITUTIONS 29 | P a g e

Department of Aeronautical Engineering

TABULAR COLUMN:
Actual
drag
force

CD

10.69

0.03

0.05

0.248

16.67

0.12

0.08

0.241

21.7

0.23

0.09

Motor
rpm

h1
m

20

0.235

0.228

30

0.265

40

0.27

S.No

h2

Velocity
m/s

CALCULATIONS:
1 Velocity of a flow
(v) =(a)
Where
ha = w /a *(h1-h2)
2 Co-efficient of drag( Cd) = Actual Drag Kg / Theoretical Drag force Kg
Case 1: Calculations and Results
(v) =(a)
ha1 = w /a *(h1-h2) = /. *(0.235-0.228) = 5.83m
v = (a) =( . . ) = 10.69 m/s
Coefficient of Drag calculation based on Actual drag force observation:
CD =

.
. . ( . )

= 0.05

PRECAUTIONS:
1. Connect constant 440 V AC power supply to drive unit using suitable rating wire.
Connect the A.C. motor with the drive.
2. If the direction of rotation of the fan to be changed, interchange the wire in the
drive unit.
3. Ensure that the speed is in minimum position and turn on the main switch
4. Operate the push button switch slowly to obtain the required test section velocity
5. Note the readings without parallax error
RESULTS:

MARRI LAXMAN REDDY INSTITUTIONS 30 | P a g e

Department of Aeronautical Engineering

Viva Questions
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

What is Drag?
What is the significance of Coefficient of Drag?
Explain different types of Drag?
What is Reynolds Number and Explain its significance wrt Drag?
What is Wake?
Explain Laminar and Turbulent Flow?

MARRI LAXMAN REDDY INSTITUTIONS 31 | P a g e

Department of Aeronautical Engineering

Experiment 6
CALCULATION OF Cl AND Cd OF NACA 2312 AIRFOIL
AIM:
To calculate the drag coefficient (Cd) and lift coefficient (Cl) of NACA-2312
Airfoil.
EQUIPMENT REQUIRED:
1
2

Low Speed Wind Tunnel Set-up


NACA-2312 Airfoil

THEORY
A body immersed in a flowing fluid is exposed to both pressure and viscous forces. The
sum of the forces that acts normal to the free-stream direction is the lift, and the sum that
acts parallel to the free-stream direction is the drag. This experiment is concerned with
computation of the lift and drag on a stationary airfoil mounted in the test section of a
wind tunnel. We will consider only two-dimensional airfoils where tip and root effects
are neglected.
Because the velocity of the flow over the top of the airfoil is greater than the free-stream
velocity, the pressure over the top is negative. This follows directly from the application
of Bernoullis equation. Similarly the velocity along the underside of the airfoil is less
than the free-stream velocity and the pressure there is positive.

hhPressure Distribution over airfoil


Hence, both the negative pressure over the top and the positive pressure along the bottom
contribute to the lift. There are a variety of ways to measure lift. In this experiment, the
lift force, L, on the airfoil will be determined by integration of the measured pressure

MARRI LAXMAN REDDY INSTITUTIONS 32 | P a g e

Department of Aeronautical Engineering

distribution over the airfoils surface. Typical pressure distribution on an airfoil and its
projection on the airfoil normal are shown in Figure 6.1.

lift calculation from pressure distribution


EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURE:
1. Mount the model on the stand provided and keep the model in the Wind Tunnel
through the opening at the bottom. The tail edge facing the fan. Care should be
taken to ensure that the rod connecting the model to the balance does not touch
the wind tunnel wall. This should be checked even when the wind tunnel is in
operation.
2. Calibrate the strain gauge balance to indicate an initial value of Lift=0 and
Drag=0.
3. Connect the pressure tapping to the multi tube manometer as per the table give
and note the angle of incidence of air on the model. The incidence angle is
changed by loosening the bolts and manually positioning the aerofoil at the
required incidence angle. Give pitot tube connections.
4. Switch on the Drive unit.
5. Note the reading on strain gauge balance
6. Note the reading of Prandtl Pitot tube.
7. Calculate the velocity of flow using the readings in Prandtl Pitot tube.
8. Note the angle of inclination of the manometer connected to Prandtl Pitot tube.
9. For different angle of incidence of model and for different air flow rate, the
experiment may be repeated.
10. Take the Readings of Drag from the strain gauge balance.

