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RAMAR

Asst.Professor, Dept of Computer Science Professor & HOD, Dept of CSE

Government Arts College National Engineering College

Udumalpet,Tamilnadu State, India Kovilpatti -628 502, Tamilnadu State, India

priyavasanth@yahoo.com kramr_nec@rediffmail.com

Abstract- Digital watermarking scheme has been well-

accepted method for hiding the data into a host image.

Digital watermarking can applied to a variety of fields

like text, image, audio, video and software. Lot of tools

has been established in order to duplicate and modify

the multimedia data. Therefore security is the most

important dispute that requires some mechanism to

protect the digital multimedia data. In order to protect

those multimedia data on the Internet many techniques

are available including various encryption techniques,

steganography techniques, watermarking techniques

and information hiding techniques. Digital

watermarking is a technique in which one can hide the

data or information in another object (cover data) and

transfers it over the network. The data hiding can take

place either in spatial domain or in frequency domain.

This paper proposes a non-blind watermarking scheme

in which the original image is decomposed into four

frequency bands. The DWT coefficients in these

frequency bands are then modified in order to hide the

watermark data. SVD is capable of efficiently

representing the intrinsic algebraic properties of an

image, where singular values correspond to the

brightness of the image and singular vectors reflect

geometry characteristics of the image. Therefore in this

approach the robustness can be achieved by DWT,

stability of watermark image is increased by SVD, and

imperceptibility is ensured by the use of enhanced DWT

domain human visual model. To evaluate the efficiency

of the proposed approach Performance comparison of

the algorithm among the first three levels of frequency

band decomposition is considered.

Keywords- Digital Image Watermarking, Data Hiding,

Discrete Wavelet Transformation (DWT), Human Visual

Model, Imperceptibility, Robustness, Singular Value

Decomposition (SVD).

I. INTRODUCTION

As the size of internet grows, the volume of multimedia

data (images, text, and audio/video) floating around has

also increased progressively day by day. Duplication and

modification of those multimedia data can be easily

achieved by means of the tools that are readily available

today. Therefore security is the major challenge that

requires some mechanism to protect the digital multimedia

data. Digital image watermarking has been an interesting

field of study in recent years because of the advantages

provided by it. The increase in access of World Wide Web

has necessitated the internet user to have concern over the

information and data shared between them. Digital

watermarking is a technique in which one can hide the data

or information in another object (cover data) and transfers it

over the network. This information of digital data can be

extracted later for ownership verification [1]. Digital

watermarking can applied to a variety of fields like text,

image, audio, video and software. A lot of techniques are

available for protecting the copyrighted material. One

among them is data encryption. The data is encrypted using

some of the conventional algorithms and the encrypted data

and information is transferred over the network. The main

advantage of this method is that encryption protects the data

only along the transport channel. This ultimately led to the

development of technique in which the information is

hidden into a multimedia data in a robust and invisible

manner. This approach has gained lot of interests over the

years.

Many techniques have been proposed earlier in literature,

for efficient digital image watermarking. The principal

features of digital image watermarking include robustness

and perceptibility. Robustness indicates the resistivity of

watermark against different types of attacks. The attacks are

either intentional or unintentional. The attacks such as

cropping, rotating, scaling, low pass filtering, resizing,

addition of noise, JPEG compression, sharpness, histogram

equalization and contrast adjustment would be generally

enforced on a watermarked image. Robustness is a

property, which is vital for ownership verification. The

increase in perceptibility will decrease the quality of the

watermarked image [2].

In general, digital data could be hidden, directly by

modifying the intensity value or pixel value of an image or

its frequency components [3]. The technique mentioned

earlier is known as spatial domain technique and later is

called frequency domain technique. The transformation

techniques such as Discrete Fourier Transformation (DFT),

Discrete Cosine Transformation (DCT) [4] [5], Walsh

Hadamard Transformation [6], and Discrete Wavelet

Transformation (DWT) [7] [8] are extensively used in order

to the frequency components. Some of the important

applications of watermarking technique are copyright

protection, ownership verification, finger printing, and

broadcast monitoring. This paper proposes a non-blind

watermarking scheme. In this proposed approach, the

Non-Blind Image Watermarking Scheme using DWT-SVD Domain

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original image is decomposed into ‘n’ frequency bands.

