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"47267
J . A. Harth, Leipzig
Theory of GravitationalInertial Field of Universe
1. GravitationafInertial Field Equations
By 0. K. DAVTYAN
A b s t r a r t . hi the writs of present articles the origirml proposition is a gchncralization of tile rcitI world tensor by the introduction of n inertial field tensor. From this generalization it follo\vs, particularly, that Viqlrn=qzrn;i 0. This allows t.o use as a Lagranginn density of the field the exprcssiori 11, .= kl qlm;i$m;k$'c. On the ba.sis of vari:itionnl equations a system of more general covarimit eqiistions of the gravitationslinertial field is obtnincd. In the Einstein approximation these equations reduce to t,lie field equations of Einstein. The solution of ftindaniental problcnis in the general t.lieory of relativity by means of the new equations gives the ~:SITICresu1t.s as thc solution by nieuns of Einstein's equations. However, application of these cquations to the coxmologin problem gives a rcsolt difftirent from that ohtained by Fricdmarin's theory. In part,icular, the solution gives the Hitbble law as the law of rnot,ion of a free body in the incrtial field  in contrast to Ga.lileoNewton's law.
Theoric des Uravitstions und Inertialfeldes des Universums. 1. nio Fcldgleiclinngen dcs Cravita1,ions iind Tnert,ialPeldcs

I n h a l t u i i b e r s i c h t . In der Rcihe dcr vorliegenden Srbeiten wird einc Vcrsllgcnieincrung tles nictrivchcn WeltTensors duroh Einfiihrnng des Tensors des Inertialfeltles Z U I Ausgangspnnlct gc~ riommen. Aus diexer Verallgemeinerung geht insbesondereher vor, da.BVigzmzz glnt;i 0. Dies crlaubt es als LagrangeDicht,edes Feldcs tlg: . L, gzm;ig'm;k$k zuverwendcn. .4uf Grund ~1erVaiiittionsgIaicllungen ergibt Rich ein System von allgenieinereii liovarianz~1eichungt:iid(:s Inrrt,ial tinct Schawcfeldes. In tler Eineteinschen Saherung geheii diew Gleichnngen in die Einstcinschen Feldglcichttngen iiber. Bei den Grundproblemeri der sllgemeincn Kelst.ivitatstlieoric I iofern die neuen Glcicliitngen dicselben Ergebnififie\vie die Einsteinschcn. LDagegen finder1 sich beini kosmologisclien Problem von der I+'ricdtnannschen Theorie abweichende Ergebnisse. Jim findet insbesondere das Hrthk)lcsche Gcsctz ids 13c?n.c:gungsgesetz cines freien Kijrpcrs i n i 1nert.ialfeld im Gegcnsate ziim Galilci~eewtonschll Gcsctz.
.+

3 . General theory of relativity (GTR) is known to proceed froin equivalence of gravitational fields and geometric structures of the spacetime continuum on the basis of Riemannian geometry (1.1) ds2 = g i k d x i dxk, I)et I Yih.1 4 0, g t k =
7
where gzk is the spacctirne met,ric tensor1), gik(ilI) =qik(xl, x2,x3,x4) of Rieiiianniaii space and the gravitational field. Though proceeding from Rieniannia~l spacetime the UTR is based on the following restrictom:
1 ) According to propositions of Riemannian geometry the metric tensor gjlL.is rt:st.rict,ed only by condit,ions in (1.1) and is arbitrary in other respects.
248
0. L)dVTYAK I<.
a) tensor b) c)
I n nonrelntivistic approxiolation arid far from thc: localized masses the metric describes a flat space qik,l = 3 8 q i k / a . c l = 0. A small rloniain of Rieiiiannian space is flat, hence again ( J ; ~ , J== 0. Homogericoiis gravit.ationa1 fielcl imd sccelerational field are equivalent.
