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SPE 94485

Optimizing Matrix Acid Treatments in a Multilayered Reservoir in

Russia by Applying Different Diversion Techniques
This paper shows how a properly engineered matrix acid treatment using
a combination of diversion techniques can result in optimized stimulation
treatments. In a carbonate formation, efficient diversion of acid fluids is
even more important than in a sandstone reservoir because the acid
carbonate dissolution reaction rate is so fast.
Intensive post-job analysis of several matrix acid treatments performed
on carbonate formations in Russia led to the following conclusions:
1. It is absolutely essential to ensure zonal coverage of the entire net
pay to be treated.
2. A treatment design using alternating stages of neat and acid works
very well for longer sections in vertical wells.
3. The number of neat acid and ICA stages and the stage volumes
should be adjusted to maintain a constant treatment pressure just below
the maximum allowable pressure (frac gradient).
4. In case natural fractures exist and/or a stimulation treatment was
already being performed on a zone that cannot be isolated from a
subsequent treatment, the use of biodegradable ball sealers (BBS) can
provide additional diversion direct at the perforation. In combination with
ICA, this is an effective method of treating zones with large injectivity
5. Skin changes during the treatment can be calculated from the
pressure response and used to analyse the diverter effectiveness.
6. It is important to consider factors such as the precipitation of paraffin
or asphaltines under certain temperature and pressure regimes. This
must be addressed in the design process, as along with emulsion,
sludging, or corrosion issues.
7. Production rates can be optimized by performing properly designed
matrix stimulation treatments.

SPE 89413
Development of Associative Polymer Technology for Acid Diversion in
Sandstone and Carbonate Lithology
This paper describes the use of associative polymer technology (APT) to
achieve fluid diversion during an acid stimulation treatment. APT
involves the use of a very low viscosity aqueous polymer solution. It
reacts immediately with the formation surface to significantly reduce the
ability of subsequent aqueous fluids to flow into high-permeability

portions of the rock. The first stage containing the APT predominately
will enter the most permeable area, diverting following acid stage(s) to
less permeable sections of the rock. APT has little or no effect on the
flow of subsequent hydrocarbon production. Furthermore, in rock
containing significant proportions of sandstone-type lithology, the water
permeability of the treated zone is decreased permanently, resulting in
post-treatment reduced water production from the treated zone. This
paper includes a general description of associating polymers and their
properties, as well as a detailed description of the laboratory
development of the current system. Laboratory data showing the ability
of APT to reduce the ability of aqueous fluids to flow through porous
media is presented. Parallel flow studies using water-saturated and
oilsaturated cores are presented that show the ability of APT to divert
acid in both sandstone and carbonate cores. These tests also show the
ability of APT to decrease water permeability in the water-saturated core
while the diverted acid increases the permeability of the oil-saturated
Field Results
To date, four acid-diversion jobs have been pumped with APT. While
production results are not yet available on three of these jobs, the
pressure response during each indicated that each stage of the acid
behind the APT stage was being diverted to less permeable zones. The
fourth job was performed in a well producing from a Cretaceous,
naturally fractured carbonate reservoir with a bottomhole temperature
of 250F. The operators previous experience stimulating wells in this
area had shown that after acid stimulation, water production increased
more than oil production and water continued to increase until
production from the well was killed by the excessive hydrostatic column.
Based on treating-pressure response, the treatment using several stages
of APT and acid appeared to divert the acid into sections of lower
permeability (assumed to be the hydrocarbon-bearing portions of the
zone). Following the job, oil production increased by 34% and the water
cut was reduced from 21% to 17%.
Based on the laboratory investigation and field trials, the following
conclusions can be drawn:
Hydrophobic modification appears to improve brine permeability
reduction for both polyacrylamide and polyDMAEMA in sandstone.
The target goals of 80% brine permeability reduction and minimal
damage to oil permeability were met with the HMpolyDMAEMA.

Laboratory and field tests have shown that APT can divert acid from
predominantly water-saturated zones to predominantly oil-saturated
zones in both sandstone and carbonate lithology.
In sandstone, APT can provide acid diversion and permanent waterpermeability reduction.
In carbonate, APT can provide acid diversion. Further work is needed to
determine whether permanent waterpermeability reduction will be seen.