Usually the value of n tends to four for efficient

watermarking scheme. The DWT coefficients in these

frequency bands are then altered in order to hide the

watermark data. To evaluate the efficiency of the proposed

approach Performance comparison of the algorithm among

the first four levels of frequency band decomposition is

considered.

The remainder of this paper is organized as follows.

Section 2 discusses relevant research works in the field of

digital image watermarking that were proposed earlier in

literature. Section 3 provides an overview on Discrete

Wavelet Transformation (DWT) and Singular Value

Decomposition (SVD). Section 4 explains the human visual

model for DWT-SVD domain digital image watermarking.

Section 5 briefs the proposed watermarking scheme.

Section 6 illustrates the experimental results and section 7

concludes the paper with fewer discussions for future

enhancement.

II. RELATED WORK

A lot of research has been carried out in this field of

image processing. This section of the paper discusses the

literature survey that has been conducted on discrete

wavelet transformation combined with singular value

decomposition techniques for hiding information in digital

color images.

Gaurav et al. in [9] described a new robust watermarking

scheme based on DWT-SVD. Their paper described a new

semi-blind reference watermarking scheme based on

discrete wavelet transform (DWT) and singular value

decomposition (SVD) for copyright protection and

authenticity. They were using a gray scale logo image as

watermark as an alternative of randomly generated

Gaussian noise type watermark. For watermark embedding,

the original image is transformed into wavelet domain and a

reference sub-image is formed using directive contrast and

wavelet coefficients. They embedded the watermark into

reference image by modifying the singular values of

reference image using the singular values of the watermark.

A reliable watermark extraction scheme is developed for

the extraction of watermark from distorted image. Their

Experimental evaluation demonstrates that their proposed

scheme is able to withstand a variety of attacks. In addition,

they showed that the proposed scheme also stands with the

uncertainty attack also.

A new watermarking technique was put forth by Zhu et

al. in [10]. In their paper, they proposed a novel

watermarking scheme based on adaptive quantization index

modulation and singular value decomposition in the hybrid

discrete wavelet transform (DWT) and discrete cosine

transform (DCT). The secret watermark bits are embedded

on the singular values vector of blocks within low

frequency sub-band in host image hybrid DWT-DCT

domain. In order to embed watermark imperceptibly,

robustly and securely, they modeled the adaptive

quantization steps by utilizing human visual system (HVS)

characteristics and particle swarm optimization (PSO)

algorithm. Experimental results demonstrated that their

proposed scheme is robust to variety of image processing

attacks. In the proposed algorithm the quantized embedding

strategy is adopted, so no host image is needed for blind

extraction of watermarking image.

Ruth et al. in [11] projected an image watermarking

method using SVD and wavelet transform. A robust image

watermarking scheme in which a binary image is embedded

in the singular values of selected DWT blocks in the

horizontal and vertical sub-bands of a 1-level

decomposition of a gray-scale image was proposed. The

embedded blocks are selected by a secret key to enhance

imperceptibility. A watermarked image that is perceptually

indistinguishable from the original is obtained. The

watermarking retrieval is non-blind and requires the use of

parameters extracted during the watermarking process. The

performance of the proposed algorithm is tested by

comparing the retrieved watermark to the original

watermark. Computer simulation results show that the

algorithm is robust to common signal processing attacks

such as Gaussian noise, cropping, and low pass filtering. It

is also resistant to JPEG compression.

An adaptive DWT-SVD domain image watermarking

scheme was proposed by Li et al. in [12]. As digital

watermarking has become a significant tool for copyright

protection, diverse watermarking schemes have been

proposed in literature. Among them both discrete wavelet

transform (DWT) and singular value decomposition (SVD)

are frequently used. They decomposed the host image into

frequency bands using DWT-based watermarking scheme.