1,et 11sdwell iipori these items in more detail. 1.1. The c:sistence of rclnote inasses of tlic Universe, inclnding the ficld inasses, will 1lndoubt.edly irifliieiicc tlit: metric: of t lie real world and create a general 1nctrica.l hackground in t k Universe different from Chlilco’s. Therefore evcrywhere in the Universe in diffcrencc to the ideas of GTIl g.ik,l 0. This metric:al h,ackground will be called henceforth an inc.rt.ial field. Jn order to find the way out of this sit.Liation the authors of the wellknown scalar theory I h A H & l S and ~ ) I C K E [ 1 , ‘21 proceeding from $Ilach’s principle suggest.ed an idea within that t.hcory according to which tlicrc trxists a s c i h r ficld, besides the usual tensor field, with a longrange radius of action and cltiiscd by uniscrsnl inass  t,he “inass of fixcd stars”. It. ~liould noted that t.he first and original attenipt to forniuliitc the sca.largravibe tat.ioirnl theory was niadt: by S T m i u m v I c f r as early as in I068 [3]. The subscqnent work, arid [4]. rclated ihideas to this, was the theoiy of ZAITSEV KOLESWIKOVOne niay also attribute t,o t,he scalargravitational theory the theories of HOYLE5 ] and Houm and [ SARLIKAR on Mach’s principle. 4ltogother there were many attemps t o genera[el h s e d lize the GTR. Among thcm one should inention. JORDBX’S theory “73,the bimctrical theory of R ~ S E [8] and KOHLEX and especially the tetrad theory of gravitation of N [9]: T R E D E R [ 101. 1.2. A small domain of Riemannian space cannot bc flat, it should be approximat,ely siinilar to the flat space, to be niorc exact : for each of Rieniannian space a tangent flat space niay he constructed. Hence it. follows that though locally yik,l arc small quant.ities of highcr order, nevcrthelcss ~ i ~ As we shall see later this condition implies that 0. , ~ in all coordinatc systenis the covariant derivatives of g i r are nonzero cvcrywhere in the world, i.e. g i k ; I=t= 0. Jn contrast t.0 this the CTM is based on the postulate giki1= 0. 1.3. From the mentioned principle of equivalence it follows that the theory automatically per1uit.s arbitrary transformations of coordinates, under which at linear conditions the gravhtional field vanishes or at other conditions new physical fields originatc. This is evidently not correct, because the truc gravitational field, which is equivalent to the geometric structure of Riemannian spacct,iine, cannot; he eliminated by ineans of choosing coordinates. On tlic other hand no o1)jt:ctivc physical ficld (in contrast t.0 fictive fields) may bc created by means of an arbitrary choice of coordinates. Moreover it is well known that, the principle of equivalencc in thc nlt:ntioncd sense has only a local end approxiniate chtlrilcter. Jndced, as shown by FOCK [111, the equivalence of gravitational and accclerational fields is limited not only .to snrall doniaines of space and short intervals of timc, but generally to wcak and homogeneous fields anti slow motions. By thc way, here one should not confuse the law of cquality of inertial and gravitational inasses with the nientioned principle of equivalence. The mat~lieinat.ical expression of this principle is the possibility of introducing t.he locally geodetic coordinatc system s~icli that qik.l = 0. However from this st.atement a not quite correct conclusion is drawn by FOCK, naincly since the possibility of introducing of locallygeodet.ic systen) is contained in Riemannian geomet.ry, t,herefore the pointedont principlc does not const,itiite a separate physical hypothesis. Actually the availability of such a possibility in the Riemannian spacet.ime is not nessessary at all. On tlic cont.rary, as wc have seen, everywhere in this space gik,l += 0. Therefore the principle of eqnivalcncc of Eiristciri should 1 ~ fortiiulatcd ninthenlatically ; * S i r , = 0 in locallygeodetic coordinate synt.cin: or, as we sliall see later, ;is
.+
+
GravitationalIncrtialField of Universe.
I:
2 49
one cannot construct the GTR. Thus since in the locallygeodetic system glk,l may be equal to zero only approximately (gik,l 0) the approximate character of the principle of equivalence follows. Actually one more very important fact (usually unnoticed) follows from the principle of equivalencc, namely that the geodetic line is identified with a trajectory of motion of a free material particle. Indeed it is wcll known that the notion of affine connection is directly connccted with the concept of parallel transfer. On thc basis of parallcl transfer the whole tensor analysis may be Constructed, the expression for the tensor of curvature Rf,, obtained, and geodetic lines be constructed, i.c., the clirvcs of parallel transfer of vector or tensor with their equations, without introducing the notion of metric (of metrical tensor gik) AmxitsoN [ 121. Indeed let an arbitrary scalar parameter t be taken as a parameter changing along the curve of parallel transfer of vector ui, the curve is parametrically defincd by tho i.e. equation xi = x,(t) and ui = dxi/dt is a unit tangent vector t o the curve. Then the variations of vector components as a result of transfcr from point ill to point iM‘ along the curve will be equal to dxi(M’)/dt  dx,(M)/dt = I7i1 dxhldt . Ax,. Dividing theso equations by the value of transfer dt from 2ci7 to ill’ and taking thc limit when r l t + 0 we obtain the equations of the gcodctic line
* = 0 in all coordinate systems. Without this assumption gak;a
*.
*
*. + I, : dt2
d2xi
axli d q  = 0. dt d t
Thc sffine coefficicnts TL.land the scalar paranieter t in thew equations arc not related to the metric of spacetime. However
*‘
tensor gik (and its first derivatives) satisfying gzk;l= 0 on the basis of expressions for covariant derivatives :
*
* Til may bc exprcssed in terms of any abstract *
As a result we have
Thus it follows that in the QTR the metric tcnsor qzk(gn,l $1 0) is identified with a n abstract tensor g i k ( gik;2 = 0 ) . Meanwhile the trajectory of motion of a frcc partick, in contrast to thc geodetic line, can be obtained only on the basis of real world metric d.92 = g,,dxidxl from the principle of least action 6 s = mc 6 1ds = 0:
* *
where
= Here the condition qIkil 0 is not imposed. Any other method of deriving theseequatioils not proceeding from the nietric results only in the cquations of the geodetic line.
