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# To students

As I explained in the class, the first assignment is very simple example of the
parameter dependency. If you change the small parameter, you can predict the
solution for new parameter. It is related to the scale effect on wake distribution
or resistance.
is appear in the highest derivative term in the following ODE. It is the very
simple model for NS equations.

d 2 y dy
y 0
dx 2 dx

(1)

(2)

y (0) 0

y (1)

We can get the exact solution very easily for this problem.

y C1e

1 1 4
x
2

C2 e

1 1 4
x
2

(3)

## From the boundary condition,

C1 C2 0
1
C1e
e

1 1 4
2

(4)

C2 e

1 1 4
2

(5)

So, we can get the following value. You can see the values and figures in the
attached excel file.

C1

1
e

1
e

1 1 4
2

1 1 4
2

, C2 C1

(6)

Outer
solution y=e-x

1
y
0.8

-x

0.6

1
y
0.8
0.6

0.4

0.4

=0.005
=0.01
=0.02

0.2
0
0

0.2

0.4

0.2

0.6

0.8

x
1

0
0

=0.005
=0.01
=0.02
x
0.2

0.1

Fig.1 Exact solution and outer solution (the solution of the equation without 2 nd
derivative
If we neglect the 2nd derivative term due to small parameter and we use the
boundary condition x=1

dy
y0
dx

y (1)

1
e

y e x

(7)

(8)

It shows very good solution except for in the region around x=0. At x=0, the
solution cannot satisfy the boundary condition. The figure shows that the
solution changes very rapidly near x=0. So, we can think that even is very
small, we have large 2nd derivative term near x=0.
We expand the coordinate as follows

d 2 y 1 dy
d 2 y dy

y 0
2 d 2 d
d 2 d

(9)

(10)

So, we can have 2nd order derivative term has similar order of magnitude near

x=0.

d 2 y dy

0
d 2 d

(11)

## Approximate equation(11) does not have parameter, so we have just one

approximate solution for any.
Uniformly valid solution
yinner solutionouter solutioncommon part
common part = behavior of the outer solution near x=0 using inner valuable.
Please use this idea to predict the solution for different parameter.
Please predict the solution for =0.02 from the solution for =0.05.
Use the exact solution of 0.05 and calculate the outer solution at each x.
You can predict the inner solution
yin=yexp-youtyout(0)
Now, if is same, your inner solution for any is same.
So, you can predict the solution
ypred=yinyout-yout(0)
Yout should be calculated at new x. New x is calculated by x=new*

## Dead line October 31st ,2016

Send report through e-mailtoda@naoe.eng.osaka-u.ac.jp

Appendix

1 4 1 2 2 2 4 3 10 4 O( 5 )

1 1 4
1 2 2 5 3 O( 4 )
2
1 1 4
1
1 2 2 5 3 O( 4 )
2

C1

1
e

1
e

1 1 4
2

: e 1
1

1 1 4
2

e
1

e e e
2
1
: e e : (1 2 )(1 2 )
2
5
: 1 2 O( 3 )
2
e e e

y C1e

1 1 4
x
2

C2 e

x x 2 x

: C1e e

1 1 4
x
2

C2 e

1
x
x x 2x

ee e

5
1
: (1 2 )(1 x 2 x 2 )(1 2 2 x)e x
2
2
1
5
: e x (1 x)e x 2 ( x 2 3 x )e x O( 3 )
2
2

y C1e

1 1 4

2
2

C2 e
3

1 1 4

2
2

: C1e e e C2 e e e e
5
1
: (1 2 )(1 2 2 )(1 2 2 )
2
2
5
1
(1 2 )(1 2 2 )(1 2 2 )e
2
2
5
1
5
1
: 1 e (1 ) (1 )e 2 ( 2 2 ) ( 2 2 )e O( 3 )
2
2
2
2

1
5
y : e x (1 x)e x 2 ( x 2 3x )e x O ( 3 )
2
2
1
5
e (1 )e 2 ( 2 2 3 )e
2
2
1
5

: (1 2 2 ) 1 2 ( )
2
2

1
5
: 1 (1 ) 2 ( 2 2 ) O( 3 )
2
2

y h0 ( x ) h1 ( x) 2 h2 ( x)
x : fixed

0
h0 ' h0 0
h1 ' h1 h0 ''
h2 ' h2 h1 ''

x0

x 1

## e 1 y (1) h0 (1) h1 (1) 2 h0 (1) O( 3 )

h0 (1) e 1

h0 ' h0 0
h0 A1e x

A1 1

h0 e x

h1 ' h1 h0 '' e x
x

h1 A2 e x e

h1 (1) 0
A2 1

h1 (1 x)e x

h2 ' h2 h1 '' x e x 3 e x
h2 A3e x 3x e x

1 2 x
x e
2

1
5
h2 ( x 2 3 x )e x
2
2

h2 (1) 0
A3

5
2

x
( )

d 2 y 1 dy

y0
2 d 2 d

d 2 y dy

y 0
d 2 d

: fixed

y g 0 ( ) g1 ( ) 2 g 2 ( )

: fixed

df
f&
d

d2 f
&
f&
d 2

2
&0 g&
&
&
&2 +g&0 g&1 2 g&2 +(g 0 g1 2 g 2 )=0
g&
1 g

0
&0 g&0 0
g&
&
&
g&
1 g1 g 0
&2 g&2 g1
g&

&0 g&0 0
g&
g 0 (0) 0
g 0 B1 B2 e

B1 B2 0

g 0 B1 (1 e )

&
&1 g 0 B1 (e 1)
g&
1g
g1 (0) 0
g1 B3 B4 e B1 ( e e )
B3 B4 B1 0

B3 B1 B4

g1 B1 B4 B4 e B1 ( e e )
g 0 B1 (1 e )