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1, April 2010
Approach towards analyzing motion of mobile nodes A survey and graphical representation
A.Kumar
Sir Padampat Singhania University Udaipur , Rajasthan , India arunkumarsai@gmail.com
P.Chakrabarti
Sir Padampat Singhania University Udaipur , Rajasthan , India prasun9999@rediffmail.com
P.Saini
Sir Padampat Singhania University Udaipur , Rajasthan , India poonam.saini9@gmail.com
Abstract In this paper we have carried out a survey to towards understanding the behavior of the random variable environment.The purpose of the mobility models is to serve as a representative scenario for node movement in the adhoc networks. The mobility models represent the realistic movement characteristics of the mobile nodes. We concentrate our work on the Random walk models and their various forms. The complex domain based node detection has also been pointed out. Keywords Random variable, mobility, random walk, complex domain
I. INTRODUCTION The wireless networks have some of its elements stationary and others being mobile. The users are free to roam between base station cells and thereby creating issues such as handover, call control and mobility management. So in order to understand the network, the mobility of nodes plays a vital role. The deterministic modeling techniques assume an environment with no randomness in the outcome; the results shall remain the same, on the other hand if the outcome is random and the results are unpredictable and are termed as stochastic. The purpose of the mobility models is to serve as a representative scenario for node movement in the adhoc networks. The mobility models try to accurately represent the realistic movement characteristics of the mobile nodes. II .RANDOM WALK FOR BROWNIAN MOTION The random walk model concept dates back to the irregular motion of individual pollen grains experimented by Robert Brown (1828), [1][2][3] and now it is called Brownian as shown in Figure 1.
Brownian motion, in some systems can also be described as noise, and is a continuous motion of small particles. The striking features of this concept are: 1. The motion is very irregular, composed of translations and rotations, and the trajectory of the motion appears to have no tangent. 2. Two particles appear to move independently, even when they approach one another, within a distance less than their diameter. 3. The smaller is the particle; the more active is the motion. 4. The composition and density of the particles have no effect. 5. The less viscous is the fluid; the more active is the motion. 6. The higher is the temperature; the more active is the motion. 7. The motion never ceases. In a simple random walk model for node moving in a mobile adhoc network, the following assumptions are considered [1]1.There is a starting point. 2.The distance from one point in the path to the next is a constant 3.The direction from one point in the path to the next is chosen at random, and no direction is more probable than another. Consider a node moving on an infinite, one dimensional uniform line .Let the node start its journey at the origin ( x=0) and then it moves a small distance δ either left or right in a short time τ . The motion is completely random and the probabilities of moving both left and right is 1/2 .The can be either at left or right of the origin and the distance is as assumed earlier i.e. δ. The next time step the node will be at a position 2δ to the left or right of the origin with probability of 1/4 each or even the node can return to its original position. On assuming the above behavior of the node, the probability that the node will be at a distance mδ to the right direction of the origin or to the left direction of the origin after taking n time steps and can be represented as : n p(m, n)= ( ) =
( )

……………………………………...(1)
Figure 1. Brownian Motion in two dimensions
This is a binomial distribution with mean 0 and variance n.
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(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security, Vol. 8, No. 1, April 2010
The mean location for one dimension is zero and the mean squared displacement is equal to 2Dt.Therefore we conclude that when direction bias is missing ,there is no overall movement in any direction. But from equation (3), we find that the mean squared distance is increasing linearly with time. We made different observation on random walk models in one, two and three dimensions. Let there be N steps of equal length along a line by a node, let p be the probability of taking a step to right and let q be the probability of taking a step to left direction. We assume that the node can take up n1 steps in to right or n2 steps to the left [4]. p + q=1 and n1 + n2 = N <n1>=p*N (mean number of steps to right) <n2>=q*N (N (mean number of steps to left) Variance = σn12= <n12> <n1>2 = N*P*Q σn1 =√ ……………………………….(2)
In a random walk in two dimension as shown in the Figure 3,the position z in the complex plane after N steps[2] <z2> =N The rootmeansquare distance after N unit steps is therefore z=√ so with a step size of l this becomes d=l*√ In order to travel a distance d ,
steps are therefore required.