Modification in all frequencies enables watermarking

schemes using DWT robust to a wide range of attacks.

However, as most transform methods, DWT decomposes

images in terms of a standard basis set which is not

necessarily optimal for a given image. By contrast with

DWT, SVD offers a tailor-made basis for a given image

which packs maximum signal energy into as few

coefficients as possible. SVD is used in image processing

also for its properties of stability, proportion invariance and

rotation invariance. In their paper they proposed a hybrid

DWT-SVD domain watermarking scheme considering

human visual properties. After decomposing the host image

into required sub bands, they applied SVD to each sub band

and embedded the singular values of the watermark into

them. The main advantages of their proposed scheme are

robustness for its embedding data into all frequencies and

large capacity for using SVD.

Ali et al. in [13] described an approach for non-invertible

copyright protection of digital images using DWT and

SVD. Copyright protection of digital media has become a

most important anxiety for owners and providers of digital

media such as images, audio, and video products. To

present the required copyright protection, watermarking has

recently emerged as a major technology, offering many

algorithms and techniques that have different characteristics

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223 http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/

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and effectiveness. In their paper, they proposed an

undetectable and robust digital image watermarking

algorithm. The algorithm is based on cascading two

powerful mathematical transforms; the Discrete Wavelet

Transform (DWT) and the Singular Value Decomposition

(SVD). The algorithm, distinct form most algorithms

proposed earlier in the literature, is non-invertible.

Simulation results demonstrated the effectiveness of their

proposed algorithm and exposed a familiar mistaken belief

regarding the locations at which watermark information

should be embedded to achieve robust and non-invertible

SVD-based watermarking.

A robust image watermarking scheme was projected by

Rezazadeh et al. in [14]. In their paper, they have described

a robust watermarking scheme for embedding binary

watermarks in digital images. In contrast to other wavelet-

based watermarking systems which employ human visual

system (HVS) for watermark casting, their scheme does not

need to use HVS characteristics. For embedding procedure,

one-level wavelet transform of cover image and one-level

binary wavelet transform of watermark are computed.

Afterward, each sub band of decomposed cover image is

permuted randomly and one bit of decomposed watermark

is embedded into maximum singular value of a block within

its corresponding sub band of cover image. Experimental

results demonstrated the robustness of their method against

common image processing operations and cropping.

Comparison with other methods shows superiority of their

method at high compression ratios in JPEG attack.

III. AN OVERVIEW ON DISCRETE WAVELET TRANSFORM

(DWT) AND SINGULAR VALUE DECOMPOSITION (SVD)

In numerical analysis and functional analysis, a discrete

wavelet transform (DWT) is any wavelet transform for

which the wavelets are discretely sampled. As with other

wavelet transforms, a key advantage it has over Fourier

transforms is temporal resolution: it captures both

frequency and location information. In this paper DWT is

used to decompose the original image into four frequency

bands. The obtained DWT coefficients in these frequencies

are then modified to hide the watermark information. Since

the modifications take place at all the frequencies it ensures

the robustness of the watermarked image to various

intentional or unintentional attacks enforced on it.

Singular value decomposition is a linear algebra

technique used to solve many mathematical problems [15].

The theoretical background of SVD technique in image

processing applications to be noticed is clearly explained in

[16]. The stability provided by singular value of an image is

high and therefore when a small value is added to an image

this does not affect the quality with great variation. In

addition, SVD is capable of efficiently representing the

intrinsic algebraic properties of an image, where singular

values correspond to the brightness of the image and

singular vectors reflect geometry characteristics of the

image. Normally an image matrix may have many small

singular values compared with the first singular value. The

elimination of these small singular values will not affect the

quality of an image on reconstruction.

The SVD belongs to orthogonal transform which

decompose the given matrix into three matrices of same

size [4]. Moreover in order to decompose the matrix using

SVD technique it need not be a square matrix. SVD

technique packs maximum energy available into as few

coefficients as possible. Therefore, SVD techniques are

widely used in digital image watermarking schemes. Let us

denote the image as matrix A. The SVD decomposition of

matrix A is given using the following equation,

A = USV

T

U and V are unitary matrices such that UU

T

=I, VV

T

= I,

where I is an Identity matrix.