MARRI LAXMAN REDDY INSTITUTIONS 33 | P a g e

Department of Aeronautical Engineering

SPECIFICATIONS:
Aerofoil
Chord length = 160mm
Span
=290mm
Area
= 0.0464m2
TABULAR COLUMN:
Actual
drag
force

h1

h2

Cl

Cd

0.10*9.81 0.01*9.81

32

31.7

0.7194

0.0719

10

-5

0.15*9.81 0.03*9.81

32.1

31.9

1.62

0.324

0.17*9.81 0.04*9.81

32.5

32.2

1.22

0.29

4.2

0.20*9.81 0.07*9.81

32.8

32.5

1.44

0.5

2.88

10

0.21*9.81 0.08*9.81

33

32.8

2.3

0.87

2.64

S.No

-10

Actual
lift force

CALCULATIONS:
1 Velocity of a flow
(v) =a
Where
ha = w /a *(h1-h2)

Co-efficient of drag( Cd) = Actual Drag / (dynamic pressure*area)


3 Co-efficient of drag( Cl) = Actual Lift Kg / (dynamic pressure*area)
Actual lift force measured on the digital indicator.

Theoretical drag force = [a * a * V2 /2] * Cd


Theoretical lift force = [a * a * V2 /2] * Cl
a - Plan form area for body
a -Density
MARRI LAXMAN REDDY INSTITUTIONS 34 | P a g e

Department of Aeronautical Engineering

MODEL CALCULATION:
Case1:
1) ha = 1000 /1.23 *(0.32-0.317)
= 2.43 m
2) Velocity of a flow (v) =2 9.81 2.43
= 6.91 m/s
Actual lift = 0.10*9.81
= 0.981
Actual drag= 0.01*9.81
= 0.0981
lift coefficient (Cl) =0.981/(0.5*1.23*6.912*0.0464)
= 0.7194
drag coefficient (Cd) = 0.0981/(0.5*1.23*6.912*0.0464)
= 0.0719
1) ha = 1000 /1.23 *(0.321-0.319)
= 1.626m
2) velocity of flow(v)= (2 9.81 1.626)=5.64m/s
Actual Lift=0.15*9.81=1.47
Actual Drag=0.03*9.81=0.294
Lift coefficient (Cl) = 1.47/(0.5*1.23*5.642*0.0464) = 1.62
Drag coefficient (Cd) = 0.294/(0.5*1.23*5.642*0.0464) = 0.324
1) ha = 1000 /1.23 *(0.325-0.322) = 2.43m
2) velocity of flow(v) = (2 9.81 2.43) = 6.9
Actual Lift force = 0.17*9.81 = 1.66
Actual drag force = 0.04*9.81 = 0.394
Lift coefficient (Cl) = 1.66/(0.5*1.23*6.92*0.0464) = 1.22
Drag coefficient (Cd) = 0.394/(0.5*1.23*6.92*0.0464) = 0.29
1) ha = 1000 /1.23 *(0.328-0.325) = 2.43m
2) velocity of flow(v) = (2 9.81 2.43) = 6.9
Actual Lift force = 0.20*9.81 = 1.96
Actual drag force = 0.07*9.81 = 0.686
Lift coefficient (Cl) = 1.96/(0.5*1.23*6.92*0.0464) = 1.44
Drag coefficient (Cd) = 0.686/(0.5*1.23*6.92*0.0464) = 0.5
1) ha = 1000 /1.23 *(0.33-0.38) = 1.626m
2) velocity of flow(v) = (2 9.81 1.626) = 5.64
Actual Lift force = 0.21*9.81 = 2.06
MARRI LAXMAN REDDY INSTITUTIONS 35 | P a g e

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Actual drag force = 0.08*9.81 = 0.78