Because the curvature tensor Bilm (a basis of Einstein’s field equations) is ~ l s o defined through parallel transfer and expressed pressed by the affine coefficients Tj.land their derivativefi, Einstein’s field equations
*
involve the abovementioned deficiencies of the theory. These eqriations contain in implicit forin the equations of geodetic lines not the equations of niotion as is usually supposcd; they allow the introduction of physical fields and the elimination of gravitational field by means of arbit,rary transforination of coordinates ; t,hey also do not possess universal character. Naturally, such a situation suggests tlic necessity of generalizing the metrical tensor gia of Riemannian geometry all over the Universe and of obtaining more general Universal field equations.
2. Original Propositions of Present Thcory 1131
The fundamental principle of our gravitationalinertial theory, like that of GTR, is the assumption of equivalence of the gravitationalinertial field with the gconictric structure of spacetime on the basis of statement and conditions (1.1) of Rieninnnian geometry and its “extension” all over the Universe. The essence of such an “extension” lies in the point that because of the existc,ncc: o S the inertial field (besides the gravitational fields) far from the niass(~s and also locally the metric tensor of the world is everywhere distinct from Calileio’s nietric, i.c.,
621.1 ?=
O*
(1.0)
The space is permanently related to a weak metrical background t@). The field formed by this tensor background @)(AT), as already noted, will be called inertial field. The cause of formation of such tensor background, as we shall sce in the later devclopnient of the theory, is thc world energymoinentum tensor related to a field llZilSS of gravitational electroinagnetic radiation surrounding the metagalaxy. Furthcr, as alrcady shown, there are no theoretical arid experimental reasons t o considerg,b,that rcpresmts * a physical field as identical with gik entering into the coefficients of affine c.onncctioii
I‘%(N),which is being abstractly constructed for operations in teiisor analysis. 1ndt:pendently of gravitational fields, in the inertial frame of reference and in the locallygeodetic coordinate system
*
Bih.1 =
O.
(i.7)
It should be recalled that according to GTlt the gravitational field is defined hy the * tensor gik. Thereforc in the presence of a gravitational field in tlic locallygeodctio coor* ,~ * * dinate system though ( J , ~== 0 nevertlicless gtb,17n=a2gtn/axl a.rm 0. In contrast t o * this, in our theory of the gravitational inertial field gir is not rclated to the gravitational field, so that even at the presence of such a field we have i n the locallygeodetic coordinate system
+
GravitationalInertial Field of Universc. I
261
Thus on the basis of listed propositions one nlay conclude that the iiniversal metric tensor gir of the gravitationalinertial field is t,he metric tensor of the real world, formed by gravitational and inertial metric tensors. From t,he field of this general niet,ric tensor gik(M)the Riemannian space is also formed. On the basis of original proposition (1.6)the following quite obvious theorein may be proved: If first derivatives of the metric tensor gir are nonzero in the locally geodetic coordinate system t,hen also nonzero will be its covariant derivatives in all coordinate systems i.e. (1.9) where
Since, according to (1.7) in the locallygeodetic co0rdinat.e system gik,L: 0, then in : (1.9) FE and I; should be equal to zero and according to (1.6) actually gik;z 0. But ’ since t.he quantity gikil is a t.ensor, it will be nonzero i n all othcr coordinate systems if i t is nonzero in one of them. The expression (1.9) is another important original proposiitioii of our gravitationalinertial field theory of the Universe. This proposition actually means that the gravitationalinert.ia1field (and Riemannian space) g i k ( M ) formed by a general metric tensor of real world represents a truely physical field, that may not bc eliminated by means of transformation of coordinat,es. Meanwhile the affine field l’i,L(M) containing thc tensor
*
*
*
+
*
* may be eliminated by the choice of a special coordinate system, Ti.! 0. Further if *. gik =
*.
the world is considered as pseudoeiiclidean, i s . as a world without gravitational and inert.ia1fields, then in curvilinear coordinates or goner;illy in noninertial franies of reference $. 0. Thus whereas t.hc real niet.ric tensor g i k forms a truely physical field * ga(itl), the tensor gik causes various ltineinnticaldynaniicd effects duc t,o origination of fictitious fields in noninertial frames of reference. From the introdiiced propositions of present t hcory it follows apart from the Riemannian space tensor gir(M) representing tlie gravitationelinertial ficld (of real world) wit.h the quadratic forni of space3inie int,ervd elcment
as2
= gik axi a x k ,
(1.10)
no othcr physical spacc or new tensor or scalar is being introduced, as done in bimetrical and scalar theories. Though it is formally supposed that gik may be represented RS R sum of a gravitational tensor qg) and the niet,rical tensor background h$), t.his assumption is not used in the eqiiations. The potentials of thc gravitationalinertial field to be obtained represent t,heiriselves only tlie components of t,he universal metric: tensor, entering in (1.10). Fnrther, as we have seen, in tlie locallygeodetic coordinatc systeni
g i k $ = gin.,! C Z
0.