U={u

1

, u

2

, . . . . , u

n

} and V={v

1

, v

2

, . . . , v

n

}, U matrix is

called left singular values and V matrix is called right

singular values. The decomposition of matrix A is obtained

using following equation,

SVD (A) = U S V

T

= U

0 0

0 D

V

T

S =

0 0

0 D

such that all the elements in main diagonal

are in decreasing order like σ

1

≥ σ

2

≥σ

3

≥ ... σ

n

≥0, where S is

the diagonal matrix having in its main diagonal all positive

singular values of A.

IV. AHUMAN VISUAL MODEL FOR DWT-SVD DOMAIN

DIGITAL IMAGE WATERMARKING

This section of the paper describes the relationship

between a DWT domain human visual models that was

earlier proposed in [12]. The modification threshold of

singular values in an image is utilized to evaluate the

robustness and the imperceptibility of a watermarked

image.

A. DWT domain Just Noticeable Distortion (JND)

Imperceptibility of watermark can be adapted by using a

perceptual model of Just-Noticeable distortion (JND). The

human visual model proposed in [17] provides the

quantization step for each wavelet coefficient of an image.

It is based on factors that affect the sensitivity of the eye to

local noise. Similarly two models named model [b] and

model [c] was proposed in [18]. The proposed work utilizes

the model [c] described in [18] and the comparisons are

carried on model [b] to evaluate the robustness of the

proposed approach in image watermarking. The model can

evaluate the JND profile for a 4 level DWT decomposition.

I

r,s

(x, y) denotes the wavelet coefficient at position (x, y) of

decomposition level r c{0, 1, 2, 3} and orientation s c {LL,

LH, HL, HH}.

JND(r, s, x, y) = 0.5, qstep (r, s, x, y)

Where qstep(r, s, x, y) = q

0

. freq(r, s) . lumen(r, x, y) .

texture(r, x, y)

0.034

, where q

0

is the normalization constant

and its value is fixed as 10, freq(r,s) which gives the noise

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sensitivity to changes of detail on orientations and level r of

the image is given by the following expression.

Similarly the local luminance is given by lumen(r, x, y) =

( )

¯¯

= =

+ + +

2

1

2

1

,

,

256

1

3

i j

LL r

y j x i I

Texture(r, x, y) is given by the expression mentioned

below.

B. Relationship between JVD and SVD

For any M x N (M ≤ N) matrix A, let os

i

be the change of

its i-th singular value s

i

, then the modification is

imperceptible, only if,

( ) y x V U

y x J

s

T

i i

i

,

) , (

s (0≤x≤M, 0≤y≤N)

where J is the just-noticeable distortion matrix, U

i

and V

i

are the singular vectors of matrix A.

Proof:

According to the above proposition,

A = ¯

=

N

1 i

T

i i i

V U s

After Modification the same can be given as follows,

T

V S S U A A A ) (

ˆ

+ = + =

Moreover the modification takes places only in s

i

and

therefore we have,

oA=UoSV

T

= os

i

U

i

V

i

T

To be imperceptible,

} N y 0 , M x 0 | ) y , x {( ) y , x ( s s s s e ¬

'oA (x, y)' = ' os

i

U

i

V

i

T

(x, y) '

='os

i

'. ' U

i

V

i

T

(x, y) '

≤J(x, y)

That is,

'os

i

' ≤

| ) y , x (

T

i

V

i

U |

) y , x ( J

(0≤x≤M, 0≤y≤N)

V. WATERMARKING SCHEME

This section of the paper explains the watermark

embedding and watermark detection schemes.

A. Watermark Embedding

Let ‘A’ represent the host image of size M x M, ‘W’

indicate the watermark image of size N x N, and we assume

M = 2N, then the embedding process can be described as

following steps.