Lift coefficient (Cl) = 2.06/(0.5*1.23*5.62*0.0464) = 2.3
Drag coefficient (Cd) = 0.78/(0.5*1.23*5.62*0.0464) = 0.87
Case2
Actual
drag
force

h1

h2

Cl

Cd

0.09*9.81 0.01*9.81

26

25.8

1.93965517

0.027022

71.780488

-4

0.11*9.81 0.02*9.81

26.2

26

1.18534483

0.027022

43.865854

0.13*9.81 0.04*9.81

26.3

26

2.80172414 0.1080882 25.920732

0.15*9.81 0.06*9.81

26.5

26.2

3.23275862 0.1621322 19.939024

0.18*9.81 0.08*9.81

26.7

26.5

1.93965517 0.1080882 17.945122

S.No

Actual
lift force

h1

h2

Cl

Cd

-8

0.08*9.81 0.01*9.81

25.2

25

0.86206897

0.013511

63.804878

-3

0.10*9.81 0.03*9.81

25.3

25.1

1.07758621 0.0405331 26.585366

0.13*9.81 0.05*9.81

25.5

25.2

1.40086207 0.0675551 20.736585

0.15*9.81 0.07*9.81

25.8

25.4

1.61637931 0.0945771 17.090592

0.17*9.81 0.09*9.81

26

25.7

1.22126437 0.0810661 15.065041

h1

h2

29.1

29

S.No

Actual
lift force

-9

Case3:
Actual
drag
force

Case4:

S.No

-11

Actual
lift force

Actual
drag
force

0.10*9.81 0.02*9.81

Cl

Cd

2.15517241 0.0540441 39.878049

MARRI LAXMAN REDDY INSTITUTIONS 36 | P a g e

Department of Aeronautical Engineering

-6

0.12*9.81 0.04*9.81

29.3

29.2

2.5862069

0.1080882 23.926829

0.14*9.81 0.06*9.81

29.4

29.5

1.50862069 0.0810661 18.609756

0.17*9.81 0.08*9.81

29.6

29.7

0.91594828 0.0540441 16.948171

11

0.19*9.81 0.09*9.81

29.8

30

1.0237069

S.No

Actual
lift force

h1

h2

Cl

Cd

-12

0.10*9.81 0.01*9.81

33

32.7

2.15517241

0.027022

79.756098

-7

0.15*9.81 0.03*9.81

33.1

32.9

1.61637931 0.0405331 39.878049

0.17*9.81 0.04*9.81

33.5

33.2

1.22126437 0.0360294 33.896341

0.20*9.81 0.07*9.81

33.8

33.5

1.43678161 0.0630514 22.787456

12

0.21*9.81 0.08*9.81

34

33.8

2.26293103 0.1080882 20.935976

S.No

Actual
lift force

h1

h2

Cl

Cd

-13

0.13*9.81 0.02*9.81

34

33.7

1.40086207

0.027022

51.841463

-8

0.15*9.81 0.05*9.81

34.1

33.9

3.23275862 0.1351102 23.926829

0.17*9.81 0.07*9.81

34.5

34.2

3.6637931

0.20*9.81 0.09*9.81

34.8

34.5

2.15517241 0.1215992 17.723577

13

0.21*9.81 0.10*9.81

35

34.8

2.26293103 0.1351102

0.0607996 16.837398

Case5:
Actual
drag
force

Case6:
Actual
drag
force

0.1891543 19.369338

16.74878

MARRI LAXMAN REDDY INSTITUTIONS 37 | P a g e

Department of Aeronautical Engineering

GRAPHS:
Cl versus Cd
Cl versus
Cd versus
PRECAUTIONS:
1. Connect constant 440 V AC power supply to drive unit using suitable rating wire.
Connect the A.C. motor with the drive.
2. If the direction of rotation of the fan to be changed, interchange the wire in the
drive unit.
3. Ensure that the speed is in minimum position and turn on the main switch
4. Operate the push button switch slowly to obtain the required test section velocity
5. Note the readings without parallax error
RESULTS:

Viva Questions
1.
2.
3.
4.

What is NACA?
Explain NACA 4 Digit Series Airfoil?
What is Cambered Airfoil?
What is Lift and Drag and Explain significance of Lift and Drag
coefficient?
5. What is Center of Pressure and Aerodynamic Center?

