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You are on page 1of 8

As I explained in the class, the first assignment is very simple example of the

parameter dependency. If you change the small parameter, you can predict the

solution for new parameter. It is related to the scale effect on wake distribution

or resistance.

is appear in the highest derivative term in the following ODE. It is the very

simple model for NS equations.

d 2 y dy

y 0

dx 2 dx

(1)

(2)

y (0) 0

y (1)

We can get the exact solution very easily for this problem.

y C1e

1 1 4

x

2

C2 e

1 1 4

x

2

(3)

C1 C2 0

1

C1e

e

1 1 4

2

(4)

C2 e

1 1 4

2

(5)

So, we can get the following value. You can see the values and figures in the

attached excel file.

C1

1

e

1

e

1 1 4

2

1 1 4

2

, C2 C1

(6)

Outer

solution y=e-x

1

y

0.8

-x

0.6

1

y

0.8

0.6

0.4

0.4

=0.005

=0.01

=0.02

0.2

0

0

0.2

0.4

0.2

0.6

0.8

x

1

0

0

=0.005

=0.01

=0.02

x

0.2

0.1

Fig.1 Exact solution and outer solution (the solution of the equation without 2 nd

derivative

If we neglect the 2nd derivative term due to small parameter and we use the

boundary condition x=1

dy

y0

dx

y (1)

1

e

y e x

(7)

(8)

It shows very good solution except for in the region around x=0. At x=0, the

solution cannot satisfy the boundary condition. The figure shows that the

solution changes very rapidly near x=0. So, we can think that even is very

small, we have large 2nd derivative term near x=0.

We expand the coordinate as follows

d 2 y 1 dy

d 2 y dy

y 0

2 d 2 d

d 2 d

(9)

(10)

So, we can have 2nd order derivative term has similar order of magnitude near

x=0.

d 2 y dy

0

d 2 d

(11)

approximate solution for any.

Uniformly valid solution

yinner solutionouter solutioncommon part

common part = behavior of the outer solution near x=0 using inner valuable.

Please use this idea to predict the solution for different parameter.

Please predict the solution for =0.02 from the solution for =0.05.

Use the exact solution of 0.05 and calculate the outer solution at each x.

You can predict the inner solution

yin=yexp-youtyout(0)

Now, if is same, your inner solution for any is same.

So, you can predict the solution

ypred=yinyout-yout(0)

Yout should be calculated at new x. New x is calculated by x=new*

Send report through e-mailtoda@naoe.eng.osaka-u.ac.jp

Appendix

1 4 1 2 2 2 4 3 10 4 O( 5 )

1 1 4

1 2 2 5 3 O( 4 )

2

1 1 4

1

1 2 2 5 3 O( 4 )

2

C1

1

e

1

e

1 1 4

2

: e 1

1

1 1 4

2

e

1

e e e

2

1

: e e : (1 2 )(1 2 )

2

5

: 1 2 O( 3 )

2

e e e

y C1e

1 1 4

x

2

C2 e

x x 2 x

: C1e e

1 1 4

x

2

C2 e

1

x

x x 2x

ee e

5

1

: (1 2 )(1 x 2 x 2 )(1 2 2 x)e x

2

2

1

5

: e x (1 x)e x 2 ( x 2 3 x )e x O( 3 )

2

2

y C1e

1 1 4

2

2

C2 e

3

1 1 4

2

2

: C1e e e C2 e e e e

5

1

: (1 2 )(1 2 2 )(1 2 2 )

2

2

5

1

(1 2 )(1 2 2 )(1 2 2 )e

2

2

5

1

5

1

: 1 e (1 ) (1 )e 2 ( 2 2 ) ( 2 2 )e O( 3 )

2

2

2

2

1

5

y : e x (1 x)e x 2 ( x 2 3x )e x O ( 3 )

2

2

1

5

e (1 )e 2 ( 2 2 3 )e

2

2

1

5

: (1 2 2 ) 1 2 ( )

2

2

1

5

: 1 (1 ) 2 ( 2 2 ) O( 3 )

2

2

y h0 ( x ) h1 ( x) 2 h2 ( x)

x : fixed

0

h0 ' h0 0

h1 ' h1 h0 ''

h2 ' h2 h1 ''

x0

x 1

h0 (1) e 1

h0 ' h0 0

h0 A1e x

A1 1

h0 e x

h1 ' h1 h0 '' e x

x

h1 A2 e x e

h1 (1) 0

A2 1

h1 (1 x)e x

h2 ' h2 h1 '' x e x 3 e x

h2 A3e x 3x e x

1 2 x

x e

2

1

5

h2 ( x 2 3 x )e x

2

2

h2 (1) 0

A3

5

2

x

( )

d 2 y 1 dy

y0

2 d 2 d

d 2 y dy

y 0

d 2 d

: fixed

y g 0 ( ) g1 ( ) 2 g 2 ( )

: fixed

df

f&

d

d2 f

&

f&

d 2

2

&0 g&

&

&

&2 +g&0 g&1 2 g&2 +(g 0 g1 2 g 2 )=0

g&

1 g

0

&0 g&0 0

g&

&

&

g&

1 g1 g 0

&2 g&2 g1

g&

&0 g&0 0

g&

g 0 (0) 0

g 0 B1 B2 e

B1 B2 0

g 0 B1 (1 e )

&

&1 g 0 B1 (e 1)

g&

1g

g1 (0) 0

g1 B3 B4 e B1 ( e e )

B3 B4 B1 0

B3 B1 B4

g1 B1 B4 B4 e B1 ( e e )

g 0 B1 (1 e )

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