Step 1: The host image is decomposed into four subbands

using DWT. These four subbands are denoted by LL, HL,

LH, and HH.

A¬I

s

(s c {LL, HL, LH, HH})

Step 2: Then SVD is applied to each subband in an

image,

I

s

¬U

s

S

s

V

s

T

Step 3: The SVD of the watermark is then calculated,

I

s

¬U

w

S

w

V

w

T

Step 4: Modify singular values of the host image in each

subband according to those of the watermark image, ·

represents the embedding strength,

s

I

ˆ

:U

s

(S

s

+ ·

s

S

w

) V

s

T

Step 5: As a last step of embedding scheme, apply

inverse DWT to four sets of modified DWT coefficients to

produce the watermarked image.

s

I

ˆ

A

ˆ

¬

Since the most important singular value is the first one,

s

1

, and therefore we use s

1

to limit the embedding strength:

o

s

=

1) , 1 ( S

| y) , x ( V U |

) y , x , s , r ( JND

min

) 1 , 1 ( S

| s |

w

T

1 s 1 s

N y 0 , N x 0

w

1 s

¦

)

¦

`

¹

¦

¹

¦

´

¦

=

o

s s s s

where r=0 and the subscript ‘s’ denotes the different

subbands: LL, HL, LH and HH.

B. Watermark Detection

Watermark detection is just the reverse process of

embedding scheme described above. It comprise of the

following steps.

Step 1: Use DWT to decompose the watermarked

(possibly attacked) image.

s

I

ˆ

A

ˆ

¬ (s c {LL, HL, LH, HH})

Step 2: Apply SVD to each subband of the watermarked

image.

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T

s s s s

V

ˆ

S

ˆ

U

ˆ

I

ˆ

¬

Step 3: The singular values of each subbands is extracted

from the watermarked image,

s

s s

ws

S S

ˆ

S

ˆ

o

÷

:

Step 4: In the final step, the watermarked image is

constructed from the four subbands,

T

w ws w s

V S

ˆ

U W

ˆ

:

VI. EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS

The proposed approach is implemented using Matlab to

explore the performance of the proposed approach in

watermarking the given image. For our experiments Lena

image of size 256X256 is used. Figure 1 (a) represents the

original image used for the experiment. Similarly,

watermark image of size 128X128 used in the experiments

is shown in figure 1 (b). SVD is used to achieve large

watermark capacity.

(a) (b)

Figure 1 (a) represents the Original Image and (b)

represents the Watermark Image

The watermarked Lena image and the extracted

watermark images from the four frequency subbands are

shown in figure 2 (a) and 2 (b) respectively.

(a) (b)

Figure 2 (a) represents the Watermarked Image and (b)

represents the Extracted Watermark Image from the four

subband frequencies

Figure 3 (a) represents the original Lena image obtained

at first level of decomposition, and figure 3 (b) denotes the

watermarked Lena image obtained for first level of

decomposition.

(a) (b)

Figure 3 (a) represents the original Lena Image at first level

of decomposition and (b) represents the Watermarked Lena

Image at first level of decomposition.

The PSNR values obtained at various levels of

decomposition for model [b] and model [c] are listed in the

table 1. Model I and Model II denotes model [b] and model

[c] respectively. Note that r=0 in table 1 represents the first

level of decomposition. For the first level of decomposition

(i.e) r=0, the PSNR value obtained for model I is 65.36. But

for the same level of decomposition the PSNR value

obtained are 71.50. Similarly for other two levels of

decomposition improved PSNR value is obtained for Model

II.

Table 1. Comparison of PSNR values for different level

of decomposition

r Model PSNR

0

I 65.36

II 71.50

1

I 63.25

II 67.80

2

I 61.20

II 65.68

The experimental results suggests that the proposed

approach of digital image watermarking is robust than other

methods. The improved PSNR values of the watermarked

image for different level of decomposition imply that the

watermarked image obtained by this method can withstand

various attacks.