(1.11)
On the same basis the scalar quantity
g?lpg,Il=
const
1 (I = p )
in all coordinate systems. Due to the last equations in a number of cases gik may be * replaced with good approximation by a tcrisor gik and vice versa. Particularly gikAk c Ai,
g i k A h zz Ai.
(1.13)
3. Derivation of I”ic.ld Equations The expression (1.9) allows us to use the following variational action for obtaining field equations:
S
where
= S,
+ S,
=
7 $ ( A , + A m ) I/g d42,
1

(1.14)
represents the Lagrangjan density for thc field. This corresponds to the fact, t,hat in Euclidean space the Lagrange density is defined as a square of gradient of the potential Qi: 1 A   (grad @)2. (I.1G)  8nx In Ricniann space this quantity should be generalized to an inner product of covariant derivatives of the metric tensor as in (1.15). By analogy with (1.15) the Lagrangian density for matter will be defined as
A,
= ICf(gZ”,
g:??(VG)’
(1.17)
and the action will be equal to
where k is a constant. It will be shown later that k = 2/c4 (or 4/c4) where c is a fundamental velocity. According to variational principle (1.19) 6(S, 8 ) = 0. ,
+
For the sake of simplicity we vary these actions separately. Thus
The first and second term under the integral may be represented as follows
GravitationalInertial Field of Universe. I
2.53
Then equation (1.20) may be written in the following form
dS,
=
J [ Oi( I/q dg,,,) gi"';?
8nxc
1
1.
+ 0,( b ' q
gikgL,;i
d g 9 ] d4x
;i)
+ 1 . glrn;zg'$ 8nxc
1  J [Ti (I/ 9 9i kglm 8nzc ;k 1
+ 0,(I/q gikginz
dg'"'] d4x
6 (c/g qik) d4x.
(1.21)
I n accordance with the GaussOstrogradslri theorem the first two integrals ovcr volunle inay be transformed into integrals over the boundary hypersurface :
3
/ [ vz(I/Tgikgly 69,)
=
S
1 vk(I ; /
gikglm;i dgzm)] d4s
4 6g, ( q dS +s+ dglm(;/I v gikq'g)
[ ;/I
vt(
gikglnl;J
as.
TheRe integrals will be equal to zero since the variation of field vanishes on the boundary hypersurface. A s a result the following integrals remain
I 68, =  . f 8nicc
gikglY)
dgim
+ v~(l/S gikq'glm;i)&'"] d4x
(T.22)
+
1
J glm;igy$ 6 (17 gik) d4x*
We may easily neglect the second integral in (1.22). Indeed according to (1.11)in the locallygeodet,iccoordinate system the quantities glrnii = gLm,iand even more the quantity glm;igz$ inay be approximately taken equal to zero. But since the expression
d(lqgik)
glm;ig!; 6 (I/sg{") = gLtn,$gfr 6 gik) 0 is a scalar it will be approximately equal to zero in other coordinitte sptenis as well. Thus we finally have
(17 =
bgl,n
1 68, =  J' [oi(]/g g'kg?) 8nxc
(1.23)
Now we turn to the variation of action (1.17). Here the energymomentuI?i tensor. T l , appears, which is not being varied, i.e.
Indeed taking into account that
A,
we havc
)'T f(P, = gfr)
?
254
and then (1.25) The second term under the integral may be represented in the following form :
where the first term on the right hand side according to GaussOstrogradsky theorem may be transformed into a surface integral that will be equal to zero because the variation is zero on the boundary. Therefore
(1.26)
Due to invariancc of S, and because qLm a contravariant tensor of second rank the is quantity in the braces represents a density of covariant tensor of the second rank, i.e.
(1.27)
It may be shown that the tensor Tl, indeed represents an energymoinentuni tensor
(a well known fact from the theory of relativity). Thus equation (1.26) is identical with equation (1.24). Now on the basis of expression (1.19) we may write
The further transformation of t,his equation may be done starting from t,he equation grip dgmr’ = g”” 6gnp. Multiplying this equation by gnz and suriiniing over n we obtain 81pdgrnP = gdgm, dg,,,, hence dqlm = glpgmn dg,,. After inscrting the expression for 6gtm into equation (1.28):

k $Pgrnn
I q dg,, / Tlm
d4a = 0
and interchanging summation indices under the second and third integral we obtain
~mritctionitlincrtial Field of Universe. i
256
Because d g , is arbit.rary we finally have (1.30) The obtaincd expression (1.30) reprwcnts a systeni of 10 equations for determining the potentials of thc ficld gla. Each equation of (1.30) represents a double sum over indices i , k = 1, 2, 3, 4). Outside the masses the energyniomcntum tensor T I , may be considered to eqiial zero, therefore tho field equations take the following form glpgmn VL(I/y
qlk&p;J
 o,(l/g gt";?)
= 0.