III. SURVEY OF RANDOM WALKS IN NDIMENSION
Figure 4. Random Walk in 3 dimension IV. A REVIEW OF GAUSS MARKOV MODEL WITH GRAPHICAL INTERPRETATION We now consider the concept of drift in a node movement. Let us assume as degree of randomness in the mobility pattern [2]. A node is firstly placed in the simulation area and assigned a current speed and direction .At fixed intervals of time n movements occur. The next location is calculated on the basis of the current location, speed and direction of the movement. For new speed and direction we have as new speed and direction variables ,here is randomness parameter and denotes random variables from a Gaussian distribution.
Figure 2. Random walk1Dimension
For location, we have: Figure 3. Random Walk in 2 dimension
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(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security, Vol. 8, No. 1, April 2010
Here, refers to velocity and refers to direction. and are x and y coordinate positions calculated from the above mathematical equations. Here the concept of mean speed and mean direction (local direction) has been used.
Figure 6. Counter clockwise node detection Method 2: Node leaves the corresponding cell Due to mobility features if a node reaches the boundary leave the corresponding cell then the another cell’s leader take the responsibility to identify the node depending upon the radio frequency . The radio frequency for that cell is fl and for the next cell is fm then for the particular node it compare fl with fm then if fl>fm then the cell is in the y cell. Then using the method 1 the next cell identifies the position for the particular node. Let f(z) be defined and singlevalued in a neighbourhood of z=z0 with the possible exception of z=z0 itself. We say that the the cell L is the limit of f(z) as z approaches z 0 and write lim f(z)=L using the same way we calculate the distance from cell M and we compare these two z z0
Figure 5. GaussMarkov Mobility Model
V. NODE TRACKING IN COMPLEX DOMAIN According to the radio coverage area of a leader [5] in a cell the communication for each node is possible with in a MANETs , but if a node start its movement then there may be some link failure between the leader node and the moving node. Using some complex variable features if a node starts its movement in counterclockwise way then we can detect the node position According to the time stamp the position for each node can be changed . Method 1: counter clockwise movement for the node can be detected as Suppose that w=z ½ , for that function we detect the node position , we allow z to make a complete circuit around the leader which is at the position O. We have z=reiθ , then w=( reiθ)1/2 ,so that at any position x, θ= θ1 and w=( reiθ1)1/2 For the same equation we just take θ= θ1 then we have z=reiθ then w=( rei(θ1))1/2 so using this method, we can easily identify the unique position for the node in a particular movement.
values and which one is minimum that corresponding cell has the responsibility to identify the node position.
Figure 7. Node move from cell L to M In the Figure 7 we see that the node start it movement from cell L to M and depending upon the radio frequency we identify which cell takes the responsibility to identify the
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(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security, Vol. 8, No. 1, April 2010
position for that node. When the node cross the boundery radio coverage area of cell L then it enters in to cell M and the corresponding leader takes the responsibility to identify the position. VI. CONCLUSION The core objective of this paper is to implement the mobility models woven around the Brownian motion. The behavior of simple random walk model in one, two and three dimensions has been pictorially represented. We successfully implemented the Gauss Markov model with an additional feature of direction bias and pause time. We have also inspected nodal position in the complex variable domain. REFERENCES
[1] Edward A. Coding, Michael J. Plank and Simon Benhamou, “ Random walk models in biology” published[online] in Journal of The Royal Society Interface, 15 April, 2008. [2] M. I. Mohd Saad, Z. A. Zukarnain, “ Performance Analysis of RandomBased Mobility Models in MANET Routing Protocol” published in European Journal of Scientific Research, Vol. 32 No 4(2009), pp 444454. [3] Christian Bettstetter, “Mobility modeling in wireless networks: categorization smooth movement and border effects” published in ACM SIGMOBILE mobile computing and Communication review 2001. [4] The math world website[online]. http://mathworld.wolfram.com/LinearRegression.html Available:
[5] P. Chakrabarti et. Al, “ IP Address and statistical based node identification in wireless networks”, to appear in IJCTE, Singapore Vol. 2 No 3, June 2010.
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