SPE 124141
The Art and Practice of Acid Placement and Diversion
With the increasing need for highly cost-effective well production
enhancement applications, acid stimulation is becoming increasingly
popular. To be successful, acidizing procedures require distribution of
stimulation fluids across and within the desired treatment interval.
Historically, this has been approached with mechanical placement or
chemical diversion of treatment fluids. Method selection can be crucial
to treatment success and an increasing number of options exist each
with its own set of limitations and uncertainties. Preferences and success
vary for matrix and fracture acidizing in vertical and deviated
wellbores, in sandstones and carbonates and in cased and perforated,
gravel packed, and openhole completions. Method selection and
implementation can be daunting but greatly rewarding calling for
creativity and field experimentation.
This paper focuses on the important role of acid placement and
diversion, and the types, purposes, benefits and pitfalls of the methods
currently in practice. The importance of treatment placement was
evident and recognized in the earliest acid treatments conducted in the
late 19th century. Although this need has been recognized since the
dawn of acidizing, at no point in its history has a diversion method found
universal reliability and acceptance. Insufficient interval coverage is
perhaps still the most common reason why acid jobs often fail to meet
expectations. A well-conceived treatment in all other aspects of design
(damage assessment, selection of fluids and additives, and volumes) can

count for nothing if the treatment does not enter or cover those portions
of the interval with the greatest need of stimulation. Since the first
commercial acid treatments in the 1930s, mechanical placement has
evolved from crude rubber packers to advanced coiled tubing
technologies. Chemical and particulate diverters have evolved from
chicken feed to specialized chemical systems, including self-diverting
fluids. With chemical diversion, different methods have come into and
fallen out of favor replaced by new ideas, or those forgotten and
subsequently revived.
Within its historical perspective, this paper discusses present-day acid
placement and diversion methods, their best applications and their
limitations with a view and emphasis on industry needs and direction
for the future.
Conclusions The Future of Acid Placement and Diversion It is
important to develop pre-treatment and treatment methods that enable
selection of the best method available and otherwise simplify the
treatment fluid injection program. The primary focus should be on
enabling (and exploiting) acid stimulation of the following well types,
which are currently often avoided:
Long vertical and horizontal completions
Multiple intervals
Openhole completions
High-temperature formations
High water cut wells Development of acid placement and diversion
methods in recent years has mostly been within existing method
categories, resulting in refinement and incremental advances. There is
still no universally applicable method. Therefore, for the future, it makes
best sense to concentrate on simplifying acid treatments to minimize or
even avoid placement and diversion measures as much as possible, and
otherwise to ensure proper choice of methods to be employed. This
should be based especially on industry field experience and on a strong
knowledge and understanding of the options, as well as facility with
deployment. Future development and technology implementation should

Relative Permeability Modifier (RPM) as Chemical Diverter in Bullhead
Matrix Acidizing Treatment
The cases presented in this paper discuss field results related to
significant improvements of poststimulation production after the
combined acid with polymer as RPM and diverter were implemented in

comparison to offset wells acidized with mechanical techniques in the

same reservoir and at the same level.
RPMs can be simply described as one method for controlling water
production using dilute polymer solutions to decrease the effective
permeability to water more than to oil (Eoff et al. 2004). Because of the
unique nature of the polymer, it is successfully used both as an RPM and
as a diverter. As a diverter, the fluid predominantly enters the most
permeable section of the interval (generally the water-bearing strata).

There were three wells acidized using RPM as a diverter. Most of these
wells have permeabilities ranging from 10 to 800 md. Although the RPM
is a solids-free diverter, some concern exists when applying this system
to low permeability formation because of the way RPM attaches to the
rock, which could cause a reduced oil flow path and flow rate after
stimulation. Results from one well that had low permeability formation
presented in this paper illustrates that the RPM can be applied with
success in these situations.
The presented case histories clearly show the success and benefits of
acidizing using the diverter service with RPM technology. In particular,
the RPM technology:
Can provide acid diversion and permanent water-permeability
Can successfully help place acid by selectively diverting acid away
from water-bearing zones.
Does not require special mechanical isolation to isolate the targeted
hydrocarbon interval, alternating stages of acid and diverter.
Makes these types of treatments economically viable for the operator.
Poses little to no risk in terms of reducing permeability to
Does not totally eliminate water production, but significantly reduces
Results from Well Zamrud 154, Bungsu 11, and Beruk 46 show that using
the RPM diverter resulted in a better production response compared to
previous acid-stimulation treatments in which various diverters were