(I.30;i)
It is necessary to obscrve that the original variational equations make it possible to obtain another version of field equations, somewhat different from (1.30). Indeed in the proccss of variation of Lagrangian A , for the niatter (1.17) a tensor density is obtained in the form (1.27). This expression with some coefficient niay also be considered as the tensor density
*
~ l m =1  9
I/g
(Tim  1
g l m ~ *)
Anyway one may always (wit,h equal hasis) proceed froni the fact. that for t,he gravitationalinertial field the following formula holds
Therefore the choice of tensor Tl, is mathematically equivalent to the choice of Ylmi However the analysis of equations (1.30) shows that in the Einstein approximation, i.e. * in the limit g i k E gik, they reduce to
*
Rln' = 4 n k ~ T ' ~ ,
where R1,is the Ricci tensor. Thcrefore, in order to satisfy the continuity law as well as the Bianchi identity the choice of the second tensor versionthe source of gravita* 1 tionnlinertial fieldTlm = l ' l m   glmT is more expedient. Then the gravitional2 inertial field equations take the following forin
(1.30b)
In the above inentioned limit! g i k r gik)we get
*
Thus in the Einstein approximation the gravitationalinert.ial field equations reduce to the usual Einstein equations of the gravitational field.
Tn the cquations (1.30) (1.30b) the components of gik represent the potentials of the gravit.ationa1inertial field. The components of tensor entering only int.0 Christof* * may be eliniinated. The possibility of climinating gik may be * fel syiiihls I'jl( g i p , explained in virtue of the fact that, it5 was pointed out, the space of affine connection
.T'jL(N)ari auxiliary, abstract mathematical space while g i L ( J f ) defines a Rielilannian is *. world and the gravitationalincrt.ia1 field. Therefore .Z'h(M)may be choserl arbitrarily.
Thus the Tjl may be defined in such a way t,hat = 0 and hence = 0. It sllould be noted that thc elimination of Christoffel symbols in (1.30) (I.30b) actually nleans the eliniination of various fictive fields. In order that no misunderstanding of these items will arise (due to existing traditional habits) we consider it necessary t.0 specify the essence of one of the major differences between the GTR and present theory. As already pointed out,, in GTR it is assumed that
*
*.
*.
gik
*
*
gir; therefore if yi, is taken in some coordinate system, then T,b!l should he talten
in the same coordinate system. I n contrast t.o this in the present theory the Riemann space g , ( N ) is everywlierc and always curved, therefore gik is always taken in curvilinear coordinates. Since gik is not physically related to gik the coordinate system for g i k may be chosen independently of * that for gik. For example, in the locally geodetic coordinate system gik,l = 0 while * gik,l + 0. This means that gik is taken jn C a r h i a n coordinates, while g& is still related to the curved space and inay be taken in arbitrary curvilinear coordinates. This also means that, as mentioned above, the parallel transfer operation and its curve do not depend on t.he curvature of spacetime and hence on the trajectory of motion of a free particle. Thus according to conditions (1.7) and (J.8) for TiL 0 in (1.30)(1.30?1) =
*
*
*.
VkgZm g$' ==
and
VkVdzm g ,Imi * = k
Hence all Christ.offe1symbols are being eliminated and (I.30), (1.30 b) are tmnsformed into the equat,ions
(1.31)
and
(1.32)
Thcse equations are very attractive not only because Christoffel syntbols are absent in them (and hence they are extremely simple), but mainly becaiise the solutjon of fundamental problcms of GTlt by means of these equations gives the same results as the solution by mcans of the Einstein equations. However, in contrast to Einstein's equations solution of (1.31) for the cosniologic problem results in the equation of free motion in the inertial field exactly corresponding to Hubble's law. We consider below as examples of our theory the solutions of some important prohlcms in the general theory of relativity2).
?)
The rcsatlts of Holvirig the cosmologic problem will be given in subsequent reports.
GravitationalJnertisl Field of Univcrse. I
257
4 Solution of Equations for a Weak Gravitational Field .
Under these conditions the metric of spacetinie is close to the Galileo metric
911
( 0 ) (0  g22 )  Q33)  1,  (0 
gg)= 1, g\y
=0
(i + k)
with a certain background of an inertial field hj$. A weak perturbation, caused bygritvitationalfield (plus the inertial field hil))may be represented by a tensor hik, which is a first order sinall quantity:
g1m
g/S
+ hint
(1.33)
As usual the atjsiiniption is made that raising and lowering of indices of h, is made by the imperturbed metrical tensor yjft2 and glrn(('). For contravariant coinponents yzn the perturbation, being also a sinall quantity of first order, is nevertheless different from (J.33). If we denote i t by X then
glmgrnP =
(912
+
hl,) (gm"(0'
+ X ) = sp,
3
( p = 1).
Up to the first order of smallness g/2g'np(0) glm + g m m h l m (0)X
+
.
Multiplying this expression by gZm(")after transformations we obtain
(gla'0)
+ x = gh ( 0 )  hlln.
Hence (1.34) With the same accuracy we obtain the expression for the determinant of the inetricsl tensor :
gzm
= gzm(o)  hZfl2.