MARRI LAXMAN REDDY INSTITUTIONS 38 | P a g e

Department of Aeronautical Engineering

Experiment 7

FLOW VISUALIZATION TECHNIQUE


Aim:
To visualize the flow separation over Aerofoil and Cylinder at different angles of
attack
Apparatus:
Wind tunnel, Test model and Smoke Generator.
Description:
Flow visualization is the study of methods to display dynamic behavior in liquids
and gases. The field dates back at least to the mid-1400, where sketched images of fine
particles of sand and wood shavings which had been dropped into flowing liquids. Since
then, laboratory flow visualization has become more and more exact, with careful control
of the particulate size and distribution. An advance in photography has also helped extend
our understanding of how fluids flow under various circumstances. More recently,
computational fluid dynamics (CFD) has extended the abilities of scientists to study flow
by creating simulations of dynamic behavior of fluids under a wide range of conditions.
The result of this analysis is usually a 2-D or 3-D grid of velocity vectors, which may be
uniformly or non-uniformly spaced. The goal is then to analyze this vector field to
identify features such as turbulence, vortices, and other forms of structure.
Procedure:
1. Mount the test model at various angles on the stand provided in the test section of
wind tunnel. The trailing edge should be faced towards fan.
2. On the Smoke Generator and wait for few minutes to generate smoke.
3. Visualize the flow over test model and the streamlines separating from thesurface.
4. Take the pictures of Separation.
Precautions:
1. Do not stand behind the wind tunnel while operating it.
2. Wait for few minutes to generate the smoke after switching on Smoke generator.
Result:

MARRI LAXMAN REDDY INSTITUTIONS 39 | P a g e

Department of Aeronautical Engineering

Viva Questions
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

What is a Wind Tunnel?


Explain Different Flow Regimes?
What is Continuum and Free Molecular Flow? Explain its significance?
What do you mean by Oblique Shock wave and Expansion Fan/Wave?
What is Pitot Static Tube?
What is Static Pressure?

MARRI LAXMAN REDDY INSTITUTIONS 40 | P a g e

Department of Aeronautical Engineering

EXPERIMENT 8

AXIAL FLOW FAN TEST RIG


1. INTRODUCTION
Axial compressors are rotating, airfoil based compressors in which the working
fluid principally flows parallel to the axis of rotation. This is in contrast with other
rotating compressors such as centrifugal, axi-centrifugal and mixed-flow compressors
where the air may enter axially but will have a significant radial component on exit.

Axial flow compressors produce a continuous flow of compressed gas, and have
the benefits of high efficiencies and large mass flow capacity, particularly in relation to
their cross-section. They do, however, require several rows of airfoils to achieve large
pressure rises making them complex and expensive relative to other designs
(e.g. centrifugal compressor).

Axial compressors are widely used in gas turbines, such as jet engines, high speed
ship engines, and small scale power stations. They are also used in industrial applications
such as large volume air separation plants, blast furnace air, fluid catalytic cracking air,
and propane dehydrogenation. Axial compressors, known as superchargers, have also
been used to boost the power of automotive reciprocating engines by compressing the
intake air, though these are very rare.
However, elsewhere the total design and capacities have been discussed in
standard textbooks, here, the equipment is designed according to the standards and to the
very minimum capacity as because these are designed in large stages and capacities
which may vary in the range of several horsepower to n number of stages.

In this equipment an attempt has been made to design the equipment for the
purpose of the academic purpose hence, certain main streams have been neglected due to
complexities in manufacturing the educational versions of smaller units, however, the key
features have been maintained to the maximum extent.

MARRI LAXMAN REDDY INSTITUTIONS 41 | P a g e

Department of Aeronautical Engineering

2. DESCRIPTION OF THE APPARATUS:

The apparatus consists of Three Stage Compressor according to the standard design.

The compressor is directly coupled to KIRLOSKAR motor of 2hp capacity by means of


Flange coupling.
The motor is controlled by means of AC Drive of same capacity to conduct the
experiment at different speeds.
Pressure Tappings are provided at inlet, stages and outlet, with manometer for
measuring.
Multi Tube Manometers are made of clear Acrylic with vinyl sticker scale to for better
readings.
Starter for the motor and Energy meter for power measurement are provided in the
control panel with other necessary instruments.

Compressor assembly with motor is mounted on the separate frame made of C channel.
This makes the complete assembly sturdy.
The control panel is made of MS tube with powder coating with panel made of
NOVAPAN BOARD.
The entire assembly is aesthetically designed considering all safety precautions.