VII. CONCLUSION

The volume of multimedia data that are transferred

through internet has been increasing progressively every

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226 http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/

ISSN 1947-5500

day. Therefore proper security mechanisms, which ensures

the authenticity of the digital data being transferred is

crucial. This paper proposes a non-blind watermarking

scheme in which the watermark image is hidden into the

cover image using the combination of DWT and SVD. In

this approach the DWT coefficients in the decomposed

frequency bands of cover image are modified to hide the

copyright material. SVD is capable of efficiently

representing the intrinsic algebraic properties of an image,

where singular values correspond to the brightness of the

image and singular vectors reflect geometry characteristics

of the image. Therefore in this approach the robustness can

be achieved by DWT, stability of watermark image is

increased by SVD, and imperceptibility is ensured by the

use of enhanced DWT domain human visual model. First

three levels of decomposition are considered to evaluate the

watermark capacity of the proposed watermarking

technique. The future implementation may concentrate on

applying various attacks on watermarked image; extract the

original watermark image after enforcing various attacks on

the watermarked image and to investigate the performance

of the watermarking technique in with standing the attacks.

The principal feature to be noted is that the quality of the

watermarked image should not be degraded on enforcing

the attacks on it.

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AUTHORS PROFILE

M. Devapriya received her B.Sc., from

Madurai Kamaraj University, and

received M.Sc., Computer Science from

PSG College of Arts and Science,

Coimbatore. She obtained her M.Phil.,

from Mother Teresa Women’s

University, Kodaikanal in 2001. At

present she is working as an Assistant Professor in

Computer Science in Government Arts College,

Udumalpet. She has published more than fifteen research

papers in National, International journals and conferences.

Her area of interest is Multimedia Security, Image

(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,

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227 http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/

ISSN 1947-5500

Processing and Computer Graphics. She is a member of

various professional bodies.

Dr. K. Ramar received the Ph.D.,

degree in Computer Science from

Manonmaniam Sundaranar University,

Tirunelveli and prior degrees from PSG

College of Technology, Coimbatore and

Government College of Engineering,

Tirunelveli. He is currently Vice

Principal and Head of ME at National

Engineering College, Kovilpatti. He is life member in the

CSI- Mumbai, ISTE-NewDelhi, SSI-Trivandrum and

Fellow in Institution of Engineers, Kolkatta. He has

published 10 articles in National and International journals

and presented papers in more than 40 conferences. He has

produced 4 Ph.D., and 15 M.Phil., so far.

(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,

Vol. 8, No. 1, April 2010

228 http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/

ISSN 1947-5500

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- Embedded Mobile Agent (EMA) for Distributed Information Retrieval
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- Security Architecture with NAC using Crescent University as Case study
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UsefulNot usefulDigital watermarking scheme has been well accepted method for hiding the data into a host image. Digital watermarking can applied to a variety of fields like text, image, audio, video and software....

Digital watermarking scheme has been well accepted method for hiding the data into a host image. Digital watermarking can applied to a variety of fields like text, image, audio, video and software. Lot of tools has been established in order to duplicate and modify the multimedia data. Therefore security is the most important dispute that requires some mechanism to protect the digital multimedia data. In order to protect those multimedia data on the Internet many techniques are available including various encryption techniques, steganography techniques, watermarking techniques and information hiding techniques. Digital watermarking is a technique in which one can hide the data or information in another object (cover data) and transfers it over the network. The data hiding can take place either in spatial domain or in frequency domain. This paper proposes a non-blind watermarking scheme in which the original image is decomposed into four frequency bands. The DWT coefficients in these frequency bands are then modified in order to hide the watermark data. SVD is capable of efficiently representing the intrinsic algebraic properties of an image, where singular values correspond to the brightness of the image and singular vectors reflect geometry characteristics of the image. Therefore in this approach the robustness can be achieved by DWT, stability of watermark image is increased by SVD, and imperceptibility is ensured by the use of enhanced DWT domain human visual model. To evaluate the efficiency of the proposed approach Performance comparison of the algorithm among the first three levels of frequency band decomposition is considered.

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