.
g = ISlrnl
=
(L
+
SZn2hhlm).
On the basis of these siniplifications we may proceed to the solution of the gravitational field equations (1.3 1). Since I /  g differs from unity approximately by a quantity of second order of smallness, we assunie I/g L ; then according to (1.33) and (1.31) we have
(J.35)
The further transformation of this expression with the accuracy up to the first order of smallness results in the following equations
yak(o)hd  4nk'xg?n?1((J) ,ik
(I.36)
(1.37)
258
The solution of this cquation is as follows
V
(T.37a)
For further sinlplification of the cqimtion (1.37) the energynionientiiin tenxor may be written in the form
TI" ==~ v ~ z (I,12. = 1, 2, 3, 4 ) , P
whcw
0 = 1
(T.38)
and vn  d(c)'L are vt:locity coniporients and e is the density ofm:tss. '(x)~
dt
dt
Since according to our condition the field is weak the components of thrcedimensional velocity should he very small with respect to the fiiridamental velocity c. l'hcrcforc all space components of velocity in (1.38) inay he ncglectcd. Hence only tlw tinne coinponent c2 remains. Then
Consequently, the system (1.37) consisting of 10 equations turns into a single equation
=
2nc2k'%p.
(1.40)
If tlie field is fitationary we have (1.4 1)
Thus the D'Alenibert's operator V2 and hence V2h,, = 2nc2k'x9. Thc solution of this equation is
Is]
turns into the threedinicnsional 1,aplace operator
(1.42)
(1.43)
On the basis of equation (1.33) we have
(1.44)
where
represents a potential of gravilat,iorinl field ; hence
and according to (1.42)
V2@ =
4Z%Q.
(1.47)
This expression corresponds exactly to Xt!wton's equation of gmvit at ion for contiriiioiis dist r i h t i o n of I ~ S S .
GravitationalInert.ia1 Field of Universe. I
259
If the field is nonstntionary, then dh,,/ds, the masses
.+ 0 nnd hence according to (1.37outside
(1.48)
This is a wave equation, an equation of propagation of gravitational waves. We shall now find the value of the integration constant k’. For a weak gravitational field we may use the nonrelativistic expression for the hgrangian:
According t,o this expression the formula for the action will be the following
S=$2dt=mc$ds=mc/ )@
(c   +2cO2
c
at.
From t.liis equation it follows t,hat tlic spacetime interval equals a s = e   + v2 d t SP ) ‘Lc c
(
According to this expression for a weak gravitational field the space components of the metric tensor are equal to corrcsponding components of Galileo’s metric, and the time 2 2 ,,  @ =g4+ 7SP; then from (1.46) (O) conrponcnt g is equal to g = I
44.
+ C2
+
k t = 4
c4 ‘
(1.49)
= 21~4.
Siniilarly it may be shown that, in (1.30) Ic
6. Exact Solutiori of Field Equations under Sehwarxschild Symmetry Conditions For the spherically syiniiietric gravitational field where the static condition is automatically satisfied the spacetime interval may be expressed in spherical coordinates RS follons ds2 = e’. dr2  1.2 d62  r2 sin2 6 drp2 e“c2 dt2.
+
This equation may be turned into the following syinnietric form
ds2 = eA dr2  r2 sin2 B ( d 0 2
+ dqj2) + e”c2 dt2,
(1.50)
where sin 6 d 0
According to this equation z1= r, x2 = 0,z3= rp and xq = ct ,
= dB.
(Ihl)
and nonzero metric tensors components should be equal to 911 = e’, g22= r2 sin2 6 ,gw =  r 2 sin2 6, qd4 = e”,
1
(1.52)
g = gll g22. g33. gd4= e’.+’r4
sin” 0.
J
I n t,liese forniulas
ii‘
A
and v are functions of r .
260
0. DAYTYAS I<.
We have to solve the equations (1.32). For that we must take into account that according to (1.50) there are only four nonzero equations for which bn = 11, 22, 33, 44. Furthermore, according to (1.51) and (1.52) we havc
(1.53)
The same equalities are true for corresponding second derivatives. If should also Be noted that gik = 0 (i = k). As a result of such simplification thes ystem of equations + (1.32) takes the following form
(1.54)
Substitution of coordinate values and metric tensor components from (1.51) and (1.5’2) into these equations results in the following differential equations
(T.55)
Actually the equat,ions (1.55) are identical with the equations obtained from Einstein’s law of gravitation (Gik == 0) solved for this problem3). One cannot help to be surprised that from equations Gik = 0 and (I.32), which are entirely different in form and structure, in content and complication, we come to the same differential equations in the final steps of their solution.
3,
See A. C. EDDIXCJTOX, Mathematical Theory of Relativity, Cambridge University PreHs, The
1960.
GravitationalInertial Field of Univorso. 1
261
Turning t o solution of equations (1.55) we observe that the fourth equation converts into the first one and vice versa if
dv _   dA  dr dr
(1.56)
*
The equality of these derivatives t o each other and also to zero is impossible because of the fiecond equation and because according t o conditions of the problem the quantity %(r)cannot become zero for finite values of r . In the limit r = w, A and v become zero simultaneously. Hence it also follows that according to (1.66)
A = v.