MARRI LAXMAN REDDY INSTITUTIONS 42 | P a g e

Department of Aeronautical Engineering

3. EXPERIMENTATION:

AIM:

The experiment is conducted at various pressures to


c. Determine the Overall efficiency.
d. Determine the Isothermal efficiency.

PROCEDURE:
1.
2.
3.

4.
5.
6.
7.

Provide the necessary electrical connections to the panel.


Check for the direction of the motor.
Close the ball valves of pressure arrangements.
Switch on the Starter.
Allow the system to attain the steady state.
Now, open the valves of the respective pressure tappings and note down
the values from the manometer.
Repeat the experiment and calculate average values.

TABULAR COLUMNS AND OBSERVATIONS:


Flow
measurement
at the inlet,
Sl

Flow
measurement at
the outlet,

RPM

1st Stage
Pressure

2nd Stage
Pressure

cm of water
column

cm of water
column

3rd Stage
Pressure,
cm of water
column

Time for 5
rev of
energy
meter,

cm of water
column

cm of water
column

hi

ho

h1

h2

h3

T sec

iso

900

13.40

16.02

13.36

14.32

15.58

83

83.64

92.62

1000

14.03

17.03

14.04

15.14

16.53

73

82

79.8

1500

16.50

19.81

17.40

18.50

19.2

47

83.29

52.38

1800

17.70

21.73

18.58

19.64

21.21

32

81.45

34

CALCULATIONS:
MARRI LAXMAN REDDY INSTITUTIONS 43 | P a g e

Department of Aeronautical Engineering

Head of the air, Ha

a = Density of air = 1.2 kg/m3


w = Density of water = 1000kg/m3
hsuffix = is for either inlet, outlet or stage head in m of water.

Overall Efficiency / Compression Efficiency, o %


0 % =

100

Isothermal work done, Wiso


= ln

Where,
Qa = A * V m/s
=

Where, A = Area of duct at the inlet

2
4

D = Dia at the inlet = 0.3m


=

V = Velocity at the inlet


ln =

ln r = compression ratio

2 9.81

Input Power, IP
=

3600

MARRI

LAXMAN REDDY INSTITUTIONS 44 | P a g e

Department of Aeronautical Engineering

Where
n = No. of blinks of energy meter = 5
K = Energy meter constant = ________ revs/kW-hr
T = time for n rev. of energy meter in seconds

Isothermal Efficiency , iso %

% =

100

Case 1 Calculations and Results:


=

Inlet
Ha = (1000*13.40*10-2) / 1.2 = 111.66 m
Outlet
Ha = (1000*16.02*10-2) / 1.2 = 133.5 m
Overall efficiency / Compression efficiency

0 % =

100 =

111.66
133.5

100 = 83.64 %

Isothermal work done, Wiso

= ln
MARRI LAXMAN REDDY INSTITUTIONS 45 | P a g e

Department of Aeronautical Engineering

Where,
2

Qa = A * V m/s, =

0.32
4

2 , =

2 9.81 m/s

= 0.070m2,

2 9.81 m/s = 2 9.81 13.40 10 02 = 1.62 m/s

ln =

Qa = A * V m/s = 0.070*1.62 = 0.1135 m/s

133.5

= 111.66 = 1.195

= ln = 1.2*0.1135*1.195 = 0.1627
Input Power

3600

53600
240 83

= 0.903 KW

Isothermal Efficiency, iso

% =

100 =

0.8364
0.903

100 = 92.62 %

PRECAUTIONS:

Do not run the motor if supply voltage is less than 380V

Do not forget to give electrical earth and neutral connections correctly.

Frequently, at least once in three months, grease all visual moving parts.

At least once in week, operate the unit for five minutes to prevent any clogging
of moving parts.

It is recommended to run the compressor at less than 2500rpm.

In case of any major faults, Please write to the manufacturers and do not attempt
to repair.
MARRI LAXMAN REDDY INSTITUTIONS 46 | P a g e

Department of Aeronautical Engineering

RESULT:

Viva Questions

1
2
3
4
5

What is an Axial Compressor?


Define Degree of Reaction
Define Stalling
What is the difference between Positive and Negative Stalling?
Give Technical information of Axial Flow Compressor?

MARRI LAXMAN REDDY INSTITUTIONS 47 | P a g e