(1.57)
For solution of the second equation (1.55) we may reduce it on the basis of (1.57) t o the following form
C )
r Putting Z
= er
t 1 ev = 1.
dr  .
(1.58)
we have
12 r After integration we obt,ain const g44 = el’ = 1 r
dZ 
9
(1.59) (1.60)
r where const is an integration constant. I n the last paragraph we have noted that for the weak field
l
Hencc the integration constant is 2xm const, =
.
(1.61)
C2
The latter quantity has a dimension of length. It represents a socalled Schwarzschild or gravitational radius
(1.62)
It is ea8y to verify that the obtained solution sat,isfies all four equations in (J.55). Thus as a result of solving the field equation8 (1.32) under the centralsymmetric conditions we come to a spacetime interval expression with Schwarzschild metric :
(1.63)
As known this rcsult represents one of possible and important exact solutions of Einstein’s equations. Thus the equations obtained in our theory in their accuracy for the same problem do not differ from Einstein’s equations. However, they greatly differ in
262
0. DAVTPAN K.
their simplicity. Moreover, ns we shall see in future reports, application of these equations to comic problems results in new cosmologic conceptions that are in good agreement with observational data. 6. Exact Solution of Field Equations iiiider Cylindrical Yymnwtry Conditions Another of the few exact solutions of Kinstein's field equations has been obtained b y Einstein and Rosen, the solution describing strong cylindricnl gravitational waves. For that purpose they proceeded from the following metric in cylindrical coordinates
d 3 L~~(YvY) dQ2
 ecezv' d p 2  e
2 dZ2 ~ ~
+ $(Yv)
c2 dt2,
(1.64)
whcre e and ~1 are polar coordinates, z is symmetry axiR and y and y are functions depending only on Q and t. The main result of solving Einstein's equations is the diffcrential equation : (T.65) representing a linear wave equation in cylindrical coordinates essentially for arbitrary intensity of the gravitational field. The same equation of strong gravitational waves is obtained from the solution of our equations (1.32) under the given conditions. Ideed from the expression for the spacetime interval (1.64) we have
(1.66)
According to this metric t,he system of equations (1.32) takes the following form
(1.67)
 g44
a (Vg axl
g" !%  g44! )
ax,
a
ax4
(IT
944
ag44 ax,
)
=
0.
C:r~~vitationalTncrtial Field of Universe. I
"63
After inserting the components of metrical tensor and equations we obtain the following differential equations
I/q (1.G6) into these from
a2hJ J 1   Y ) I a ( y  Y )   a2(Y  Y )  o, ae2
azy +
ao2
an 1 ay I azy =
P
c2
at2
e
ap
0
~2
at2
a2y+I ay a p e a?
ae2
1
c2
a2y at2
 0,
a2(Y  lu) +   Y )  _1. a2(?' Y ) = l air
e
ae
~2
at2
o
or finally
(1.68)
From the last equations it follows that
y = & const . y .
Since in the general case IgiiI > 1 the cquality y = y is excluded. T t should be noted that within cylindrical syinmet ry conditions it is unnecessary that the initial expression for the metric be exactly as in (1.64). It turned out that one may proceed from the equation
dcq2 =  e Y 4 2
 ~2 e'Q
By2
 e &2 .+ e:' c2 d t 2 , W '
where y and y are functions of 9 and t only. Then on the basis of (1.67) the equations (1.68) are likewise obtained. We shall not discuss these questions any longer, since they are outside our interests. It is important to point out here, that the exact solution of the new equations for the gravitational field (1.32) under cylindrical symmetry of the field results in the same iinportant equation as the exact solution of Einstein's equations. Moreover the new way of obtaining the function y(e, 1 ) reveirled herc niay appear to be useful in the invcstigation of gravitational waves.
7. Equations of Motion of tho Particle
The new gravitational field equations (1.31) are attractive not only in the same that they satisfy the above listed requirements of general relativity theory, but also because, like Einstein's field eyuations, they contain the equations of motion of a mass system. This will be shown below for point niasses. The energymomentum tensor, which is related t o the fundamental tensor in cquations (1.31), is known to satisfy the general conservation law
11;:
=
0.
(1.69)
2G4
0. DAVTYAS I<.
Bawd on this relation the equation of free motion of a point inass has been obtained by Fock. Einstein, Infeld, and Hoffinann have shown that the equation of motion may also be deduced by a purely geometrical method, proceeding from the tensor of curvature. It appeared that the equations of motion may also be obtainedfrorn (1.31) by a wellknown method, nainely by means of obtaining the Lagrangianfunction from the exact or approximate solution of these field equations. As it is known, the LagrangeEuler equation
(1.70) is being considered as an equation of motion in the classical limit in variational form4). It is also known that in the general case the Lngranigan 2 may be represented by the spacetime interval ds in the following forni:
The function (1.71) may be obtained by means of finding the values of components of the metric tensor gik on the basis of field equations (1.31). The exact solution of the problem is quite difficult. However for a characterization of the new equations (1.31) it is sufficient to solve them in the fimt (Plewtonian) approximation. This assumption is valid for a weak gravitational field. Then the gravitational metric tensor may be presented with a certain perturbation
gik
=d P
+
hik 2
wherc
g(O) 1 gko) = 0, 9;:) = 44
,
(1.72)
According to (1.72) the Lagrangian (1.71) is written in form
(I .73)
This expression may be expanded into series and only the linear part of the expansion considered :
(1.74)
The solution of equations (1.31) for a weak gravitational field has been varried out in section 4 of this paper. According to (1.37) and (1.49) as a result of solution the following systein of equations has been obtained
(1.76)
I) It may be shown that the generaliged LagrangeEuler equations for norieuclidean space are equivalent to equations of gravitational field in Lagrangian form:
Ay iv the Lagrangian dsnvity for thf: field.
GmvitationaIInertialYield of Universe. 1:
266
where
Zr '
= e*c2upn= p 2 v f i ;
Tr =
*
1
?dun
(1.76)
is the energymomentum tensor for the particle. The solution of the problem (1.75) is
hi, = 
.
c4
4x
/'&A (Tr R
d3x.
(1.77)
According to (J.77) and (1.76) the components of h,, in (1.74) arc equal to
2% hqlr =  c3
?Ap>,
(J.78)
QVPV,
=
c4
2%
a3x R
,
As wc see from these formulae, according to the assumed approximation we have to use only the expression for h4, which for a single point mass particle may be written in the forin
(1.79) Inserting (1.79) into (1.74) and neglecting t,erms having an order of smallness of higher than (I/C)~ get we
(llc)"
(1.80)
where @
= 
%M  represents R
Sewton's potential. In agreement with the principle
of equivalence of relativity theory Q, may also be considered as a potent,ial of an inertial field.
in (1.80) we may take the approximation 1  v2/2c2, (k4 = ic).
c
Then wc finidly obtain
2 = ?n[C(k$p + @I. From this form of function 2 it follows that
axi
=
(1.81)
82
a@ m, azi
nLli
d _ _  a2 _ a
at avi
(1.82)
*
at
I/]
v z p
2G6
0. DAVTYAX K.
Using (1.82) in Lagrangian equation (1.70) we obtain the equation of motion
.
11L  = 
a@
axi
d
mki
dt 1 / 1
 v21c2
*
(1.83)
.ci.
The quantity
a@  = gradfi C€J ax;
represents a component of gradient. :dong
Depending
on whether we consider di as an incrtial potential (according to principle of equivalence) ar as a. gravitational potential the expression  7 i z gradxi @ will inem either an inertial force or the force of gravitational attraction (1.84)
(J .8.5)
For sniall values of velocity when vZ/cz 0 we o h i n the classical law of motion i F=mdv
at
Thus we have ahowri that equations of motion are indeed contained in the new cquations. From the accuracy of obtained results in the first approximation we may concludc that the results OF exact solution of (1.31) give the generalized equation of inofiori, particularly (under the neglcction of an inertial field) the equations
In part I1 of the theory it will he hhown that for exact solution of equations (1.31) and in the absence of local gravitational fields an equation of motion in incrtial field is obtained in the form of the cosmological law of Hiibhle. For helpful discussions the author expresses his gratitude to academician V. A. AMBARTYUMIAN, academician YA. B. ~ I < I , D O V I C H ,Assist. professors: A. L. ZELMANNOV, D. D. SOKOLOV,A. MARTTHOSJAN. L. l’hc author especially would like to express his gratitude to l’rof. Dr. Dr. e.h. H.J . TREDER helpful discussion and important remarks. for It is a pleasure to thank Prof. Dr. G. RICHTER organizing a very competent and for fruitful discussion of this paper and its publication.
References
GravitationalInertial Field of Universe. I
267
[9] KOIILER,2. Physik 131, 871; 134,286, 300 (1951). [LO] H.J. TREDER, Gravitationstheoriound ;iq,tivalcntprinzip, AkademicVcrlng. Rcrlin 1971. 1111 B. A . ( D O I i , TeoprrR npOCTpaMeTna, q m w t i k f I I TnrOTeHIrn, M. 1955, $61. [ 121 J . I,. AKDERSON, Riemannian Geometry, Collection, Gravitation, and ltelativity, Edited by H. CIIIUand W. F. HOYFI\~ANX, YorkAm~krdsm ! M . New l [13] 0. K. DAVTYAIV, Physik, lxipz. 36, l l c (19i8). Ann. Bci dcr Rrdrtktioii eingegitngen am 30. Juni 1977. (Revidicrtes MIlmuskript eingegangcn nni 2!).Septembcr 1077).
Arischr. d. Verf.: Prof. Dr. 0. K. DAVTYAK Ercvnn  375019 (Armenian SSlt) Barckarnution St. i,ap. K. 7 2
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